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Research Article
Taxonomic study of the genus Halolaguna Gozmány (Lepidoptera, Lecithoceridae) from China, with descriptions of two new species
expand article infoShuxia Wang, Kaijian Teng, Shurong Liu
† Nankai University, Tianjin, China
Open Access

Abstract

The genus Halolaguna Gozmány, 1978 is studied in China. Two new species, H. flabellata sp. n. from Guangxi and H. discoidea sp. n. from Chongqing, Guangxi and Sichuan are described. The female of H. guizhouensis Wu, 2012 is reported for the first time. Photographs of adults and genitalia are provided. A checklist of all known Halolaguna species is included, along with a key to the Chinese species.

Keywords

Lepidoptera, Lecithoceridae, Halolaguna, new species

Introduction

The family Lecithoceridae occurs particularly in the Oriental and Australian Regions, with around 1,200 described species (van Nieukerken et al. 2011). Wu (1997) recorded 206 species of Lecithoceridae from China and Park et al. (2013) listed 74 species of Lecithoceridae from Chinese Taiwan. To date, approximately 290 species of this family have been reported from China.

Halolaguna Gozmány, 1978 is a small genus of the subfamily Torodorinae in Lecithoceridae, which was established by Gozmány in 1978 based on the type species H. sublaxata Gozmány, 1978 from China. Subsequently, Wu (2000) transferred Lecithocera biferrinella Walker, 1864 to Halolaguna, and described H. orthogonia Wu, 2000 from Malaysia; Park (2000) transferred Cynicostola oncopteryx Wu, 1994 to Halolaguna, and described H. palinensis Park, 2000 from Taiwan; Park (2011) further described H. sanmaru Park, 2011 from Thailand; and Wu (2012) described H. guizhouensis Wu, 2012 from Guizhou. To date, Halolaguna includes seven species confined to the Oriental and Palaearctic regions, but little is known about the biology of this genus so far.

Halolaguna is characterized by having an elongate and relatively narrow forewing with M2 and M3 coincident, and the valva tapering to the apex in the male genitalia. Halolaguna is similar to Antiochtha Meyrick, 1905 in both appearance and male genitalia, but can be distinguished by the presence of M2 in the hindwing, which is absent in Antiochtha. It is also similar to Athymoris Meyrick, 1935 in the venation, but differs in the valva in the male genitalia that is tapering to a pointed apex, whereas the valva is foot-shaped and widened terminally in Athymoris.

We report five Halolaguna species from mainland China in this paper, based on the specimens collected mostly from mountainous regions and natural reserves. Two species are described as new, and the female of Halolaguna guizhouensis Wu, 2012 is described for the first time.

Material and methods

The specimens examined in this study were collected from mountains, botanical gardens and nature reserves in China by light traps. All specimens studied, including the types, are deposited in the Insect Collection, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

Genitalia dissections were carried out following Li (2002). Photographs of the adults were taken with a Leica stereo microscope M205A plus Leica Application Suite 4.2 software, and genitalia were photographed using a Leica DM750 microscope plus the same software as for adults.

Taxonomic accounts

Halolaguna Gozmány, 1978

Halolaguna Gozmány, 1978: 238. Type species: Halolaguna sublaxata Gozmány, 1978. Type locality: China (Jiangsu).

Checklist of Halolaguna species

Halolaguna biferrinella (Walker, 1864)

Lecithocera biferrinella Walker, 1864: 642.

Halolaguna biferrinella: Wu, 2000: 428.

Distribution. Malaysia, Indonesia.

Halolaguna discoidea sp. n.

Distribution. China (Chongqing, Guangxi, Sichuan).

Halolaguna flabellata sp. n.

Distribution. China (Guangxi).

Halolaguna guizhouensis Wu, 2012

Halolaguna guizhouensis Wu, 2012: 394.

Distribution. China (Chongqing, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou).

Halolaguna oncopteryx (Wu, 1994)

Cynicostola oncopteryx Wu, 1994: 125.

Halolaguna oncopteryx: Park 2000: 240.

Distribution. China (Chongqing, Fujian, Guangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang).

Halolaguna orthogonia Wu, 2000

Halolaguna orthogonia Wu, 2000: 427.

Distribution. Malaysia.

Halolaguna palinensis Park, 2000

Halolaguna palinensis Park, 2000: 241.

Distribution. China (Taiwan).

Halolaguna sanmaru Park, 2011

Halolaguna sanmaru Park, 2011: 201.

Distribution. Thailand.

Halolaguna sublaxata Gozmány, 1978

Halolaguna sublaxata Gozmány, 1978: 238.

Distribution. China (Hubei, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Shanxi, Taiwan, Zhejiang), Korea, Japan.

Key to the Chinese Halolaguna species based on male genitalia

1 Juxta with postero-lateral lobe about 1/2 length of juxta 2
Juxta with postero-lateral lobe as long as juxta or slightly longer than juxta 4
2 Aedeagus without cornutus H. guizhouensis
Aedeagus with cornutus 3
3 Juxta nearly rounded; aedeagus with a rounded apex H. flabellata sp. n.
Juxta nearly square; aedeagus with a pointed apex H. oncopteryx
4 Gnathos slender, longer than uncus H. sublaxata
Gnathos obviously shorter than uncus 5
5 Aedeagus extending to a discal process distally H. discoidea sp. n.
Aedeagus not extending to a discal process distally H. palinensis

Halolaguna discoidea sp. n.

Figs 1a, 2a, 3a, 4a

Type material

Holotype ♂, China: Tudiyan, Mt. Simian (28°60'N, 106°40'E), Chongqing, 1200 m, 15.vii.2012, leg. Yinghui Sun and Aihui Yin, genitalia slide No. TKJ13023. Paratypes: 1 ♂, Mt. Simian, Chongqing, 1000 m, 21.vii.2010, leg. Xicui Du and Shengwen Shi; 1 ♂, same locality, 22.vii.2010, leg. Xicui Du and Lifang Song, genitalia slide No. WYQ13157, venation slide No. TKJ14008W; 1 ♂, 2 ♀, Labahe (30°17'N, 102°29'E), Tianquan County, Sichuan Province, 1300 m, 28.vii.2004, 29.vii.2004, leg. Yingdang Ren; 1 ♀, Mt. Daming (23°24'N, 108°30'E), Nanning, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, 1200 m, 5.viii.2011, leg. Shulian Hao and Yinghui Sun, genitalia slide No. TKJ14004.

Diagnosis

This species is similar to H. oncopteryx (Wu, 1994) and H. flabellata sp. n. in the forewing shape and the male genitalia, but can be separated from these by the juxta with thin claviform postero-lateral lobes slightly longer than the juxta, and the aedeagus with a discal process apically. In H. oncopteryx (Wu, 1994) and H. flabellata sp. n., the postero-lateral lobes of the juxta are short finger-shaped, about 1/2 length of the juxta, and the aedeagus is absent of discal process apically.

Description

Adult (Figs 1a, 2a) with wing expanse 16.5–18.0 mm. Head yellowish white, with scattered brown scales. Antenna yellowish white, scape brown on ventral surface, flagellum with pale brown annulations. Labial palpus yellowish white, with scattered brown scales; second segment with appressed scales; third segment slender, about same length as second. Thorax brown, tegula purple brown. Forewing with costal margin almost straight from basal 1/4 to 3/4; apex protruding triangularly; termen oblique, concave below apex; ground color deep grayish brown; subapical spot yellowish white, nearly triangular; discal and discocellular spots blackish brown, nearly rounded; a yellowish white line extending from costal 2/5 to above fold, edged with blackish brown scales along inner margin, curved triangularly inward to outer margin of discal spot; cilia blackish brown, yellowish white basally; venation: R3 stalked with R4+5 for basal half of its length, R4 and R5 stalked for 2/3 length, R5 to termen, M1 and R3+4+5 from upper angle of cell, M2 absent, M3 from above lower angle of cell, CuA1 and CuA2 shortly stalked at base, from lower angle of cell, cell closed. Hindwing and cilia grayish brown, yellowish white basally; venation: Rs and M1 stalked for 2/5 length, M3 and CuA1 stalked for about 1/3 length, remote from M2, cell close partly. Fore leg with ventral surface brown, dorsal surface yellowish white, mottled brown scales, tarsus yellowish white on distal 1/3; mid leg yellowish white, mottled brown scales on ventral surface; hind leg blackish brown, yellowish white on dorsal surface of tibia and on distal half of tarsus.

Figure 1.

Male adults of Halolaguna species. a H. discoidea sp. n., paratype, Chongqing b H. flabellata sp. n., holotype, Guangxi c H. guizhouensis, Chongqing d H. oncopteryx, Chongqing e H. sublaxata, Zhejiang f H. sublaxata, Hubei, head from dorsolateral view.

Figure 2.

Wing venation of Halolaguna species. a H. discoidea sp. n., slide No. TKJ14008W b H. flabellata sp. n., slide No. ZYM06260W (Scales = 0.5 mm).

Male genitalia (Fig. 3a): Uncus broad at base, narrowed to middle, distal half nearly parallel sided, bearing setae laterally, broadly rounded apically. Gnathos short, nearly triangular, curved distally, pointed apically. Valva broad at base, distinctly narrowed to middle, then slightly narrowed to narrowly rounded apex; costa gently concave beyond middle; ventral margin nearly straight. Sacculus narrow, reaching 1/3 length of dorsum. Juxta nearly quadrate, slightly convex antero-medially, almost straight posteriorly; postero-lateral lobe thin claviform, bearing setae laterally, bluntly rounded apically, longer than juxta. Vinculum narrow. Aedeagus stout, slightly longer than valva, broad basally, narrowed to apex; basal half with dense spinules, distal 2/5 with dense granules, apically produced to a discal process.

Figure 3.

Male genitalia of Halolaguna species. a H. discoidea sp. n., slide No. WYQ13157 b H. flabellata sp. n., slide No. TKJ13034 c H. guizhouensis, slide No. TKJ13055 d H. oncopteryx, slide No. TKJ13039 e H. sublaxata, slide No. TKJ13051 (Scales = 0.5 mm).

Female genitalia (Fig. 4a): Eighth sternite with caudal margin deeply concave in U shape at middle, bearing dense setae laterally. Posterior apophyses about twice length of anterior apophyses. Antrum inconspicuous. Ductus bursae long and heliciform, about four times length of corpus bursae, slightly narrow basally, with numerous thumbtack-shaped spinules ranging from basal 1/4 to 1/2; ductus seminalis slender and long, arising from basal 1/4 of ductus bursae. Corpus bursae oval; signum nearly oval, placed at middle of corpus bursae, margined with teeth anteriorly and posteriorly, medially concave, forming a broad and flat central groove.

Figure 4.

Female genitalia of Halolaguna species. a H. discoidea sp. n., slide No. TKJ14004 b H. guizhouensis, slide No. TKJ14087 c H. oncopteryx, slide No. TKJ13035 d H. sublaxata, slide No. TKJ14088 (Scales = 0.5 mm).

Distribution

China (Chongqing, Guangxi, Sichuan).

Etymology

The name of this species is derived from the Latin adjective discoideus (discal), in reference to the discal process of the aedeagus at apex.

Halolaguna flabellata sp. n.

Figs 1b, 2b, 3b

Type material

Holotype ♂, China: Jinxiu County (24°07'N, 110°11'E), Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, 650 m, 28.iv.2008, leg. Hui Zhen and Li Zhang, genitalia slide No. TKJ13034. Paratype: 1 ♂, Hongqilinchang (21°54'N, 107°54'E), Shangsi County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, 260 m, 2.iv.2002, leg. Shulian Hao and Huaijun Xue, venation slide No. ZYM06260W.

Diagnosis

This species is similar to H. oncopteryx (Wu, 1994) superficially and in the male genitalia, but can be separated from the latter by the valva with a blunt apex lacking an apical spine, the juxta nearly rounded, and the apex-rounded aedeagus with two sclerotized figs. In H. oncopteryx, the apex of the valva has a strong apical spine, the juxta is nearly square, and the apex-pointed aedeagus has one sclerotized fig.

Description

Adult (Figs 1b, 2b): Wingspans 16.0–16.5 mm. Head brown, pale yellow on frons and around eye. Antenna yellowish white, with scattered pale brown scales. Labial palpus yellowish white, with scattered pale brown scales; second segment dark brown on outer surface, with appressed scales; third segment slender, slightly longer than second, pointed terminally. Thorax yellowish white, with brown scales medially; tegula purple brown. Forewing with costal margin almost straight from basal 1/5 to 4/5; apex protruding triangularly; termen oblique, slightly concave below apex; ground color dark brown; subapical spot pale yellow, nearly triangular; discal and discocellular spots blackish brown, small, nearly rounded (somewhat worn); cilia blackish brown, yellowish white basally; venation: R3 and R4+5 stalked for basal 1/3 length, R4 and R5 stalked for 3/5 length, R5 reaching termen, M1 and R3+4+5 shortly stalked at base, M2 absent, M3 and CuA1+2 from lower angle of cell, CuA1 and CuA2 shortly stalked, cell closed. Hindwing and cilia gray, yellowish white basally; venation: Rs and M1 stalked for basal 2/5 length, M3 and CuA1 shortly stalked, remote from M2 basally, cell close. Legs yellowish white; fore leg with femur having grayish brown scales on ventral surface, tibia purple brown, tarsus mottled dark brown scales; mid leg with scattered dark brown scales; hind leg dark brown on distal half of femur, at base of tibia and on basal half of tarsus.

Male genitalia (Fig. 3b): Uncus broadened in fan shape basally, clubbed distally, bearing short setae laterally, rounded apically. Gnathos narrow, basal 1/3 nearly aequilate, median portion gradually narrowed, distal 1/3 sharply narrowed to pointed apex. Valva broad at base, slightly narrowed to middle, distal half obviously narrowed, slightly curved dorsad distally, narrowly rounded apically; costa concave medially. Sacculus broad at base, narrowed distally, reaching 1/4 length of dorsum. Juxta nearly rounded, convex antero-medially, slightly arched posteriorly; postero-lateral lobe short thumb-shaped, bearing setae apically. Vinculum narrow. Aedeagus straight, shorter than valva, broad at base, slightly narrowed to rounded apex, with numerous unequally sized toothlike thorns at base, with dense spinules and granular teeth ranging from about middle to distal 1/4, distal half with two sclerotized irregular figs, one of them with teeth.

Female: Unknown.

Distribution

China (Guangxi).

Etymology

The specific name of this species is derived from the Latin adjective flabellatus (flabellate), in reference to the basally fan-shaped uncus.

Halolaguna guizhouensis Wu, 2012

Figs 1c, 3c, 4b

Halolaguna guizhouensis Wu, 2012: 394. Type locality: China (Guizhou).

Material examined

China: Guizhou Province: 1 ♂, Linjiang (28°05'N, 105°32'E), Xishui County, 550 m, 26.ix.2000, leg. Haili Yu; Chongqing: 5 ♂, 1 ♀, Beipo (29°02'N, 107°11'E), Mt. Jinfo, 1100 m, 5.v.2013, 12.v.2013, leg. Xiaofei Yang; 1 ♂, same locality, 4.viii.2012, leg. Xiaofei Yang and Tengteng Liu; Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: 2 ♂, 1 ♀, Shaopinglinchang (22°03’N, 106°55’E), Pingxiang, 280 m, 28.iii.2013, 2.iv.2013, 10.iv.2013, leg. Xiaofei Yang, genitalia slide No. TKJ14087♀; 1 ♂, Qinmu Village (24°59’N, 109°59’E), Yongfu County, 160 m, 1.v.2008, leg. Hui Zhen and Li Zhang; 1 ♂, Hekoubaohuzhan, Jinxiu County (24°07'N, 110°11'E), 650 m, 28.iv.2008, leg. Hui Zhen and Li Zhang, genitalia slide No. TKJ13055; 1 ♂, Xijiao (24°15'N, 108°01'E), Nandan County, Hechi, 868 m, 10.viii.2011, leg. Shulian Hao and Yinghui Sun; Guangdong Province: 1 ♂, Heshan (22°25'N, 112°32'E), 26.viii.2002, leg. Guilin Liu; 1 ♂, Hebao Island (21°52'N, 113°10'E), Zhuhai, 30 m, 18.v.2010, leg. Bingbing Hu and Jing Zhang.

Diagnosis

Adult (Fig. 1c) with wing expanse 14.0–15.0 mm. This species is similar to H. sublaxata Gozmány, 1978 superficially by sharing small and rounded discal spot and relatively large fold and discocellular spots. It can be separated from the latter by the valva broadly rounded apically, the relatively short gnathos slightly shorter than the uncus, and the juxta with postero-lateral lobes shorter than the juxta in the male genitalia (Fig. 3c). In H. sublaxata, the valva is narrow and thin apically, the slender gnathos is distinctly longer than the uncus, and the postero-lateral lobes of the juxta are longer than the juxta.

Female genitalia (Fig. 4b): Eighth sternite bearing dense setae, with caudal margin slightly emarginated at middle. Anterior apophyses about 3/4 length of posterior apophyses. Ductus bursae about four times length of corpus bursae, long and heliciform; ductus seminalis slender, arising from basal 1/8 of ductus bursae. Corpus bursae nearly rounded; two small papillate signa placed posteriorly, with dense granules; one big rhombic signum placed at middle of corpus bursae, with a nearly triangular horizontal fig arising medially.

Distribution

China (Chongqing, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou).

Remarks

Halolaguna guizhouensis was described by Wu (2012) based on two male specimens from Guizhou. The valva of this species is not distinctly narrowed distally, whereas the valva of its congeners is obviously narrowed to pointed apex. However, the venation of this species is consistent with that of the type species. The female is described here for the first time.

Halolaguna oncopteryx (Wu, 1994)

Figs 1d, 3d, 4c

Cynicostola oncopteryx Wu, 1994: 125. Type locality: China (Sichuan).

Halolaguna oncopteryx (Wu): Park 2000: 240.

Material examined

China: Fujian Province: 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Mt. Meihua (25°20'N, 116°50'E), 19.vii.1988, 22.vii.1988, leg. Chinese Academy of Science; Chongqing: 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Mt. Simian (28°60'N, 106°40'E), 1000 m, 20.vii.2010, leg. Xicui Du and Lifang Song; Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Hongqilinchang (21°54'N, 107°54'E), Shangsi County, 260 m, 2.iv.2002, leg. Shulian Hao and Huaijun Xue; 2 ♂, 1 ♀, Shaoping linchang (22°03’N, 106°55’E), Pingxiang, 280 m, 19.iv.2012, 28.iii.2013, 13.iv.2013, leg. Xiaofei Yang; 2 ♀, Mt. Daming (23°24'N, 108°30'E), Nanning, 1200 m, 7.viii.2011, 8.viii.2011, leg. Shulian Hao and Yinghui Sun; Yunnan Province: 1 ♂, Tropical Botanical Garden (21°55'N, 101°17'E), Menglun County, 570 m, 13.viii.2005, leg. Yingdang Ren; Zhejiang Province: 1 ♀, Zhangkengkou (28°32'N, 118°99'E), Mt. Jiulong, 623 m, 5.vii.2013, leg. Aihui Yin and Xiuchun Wang; 2 ♂, 1 ♀, Neijiujian (28°40'N, 118°84'E), Mt. Jiulong, 430 m, 7.vii.2013, leg. Aihui Yin and Xiuchun Wang, genitalia slide No. TKJ13035♀; 1 ♂, 2 ♀, Yanping (28°38'N, 118°89'E), Mt. Jiulong, 530 m, 4.vii.2013, leg. Aihui Yin and Xiuchun Wang, genitalia slide No. TKJ13039♂; 2 ♂, 2 ♀, Huangtanyu (28°39'N, 118°84'E), Mt. Jiulong, 467 m, 8.vii.2013, leg. Aihui Yin and Xiuchun Wang; 1 ♂, Wuyanling (27°42'N, 119°39'E), Taishun County, 680 m, 28.vii.2005, leg. Yunli Xiao.

Diagnosis

Adult (Fig. 1d) with wing expanse 15.0–16.0 mm. This species is similar to H. sanmaru Park, 2011 in the male genitalia, but can be separated from it by the valva with a strong apical spine, the juxta with postero-lateral lobes about 1/2 length of the juxta, and the aedeagus with a pointed apex (Fig. 3d). In H. sanmaru, the valva does not bear an apical spine, the postero-lateral lobes of the juxta are slightly longer than the juxta, and the aedeagus is rounded apically. This species is also similar to H. discoidea sp. n. in the female genitalia, but can be separated from it by the eighth sternite with caudal margin slightly concave at middle, and the ductus seminalis as broad as the ductus bursae (Fig. 4c). In H. discoidea sp. n., the caudal margin of the eighth sternite is deeply concave in U shape medially, and the ductus seminalis is slenderer than the ductus bursae.

Distribution

China (Chongqing, Fujian, Guangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang).

Halolaguna sublaxata Gozmány, 1978

Figs 1e, 1f, 3e, 4d

Halolaguna sublaxata Gozmány, 1978: 238. Type locality: China (Jiangsu).

Material examined

China: Zhejiang Province: 1 ♂, Mt. Jiulong (28°29'N, 119°54'E), 400 m, 5.viii.2011, leg. Linlin Yang and Na Chen; 1 ♂, Houshanmen, Mt. Tianmu (30°15'N, 119°20'E), 500 m, 16.viii.1999, leg. Houhun Li et al.; Shanxi Province: 1 ♂, Mt. Li (35°26'N, 111°58'E), Jincheng, 1520 m, 16.viii.2006, leg. Xu Zhang and Haiyan Bai; Liaoning Province: 1 ♂, Shilizi (40°42’N, 124°42’E), Kuandian County, 10.viii.2009, leg. Weichun Li and Jiayu Liu; Hubei Province: 2 ♂, Mt. Wujia (31°05'N, 115°48'E), Yingshan County, 8.vii.2008, leg. Yunli Xiao, genitalia slide No. TKJ13051; 1 ♂, 2 ♀, Mt. Dahong (31°27'N, 113°00'E), Suizhou, 30.ix.2008, 1.x.2008, leg. Yunli Xiao, genitalia slide No. TKJ14088♀.

Diagnosis

Adult (Fig. 1e, f) with wing expanse 14.0–15.0 mm. Halolaguna sublaxata Gozmány, 1978 can be separated from its congeners by the slender gnathos longer than uncus, and the valva slightly curved ventrad before apex in the male genitalia (Fig. 3e). Halolaguna sublaxata is similar to H. guizhouensis in the female genitalia by the corpus bursae sharing three signa, but can be separated from it by the position of the signa: in H. sublaxata, one large sub-triangular signum placed posteriorly, one small triangular signum below it, and the shuttle-shaped signum placed anteriorly (Fig. 4d); in H. guizhouensis, two small papillate signa placed posteriorly, and the third large rhombic signum is placed at middle of the corpus bursae.

Distribution

China (Hubei, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Shanxi, Taiwan, Zhejiang).

Acknowledgements

We express our cordial thanks to Dr. K. T. Park (Korea) for providing useful literature. This study is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31372241 and No. J1210005).

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