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Research Article
Review of the genus Apotrechus in China (Orthoptera, Gryllacrididae, Gryllacridinae)
expand article infoMiao-Miao Li, Xianwei Liu, Kai Li
† East China Normal University, Shanghai, China
‡ Shanghai Entomological Museum, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai, China
Open Access

Abstract

In the present paper, the genus Apotrechus Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1888 is revised. Two new species from China are described and illustrated: Apotrechus quadratus sp. n. and Apotrechus truncatolobus sp. n.. A new key and the distributional data are given.

Keywords

Gryllacrididae, Gryllacridinae, Apotrechus, new species, China

Introduction

The genus Apotrechus was proposed by Brunner-Wattenwyl (1888), with the type species Apotrechus unicolor Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1888. This genus resembles the genus Eremus Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1888, but differs from the latter in: smooth frons, spineless hind tibia and absence of male styli. Liu and Yin (2002) first studied Apotrechus in China, described one new species A. nigrigeniculatus. Liu and Bi (2008) gave a key of Apotrechus from China containing three species, and two new species A. digitatus and A. fallax were illustrated. Besides, Liu et al. (2010) also reported one new species A. transversus from Zhejiang. Subsquently, Guo and Shi (2012) reviewed this genus of China and also provided a key containing six species in China which included one new species A. bilobus, and one new combination A. parvospinus.

Bian et al. (2014) provided a key to the species with one new species A. trilobus and the morphological photographs for five Chinese known species in this paper.

So far, the genus Apotrechus includes nine species in the world, among them, A. unicolor Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1888, A. swinhoei (Griffini, 1909), and A. illawarra Rentz, 1990 are recorded in Australia; A. insolitus (Walker, 1869) is distributed in Vietnam and others are recorded in China. In this paper, tow new species of Apotrechus are identified and described, namely Apotrechus quadratus sp. n. and A. truncatolobus sp. n., which are distributed in Guangxi.

Material and methods

All specimens of the genus were collected by light-trapping and net-catching from China. Adult specimens were preserved in 70% ethanol in the field, then removed and dried in the lab. The specimens were observed with the help of a Leica MZ 12.5 dissecting microscope and illustrated with the aid of a drawing tube attached to the microscope. Line drawings were made with Adobe Illustrator CS 6 graphic software. The length of the body was measured mesaby the distance between apex of fastigium verticis and posterior margin of tenth abdominal tergite, ovipositor by distance between base of subgenital plate and apex of ovipositor; pronotum, tegmina and hind femora by distance between summit of base and apex. All lengths are presented in millimeters. The venation nomenclature used in this paper is based on the interpretation of Karny (1937). All type specimens recorded here are deposited in the Shanghai Entomology Museum, the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Taxonomy

Apotrechus Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1888

Apotrechus: Brunner-Wattenwyl 1888: 383; Tepper 1892: 167; Kirby 1906: 152; Ramme 1933: 416; Karny 1937: 82; Rentz and John 1990: 1083; Liu and Bi 2008: 11, figs 1–5; Liu et al. 2010: 64; Guo and Shi 2012: 52.

Type species

Apotrechus unicolor Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1888.

Generic diagnosis

Body small, wings absent. Fastigium of vertex rather wide than scape, without lateral carinae; frons smooth, ocelli inconspicuous. Fore and mid tibiae with 4–5 pairs of spurs on ventral surface, mid tibia without inner upper apical spur on dorsal surface. Hind tibia armless or with rather small spine on ventral surface. Subgenital plate of male without styli. Ovipositor rather short, upcurved.

Key to the Chinese species of the genus Apotrechus

1 Fore and mid femora with black apical part 2
Fore and mid femora without black apical part 5
2 External margin of hind femur without spine; lobes of male subgenital plate with acute apex A. trilobus Bian & Shi, 2014
External margin of hind femur with spines 3
3 Body smaller, about 14–18 mm long 4
Body larger, about 23 mm long; hind margin of female subgenital plate slightly concave A. quadratus sp. n.
4 Male 9th abdomenal tergite deeply excised; hind margin of female subgenital plate truncated A. nigrigeniculatus Liu & Yin, 2002
Male 9th abdomenal tergite shallowly excised; hind margin of female subgenital plate rounded A. fallax Liu & Bi, 2008
5 Frons without blackish longitudinal stripe; lobes of male 9th abdomenal tergite with roundly truncate apex A. truncatolobus sp. n.
Frons with 2–3 blackish longitudinal stripes; lobes of male 9th abdomenal tergite with acute apex 6
6 Frons smooth 7
Frons sunken; dorsal side of hind tibia armed with 3 external and 2 internal spines A. parvospinus (Liu & Yin, 2002)
7 Frons with 2 blackish longitudinal stripes; male subgenital plate with incurved lobes; female subgenital plate a bit broader than long 8
Frons with 3 blackish longitudinal stripes; male subgenital plate with straight lobes; female subgenital plate transverse, ovipositor with lateral lobes at base A. transversus Liu et al., 2010
8 Lobes of male subgenital plate with finger-shaped apex; ovipositor without lateral lobes at base A. digitatus Liu & Bi, 2008
Lobes of male subgenital plate with broadly rounded apex; ovipositor with lateral lobes at base A. bilobus Guo & Shi, 2012

Apotrechus trilobus Bian & Shi, 2014

Figs 1–6

Apotrechus trilobus: Bian et al. 2014: 384–386.

Description

Male. Body medium sized. Wings absent. Fastigium of vertex rounded, about 2 times as wide as scape; eyes reniform, prominent; ocelli inconspicuous. Pronotum almost hexagon, paranota lower. Fore coxa with a spine, fore tibia on ventral surface with 5 pairs of spurs (included 1 pair of apical spurs); mid tibia without inner upper apical spur but with 4 pairs of spurs (included 1 pair of apical spurs) on ventral surface. Ventral surface of hind femur with 10–11 internal spines, but without external spine, hind tibia unarmed or with 1–2 minute spines on dorsal surface, bearing 3 pairs of apical spurs. 9th abdominal tergite divided into two lobes, which bearing spine-like apex pointing downwards, epiproct medially furrowed (Fig. 5). Cerci shorter, conical; subgenital plate broad, hind margin split into two lobes, apex of lobes spine-like, curved inside (Fig. 6).

Figures 1–6.

Apotrechus trilobus Bian & Shi, 2014. 1 head in frontal view 2 head and pronotum in dorsal view 3 end of male abdomen in dorsal view 4 end of male abdomen in lateral view 5 end of male abdomen in ventral view 6 end of male abdomen in caudal view. Scale: 1 mm.

Female. Unknown.

Coloration

Body infuscate. Fastigium of vertex with darkish black longitudinal band; frons with 3 blackish longitudinal stripes, middle stripe broad, not connected with the longitudinal band of fastigium of vertex (Figs 1–2); inner margin of antenna foveolae and first segment with blackish spots. Pronotum with a darkish black longitudinal band in the middle and all margins black. Apex of fore and middle femora black, hind femur with a blackish longitudinal stripe on external surface, all tibiae darkish black on the base and apex.

Measurements

(length in mm)

Apotrechus trilobusDownload as CSV 

Measurements (length in mm)

Body Pronotum Hind femur Ovipositor
16.0 3.8 10.0 -

Material

1♂, Yunnan, Pingbian, Yuping, 2000m, 20.V.2009, Xian-Wei Liu et al. leg.

Distribution

China: Yunnan.

Apotrechus quadratus Li & Liu, sp. n.

Figs 7–9

Description

Female. Body large. Wings apterous. Fastigium of vertex roundly projected, about 2 times as wide as scape; eyes reniform, produced; ocelli faintly. Pronotum almost hexagon, lateral lobes longer than high. Fore coxa with a spine, fore tibia on ventral surface with 5 pairs of spurs (included 1 pair of apical spurs) but without inner upper apical spur; mid tibia on ventral surface with 4 pairs of spurs (included 1 pair of apical spurs). Hind femur on ventral surface armed 8 internal spines and 1–3 external spines; hind tibia on dorsal surface bearing 6 pairs of rather small spines and 2 pairs of apical spurs. Cerci shorter, conical; subgenital plate broad, square, and hind margin slightly concave (Fig. 9). Ovipositor short, curved upwards, apex blunt.

Figures 7–9.

Apotrechus quadratus sp. n. 7 head and pronotum in dorsal view 8 frons in front view 9 subgenital plate of female in ventral view. Scale: 1 mm.

Male. Unknown.

Coloration

Body yellowish brown. Fastigium of vertex with 2 pairs of darkish black longitudinal bands; frons with 3 blackish longitudinal spots; inner margin of basal antenna and first segment with blackish spots. Lateral and fore margin of pronotum black, in the middle with a darkish black vertical stripe. Mesonotum and metanotum also with a black spot at middle parts (Figs 7–8). Hind femur with a blackish longitudinal stripe on external surface, all tibiae on base and apex darkish black.

Measurements

(length in mm)

Apotrechus quadratusDownload as CSV 

Measurements (length in mm)

Body Pronotum Hind femur Ovipositor
23.0 4.8 10.5 5.5

Material

Holotype ♀, Guangxi, Xing’an, Maoer Mountain, 1700–2100m, 30.VII–6.VIII. 2013, Xian-Wei Liu et al. leg.

Distribution

China: Guangxi.

Diagnosis

This new species is closely related to A. nigrigeniculatus Liu & Yin, 2002, but differs mainly in the the latter in body larger and subgenital plate of female with hind margin slightly concave.

Etymology

The specific epithet referrers to shape of female subgenital plate.

Apotrechus nigrigeniculatus Liu & Yin, 2002

Figs 10–11

Apotrechus nigrigeniculatus: Liu and Yin 2002: 418; Guo and Shi 2012: 53; Bian et al. 2014: 383.

Measurements

(length in mm)

Apotrechus nigrigeniculatusDownload as CSV 

Measurements (length in mm)

Body Pronotum Hind femur Ovipositor
15.0–16.5 3.5 9.0–10.0 -
14.0 3.7 7.5 5.0

Material

2♂♂, Sichuan, Emei Mountain, 1840m, 16.VIII.1985, Gen-Tao Jin leg..

Figures 10–11.

Apotrechus nigrigeniculatus Liu & Yin, 2002. 10 end of male abdomen in dorsal view 11 end of male abdomen in caudal view. Scale: 1 mm.

Distribution

China: Sichuan.

Apotrechus fallax Liu & Bi, 2008

Figs 12–16

Apotrechus fallax: Liu and Bi 2008: 13, figs 1–5; Guo and Shi 2012: 53; Bian et al. 2014: 382.

Measurements

(length in mm)

Apotrechus fallaxDownload as CSV 

Measurements (length in mm)

Body Pronotum Hind femur Ovipositor
14.0 3.8 8.0 -
18.0 3.8 8.0 5.5

Material

1♀, Guizhou, Leigongshan, 1620–2178m, 2.VIII.2004, Pian Xu leg.; 1♂, Guizhou, Leigong Mountain, 1000–1100m, 2–3.VI.2005, Zheng-Guang Zhang leg.; 2♂♂, Guizhou, Jiangkou, Fanjingshan, 1200–1800m, 6.VIII.2014, Miao-Miao Li & Mei-Ling Sun leg..

Figures 12–16.

Apotrechus fallax Liu & Bi, 2008. 12 head in frontal view 13 head and pronotum in dorsal view 14 end of male abdomen in dorsal view 15 end of male abdomen in ventral view 16 subgenital plate of female in ventral view. Scale: 1 mm.

Distribution

China: Guizhou.

Apotrechus truncatolobus Li & Liu, sp. n.

Figs 17–21

Description

Male. Body medium sized. Wings absent. Fastigium of vertex rounded, about 2 times as wide as scape; eyes ovoid, prominent, ocelli inconspicuous. Cephalic margin of pronotum slightly projected, posterior margin slightly truncated, lateral lobes lower. Fore coxa with a spine, fore tibia on ventral surface with 5 pairs of spurs (included 1 pair of apical spurs); mid tibia without inner upper apical spur but on ventral surface with 4 pairs of spurs (included 1 pair of apical spurs); hind tibia without spine or on dorsal surface with 1–2 minute spines, with 3 pairs of apical spurs. Hind femur with 10–12 internal spines and 7–8 external spines on ventral surface. Lobes of 9th abdominal tergite with roundly truncated apex (Fig. 20); cerci shorter, conical; subgenital plate broad, hind margin split into two lobes and with notch in the middle (Figs 18–19).

Figures 17–21.

Apotrechus truncatolobus sp. n. 17 end of male abdomen in dorsal view 18 end of male abdomen in lateral view 19 end of male abdomen in ventral view 20 end of male abdomen in caudal view 21 subgenital plate of female in ventral view. Scale: 1 mm.

Female. Cerci short, conical; subgenital plate strongly transverse, with straight hind margin and rounded posterio-lateral corner (Fig. 21). Ovipositor shorter than hind tibia, upcurved and with blunt apex.

Coloration

Body yellowish brown, occiput slightly with darkish black. Frons without blackish longitudinal stripes; dorsal margin of abdominal with a darkish black longitudinal band in the middle (Fig. 17). Apex of fore femur, base and apex of tibiae slightly darkish black.

Measurements

(length in mm)

Apotrechus truncatolobusDownload as CSV 

Measurements (length in mm)

Body Pronotum Hind femur Ovipositor
16.0 3.5 9.0 -
18.0 3.8 9.0 6.0

Material

Holotype ♂, paratype 1♂1♀, Guangxi, Wuming, Daming Mountain, 1200m, 28–31.VII.2012, Wen-Xuan Bi leg.

Distribution

China: Guangxi.

Diagnosis

This new species almost the same as its congeners, but the frons without blackish longitudinal stripe; lobes of male 9th abdominal tergite with roundly truncate apex.

Etymology

The specific epithet referrers roundly truncate lobes of male 9th abdominal tergite.

Apotrechus parvospinus (Liu & Yin, 2002)

Figs 22–24

Eremus parvospinus: Liu and Yin 2002: 417.

Apotrechus parvospinus: Guo and Shi 2012: 53; Bian et al. 2014: 384.

Measurements

(length in mm)

Apotrechus parvospinusDownload as CSV 

Measurements (length in mm)

Body Pronotum Hind femur Ovipositor
20.0 3.7 8.6 -
20.0 4.0 9.5 5.0

Material

1♀, Guangxi, Xing’an, Maoer Mountain, 1000m, 22–23.VIII.1992, Xian-Wei Liu & Hai-Sheng Yin leg..

Figures 22–24.

Apotrechus parvospinus (Liu & Yin, 2002). 22 head in frontal view 23 head and pronotum in dorsal view 24 subgenital plate of female in ventral view. Scale: 1 mm.

Distribution

China: Guangxi.

Apotrechus transversus Liu et al., 2010

Figs 25–29

Apotrechus transversus: Liu et al. 2010: 65, figs 8a–c; Guo and Shi 2012: 53; Bian et al. 2014: 384.

Measurements

(length in mm)

Apotrechus transversusDownload as CSV 

Measurements (length in mm)

Body Pronotum Hind femur Ovipositor
14.0 3.0 7.0 -
19.0–20.0 3.5–3.8 7.5–8.0 5.0–6.0

Material

1♂1♀, Zhejiang, Longquan, Fengyanshan, 1400m, 27.VII.2007, Qiang Fu leg.; 2♀♀, Zhejiang, Longquan, Fengyanshan, Huangmaojian, 1500–1900m, 31.VII–2.VIII.2008, Xian-Wei Liu & Wen-Xuan Bi.

Figures 25–29.

Apotrechus transversus Liu et al., 2010. 25 head in frontal view 26 head and pronotum in dorsal view 27 end of male abdomen in dorsal view 28 end of male abdomen in caudal view 29 end of female abdomen in ventral view. Scale: 1 mm.

Distribution

China: Zhejiang.

Apotrechus digitatus Liu & Bi, 2008

Figs 30–34

Apotrechus digitatus: Liu and Bi 2008: 12, figs 1–5; Guo and Shi 2012: 53; Bian et al. 2014: 381.

Measurements

(length in mm)

Apotrechus digitatusDownload as CSV 

Measurements (length in mm)

Body Pronotum Hind femur Ovipositor
15.0 4.0 9.0 -
19.0 4.5 9.0 5.5

Material

1♀1♂, Guizhou, Leigong Mountain, 1620–2178m, 2.VIII.2004, Kai Yan & De-Yan Ge leg.

Figures 30–34.

Apotrechus digitatus Liu & Bi, 2008. 30 head in frontal view 31 head and pronotum in dorsal view 32 end of male abdomen in dorsal view 33 end of male abdomen in ventral view 34 subgenital plate of female in ventral view. Scale: 1 mm.

Distribution

China: Guizhou.

Apotrechus bilobus Guo & Shi, 2012

Figs 35–37

Apotrechus bilobus: Guo and Shi 2012: 55, figs 1–5, 12–13, 17–18; Bian et al. 2014: 380–381.

Measurements

(length in mm)

Apotrechus bilobusDownload as CSV 

Measurements (length in mm)

Body Pronotum Hind femur Ovipositor
15.0–17.5 3.5 8.0–9.5 -
20.0–22.0 4.0–4.2 9.0 4.7–5.0

Material

1♂, Zhejiang, Lin’an, Xitianmu Mountain, 1140m, 28.VII–2.IX.2010, Hui Pan leg.

Figures 35–37.

Apotrechus bilobus Guo & Shi, 2012. 35 end of male abdomen in dorsal view 36 end of male abdomen in lateral view 37 end of male abdomen in ventral view. Scale: 1 mm.

Distribution

China: Zhejiang.

Acknowledgements

We thank Han-Qiang Wang & Li Dai for their help with the manuscript; we are grateful to all collectors of the specimens recorded in this paper. This research was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai, China (No. 14ZR1413000), The Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China (Grant No. 2005DKA21402) and Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XXH12504-1-03).

References

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