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Research Article
Four new species of the genus Saigona Matsumura (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Dictyopharidae) from China
expand article infoYan-Li Zheng, Lin Yang, Xiang-Sheng Chen§
† Institute of Entomology of Guizhou University, Guiyang, China
‡ Guizhou University, Guiyang, China
§ Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou province, China
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Abstract

Four new species of the genus Saigona Matsumura, 1910, S. anisomorpha Zheng, Yang & Chen, sp. n., S. daozhenensis Zheng, Yang & Chen, sp. n., S. dicondylica Zheng, Yang & Chen, sp. n. and S. tenuisa Zheng, Yang & Chen, sp. n., from China, are described and illustrated. A key to the species of Saigona is provided.

Keywords

Fulgoroidea, Oriental region, Palaearctic region, planthopper, taxonomy

Introduction

The dictyopharid planthopper genus Saigona was established by Matsumura (1910) for Dictyophora [sic] ishidae Matsumura, 1905, from Japan. Recently, Liang and Song (2006) revised this genus and recognized the following 9 valid species: S. capitata (Distant, 1914) (Indo-China, S.W. China: Yunnan), S. fulgoroides (Walker, 1858) (S. China, Sumatra, Borneo), S. fuscoclypeata Liang & Song, 2006 (C. China: Shaanxi, Hubei and Gansu), S. henanensis Liang & Song, 2006 (C. China: Henan), S. latifasciata Liang & Song, 2006 (S.W. China: Yunnan), S. robusta Liang & Song, 2006 (C. China: Hubei), S. sinicola Liang & Song, 2006 (C. China: Shaanxi), S. taiwanella Matsumura, 1941 (China: Taiwan), and S. ussuriensis (Lethierry, 1878) (Russian: Far Eastern Region, Japan, Korea, N.E. China: Jilin, Heilongjiang) (Liang and Song 2006). Subsequently, Zheng and Chen (2011) added a new species, S. saccus Zheng, Yang & Chen, 2011 from Guizhou Province, China.

While sorting and identifying Dictyopharidae from material in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University (IEGU), we found four new species of Saigona, which are herein described and illustrated. The purpose of this paper is to describe these four new species and to provide an identification key to the species of this genus.

Material and methods

The morphological terminology and measurements used in this study follow Liang and Song (2006). The genital segments of the examined specimens were macerated in 10% NaOH and drawn from preparations in glycerin using a light microscope. Figures of the specimens were made using Leica MZ12.5. Spinal formula of hind leg means the numbers of spines of the tibia, the lateral spines spread along the lateral margin, plus the 1st and 2nd tarsomeres.

The following abbreviations are used in the text, BL: body length (from apex of cephalic process to tip of fore wings); HL: head length (from apex of cephalic process to base of eyes); HW: head width (including eyes); FWL: forewing length.

The type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, China (IEGU).

Taxonomy

Saigona Matsumura, 1910

Saigona Matsumura, 1910: 110; Melichar 1912: 28, 50; Metcalf 1946: 47; Nast 1972: 84; Chou et al. 1985: 63; Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988: 482; Emeljanov 1993: 70; Liang 2001: 235. Type species: Dictyophora [sic] ishidae Matsumura, 1905 [=Almana ussuriensis Lethierry, 1878], by subsequent designation of Melichar 1912: 50; Liang and Song 2006: 28, by comprehensive redescription.

Leprota Melichar, 1912: 91; Metcalf 1946: 74. Type species: Dictyophora [sic] fulgoroides Walker, 1858, by original designation and monotypy. [Synonymised by Liang and Song 2006: 28.]

Neoputala Distant, 1914: 412; Metcalf 1946: 78. Type species: Neoputala lewisi Distant, 1906 [not Neoputala capitata Distant, 1914, as stated by Liang 2001: 236]. [Synonymised by Liang 2001: 236.]

Piela Lallemand, 1942: 72. Type species: Piela singularis Lallemand, 1942, by original designation and monotypy. [Synonymised by Liang and Song 2006: 28.]

Type species

Dictyophora [sic] ishidae Matsumura, 1905 (original designation).

Diagnosis

For the relationships and diagnosis of Saigona see Liang and Song (2006: 28).

Distribution

China (Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Guangdong, Sichuan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Fujian, Gansu, Shaanxi, Henan, Taiwan, Jilin, Heilongjiang); Korea; Indochina; Japan; Russia (Far Eastern Region).

Key to species of the genus Saigona Matsumura

(Modified from Liang and Song 2006 and updated five species)

1 Vertex with cephalic process short, shorter than pronotum and mesonotum combined (Figs 1, 23) 2
Vertex with cephalic process long, longer than or nearly as long as pronotum and mesonotum combined (Figs 12, 34) 7
2 Postclypeus yellowish or yellowish brown 3
Postclypeus fuscous 5
3 Mesonotum with a yellowish stripe along median longitudinal carina 4
Mesonotum without a yellowish stripe along median longitudinal carina (Fig. 51) S. dicondylica sp. n.
4 Mesonotum with median longitudinal yellowish stripe narrower; aedeagus with phallobase with apical ventral membranous lobe with numerous, fine spines at apex S. ussuriensis (Lethierry)
Mesonotum with median longitudinal yellowish stripe much broader; aedeagus with phallobase with apical dorsal and ventral membranous lobes with numerous, fine spines at apex S. latifasciata Liang & Song
5 Frons with lateral carinae not reaching to frontoclypeal suture S. fuscoclypeata Liang & Song
Frons with lateral carinae almost reaching to frontoclypeal suture (Fig. 2) 6
6 Aedeagus with phallobasal conjunctival processes spiraled dorsally S. henanensis Liang & Song
Aedeagus with phallobasal conjunctival processes not spiraled dorsally (Figs 9–11) S. anisomorpha sp. n.
7 Cephalic process bulbous apically, with 3 pairs of symmetrical knoblike protuberance on lateral regions 8
Cephalic process not bulbous apically, without knoblike protuberance on lateral regions 9
8 Aedeagus with phallobasal conjunctival processes straight S. saccus Zheng, Yang & Chen
Aedeagus with phallobasal conjunctival processes reflexed laterad at apex S. fulgoroides (Walker)
9 Frons with lateral carinae almost reaching to frontoclypeal suture S. capitata (Distant)
Frons with lateral carinae reaching to eyes, not to frontoclypeal suture (Figs 13, 35) 10
10 Mesonotum with yellowish stripe along median longitudinal carina very narrow S. taiwanella Matsumura
Mesonotum with yellowish stripe along median longitudinal carina broad (Figs 12, 48, 49) 11
11 Posterior margin of pygofer produced into a large process dorsally (Fig. 40) S. tenuisa sp. n.
Posterior margin of pygofer not produced into a large process dorsally 12
12 Aedeagus with phallobase with apical dorsal and ventral membranous lobes with numerous, fine spines at apex S. sinicola Liang & Song
Aedeagus with phallobase with apical ventral membranous lobe with numerous, fine spines at apex (Fig. 21) 13
13 Aedeagus with phallobasal conjunctival processes subparallel apically (Figs 2022) S. daozhenensis sp. n.
Aedeagus with phallobasal conjunctival processes diverging apically S. robusta Liang & Song
Figures 1–11.

Saigona anisomorpha Zheng, Yang & Chen, sp. n. 1 Head and thorax, dorsal view 2 Frons and clypeus, ventral view 3 Head and pronotum, lateral view 4 Forewing 5 Hindwing 6 Pygofer and anal tube, dorsal view 7 Genitalia, lateral view 8 Pygofer and parameres, ventral view 9 Aedeagus, ventral view 10 Aedeagus, lateral view 11 Aedeagus, dorsal view. Scale bars: 1–5 = 1 mm, 6–11 = 0.5 mm.

Figures 12–22.

Saigona daozhenensis Zheng, Yang & Chen, sp. n. 12 Head and thorax, dorsal view 13 Frons and clypeus, ventral view 14 Head and pronotum, lateral view 15 Forewing 16 Hindwing 17 Pygofer and anal tube, dorsal view 18 Genitalia, lateral view 19 Pygofer and parameres, ventral view 20 Aedeagus, ventral view 21 Aedeagus, lateral view 22 Aedeagus, dorsal view. Scale bars: 12–16 = 1 mm, 17–22 = 0.5 mm.

Figures 23–33.

Saigona dicondylica Zheng, Yang & Chen, sp. n. 23 Head and thorax, dorsal view 24 Frons and clypeus, ventral view 25 Head and pronotum, lateral view 26 Forewing 27 Hindwing 28 Pygofer and anal tube, dorsal view 29 Genitalia, lateral view 30 Pygofer and parameres, ventral view 31 Aedeagus, ventral view 32 Aedeagus, lateral view 33 Aedeagus, dorsal view. Scale bars: 23–27 = 1 mm, 28–33 = 0.5 mm.

Figures 34–44.

Saigona tenuisa Zheng, Yang & Chen, sp. n. 34 Head and thorax, dorsal view 35 Frons and clypeus, ventral view 36 Head and pronotum, lateral view 37 Forewing 38 Hindwing 39 Pygofer and anal tube, dorsal view 40 Genitalia, lateral view 41 Pygofer and parameres, ventral view 42 Aedeagus, ventral view 43 Aedeagus, lateral view 44 Aedeagus, dorsal view. Scale bars: 34–38 = 1 mm, 39–44 = 0.5 mm.

Figures 45–50.

Habitus of Saigona species. 45–47 S. anisomorpha Zheng, Yang & Chen, sp. n.; 48–50 S. daozhenensis Zheng, Yang & Chen, sp. n. (45, 48 dorsal view; 46, 49 dorsolateral view; 47, 50 lateral view).

Figures 51–56.

Habitus of Saigona species. 51–53 S. dicondylica Zheng, Yang & Chen, sp. n. 54–56 S. tenuisa Zheng, Yang & Chen, sp. n. (51, 54 dorsal view; 52, 55 dorsolateral view; 53, 56 lateral view).

Saigona anisomorpha Zheng, Yang & Chen, sp. n.

Figs 1–11, 45–47

Description

Measurement. ♂, BL: 15.7 mm; HL: 2.4 mm; HW: 1.5 mm; FWL: 11.8 mm.

Coloration. General color brown, marked with fuscous and ochraceous (Figs 4547). Vertex brown with median carina ochraceous, lateral margins brown. Genae brown, eyes brown, ocellus yellowish, antenna brown and the areas surrounding ocellus and antenna beneath eye yellowish. Frons yellowish. Postclypeus, anteclypeus black. Pronotum pale brown, lateral, ventrally curved areas with a yellowish band. Mesonotum pale brown scattered white spots and yellowish at the apex. Thorax ventrally at the fore femur brown, the other area pale green. Abdomen dorsally dark, with yellowish band on disc, ventrally dark. Forewings venation brown and stigma dark. Legs dark, tibiae with green rings. Genitalia black.

Head and thorax. Head (Figs 1, 4547) shorter than pronotum and mesonotum combined (0.75:1). Vertex (Fig. 1) with median carina very faint, only conspicuous at apex and base; lateral carinate margins curved. Frons (Fig. 2) with lateral carinae almost reaching to to frontoclypeal suture. Mesonotum (Figs 1, 4547) tricarinate on disc, lateral carinate curved towards media carinate at the front. Forewing (Figs 4, 4547) longer than widest part (2.85:1), venation as in Fig. 4; hindwing longer than widest part (2.43:1), venation as in Fig. 5. Spinal formula of hind leg 8-12-11.

Male genitalia. Anal tube (Figs 6, 7) large, nearly triangular in lateral view (Fig. 41), large, long, round in dorsal view (Fig. 39), ratio of length to width at middle about 2:1. Pygofer (Fig. 7) large and broad in lateral view, posterior margin with a slightly sharp process dorsally. Parameres (Figs 7, 8) relatively large, broad in lateral aspect (Fig. 7), apex sharply rounded, protruded posteriorly. Aedeagus (Figs 9–11) with phallobasal conjunctival processes unequal in length, left one obviously longer than right one; phallobase narrow and long, curved dorsally; apical, dorsal, membranous lobe small in lateral view (Fig. 10), and long oval in dorsal view (Fig. 11); apical, ventral, membranous lobe converging towards apex and oval in ventral view (Fig. 9), directed anteroventrally in lateral view (Fig. 10), covered with numerous fine spines and veins.

Type material

Holotype: ♂, China: Baiyun Mountain (N34°08', E112°05'), Henan Province, 13 Aug. 2008, X.-H. Hou. (IEGU).

Etymology

This new species is named for its aedeagus with two phallobasal conjunctival processes unequal in length.

Distribution

China (Henan).

Remarks

This species is similar to S. henanensis Liang & Song, 2006, but can be distinguished from the latter by its phallobasal conjunctival processes not spiraled at apical 1/5, left one obviously longer than right one; phallobase with apical, dorsal small, with apical, ventral, membranous lobe small, not hook-like in lateral view.

Saigona daozhenensis Zheng, Yang & Chen, sp. n.

Figs 12–22, 48–50

Description

Measurement. ♂, BL: 15.8 mm; HL: 3.2 mm; HW: 1.5 mm; FWL: 10.5 mm.

Coloration. General color brown, marked with fuscous and ochraceous speckles (Figs 4850). Vertex brown with lateral carinate balck, median carinate ochraceous. Genae brown, eyes brown, ocellus pink, antenna yellowish and the areas surrounding ocellus and antenna beneath eye yellowish. Frons yellowish, the apex of it black and media carina ochraceous. Pronotum brown with median carina yellowish; lateral, ventrally curved areas yellowish. Mesonotum ochraceous, with a narrow, yellow stripe along median longitudinal carina. Thorax ventrally yellowish; abdomen dorsally dark brown, with yellowish brown stripes, ventrally yellowish. Forewings with most veins fuscous, A and Cu yellowish, stigma dark brown. Legs pale yellowish, apex of tibia, digitus, claw pale brown. Pygofer, anal style and anal tube yellowish-brown.

Head and thorax. Head (Figs 12, 4850) moderately long, longer than pronotum and mesonotum combined (1.18:1). Cephalic process relatively long and robust, somewhat upturned; Vertex (Fig. 12) with median carina very faint, only conspicuous at base, lateral carinate margins curved in front of eyes, disc conspicuous depressed. Frons (Fig. 32) with lateral carinate reaching to the front of eyes, not to frontoclypeal suture. Pronotum (Figs 1, 4850) with median carina distinct, lateral carinae very faint; mesonotum with median longitudinal carina obsolete. Forewing (Figs 15, 4850) longer than widest part (3.16:1), venations as in Fig. 15; hindwing longer than widest part (2.20:1), venations as in Fig. 16. Spinal formula of hind leg 8-12-10.

Male genitalia. Anal tube (Figs 17, 18) large, nearly triangular in lateral view; large, roundrf in dorsal view, ratio of length to width at middle about 1.2:1. Anal style (Figs 17, 18) short, broad. Pygofer (Fig. 18) in lateral view with posterior margin slightly sinuate. Parameres (Figs 18, 19) with one robust spines laterally. Aedeagus (Figs 2022) with phallobasal conjunctival processes produced posteriorly, asymmetry; phallobase narrow and long, curved dorsally; apical, dorsal, membranous lobe small in lateral view (Fig. 21), without spines; apical, ventral, membranous lobe converging towards apex and semi-oval in ventral view (Fig. 20), directed anteroventrally in lateral view (Fig. 21), covered with numerous fine spines at apex.

Type material

Holotype: ♂, China: Sanqiao Town (N28°53', E107°36', 1,300–1,600 m), Daozhen County, Guizhou Province, 22–24 May 2004, X.-S. Chen. (IEGU).

Etymology

The specific name refers to the locality, Daozhen County, Guizhou Province, China.

Distribution

China (Guizhou).

Remarks

This species is similar to S. robusta Liang & Song, 2006, but can be distinguished from the latter by its anal tube rounded in dorsal view (oval in robusta); phallobasal conjunctival processes produced posteriorly (produced dorsally and ventrally, respectively in robusta); phallobase with apical, ventral, membranous lobe small, semi-oval in ventral view (large, triangular in robusta).

Saigona dicondylica Zheng, Yang & Chen, sp. n.

Figs 23–33, 51–53

Description

Measurement. ♂, BL: 12.0 mm; HL: 1.9 mm; HW: 1.4 mm; FWL: 8.5 mm.

Coloration. General color brown, marked with fuscous and ochraceous (Figs 5153). Vertex dark scattered numerous yellowish spots, median carina ochraceous, lateral carinae and margin dark. Genae brown, eyes brown, ocellus yellowish, antenna dark and the areas surrounding ocellus and antenna beneath eye brown scattered yellowish spots. Frons pale brown with brown spots. Postclypeus, anteclypeus yellowish-brown and the apex black. Pronotum dark scattered brown spots, median carina brown, lateral carinae dark; lateral, ventrally curved areas brown. Mesonotum ochraceous scattered black brown spots. Thorax ventrally dark brown. Forewings with venation and stigma brown. Legs dark with pale brown spots.

Head and thorax. Head (Figs 2325, 5153) slightly short and robust, shorter than pronotum and mesonotum combined (0.67:1). Vertex (Figs 23, 51, 52) with conspicuous median carina; disc sunking distinct. Frons (Fig. 24) with lateral carinae reaching to the behind of eyes, not to frontoclypeal suture. Pronotum (Figs 23, 51, 52) with distinct median carina, lateral carinae curved. Mesonotum (Fig. 23) tricarinate on disc, lateral carinae curved towards median carinae at the front. Forewing (Figs 26, 5153) longer than widest part (3.06:1), venations as in Fig. 26; hindwing longer than widest part (2.13:1), venations as in Fig. 27. Spinal formula of hind leg 8-11-11.

Male genitalia. Anal style (Figs 28, 29) short, broad. Anal tube (Figs 28, 29) large, nearly oval in lateral view; long, capitate in dorsal view, ratio of length to width at middle about 1.5:1. Pygofer (Figs 2830) large and broad in lateral view, posterior margin with a blunt process dorsally. Parameres (Figs 29, 30) relatively long in ventral aspect. Aedeagus (Figs 3133) with phallobasal conjunctival processes produced dorsally and ventrally, respectively; left one obviously longer than right one; phallobase narrow and long, curved dorsally; apicodorsal membranous lobe large in lateral view (Fig. 32), with two small processes, one covered with numerous fine spines, another not; apicoventral membranous lobe converging towards apex and rounded in ventral view (Fig. 31) with two stout spine-like processes, directed anteroventrally in lateral view, covered with numerous fine spines.

Type material

Holotype: ♂, China: Yujun Mountain (N30°04', E101°57', 3,000 m), Kangding County, Sichuan Province, 6 Aug. 1999, G.-D. Ren. (IEGU).

Etymology

This new species is named for its aedeagus having two stout spine-like processes apically.

Distribution

China (Sichuan).

Remarks

This species is similar to S. ussuriensis (Lethierry, 1878), but can be distinguished from the latter by its anal tube obviously narrowing at basal third; apicoventral lobe of pallobase with two stout processes at apex; phallobasal conjunctival processes asymmetrical apically.

Saigona tenuisa Zheng, Yang & Chen, sp. n.

Figs 34–44, 54–56

Description

Measurement. ♂, BL: 15.8 mm; HL: 3.9 mm; HW: 1.4 mm; FWL: 9.2 mm.

Coloration. General color dark brown (Figs 5456). Vertex dark brown marked with fuscous and ochraceous and yellowish spots at apex. Genae pale brown, eyes pale brown, ocellus yellowish, antenna green and the areas surrounding ocellus and antenna beneath eye yellowish. Frons yellowish brown. Postclypeus, anteclypeus and rostrum yellowish. Pronotum and Mesonotum dark brown scattered yellowish spots. Pronotum with median carina yellowish green, lateral, ventrally curved areas yellowish. Mesonotum with a narrow, yellow stripe along median carina. Thorax ventrally yellowish; abdomen ventrally yellowish green, dorsally black with yellowish brown stripe on median carina. Forewings with most veins and stigma dark brown. Legs yellowish green, tibiae with brown ring spots. Genitalia black.

Head and thorax. Head (Figs 3436, 5456) very long, longer than pronotum and mesonotum combined (1.36:1). Vertex (Figs 34, 5456) with median carina complete; cephalic process long and slender, somewhat upturned. Frons (Fig. 35) with lateral carinae reaching to the front of eyes, not to frontoclypeal suture. Pronotum (Fig. 34) with median carina distinct, lateral carinae very faint. Mesonotum (Fig. 34) with median longitudinal carina obsolete or unconspicuous, lateral carinae curverging anteriorly. Forewing (Figs 37, 5456) longer than widest part (2.79:1), venations as in Fig. 37; hindwings longer than widest part (2.23:1), venations as in Fig. 38. Spinal formula of hind leg 8-11-11.

Male genitalia. Anal style (Figs 39, 40) short, broad. Anal tube (Figs 39, 40) large, nearly triangular in lateral view; long, oval in dorsal view, ratio of length to width at middle about 1.7:1. Pygofer (Figs 3941) in lateral view with posterior margin slightly concave, dorsoposterior angle produced into a sharply process. Aedeagus (Figs 4244) with phallobasal conjunctival processes slightly produced dorsally, symmetrical; phallobase narrow and long, curved dorsally; apicodorsal membranous lobe small in lateral view (Fig. 43); apicoventral membranous lobe large, converging towards apex and coniform in ventral view (Fig. 42), directed anteroventrally in lateral view (Fig. 43), covered with numerous fine spines.

Type material

Holotype: ♂, China: Forest Park (N26°35', E106°42'), Guiyang City, Guizhou Province, 19 July 2000, X.-S. Chen. (IEGU).

Etymology

The species name is derived from the Hellenic word “tenuisa”, referring to cephalic process slender and long.

Distribution

China (Guizhou).

Remarks

This species can be easily distinguished from other species of Saigona by its very long, slender cephalic process.

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Prof. Guo-Dong Ren (Life Science College, Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei, China) and Dr. Xiao-Hui Hou (Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou, China) for collecting valuable specimen. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31060290, 31093430, 31160163) and the International Science and Technology Cooperation Program of Guizhou (20107005).

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