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Research Article
A survey of linyphiid spiders from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China (Araneae, Linyphiidae)
expand article infoQingyuan Zhao, Shuqiang Li
† Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
‡ Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of sciences, Beijing, China
Open Access

Abstract

Eight new genera and 30 new species are described: Cirrosus gen. n. (type species Cirrosus atrocaudatus sp. n. (♂♀)), Conglin gen. n. (type species Conglin personatus sp. n. (♀)), Curtimeticus gen. n. (type species Curtimeticus nebulosus sp. n. (♂)), Gladiata gen. n. (type species Gladiata fengli sp. n. (♂)), Glebala gen. n. (type species Glebala aspera sp. n. (♂)), Glomerosus gen. n. (type species Glomerosus lateralis sp. n. (♂)), Smerasia gen. n. (type species Smerasia obscurus sp. n. (♂♀)), Vittatus gen. n. (type species Vittatus fencha sp. n. (♂♀)); Batueta cuspidata sp. n. (♂♀), Capsulia laciniosa sp. n. (♂), Dactylopisthes separatus sp. n. (♀), Gongylidiellum bracteatum sp. n. (♀), Houshenzinus xiaolongha sp. n. (♂♀), Laogone bai sp. n. (♂), L. lunata sp. n. (♂♀), Maro bulbosus sp. n. (♀), Nasoonaria circinata sp. n. (♂♀), Neriene circifolia sp. n. (♂♀), Oedothorax biantu sp. n. (♀), Oilinyphia hengji sp. n. (♂♀), Paikiniana furcata sp. n. (♂♀), Parameioneta bishou sp. n. (♂♀), P. multifida sp. n. (♂♀), P. tricolorata sp. n. (♂♀), Tapinopa undata sp. n. (♂), Theoa bidentata sp. n. (♂♀), Theoa vesica sp. n. (♂♀), Vittatus bian sp. n. (♂♀), V. latus sp. n. (♂♀), V. pan sp. n. (♂♀). The male of Kaestneria bicultrata Chen & Yin, 2000 and the females of Asiagone perforata Tanasevitch, 2014 and Batueta similis Wunderlich & Song, 1995 are described for the first time; photos of Bathyphantes paracymbialis Tanasevitch, 2014 are provided.

Keywords

New species, new genus, biodiversity, Southeast Asia, Linyphiinae, Micronetinae, Erigoninae, taxonomy

Introduction

The Linyphiidae is the second most diverse spider family in the world (Platnick 2014). Merrett (1963) studied the detailed structure of male palps of 124 British linyphiids, and grouped them into linyphiines and erigonines; Millidge made a great effort to identify the major lineages of the Linyphiidae based on male palpal morphology (1977), epigynal and tracheal system morphology (1984) respectively, and acknowledged seven subfamilies or groups (1993); Hormiga (2000) integrated a numerical cladistic method in his analysis of erigonine phylogenetic relationships, and found support for the monophyly of the subfamily Erigoninae. As suggested by Tanasevitch (2014a), the Linyphiidae should now be divided into the seven subfamilies: Dubiaraneinae Millidge, 1993, Erigoninae Emerton, 1882, Ipainae Saaristo, 2007, Linyphiinae Blackwall, 1859, Micronetinae Hull, 1920, Mynogleninae Lehtinen, 1967 and Stemonyphantinae Wunderlich, 1986.

It is commonly acknowledged that the linyphiid spiders are the dominant spider group of the temperate and cold regions of the northern hemisphere (Marusik and Koponen 2002; Paquin and Dupérré 2003; Scharff et al. 2003; Scharff and Gudik–Sørensen 2006). Although the study of its diversity is still immature, the family seems to be much less diverse in the subtropical and tropical regions (Scharff 1990; Sørensen et al. 2002; Floren and Deeleman–Reinhold 2005). Only a few works have focused upon the Linyphiidae in Southeast Asia (Thorell 1898; Locket 1982; Millidge and Russell–smith 1992; Millidge 1995; Tanasevitch 2010; Tanasevitch 2014b). Thorell described eight Erigone species and two Linyphia species from Myanmar (Thorell 1895, 1898) but the lack of illustrations in these two works made it difficult to use them for further identifications; Thorell’s work was later revised by van Helsdingen (1969) and Tanasevitch (2010) respectively, and useful figures were added; Locket (1982) investigated linyphiid species from western Malaysia, from where fourteen species were reported and five new genera were established; eleven new genera of Linyphiidae from rain forests of Southeast Asia were described by Millidge and Russell–Smith (1992); Tanasevitch (2014b) established two new genera from Laos: Asiagone Tanasevitch, 2014, and Laogone Tanasevitch, 2014, and in addition, he reported 6 new species.

Xishuangbanna of southern Yunnan belongs to the transitional zone from tropical southern Asia to subtropical East Asia (Zhu et al. 2006). Only a small number of linyphiid spiders have been reported from Xishuangbanna in the past studies, in contrast with the large number of spiders of less diverse groups found there (Tang and Li 2010; Gao and Li 2014). In 1995, one new genus Nasoonaria Wunderlich & Song, 1995 from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan was established and two new species were described: Nasoonaria sinensis Wunderlich & Song, 1995 and Batueta similis Wunderlich & Song, 1995, the latter is the first species of genus Batueta Locket, 1982 to be found outside of western Malaysia (Wunderlich and Song 1995), where this genus was originally described. In 2010, a new species Neriene poculiforma Liu & Chen, 2010 was reported from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan (Liu and Chen 2010), which is the twenty-ninth Neriene species found in China, making China the country harboring almost half of the total number of Neriene species.

Our research on the linyphiids in the tropical rain forest in Xishuangbanna of southern Yunnan has revealed 30 new species, together with 18 species already described, making a total of 48 from this tropical area.

Material and methods

Specimens in this study were mainly collected by fogging, trapping, sieving and hand-collecting from tree canopy, tree trunks, and leaf-litter in tropical rain forest in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan (the four main collection localities are shown in Fig. 120). Collections were made throughout the year by Qingyuan Zhao, Guo Zheng, Zhiyuan Yao, Zhigang Chen and Guo Tang. Unless otherwise indicated all type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing (IZCAS).

Specimens were examined using a LEICA M205 C stereomicroscope. Further details were studied under a BX51 compound microscope. Most illustrations were made using a camera lucida attached to an Olympus BX51 compound microscope, and then inked on ink jet plotter paper, and the rest were made from photographs. Male and female genitalia were examined and illustrated after being dissected from the spiders.

Left male palps are illustrated, except as otherwise indicated; photos and illustrations of right palps are flipped in figures to allow easy comparison with other species. Epigynes were removed and cleared in lactic acid or warm 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution before illustration. All embolic divisions and vulvae were imaged after being embedded in Arabic gum. Photos were taken with an Olympus c7070 wide zoom digital camera (7.1 megapixels) mounted on an Olympus BX51 compound microscope. Images from multiple focal planes were combined using Helicon Focus (version 3.10) image stacking software. All measurements are given in millimeters. Eye diameters were measured at their widest extent. Leg measurements are shown as: total length (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus). The terminology of Erigoninae genitalic structure follows Hormiga (2000) and Tanasevitch (2014b); the nomenclature of Micronetinae genitalic structure is given after Saaristo and Tanasevitch (1996); the names of Linyphiinae copulatory organs follow van Helsdingen (1969).

Metatarsal trichobothrium (Tm) is given as the ratio of the distance between the proximal margin of the metatarsus and the root of the trichobothrium divided by the total length of the metatarsus (Denis 1949; Locket and Millidge 1953) and Tm value for the first and the fourth leg is given as TmI, TmIV respectively.

The tibial spine formula, which expresses the number of dorsal tibial spines on each of legs I to IV, is given for species in which it differs from the type species of the genus. The patellar spine formula is given only if it differs from the most common one (1-1-1-1).

For the known species only the references for their original description and the synonyms of their current valid names are given. All the other synonyms and references are listed in Platnick’s world spider catalog (2014).

Several species collected from canopy possessed a similar habitus. To verify the accuracy of pairing, the canopy linyphiids specimens were sequenced for DNA barcodes with the primers: 5’-GGTCAACAAATCATAAAGATATTGG-3’ and 5’-TAAACTTCAGGGTGACCAAAAAATCA-3’ (Folmer et al. 1994). This sequence data set, together with COI sequences of linyphiid spiders from BOLD (http://www.boldsystems.org) (see more information in Table 1), was analysed using MEGA 5 (Tamura et al. 2011) and a Neighbor-joining tree was constructed.

DNA data information of species included in the phylogenetic analysis.

Genus Species COI Genus Species COI
Batueta cuspidata KP176798 Theoa vesica KP176814
cuspidata KP176799 vesica KP176815
similis KP176800 Vittatus bian KP176816
similis KP176801 fencha KP176817
Cnephalocates obscurus KC502219 fencha KP176818
Dismodicus decemoculatus KF368011 latus KP176819
Drapetisca alteranda HQ979336 pan KP176820
Estrandia grandaeva KF368087
Frontinella communis HQ924611
Gladiata fengli KP176802
fengli KP176803
Houshenzinus xiaolongha KP176804
xiaolongha KP176805
Incestophantes washingtoni KF368176
Islandiana flaveola HQ924579
Kaestneria pullata KF368179
Linyphantes orcinus HQ580723
Linyphia triangularis FR775771
Macrargus multesimus HM434066
Mermessus maculatus HQ979210
Microlinyphia mandibulata GU682937
Nasoonaria circinata KP176806
circinata KP176807
Neriene clathrata HQ924547
Oedothorax trilobatus GU684170
Parameioneta tricolorata KP176808
tricolorata KP176809
Pityohyphantes subarcticus KF368753
Poeciloneta fructuosa HQ580516
Satilatlas marxi KF368759
Scotinotylus alpinus GU684443
Smerasia obscurus KP176810
obscurus KP176811
Souessa spinifera KF368806
Stemonyphantes blauveltae HM434067
Tachygyna ursina HQ580722
Theoa bidentata KP176812
bidentata KP176813

Abbreviations and conventions. Abbreviations used in the text are given in Table 2. References to figures in cited papers are listed in lowercase type (fig.); figures of this paper are noted with an initial capital (Fig.).

When extra materials are examined and recorded, and the paratype’s collecting information is the same as holotype’s, it will be implied in brackets as [same data as holotype].

List of anatomical abbreviations used in the text and figures.

Male palp
AC apophysis of convector
ALP anterior projection of lamella
APC anterior process of convector
APE anterior projection of embolic fig
ARP anterior radical process
ATA anterior part of terminal apophysis
CV convector
DC distal apophysis of convector
DPE dorsal projection of embolic fig
DSA distal suprategular apophysis
DTA distal tibial apophysis
E embolus
EP embolus proper
EPL embolic fig
EBL embolic basal lobe
F flag
FG Fickert’s gland
L lamella
LC lamella characteristica
LLP lateral projection of lamella
MA median apophysis
MM median membrane
MS membrosclerum
P parmula
PC paracymbium
PCA proximal cymbial apophysis
PH pit hook
PL pseudolamella
PLP posterior projection of lamella
PT protegulum
PTA prolateral tibial apophysis
R radix
RA radical apophysis
RBP retrobasal cymbial process
RTA retrolateral tibial apophysis
ST subtegulum
T tegulum
TA terminal apophysis of radix
TH thumb of embolus
TP tailpiece of radix
Epigyne
CD copulatory duct
CO copulatory opening
DP dorsal fig
DPS distal part of scape
FD fertilization ducts
FO fertilization opening
MPS median part of scape
PI pit
PMP posterior median fig
PPS proximal part of scape
PS proscape
PW posterior wall of epigyne
S spermatheca
SC scape
SCD scapoid
St stretcher
VP ventral fig
Somatic morphology
ALE anterior lateral eye
AME anterior median eye
AME-ALE distance between AME and ALE
AME-AME distance between AME and AME
PLE posterior lateral eye
PME posterior median eye
PME-PLE distance between PME and PLE
PME-PME distance between PME and PME

Taxonomy

Family Linyphiidae Blackwall, 1859

Genus Agyneta Hull, 1911

Agyneta: Hull 1911: 583. Type species Neriene decora O. P.-Cambridge, 1871.

Agyneta nigra (Oi, 1960)

Meioneta nigra: Oi 1960: 211, figs 318–321 (♂♀).

Agyneta nigra: Tanasevitch 2005: 170, figs 26–30 (♂).

Material examined

1♂, CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, 21°55.035'N, 101°16.500'E, elevation ca 588 m, 1.–15.07.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, pitfall traps.

Distribution

China, Korea, Japan, Mongolia, Russia.

Remarks

Lamella characteristica of our specimen matches those illustrated by Saito (Saito 1983: 52, fig. 7) and differ slightly from Tanasevitch’s (Tanasevitch 2005: 170, figs 26–23).

Genus Asiagone Tanasevitch, 2014

Asiagone: Tanasevitch 2014b: 69. Type species Asiagone signifera Tanasevitch, 2014 from Laos.

Asiagone perforata Tanasevitch, 2014

Figs 1, 2, 3, 4

Asiagone perforata: Tanasevitch 2014b: 69, figs 7–14 (♂).

Material examined

1♂, CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, 21°57.669'N, 101°11.893'E, elevation ca 790 m, 16.–24.09.2006, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, pitfall traps; 1♂2♀, 21°57.445'N, 101°12.997'E, elevation ca 744 m, 10.–14.08.2006, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, pitfall traps; 1♂, 21°57.669'N, 101°11.893'E, elevation ca 790 m, 16.–24.08.2006, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, pitfall traps; 1♂, 21°54.984'N, 101°16.982'E, elevation ca 656 m, 1.–9.11.2006, secondary tropical seasonal moist forest, pitfall traps; 1♀, 21°54.718'N, 101°16.940'E, elevation ca 645 m, 19.–25.12.2006, secondary tropical seasonal moist forest, pitfall traps; 2♂, 21°57.669'N, 101°11.893'E, elevation ca 790 m, 16.–28.02.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, pitfall traps; 1♂4♀, 21°54.607'N, 101°17.005'E, elevation ca 633 m, 1.–15.04.2007, secondary tropical seasonal moist forest, pitfall traps; 1♂1♀, 21°54.984'N, 101°16.982'E, elevation ca 656 m, 1.–15.04.2007, secondary tropical seasonal moist forest, pitfall traps; 3♂1♀, 21°54.767'N, 101°11.431'E, elevation ca 880 m, 16.–31.04.2007, secondary tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest, pitfall traps; 3♂2♀, 21°55.035'N, 101°16.500'E, elevation ca 558 m, 1.–15.07.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, pitfall traps; 3♂2♀, 21°54.607'N, 101°17.005'E, elevation ca 633 m, 1.–15.07.2007, secondary tropical seasonal moist forest, pitfall traps.

Diagnosis

This genus was described from Laos by Tanasevitch (2014b), including two species: A. signifera Tanasevitch, 2014 and A. perforata Tanasevitch, 2014. The male is diagnosed as A. perforata by the long, whip-like embolus equipped with a leaf-shaped process at the approximately midpoint (Fig. 1D), horn-shaped distal apophysis of convector (Fig. 2A), and convector’s membraniform extension that covers most part of bulb in prolateral view (Figs 1A, 4A). The female is described for the first time; it possesses a distinct lump-shaped epigyne (Fig. 3A), in which ventral and dorsal figs are fused and the margin of figs is indistinct (Fig. 3B–C).

Description

Male. Well described, e. g. by Tanasevitch (2014b).

Female (one of females from Xishuangbanna). Total length: 2.13. Carapace 0.75 long, 0.63 wide, unmodified, brownish yellow with dark outer margin (Fig. 3D). Sternum 0.41 long, 0.50 wide. Clypeus 0.13 high. Chelicerae promargin with 6 teeth, retromargin with 5 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.06, ALE 0.08, PME 0.08, PLE 0.08, AME-AME/AME 0.33, PME-PME/PME 0.63, AME-ALE/ALE 0.63, PME-PLE/PLE 0.63, coxae IV separated by 1.43 times their width. Length of legs: I 3.70 (1.04, 0.24, 0.96, 0.88, 0.58), II 3.85 (0.96, 0.25, 1.06, 0.92, 0.66), III 2.95 (0.83, 0.23, 0.70, 0.72, 0.47), IV 3.72 (1.00, 0.20, 1.00, 0.96, 0.56). Leg formula: II-IV-I-III. TmI 0.38, TmIV 0.31. Tibial spine formula: 2-2-1-1. Abdomen pale, with dark green patches. Epigyne: lump-shaped (Fig. 3A), copulatory openings ambiguous; copulatory ducts long and twirled (Figs 3C, 4D); spermathecae widely separated (Fig. 3C).

Distribution

China, Laos.

Remarks

Female of the species is reported for the first time.

Genus Atypena Simon, 1894

Atypena: Simon 1894: 668. Type species Atypena superciliosa Simon, 1894 from Southeast Asia.

Atypena cirrifrons (Heimer, 1984)

Paranasoona cirrifrons: Heimer 1984: 87, figs 1–8 (♂♀).

Atypena cirrifrons: Tanasevitch 2014b: 72.

Material examined

1♂, CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, 21°54.738'N, 101°16.940'E, elevation ca 645 m, 19.–25.12.2006, secondary tropical seasonal rain forest, hand-collecting; 1♂, 21°54.607'N, 101°17.005'E, elevation ca 633 m, 19.–26.05.2007, secondary tropical seasonal rain forest, hand-collecting; 1♀, 21°54.772'N, 101°16.043'E, elevation ca 556 m, 18.07.2007, Paramichelia baillonii plantation, fogging; 1♂, 21°54.705'N, 101°16.898'E, elevation ca 664 m, 15.11.2009, Lvshilin tropical rain forest, fogging; 1♂, 21°54.609'N, 101°17.190'E, elevation ca 643 m, 17.11.2009, Lvshilin tropical rain forest, fogging; 1♀, 21°53.833'N, 101°17.001'E, elevation ca 618 m, 25.11.2009, teak plantation, fogging; 1♂, 21°53.992'N, 101°16.948'E, elevation ca 590 m, 2.12.2009, G213 Road, Anogeissus acuminate plantation, fogging.

Distribution

South China, Vietnam and Laos.

Genus Bathyphantes Menge, 1866

Bathyphantes: Menge 1866: 116. Type species Bathyphantes longipes Menge, 1866 (= B. gracilis (Blackwall, 1841)).

Bathyphantes paracymbialis Tanasevitch, 2014

Figs 5, 6, 7, 8

Bathyphantes paracymbialis: Tanasevitch 2014b: 73, figs 15–23 (♂♀).

Material examined

2♂2♀: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun town: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, 21°57.445'N, 101°12.997'E, elevation ca 744 m, 1.–15.03.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, pitfall traps; 1♀, 21°57.669'N, 101°12.893'E, elevation ca 790 m, 19.–25.10.2006, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, pitfall traps; 2♀, 21°57.445'N, 101°12.997'E, elevation ca 744 m, 16.–24.11.2006, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, pitfall traps; 1♂, 21°57.669'N, 101°12.893'E, elevation ca 790 m, 1.–9.12.2006, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, pitfall traps; 1♂, 21°57.445'N, 101°12.997'E, elevation ca 744 m, 5.–12.01.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, hand-collecting; 3♂2♀, 21°57.445'N, 101°12.997'E, elevation ca 744 m, 16.–28.02.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, pitfall traps.

Diagnosis

The male can be diagnosed by the small dorsal projection of embolic fig (Tanasevitch 2014b: fig. 16; Fig. 5A, D), two finger-like extensions of distal suprategular apophysis (Fig. 5C–D), and the slimmer embolus forming two coils (Fig. 5C). It differs from B. floralis Tu & Li, 2006 by the shape of paracymbium: ‘U’-shaped, with a blunt distal end in B. floralis (Tu and Li 2006: fig. 1B), whereas ‘J’-shaped, with a small projection at the paracymbium in B. paracymbialis (Tanasevitch 2014b: fig. 17; Fig. 5B). The female is recognized by the short parmula and copulatory ducts (Tanasevitch 2014b: figs 21–22; Fig. 7A–C).

Description

Well described by Tanasevitch (2014b).

Distribution

China, Laos.

Genus Batueta Locket, 1982

Batueta: Locket 1982: 372. Type species Batueta voluta Locket, 1982 from Malaysia.

Batueta cuspidata sp. n.

Figs 9, 10, 11, 12

Types

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan: Mengla County: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, Xiaolongha biodiversity preservation corridor, 21°24.161'N, 101°36.412'E, elevation ca 791 m, 16.06.2013, tropical seasonal rain forest, sieving. Paratypes 5♂, same data as holotype; 2♀, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, 21°55.551'N, 101°16.923'E, elevation ca 561 m, 5.–12.10.2007, rubber-tea plantation, hand-collecting; 1♀, 21°54.772'N, 101°16.043'E, elevation ca 556 m, 16.–31.06.2007, Paramichelia baillonii plantation, hand-collecting.

Etymology

The name is derived from the Latin ‘cuspidatus’, which means ‘pointed end’, referring to the sharp tip of the lateral apophysis of the convector; adjective.

Diagnosis

This new species is mostly related to B. voluta Locket, 1982 and B. similis Wunderlich & Song, 1995, and can be distinguished from them by the two basal outgrowths of cymbium: one is broad, the other is blunt (Fig. 10A), while B. similis has two slim and curved outgrowths. The convector in B. cuspidata is well-developed, anterior branch long and erect, slightly folded distally (Figs 9A, 10B), in contrast with the short and pointed ones in B. voluta (Locket 1982: fig. 58) and B. similis (Wunderlich and Song 1995: fig. 10). The female is diagnosed by its spiraling copulatory ducts in epigyne (Fig. 11C), which was not clearly noted in Locket’s work, but its ventral fig resembles that in B. voluta (Locket 1982: figs 62–63).

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 1.25. Carapace 0.63 long, 0.48 wide, orange, covered with deep impressions; ocular area elevated. Sternum 0.34 long, 0.34 wide. Clypeus 0.16 high. Chelicerae promargin with 3 teeth, retromargin with 3 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.05, ALE 0.06, PME 0.06, PLE 0.06, AME-AME/AME 0.20, PME-PME/PME 0.67, AME-ALE/ALE 0.50, PME-PLE/PLE 0.33, coxae IV separated by 1.1 times their width. Length of legs: I 2.49 (0.63, 0.16, 0.69, 0.56, 0.45), II 2.14 (0.55, 0.16, 0.56, 0.47, 0.40), III 1.66 (0.41, 0.14, 0.41, 0.39, 0.31), IV 2.19 (0.55, 0.18, 0.56, 0.50, 0.40). Leg formula: I-IV-II-III. TmI 0.16, TmIV absent. Tibial spine formula: 1-1-1-1. Palp: patella with a thick dorsal spine, tibia without apophysis (Figs 9A–B, 10A–B). Cymbium with wide basal outgrowth, the tip of which with two small extensions turning clockwise in dorsal view (in left palp) (Fig. 10A); convector with three arms: anterior arm upright with a folded tip; ventral one with a black pointed tip; posterior one with hooked distal end (Fig. 9A, C); embolus whip-like, forming a coil (Fig. 10B).

Female (one of paratypes). Total length: 1.18. Carapace 0.55 long, 0.45 wide, yellow with green undertone. Sternum 0.32 long, 0.30 wide. Clypeus 0.11 high. Chelicerae promargin with 3 teeth, retromargin with 3 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.03, ALE 0.05, PME 0.08, PLE 0.05, AME-AME/AME 0.33, PME-PME/PME 0.38, AME-ALE/ALE 0.60, PME-PLE/PLE 0.12, coxae IV separated by 2.9 times their width. Length of legs: I 2.08 (0.52, 0.16, 0.55, 0.41, 0.44), II 1.87 (0.48, 0.16, 0.47, 0.40, 0.36), III 1.56 (0.39, 0.16, 0.36, 0.33, 0.32), IV 1.99 (0.54, 0.18, 0.49, 0.40, 0.38). Leg formula: I-IV-II-III. TmI 0.20, TmIV absent. Tibial spine formula: 1-1-1-1. Abdomen greenish grey with irregular dark patches. Epigyne: ventral fig with three posterior projections, the middle one slightly bigger than the others (Fig. 11A); dorsal fig tongue-shaped (Fig. 11B); copulatory ducts following a double spiral pathway before joining spermathecae (Fig. 11C); spermathecae kidney-shaped, close to each other (Figs 11C, 12B).

Distribution

Known only from type localities.

Batueta similis Wunderlich & Song, 1995

Figs 13, 14, 15, 16

Batueta similis: Wunderlich and Song 1995: 345, figs 9–10 (♂).

Material examined

2♂, CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna, Tropical Botanical Garden 21°54.200'N, 101°16.923'E, elevation ca 608 m, 16.–24.11.2006, Paramichelia baillonii plantation, pitfall traps; 1♂, 21°53.823'N, 101°17.072'E, elevation ca 613m, 1.–9.12.2006, P. baillonii plantation, pitfall traps; 1♂, 21°54.772'N, 101°16.043'E, elevation ca 556 m, 16.–24.12.2006, P. baillonii plantation, pitfall traps; 1♀, 21°54.200'N, 101°16.923'E, elevation ca 608 m, 19.–25.01.2007, P. baillonii plantation, hand-collecting; 1♀, 21°53.823'N, 101°17.072'E, elevation ca 613 m, 19.–26.03.2007, P. baillonii plantation, pitfall traps; 2♀, 21°53.823'N, 101°17.072'E, elevation ca 613 m, 1.–15.04.2007, P. baillonii plantation, pitfall traps; 1♀, 21°54.772'N, 101°16.043'E, elevation ca 556 m, 10.–20.06.2007, P. baillonii plantation, hand-collecting; 1♀, 21°54.200'N, 101°16.923'E, elevation ca 608 m, 1.–15.07.2007, P. baillonii plantation, pitfall traps.

Diagnosis

This species is distinguished from B. cuspidata sp. n. by a small dorsal fig of epigyne, shorter route and fewer turnings of copulatory ducts (Figs 15C, 16B). The spermathecae are not obviously present in this species (Fig. 15C).

Description

Male. Well described, e. g. by Wunderlich and Song (1995).

Female (one of females from Xishuangbanna). Total length: 1.00. Carapace 0.50 long, 0.47 wide, earthy yellow. Sternum 0.28 long, 0.29 wide. Clypeus 0.08 high. Chelicerae promargin with 3 teeth, retromargin with 2 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.05, ALE 0.05, PME 0.06, PLE 0.05, AME-AME/AME 0.40, PME-PME/PME 0.50, AME-ALE/ALE 0.20, PME-PLE/PLE 0.50, coxae IV separated by 1.22 times their width. Length of legs: I 1.85 (0.45, 0.15, 0.50, 0.40, 0.35), II 1.70 (0.44, 0.16, 0.43, 0.36, 0.31), III 1.23 (0.28, 0.09, 0.31, 0.30, 0.25), IV 1.80 (0.47, 0.16, 0.47, 0.39, 0.31). Leg formula: I-IV-II-III. TmI 0.24, TmIV absent. Tibial spine formula: 1-1-1-1. Abdomen greenish brown. Epigyne: ventral fig half-rounded, posterior margin smooth and hairless (Figs 15A, 16A); dorsal fig small, elliptical (Fig. 15C); copulatory ducts long, forming a helical structure (Figs 15C, 16B); fertilization openings conspicuous, close to copulatory openings (Fig. 15B).

Distribution

China.

Remarks

Female of the species is reported for the first time.

Genus Capsulia Saaristo, Tu & Li, 2006

Capsulia: Saaristo et al. 2006: 393. Type species Centromerus tianmushanus Chen & Song, 1987 from China.

Capsulia laciniosa sp. n.

Figs 17, 18, 19

Types

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna, Tropical Botanical Garden 21°53.833'N, 101°17.001'E, elevation ca 618 m, 25.11.2009, teak plantation, fogging.

Comparative material

Capsulia tianmushana (Chen & Song, 1987), holotype ♂: CHINA, Zhejiang: Xinmaopeng Town: Mt. Tianmushan, 30°2.400'N, 119°3.000'E, 3.04.1983.

Etymology

This name is derived from the Latin word ‘laciniosus’, which means ‘indented’, referring to the jagged fringe of the anterior terminal apophysis; adjective.

Diagnosis

This species is similar to C. tianmushana (Chen & Song, 1987) greatly, but differs by the following aspects: the edge of anterior terminal apophysis in C. laciniosa sp. n. is dentate (Fig. 18C), but smooth in C. tianmushana; the apex of pseudolamella in C. tianmushana is broad and strongly papillate (Saaristo et al. 2006: figs 18, 19, 21), while narrower and slightly bifurcate in C. laciniosa sp. n. (Fig. 17A–C); the thumb of embolus in C. laciniosa sp. n. is wider, but less pointed (Fig. 17C).

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 1.85. Carapace 0.90 long, 0.75 wide, yellow. Sternum 0.50 long, 0.50 wide, dark green. Clypeus 0.13 high. Chelicerae promargin with 3 teeth, retromargin with no teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.05, ALE 0.06, PME 0.06, PLE 0.05, AME-AME/AME 0.32, PME-PME/PME 0.17, AME-ALE/ALE 0.33, PME-PLE/PLE 0.50, coxae IV separated by 1.14 times their width. Length of legs: I 3.06 (0.81, 0.25, 0.88, 0.64, 0.48), II 2.91 (0.78, 0.28, 0.76, 0.62, 0.47), III 2.51 (0.65, 0.26, 0.60, 0.60, 0.40), IV 3.33 (0.91, 0.23, 0.94, 0.79, 0.46). Leg formula: IV-I-II-III. TmI 0.25, TmIV absent. Tibial spine formula: 2-2-2-2. Abdomen dark green, with pale transversal stripes. Palp: tibia with two retrolateral trichobothria and one prominent ventral outgrowth equipped with three long setae at tip (Figs 17B, 18B); cymbium with a pointed outgrowth (Figs 17A–B, 19A–B); paracymbium broad at base, ‘V’-shaped, with one folded and slightly bifurcate tip (Figs 17B, 18B); protegulum somewhat triangular; pit hook short and pointed (Fig. 17D). Anterior terminal apophysis broad at tip, with jagged fringe (Figs 17C, 18B); posterior terminal apophysis stout, with sharp end (Fig. 17C); median membrane short, with fringed tip (Fig. 18C); pseudolamella long and curved, with papillate apex (Fig. 17A–B); embolus mesally broad with a pointed tip (Fig. 17C); radix narrow distally with a folded anterior radical process, tailpiece small (Fig. 17A).

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

Known only from type locality.

Cirrosus gen. n.

Type species

Cirrosus atrocaudatus sp. n.

Etymology

The generic name is an arbitrary combination of letters. Gender is masculine.

Diagnosis

This new genus is distinguished from all other linyphiids by its unique structure of embolic division, notably, by its hooked distal suprategular apophysis running along the tegulum (Fig. 20B), and long, filiform embolus, starting from the prolateral side of the embolic division, forming several coils (Fig. 20A, C–D), which is rarely seen in other genera.

Description

Small sized Erigoninae. Carapace light yellow, unmodified in both sexes. Chelicerae with 4 promarginal and 3 retromarginal teeth. Chaetotaxy: tibial spine formula: 1-1-1-1. TmI ca 0.70, TmIV ca 0.70. Abdomen pale.

Male palp: tibia short, conical, with one retrolateral trichobothrium; tibial dorsal apophysis small and with a small patch of dark papillae (Figs 20B, 21A). Paracymbium ‘J’-shaped, hooked at tip (Figs 20B, 23B), broad in ventral view (Fig. 21B). Distal suprategular apophysis wavy, with a sharp, erect tip in retrolateral view (Fig. 20D); anterior radical process flat, somewhat knob-shaped in lateral view (Fig. 20A–D); embolus long, filiform, and curled up (Fig. 20C–D).

Epigyne: wide, with copulatory openings at the junction of two figs; copulatory ducts short, simple (Figs 22C, 23D); spermathecae somewhat rounded, separated by 1.5 diameter (Fig. 21B–C).

Species composition

Type species only: Cirrosus atrocaudatus sp. n.

Distribution

China.

Remarks

The presence of long, coiled embolus and prominent anterior radical process indicate that it might be distantly related to Southeast Asian genus Laogone Tanasevitch, 2014, but close relatives are difficult to hypothesize.

Cirrosus atrocaudatus sp. n.

Figs 20, 21, 22, 23

Types

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, 21°54.600'N, 101°17.084'E, elevation ca 640 m, 17.11.2009, Lvshilin tropical rain forest, fogging. Paratypes 1♂, same data as holotype; 1♂, 21°55.035'N, 101°16.500'E, elevation ca 558 m, 22.07.2009, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, fogging; 3♂1♀, 21°53.646'N, 101°16.957'E, elevation ca 589 m, 26.11.2009, bamboo plantation, fogging.

Etymology

The name for this species comes from the Latin word ‘ater’ and ‘cauda’. The former means ‘black’, and the latter means ‘tail’. The combination refers to the dark end of the male’s abdomen; adjective.

Diagnosis

See diagnosis of the genus.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 1.41. Carapace 0.63 long, 0.50 wide, unmodified, light yellow. Sternum 0.31 long, 0.38 wide. Clypeus 0.19 high. Chelicerae promargin with 4 teeth, retromargin with 3 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.06, ALE 0.06, PME 0.07, PLE 0.06, AME-AME/AME 0.33, PME-PME/PME 0.57, AME-ALE/ALE 0.33, PME-PLE/PLE 0.13, coxae IV separated by 1.92 times their width. Length of legs: I 2.05 (0.56, 0.18, 0.50, 0.50, 0.31), II 2.19 (0.61, 0.17, 0.55, 0.55, 0.31), III 1.64 (0.45, 0.16, 0.34, 0.42, 0.27), IV 2.02 (0.55, 0.17, 0.47, 0.52, 0.31). Leg formula: II-I-IV-III. Abdomen pale, with black posterior tip (Fig. 21C). Palp: see description of the genus.

Female (one of paratypes). Total length: 1.30. Carapace 0.60 long, 0.46 wide, tanned. Sternum 0.36 long, 0.33 wide. Clypeus 0.14 high. Chelicerae promargin with 4 teeth, retromargin with 3 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.03, ALE 0.04, PME 0.04, PLE 0.05, AME-AME/AME 0.10, PME-PME/PME 0.10, AME-ALE/ALE 0.20, PME-PLE/PLE 0.40, coxae IV separated by 1.60 times their width. Length of legs: I 1.76 (0.50, 0.19, 0.40, 0.38, 0.29), II 2.02 (0.53, 0.18, 0.46, 0.44, 0.31), III 1.46 (0.39, 0.16, 0.30, 0.34, 0.27), IV 1.86 (0.48, 0.16, 0.48, 0.45, 0.29). Leg formula: II- IV-I-III. Abdomen beige, with dark posterior tip. Epigyne: see description of the genus.

Distribution

Known only from type localities.

Conglin gen. n.

Type species

Conglin personatus sp. n.

Etymology

The generic name is derived from the Chinese Pinyin ‘cóng lín’, meaning ‘forest’, in reference to habitat of the new genus. Gender is masculine.

Diagnosis

This genus is diagnosed by its complexly routed copulatory ducts and the extended posterior end of the epigynal fig, not found in any other Southeast Asian erigonines (Fig. 24B–C).

Description

Small sized Erigoninae. Carapace unmodified. Chelicerae with 5 promarginal teeth, and 4 retromarginal teeth. Chaetotaxy: tibial spine formula: 1-1-1-1. TmI unknown, TmIV unkown. Abdomen tanned, with dark green patches on the ventral side. Male unknown.

Epigyne: ventral fig round and hunched, with an extension at the posterior end (Fig. 24A); the dorsal fig much shorter than the ventral fig, with curved posterior rim (Fig. 24C). The copulatory ducts long and twisted, and the route difficult to discern (Fig. 24C); no apparent spermathecae present.

Species composition

Type species only: Conglin personatus sp. n.

Distribution

China.

Conglin personatus sp. n.

Figs 24, 25

Types

Holotype ♀: CHINA, Yunnan: Mengyang Town: Baihuashan Tunnel: Xishuangbanna nature reserve, 22°09.513'N, 100°53.220'E, elevation ca 894 m, 25.06.2013, tropical seasonal rain forest, sieving.

Etymology

This name is derived from the Latin word ‘personatus’ which means ‘masked’, in reference to the mask-shaped epigynal fig; adjective.

Diagnosis

See diagnosis of the genus.

Description

Female (holotype). Total length: 1.30. Carapace 0.60 long, 0.50 wide, greenish yellow. Sternum 0.40 long, 0.30 wide. Clypeus 0.11 high. Eyes sizes and interdistances: AME 0.03, ALE 0.06, PME 0.06, PLE 0.04, AME-AME/AME 0.67, PME-PME/PME 0.67, AME-ALE/ALE 0.33, PME-PLE/PLE 1.17, Coxae IV separated by 1.17 times their width. Lengths of legs: I 2.03 (0.56, 0.15, 0.60, 0.48, 0.24), II 2.11 (0.55, 0.17, 0.54, 0.44, 0.41), III 1.63 (0.40, 0.15, 0.39, 0.35, 0.34), IV 2.22 (0.60, 0.16, 0.56, 0.48, 0.42). Leg formula: IV-II-I-III. Epigyne: see description of the genus.

Male. Unknown.

Distribution

Only known from its type locality.

Curtimeticus gen. n.

Type species

Curtimeticus nebulosus sp. n.

Etymology

The generic name is an arbitrary combination of letters. Gender is masculine.

Diagnosis

This new genus is diagnosed by its prominent anterior radical process and the stout, short embolus. Its embolic division is similar to those in members of genus Tmeticus Menge, 1868, Donacochara Simon, 1884. All of them have a simple, straight embolic division with an embolus proper (Millidge 1977: fig. 41), but it differs from the other two by having a bifurcate anterior radical process (Figs 26A, 29A), each branch with a blunt tip (Fig. 26C–D) and an inconspicuous tailpiece. It is also clearly distinguished by the short palpal tibia with broad distal end and the short palpal patella without ventral teeth (Fig. 27C–E). The epigyne in female resembles that in Oedothorax Bertkau, 1883 (Roberts 1987: figs 59b–o), but has longer copulatory ducts; The epigyne of female paratype is also quite similar to those in Paratmeticus bipunctis (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) and Tmeticus nigriceps (Kulczyński, 1916) in ventral view (Marusik and Koponen 2010: figs 14, 18), but differs by the route of copulatory ducts (Figs 28C, 29D).

Description

Small sized Erigoninae. Carapace unmodified, reddish brown, with dark radial stripes in both sexes. Chelicerae with 5 promarginal teeth, and 4 retromarginal teeth in both sexes. Chaetotaxy: tibial spine formula: 2-2-1-1. TmI ca 0.50 in male, ca 0.60 in female, TmIV ca 0.70 in male, ca 0.50 in female. Abdomen greenish grey with a pale central patch.

Male palp: tibia with two retrolateral trichobothria and several ventral long setae; tibia with two apophyses, the retrolateral one petal-like (Fig. 26A–B), the inner surface of which covered with inconspicuous papillae (Fig. 27A); protegular process prominent, with pointed tip (Fig. 26B). Radix small slender, with two anterior branches (Fig. 26A, C–D); embolus stout, situated between radical process and protegulum (Fig. 26B); in ventral view the tegular sac partially covering the ventral tip of anterior radical process (Fig. 27B).

Epigyne: ventral fig wide, with copulatory openings at the junction of dorsal fig and ventral fig (Fig. 28C); copulatory ducts straight and long, in the shape of cylinder (Fig. 28C); spermathecae elliptical (Fig. 28C); fertilization ducts short, following an arc route (Figs 28C, 29D).

Species composition

Type species only: Curtimeticus nebulosus sp. n.

Distribution

China.

Curtimeticus nebulosus sp. n.

Figs 26, 27, 28, 29

Types

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, 21°55.035'N, 101°16.500'E, elevation ca 558 m, 22.07.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, fogging. Paratypes 1♀, same data as holotype; 1♀, 21°55.035'N, 101°16.500'E, elevation ca 558 m, 5.–12.01.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, hand-collecting; 1♀, 21°55.035'N, 101°16.500'E, elevation ca 558 m, 19.–25.02.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, hand-collecting; 1♀, 21°55.035'N, 101°16.500'E, elevation ca 558 m, 4.–11.04.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, hand-collecting; 1♂, 21°54.646'N, 101°16.257'E, elevation ca 572 m, 4.–11.05.2007, rubber-tea plantation, hand-collecting; 1♂, 21°55.035'N, 101°16.500'E, elevation ca 558 m, 10.–20.07.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, fogging.

Etymology

The name for this species comes from the Latin word ‘nebulosus’, which means ‘cloudy, foggy’, in reference to the tegular sac covering the tip of the ventral radical process; adjective.

Diagnosis

See diagnosis of the genus.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 1.70. Carapace 0.76 long, 0.53 wide, dark red. Sternum 0.40 long, 0.40 wide. Clypeus 0.13 high. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.06, ALE 0.06, PME 0.06, PLE 0.05, AME-AME/AME 0.33, PME-PME/PME 0.66, AME-ALE/ALE 0.50, PME-PLE/PLE 1.00, coxae IV separated by 0.75 time their width. Length of legs: I 2.73 (0.76, 0.20, 0.75, 0.63, 0.39), II 2.51 (0.72, 0.20, 0.65, 0.57, 0.37), III 2.07 (0.56, 0.20, 0.48, 0.48, 0.35), IV 2.69 (0.74, 0.20, 0.70, 0.69, 0.36). Leg formula: I-IV-II-III. Abdomen greenish grey. Palp: see description of the genus.

Female (one of paratypes). Total length: 1.69. Carapace 0.73 long, 0.55 wide, dark red. Sternum 0.70 long, 0.55 wide. Clypeus 0.09 high. Eyes sizes and interdistances: AME 0.07, ALE 0.05, PME 0.05, PLE 0.06, AME-AME/AME 0.29, PME-PME/PME 1.00, AME-ALE/ALE 0.20, PME-PLE/PLE 0.50, coxae IV separated by 0.93 time their width. Length of legs: I 2.65 (0.76, 0.20, 0.70, 0.60, 0.39), II 2.51 (0.72, 0.20, 0.65, 0.57, 0.37), III 2.07 (0.56, 0.20, 0.48, 0.48, 0.35), IV 2.69 (0.74, 0.20, 0.70, 0.69, 0.36). Leg formula: IV-I-II-III. Abdomen greenish grey, with a pale patch in the middle of dorsum. Epigyne: see description of the genus.

Distribution

Known only from type localities.

Genus Dactylopisthes Simon, 1884

Dactylopisthes: Simon 1884: 594. Type species: Erigone digiticeps Simon, 1884.

Dactylopisthes separatus sp. n.

Figs 30, 31

Types

Holotype ♀: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, 21°55.551'N, 101°16.923'E, elevation ca 561 m, 16.–28.02.2007, rubber-tea plantation, trunk traps. Paratypes 1♀, 21°54.213'N, 101°16.927'E, elevation ca 590 m, 24.11.2006, G 213 road, arbor plantation, fogging; 1♀, 21°55.551'N, 101°16.923'E, elevation ca 585 m, 19.–25.01.2007, rubber tree plantation, hand-collecting; 1♀, 21°54.463'N, 101°15.978'E, elevation ca 569 m, 1.–15.02.2007, rubber-tea plantation, trunk traps; 1♀, 21°54.646'N, 101°16.257'E, elevation ca 572 m, 1.–15.02.2007, rubber-tea plantation, trunk traps; 1♀, 21°54.684'N, 101°16.319'E, elevation ca 585 m, 16.–28.02.2007, rubber tree plantation, trunk traps; 1♀, 21°54.498'N, 101°16.326'E, elevation ca 586 m, 4.–11.05.2007, rubber tree plantation, hand-collecting; 1♀, 21°54.710'N, 101°16.941'E, elevation ca 652 m, 15.11.2009, Lvshilin, tropical seasonal rain forest; 1♀, 21°56.206'N, 101°16.204'E, elevation ca 558 m, 1.12.2009, tropical evergreen rain forest.

Etymology

The name for this species is derived from the Latin word ‘separatus’, which means ‘unconnected’, referring to the separated ventral fig of the epigyne; adjective.

Diagnosis

This species is similar to D. locketi (Tanasevitch, 1983) in the general shape of epigyne (Tanasevitch 1989: fig. 127), but different in the detailed structure: the spermathecae in D. separatus sp. n. are more separated than those in D. locketi (Fig. 30B), and situated closer to the posterior rim of the epigyne; the two pieces of separated ventral fig are narrower and more pointed (Fig. 30A).

Description

Female (holotype). Total length: 1.60. Carapace 0.69 long, 0.55 wide, yellow, with dark margin. Sternum 0.36 long, 0.41 wide. Clypeus 0.14 high. Chelicerae promargin with 4 teeth, retromargin with 3 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.05, ALE 0.06, PME 0.06, PLE 0.06, AME-AME/AME 0.20, PME-PME/PME 0.67, AME-ALE/ALE 0.13, PME-PLE/PLE 0.17, coxae IV separated by 1.92 times their width. Length of legs: I 2.11 (0.61, 0.20, 0.50, 0.45, 0.35), II 2.22 (0.62, 0.19, 0.55, 0.53, 0.33), III 1.76 (0.48, 0.18, 0.40, 0.42, 0.28), IV 2.24 (0.63, 0.19, 0.50, 0.55, 0.37). Leg formula: IV-II-I-III. TmI 0.69, TmIV 0.65. Tibial spine formula: 2-2-1-1. Abdomen pale, with a greenish grey horseshoe band on dorsum, and a small dark patch at the posterior end. Epigyne: ventral fig subdivided, with two rounded ends (Figs 30A, 31A); dorsal fig tongue-shaped (Fig. 30B); copulatory openings near the posterior margin of ventral fig (Fig. 30C); copulatory ducts short and straight; spermathecae somewhat elliptical, separated by two diameters (Fig. 30C).

Male. Unknown.

Remarks

The diagnosis of this species is solely based on the female specimens and the genera within or related to the Savignia group share very similar epigynal structure, which makes it rather difficult to place species in correct genus by comparing epigynes only. The value of TmI of this species and the pattern on its abdomen’s dorsum seem to be different from other existing congeners in Dactylopisthes, but it could be tentatively placed in this genus because of its resemblance to D. locketi. A more reasonable diagnosis will be made when the male specimens are collected and studied.

Genus Erigone Audouin, 1826

Erigone: Audouin 1826: 320. Type species Linyphia longipalpis Sundevall, 1830.

Erigone grandidens Tu & Li, 2004

Erigone grandidens: Tu and Li 2004: 420, fig. 2A–J (♂♀).

Material examined

1♂, CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, 21°54.459'N, 101°16.755'E, elevation ca 644 m, 20.11.2009, secondary forest; 1♂, 21°53.794'N, 101°17.152'E, elevation ca 594 m, 27.11.2009, low evergreen forest.

Distribution

China, Vietnam.

Gladiata gen. n.

Type species

Gladiata fengli sp. n.

Etymology

The generic name is an arbitrary combination of letters. Gender is feminine.

Diagnosis

The number of spines on tibia IV and the conformation of male palp implies that this genus should belong to subfamily Erigoninae, and the conspicuously large proximal cymbial projection resembles that in erigonine genera Minicia Thorell, 1875, Eskovia Marusik & Saaristo, 1999, Sintula Simon, 1884. The embolus in this new genus takes an anti-clockwise route to form a loop, in contrast with the distal suprategular apophysis turning clockwise (Fig. 33B), which is rare in other erigonines. The atrium in female’s epigyne resembles that in the genus Ketambea Millidge & Russell-Smith, 1992, Tapinocyba Simon, 1884, but the copulatory ducts follow a different route.

Description

Median sized Erigoninae. Male with post-ocular area slightly elevated, with a row of setae along the axis from clypeus to the fovea (Fig. 33E). Chelicerae with 5 promarginal teeth, and 4 retromarginal teeth. Abdomen with distinct pattern. Chaetotaxy: tibial spine formula: 2-2-1-1. TmI ca 0.37, TmIV ca 0.65.

Male palp: tibia with 4 trichobothria, 2 retrolateral and two dorsal, tibia dorsally humped, equipped by a row of long setae (Fig. 32A–B); cymbium with a prominent, pointed projection (Fig. 32A–B); paracymbium ‘J’-shaped, basally broad, with an extended distal end (Fig. 32B); distal suprategular apophysis basally broad, stretching along the tegulum then turning up to form a spine (Fig. 32B); radix straight, reduced (Fig. 32A); no obvious tailpiece present; embolus long, thread-like, starting from the prolateral side of the radix (Fig. 32A).

Epigyne: ventral fig bulge, dorsal fig tongue-shaped, with an obvious atrium lying in between (Fig. 34A); copulatory ducts long, twisted (Fig. 34C); spermathecae small (Fig. 34C).

Species composition

Type species only: Gladiata fengli sp. n.

Distribution

China.

Gladiata fengli sp. n.

Figs 32, 33, 34, 35

Types

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, 21°57.445'N, 101°12.997'E, elevation ca 744 m, 1.–15.05.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, trunk traps. Paratypes 1♀, 21°57.883'N, 101°12.147'E, elevation ca 839 m, 15.08.2011, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, fogging; 1♂, 21°57.445'N, 101°12.997'E, elevation ca 744 m, 16.–31.03.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, trunk traps; 1♂, 21°57.445'N, 101°12.997'E, elevation ca 744 m, 16.–30.04.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, trunk traps; 1♂, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, 21°53.993'N, 101°16.810'E, elevation ca 611 m, 19. 08.2007, Anogeissus acuminate plantation, fogging.

Etymology

This specific name is derived from the Chinese Pinyin ‘fēng lì’, meaning ‘pointed, sharp’, in reference to the pointed proximal cymbial outgrowth of the male palp; term in apposition.

Diagnosis

See diagnosis of the genus.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 2.78. Carapace 1.16 long, 0.78 wide, post-ocular area slightly elevated, with a row of setae growing along the axis from clypeus to the fovea. Sternum 0.63 long, 0.58 wide. Clypeus 0.19 high. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.07, ALE 0.11, PME 0.10, PLE 0.10, AME-AME/AME 0.43, PME-PME/PME 0.80, AME-ALE/ALE 0.36, PME-PLE/PLE 0.40, coxae IV separated by 0.95 time their width. Length of legs: I 3.71 (1.15, 0.25, 0.94, 0.78, 0.59), II 4.97 (1.40, 0.29, 1.25, 1.30, 0.73), III 3.95 (1.13, 0.28, 0.98, 1.00, 0.56), IV 4.99 (1.40, 0.28, 1.33, 1.33, 0.65). Leg formula: IV-II-III-I. TmI 0.37, TmIV 0.65. Abdomen pale, with irregular dark dots. Palp: see description of the genus.

Female (one of paratypes). Total length: 2.56. Carapace 1.00 long, 0.75 wide, dark brown. Sternum 0.60 long, 0.54 wide. Clypeus 0.20 high. Eyes sizes and interdistances: AME 0.08, ALE 0.10, PME 0.09, PLE 0.10, AME-AME/AME 0.38, PME-PME/PME 0.53, AME-ALE/ALE 0.16, PME-PLE/PLE 0.40, coxae IV separated by 1.13 times their width. Lengths of legs: I 4.98 (1.40, 0.31, 1.38, 1.18, 0.71), II 4.60 (1.30, 0.32, 1.24, 1.10, 0.64), III 3.54 (1.04, 0.20, 0.90, 0.90, 0.50), IV 4.60 (1.31, 0.31, 1.22, 1.13, 0.63). Leg formula: I-IV-II-III. TmI 0.35, TmIV 0.60. Abdomen beige, with dark green venter and symmertric patches on the dorsum. Epigyne: see description of the genus.

Distribution

Known only from type localities.

Glebala gen. n.

Type species

Glebala aspera sp. n.

Etymology

The generic name is an arbitrary combination of letters. Gender is feminine.

Diagnosis

This genus is unique for its knobble paracymbium (Fig. 36B), which is not known in any other linyphiid genera. The bulb is distinguished by the ambiguous delimitation of the tegulum and subtegulum (Fig. 36A).

Description

Median sized Erigoninae. Male carapace slightly elevated, with a row of long hair growing along the axis. Chelicerae with 6 promarginal teeth, and 5 retromarginal teeth. Chaetotaxy: tibial spine formula: 2-2-1-1. TmI ca 0.32, TmIV ca 0.72. Abdomen with distinct pattern. Female unknown.

Male palp: tibia with two retrolateral trichobothria, with a row of setae dorsally. Cymbium hoof-like (Fig. 36A–B). Paracymbium with rough surface, strongly reduced (Fig. 36B). The bulb simple. Distal suprategular apophysis with two branches, one broad at tip, another long and curved, with bifid tip and two small processes at the mid-part (Fig. 36A–D). Radical apophysis spear-like (Fig. 36B). The embolus long, membraneous, stretching distally, with a slightly-bent, blunt-ended tip (Fig. 36A–B).

Species composition

Only the type species Glebala aspera sp. n.

Distribution

China.

Glebala aspera sp. n.

Figs 36, 37, 38

Types

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, 21°57.669'N, 101°11.893'E, elevation ca 790 m, 16.–30.04.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, hand-collecting.

Etymology

The specific name is derived from the Latin word ‘asper’, meaning ‘rough’, in reference to the rough surface of the paracymbium; adjective.

Diagnosis

See diagnosis of the genus. Abdominal pattern of this species is notably similar to that in Gladiata fengli sp. n.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 2.64. Carapace 1.38 long, 0.90 wide, brown, with long setae growing from ocular area to the fovea (Fig. 37E). Sternum 0.55 long, 0.65 wide. Clypeus 0.24 high. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.08, ALE 0.11, PME 0.10, PLE 0.12, AME-AME/AME 0.38, PME-PME/PME 0.80, AME-ALE/ALE 0.36, PME-PLE/PLE 0.42, Coxae IV separated by 1.41 times their width. Lengths of legs: I 5.62 (1.56, 0.31, 1.50, 1.41, 0.84), II 5.31 (1.48, 0.35, 1.38, 1.35, 0.75), III 4.18 (1.25, 0.28, 1.00, 1.10, 0.55), IV 5.19 (1.44, 0.28, 1.40, 1.38, 0.69). Leg formula: I-II-IV-III. Abdomen, pale, with dark ventrum, three pairs of lateral stripes and dorsal dark green folium. Palp: see description of the genus.

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

Known only from type locality.

Glomerosus gen. n.

Type species

Glomerosus lateralis sp. n.

Etymology

The generic name is an arbitrary combination of letters. Gender is masculine.

Diagnosis

The genus is diagnosed by the unique palp: tibia without any apophysis (Figs 39A–B, 40A–B); bulb is globe-like (Fig. 39B); paracymbium slender, ‘J’-shaped, the base of which is closely attached to cymbium (Fig. 39B); the embolus is similar to that in genus Plectembolus Millidge & Russell-Smith, 1992 and Plicatiductus Millidge & Russell-Smith 1992 known from Southeast Asia, but Glomerosus gen. n. has fewer coils and a whip-like, loose tip (Fig. 39D). The embolic division has a less sclerotised terminal apophysis, which is small with an attenuated tip (Fig. 39A).

Description

Body elongate. Male carapace long and narrow (Fig. 40C–E), unmodified. Chelicerae with 2 promarginal teeth, and 1 retromarginal teeth. Legs long and slender. Chaetotaxy: tibial spine formula: 2-2-2-2. TmI ca 0.17, TmIV absent. Female unknown. Abdomen with dark green markings against yellow background on dorsum, venter grayish green.

Male palp: tibia unmodified, with one retrolateral trichobothrium and one dorsal trichobothrium; paracymbium ‘J’-shaped, with a curved apex (Fig. 39B); median membrane small piece, with fringed rim (Figs 39D, 40B); radical apophysis short, erect (Fig. 40B); radix slender and curved (Fig. 41C); embolus long, whip-like, coiled at the prolateral side of bulb (Fig. 39A, C).

Species composition

Only the type species Glomerosus lateralis sp. n.

Distribution

China.

Glomerosus lateralis sp. n.

Figs 39, 40, 41

Types

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, 21°55.035'N, 101°16.500'E, elevation ca 558 m, 10.–20.07.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, hand-collecting.

Etymology

The species name is taken from the Latin word ‘lateralis’, meaning ‘of the side, lateral’, in reference to the position of the coiled embolus; adjective.

Diagnosis

See diagnosis of the genus.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 2.23. Carapace 1.13 long, 0.67 wide, reddish brown. Sternum 0.47 long, 0.39 wide. Clypeus 0.20 high. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.06, ALE 0.09, PME 0.08, PLE 0.08, AME-AME/AME 0.17, PME-PME/PME 0.38, AME-ALE/ALE 0.11, PME-PLE/PLE 0.50, coxae IV separated by 0.86 time their width. Length of legs: I 4.97 (1.30, 0.25, 1.36, 1.28, 0.78), II 4.45 (1.17, 0.25, 1.16, 1.09, 0.70), III 2.63 (0.75, 0.20, 0.65, 0.60, 0.45), IV 3.35 (0.88, 0.19, 0.88, 0.85, 0.55). Leg formula: I-II-IV-III. Abdomen yellow, with about four pairs of dark green markings of different sizes on the dorsum, a small patch of the same color at the posterior tip of abdomen. Palp: see description of the genus.

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

Known only from type locality.

Genus Gongylidiellum Simon, 1884

Gongylidiellum: Simon 1884: 605. Type species: Neriene latebricola O. P.-Cambridge, 1871.

Gongylidiellum bracteatum sp. n.

Figs 42, 43

Types

Holotype ♀: CHINA, Yunnan: Menghai County: Manguan Village: Xishuangbanna nature reserve, 22°01.772'N, 100°23.711'E, elevation ca 1187 m, 1.07.2013, secondary forest, hand-collecting.

Etymology

This name comes from the Latin word ‘bracteatus’, which means ‘covered by scale, small fig’, in reference to the scale-shaped structure on the ventral fig; adjective.

Diagnosis

It is similar to G. latebricola (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871) by the shape of epigyne and the conformation of vulva (Roberts 1987: 80, fig. 34c; Tanasevitch 1990: 111, fig. 24.40); its ventral fig is equipped with a pair of small membraneous extensions (Fig. 42A), which couldn’t be seen in G. latebricola.

Description

Female (holotype). Total length: 1.48. Carapace 0.70 long, 0.56 wide, light yellow. Sternum 0.31 long, 0.39 wide. Clypeus 0.13 high. Chelicerae promargin with 3 teeth, retromargin with 2 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.04, ALE 0.06, PME 0.05, PLE 0.06, AME-AME/AME 0.75, PME-PME/PME 1.00, AME-ALE/ALE 0.17, PME-PLE/PLE 0.33, coxae IV separated by 1.64 times their width. Length of legs: I 2.13 (0.61, 0.20, 0.53, 0.48, 0.31), II 2.26 (0.64, 0.19, 0.56, 0.53, 0.34), III 1.65 (0.45, 0.17, 0.36, 0.41, 0.26), IV 2.16 (0.64, 0.17, 0.50, 0.54, 0.31). Leg formula: II-IV-I-III. TmI 0.65, TmIV 0.63. Tibial spine formula: 1-1-1-1. Abdomen pale, with a black posterior tip. Epigyne: ventral fig half rounded (Figs 42A, 43A); dorsal fig with a curved posterior margin; copulatory ducts make two turnings before joining the spermathecae (Fig. 42C); spermathecae rounded, separated by 1.5 their diameter (Fig. 42C); fertilization ducts long, following a ‘C’-shaped route (Fig. 43B).

Male. Unknown.

Distribution

Known only from type locality.

Genus Houshenzinus Tanasevitch, 2006

Houshenzinus: Tanasevitch 2006b: 292. Type species Houshenzinus rimosus Tanasevitch, 2006 from China.

Houshenzinus xiaolongha sp. n.

Figs 44, 45, 46

Types

Holotype ♂, CHINA, Yunnan: Mengla County: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, Xiaolongha biodiversity preservation corridor, 21°24.265'N, 101°37.296'E, elevation ca 653 m, 27.06.2012, valley evergreen rain forest, sieving. Paratypes 1♂2♀, same data as holotype.

Etymology

This species’s name is derived from the Chinese Pinyin ‘xiǎo lóng hā’, which is the type locality of this species; term in apposition.

Diagnosis

This species is distinguished by the shape of convector in male (Fig. 45B; Tanasevitch 2006b: figs 45–46) and the loops of copulatory ducts in female’s epigyne (Fig. 46C; Song and Li 2008: fig. 287), but differs from the type species by the inconspicuous dorsal tibial apophysis (Fig. 45A) and ridges on convector in male’s palp (Fig. 44A–B), and three more loops than the copulatory ducts make in female’s epigyne.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 1.40. Carapace 0.63 long, 0.58 wide, yellow. Sternum 0.39 long, 0.56 wide. Clypeus 0.17 high. Chelicerae promargin with 3 teeth, retromargin with 3 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.05, ALE 0.06, PME 0.08, PLE 0.08, AME-AME/AME 0.56, PME-PME/PME 0.60, AME-ALE/ALE 0.33, PME-PLE/PLE 0.50, coxae IV separated by 2.00 times their width. Length of legs: I 2.34 (0.63, 0.22, 0.58, 0.50, 0.41), II 2.33 (0.63, 0.20, 0.58, 0.53, 0.39), III 1.81 (0.50, 0.19, 0.39, 0.42, 0.31), IV 2.69 (0.63, 0.19, 0.53, 0.54, 0.35). Leg formula: I-II-IV-III. Tm I 0.63, Tm IV 0.59. Tibial spine formula: 2-2-1-1. Abdomen pale, with a black posterior end. Palp: tibia equipped with two retrolateral trichobothria, one dorsal trichobothrium, and a small dorsal apophysis (Fig. 45A). Paracymbium ‘J’-shaped, with a bifurcate tip (Fig. 44B). Tailpiece tongue-shaped when viewed dorsally (Fig. 44D). Convector prominent, comma-shaped, covering most part of the embolic division (Fig. 45B). Embolus thread-like, coiled, stretching along the outer margin of distal suprategular apophysis (Fig. 44B).

Female (one of paratypes). Total length: 1.60. Carapace 0.60 long, 0.56 wide, unmodified, same as male in coloration. Sternum 0.32 long, 0.40 wide. Clypeus 0.16 high. Chelicerae promargin with 6 teeth, retromargin with 3 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.05, ALE 0.08, PME 0.06, PLE 0.07, AME-AME/AME 0.63, PME-PME/PME 0.52, AME-ALE/ALE 0.23, PME-PLE/PLE 0.38, coxae IV separated by 2.00 times their width. Length of legs: I 2.32 (0.63, 0.20, 0.58, 0.50, 0.41), II 2.34 (0.64, 0.20, 0.57, 0.55, 0.38), III 1.80 (0.50, 0.18, 0.38, 0.43, 0.31), IV 2.36 (0.63, 0.23, 0.61, 0.55, 0.33). Leg formula: IV-II-I-III. Tm I 0.71, Tm IV 0.68. Tibial spine formula: 2-2-1-1. Abdomen light pink, with a black tip. Epigyne: ventral fig semi-transparent, mesally concave at the posterior rim (Fig. 46A); copulatory ducts long, forming about five loops before joining spermathecae (Fig. 46C); spermathecae oval, separated by 1.5 times their diameter (Fig. 46B).

Distribution

Known only from type locality.

Genus Hylyphantes Simon, 1884

Hylyphantes: Simon 1884: 464. Type species Erigone nigrita Simon, 1881.

Hylyphantes graminicola (Sundevall, 1830)

Linyphia graminicola: Sundevall 1830: 26 (♂♀).

Hylyphantes graminicola: Roberts 1987: 42, fig. 12b (♂♀).

Material examined

1♂, CHINA, Yunnan: Mengla County: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, 21°54.565'N, 101°16.021'E, elevation ca 584 m, 21.VIII.2011, fogging.

Distribution

Palearctic and SE Asia.

Genus Kaestneria Wiehle, 1956

Kaestneria: Wiehle 1956: 272. Type species Linyphia dorsalis Wider, 1834.

Kaestneria bicultrata Chen & Yin, 2000

Figs 47, 48, 49

Kaestneria bicultrata: Chen and Yin 2000: 88, figs 17–20 (♀).

Material examined

1♂, CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, 21°54.718'N, 101°16.940'E, elevation ca 645 m, 5.–12.01.2007, secondary tropical seasonal rain forest, hand-collecting; 1♂, 21°54.646'N, 101°16.257'E, elevation ca 572 m, 5.–12.02.2007, rubber-tea plantation, hand-collecting; 1♂, 21°54.463'N, 101°15.978'E, elevation ca 569 m, 19.–25.02.2007, rubber-tea plantation, hand-collecting; 1♂1♀, 21°54.646'N, 101°16.257'E, elevation ca 572 m, 19.–26.05.2007, rubber-tea plantation, hand-collecting.

Diagnosis

The female is easily recognized by the copulatory duct route and the finger-like spines on each side of the ventral fig (Chen and Yin 2000: figs 18–19). The male is similar to K. pullata O. P.-Cambridge, 1863 (Roberts 1987: fig. 71b) and K. minima Locket, 1982, but differs by the shape of paracymbium and embolic division (Fig. 47B, D). Both male and female differ from other congeners by having pattern on carapace and abdomen.

Description

Female. Well described, e.g. by Chen and Yin (2000).

Male (one of males from Xishuangbanna). Total length: 1.78. Carapace 0.94 long, 0.64 wide, brown, with a pale stripe along the axis. Sternum 0.50 long, 0.45 wide. Clypeus 0.15 high. Chelicerae promargin with no teeth, retromargin with 1 tooth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.05, ALE 0.08, PME 0.07, PLE 0.06, AME-AME/AME 0.60, PME-PME/PME 0.43, AME-ALE/ALE 0.63, PME-PLE/PLE 0.67, coxae IV separated by 0.60 time their width. Lengths of legs: I 5.00 (1.30, 0.24, 1.28, 1.38, 0.80), II 3.14 (1.13, 0.20, 1.04, 1.13, 0.64), III 2.63 (0.76, 0.18, 0.56, 0.70, 0.43), IV 3.73 (1.10, 0.19, 0.88, 1.03, 0.53). Leg formula: I-IV-II-III. TmI 0.15, TmIV absent. Tibial spine formula: 2-2-2-2. Abdomen greenish brown, with white patches, same as the pattern in female holotype (Chen and Yin 2000: fig. 17). Palp: tibia small, with one long, thick dorsal setae (Figs 47B, 48A–B); paracymbium ‘V’-shaped, basally somewhat rectangular, with a broad semi-circular tip (Fig. 47B); distal suprategular apophysis long, with a bifid apex, each embranchment blunt-ended, with rough surface (Figs 47B, 49B); lamella long and erect, terminating in a finger-like end (Fig. 47C–D); median membrane long, broad, abruptly produced into a hooked tip (Fig. 47D); embolus simple, ribbon-like with a pointed tip (Fig. 47D).

Distribution

China.

Remarks

Male of the species is reported for the first time.

Genus Laogone Tanasevitch, 2014

Laogone: Tanasevitch 2014b: 76. Type species Laogone cephala Tanasevitch, 2014 from Laos.

Laogone bai sp. n.

Figs 50, 51

Types

Holotype ♂, CHINA, Yunnan: Meng’a Town: Wengnan village: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, 22°05.002'N, 100°22.009'E, elevation ca 1118 m, 30.07.2007, secondary seasonal rain forest, fogging.

Etymology

This species’s name is derived from the Chinese Pinyin ‘bái’, meaning ‘white’, which refers to the color of the holotype’s body; term in apposition.

Diagnosis

This species is similar to the type species L. cephala, but differs by the long and pointed dorsal tibial process, and the slimmer membrosclerum.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 1.75. Carapace 0.75 long, 0.63 wide, pale, elevated into a lobe carrying posterior eyes. Sternum 0.44 long, 0.44 wide. Clypeus 0.16 high. Chelicerae promargin with 4 teeth, retromargin with 3 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.04, ALE 0.06, PME 0.05, PLE 0.06, AME-AME/AME 0.40, PME-PME/PME 1.23, AME-ALE/ALE 0.38, PME-PLE/PLE 1.02, coxae IV separated by 1.58 times their width. Length of legs: I 3.34 (0.81, 0.25, 0.94, 0.86, 0.48), II 3.40 (0.88, 0.20, 0.90, 0.86, 0.56), III 2.50 (0.70, 0.25, 0.50, 0.66, 0.39), IV 3.05 (0.80, 0.20, 0.80, 0.80, 0.45). Leg formula: II-I-IV-III. Tm I 0.80, Tm IV 0.79. Tibial spine formula: 2-2-1-1. Abdomen pale, with a black tip near spinnerets. Palp: retrolateral tibial apophysis lobe-like, with a row of spines along the margin (Fig. 50B,), dorsal tibial apophysis long, ‘7’-shaped, with a pointed tip (Fig. 51A). Paracymbium with a process (Fig. 50A). Convector present. Membrosclerum ‘C’ -shaped in ventral view (Fig. 51B), slim and attenuated at distal end; median membrane long and narrow, stretching along the proximal part of embolic division (Fig. 50A–B). Embolus whip-like, forming two loops (Fig. 51B).

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

Known only from type locality.

Laogone lunata sp. n.

Figs 52, 53, 54, 55

Types

Holotype ♂, CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, 21°57.445'N, 101°12.997'E, elevation ca 744 m, 30.07.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, fogging. Paratypes 8♂18♀, same data as holotype; 1♂3♀, 21°54.607'N, 101°17.005'E, elevation ca 633 m, 5.–12.03.2007, secondary tropical seasonal moist forest, hand-collecting; 6♂4♀, 21°54.607'N, 101°17.005'E, elevation ca 633 m, 28.07.2007, secondary tropical seasonal moist forest, fogging; 23♂24♀, 21°57.669'N, 101°11.893'E, elevation ca 790 m, 7.08.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, fogging; 3♂1♀, 21°54.984'N, 101°16.982'E, elevation ca 656 m, 10.08.2007, secondary tropical seasonal moist forest, fogging; 1♂8♀, 21°54.705'N, 101°16.898'E, elevation ca 664 m, 15.11.2009, Lvshilin tropical rain forest, fogging; 31♂29♀, 21°54.609'N, 101°17.090'E, elevation ca 643 m, 17.11.2009, Lvshilin tropical rain forest, fogging; 10♂35♀, 21°54.600'N, 101°17.084'E, elevation ca 640 m, 17.11.2009, Lvshilin tropical rain forest, fogging.

Etymology

The name comes from the Latin word ‘lunatus’, meaning ‘shaped like a crescent moon’, which refers to the shape of the cymbium in lateral view; adjective.

Diagnosis

This species is similar to the type species L. cephala (Tanasevitch 2014b: figs 28, 30–32; Fig. 52B), but differs by the short dorsal tibial apophysis, and the shape of membrosclerum.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 1.90. Carapace 0.77 long, 0.56 wide, yellow, faded at the outer margin. Sternum 0.38 long, 0.44 wide. Clypeus 0.08 high. Chelicerae promargin with 4 teeth, retromargin with 3 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.04, ALE 0.10, PME 0.09, PLE 0.08, AME-AME/AME 0.39, PME-PME/PME 1.25, AME-ALE/ALE 0.40, PME-PLE/PLE 1.04, coxae IV separated by 1.67 times their width. Length of legs: I 2.76 (0.67, 0.23, 0.70, 0.69, 0.47), II 2.79 (0.70, 0.23, 0.70, 0.69, 0.47), III 2.13 (0.55, 0.22, 0.47, 0.55, 0.34), IV 2.69 (0.78, 0.20, 0.63, 0.69, 0.39). Leg formula: II-I-IV-III. Tm I 0.79, Tm IV 0.73. Patellar spine formula: 2-2-2-2. Abdomen pale, with a black tip near spinnerets. Palp: patella elongate; tibia with two retrolateral and one dorsal trichobothria. Retroventral and retrodorsal apophyses both short and broad (Figs 52B, 53A). Cymbium crescent-moon shaped in lateral view (Fig. 52A–B). Paracymbium mostly concealed under bulb (Figs 52B, 53B), with one small pointed tip (Figs 52B, 53B). Convector flat, round in ventral view. Membrosclerum comma-shaped from ventral view (Fig. 53B); tailpiece small, tongue-shaped when viewed prolaterally (Fig. 52B); median membrane ribbon-like, with a tapering tip (Figs 52B, 53B). Loose part of embolus thread-like, forming one big loop, the enveloped part of embolus in convector forming small loop (Fig. 53B).

Female (one of paratypes). Total length: 1.97. Carapace 0.78 long, 0.59 wide, unmodified, same as male in coloration. Sternum 0.41 long, 0.44 wide. Clypeus 0.14 high. Chelicerae promargin with 5 teeth, retromargin with 5 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.04, ALE 0.09, PME 0.08, PLE 0.08, AME-AME/AME 0.25, PME-PME/PME 0.50, AME-ALE/ALE 0.22, PME-PLE/PLE 0.38, coxae IV separated by 1.46 times their width. Length of legs: I 2.54 (0.70, 0.23, 0.63, 0.59, 0.39), II 2.54 (0.70, 0.23, 0.63, 0.59, 0.39), III 2.02 (0.55, 0.22, 0.47, 0.47, 0.31), IV 2.42 (0.63, 0.23, 0.61, 0.56, 0.39). Leg formula: II-I-IV-III. Tm I 0.76, Tm IV 0.89. Patellar spine formula: 2-2-2-2. Abdomen light pink, with a black tip. Epigyne: ventral fig semi-transparent, equipped with long veins forming two loops on it (Figs 54A, 55C); dorsal fig large, heart-shaped (Figs 54B–C, 55D); copulatory ducts heading towards laterally then turning up and joining the spermathecae (Figs 54C, 55D); spermathecae somewhat oval (Fig. 54B).

Distribution

Known only from type locality.

Genus Maro O. P.-Cambridge, 1906

Maro: O. P.-Cambridge 1906: 77. Type species Maro minutus O. P.-Cambridge, 1906.

Maro bulbosus sp. n.

Figs 56, 57

Types

Holotype ♀: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, 21°55.035'N, 101°16.500'E, elevation ca 558 m, 1.–15.06.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest. Paratypes 2♀, 21°57.445'N, 101°12.997'E, elevation ca 744 m, 1.–15.06.2007 primary tropical seasonal rain forest; 21°55.428'N, 101°16.441'E, elevation ca 598 m, 16.–31.07.2007, secondary tropical seasonal rain forest; 1♀, 21°54.646'N, 101°16.257'E, ca 572 m, 1.–9.12.2006, rubber-tea plantation.

Etymology

The species’ name is derived from the Latin word ‘bulbosus’, meaning ‘bulb-like’, referring to the hemisphere-shaped epigyne; adjective.

Diagnosis

This species resembles M. flavescens (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873) by the conformation of ventral fig, but differs in these aspects: the posterior median fig is elliptical in M. bulbosus sp. n. (Fig. 56B), whereas it is tongue-shaped in M. flavescens (Tanasevitch 2006a: figs 35–36); spermathecae of M. bulbosus sp. n. are close to each other and have multi-chambered spermathecae (Figs 56B, 57B), while big, round ones in M. flavescens.

Description

Female (holotype). Total length: 1.17. Carapace 0.50 long, 0.43 wide, yellow. Sternum 0.30 long, 0.30 wide. Clypeus 0.10 high. Chelicerae promargin with 3 teeth, retromargin with 2 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.03, ALE 0.06, PME 0.05, PLE 0.05, AME-AME/AME 0.33, PME-PME/PME 0.60, AME-ALE/ALE 0.50, PME-PLE/PLE 0.80, coxae IV separated by 0.92 time their width. Length of legs: I 1.72 (0.44, 0.15, 0.45, 0.38, 0.30), II 1.57 (0.34, 0.16, 0.41, 0.37, 0.29), III 1.41 (0.36, 0.16, 0.32, 0.31, 0.26), IV 1.78 (0.48, 0.14, 0.46, 0.40, 0.30). Leg formula: IV-I-II-III. TmI 0.34, TmIV absent. Tibial spine formula: 2-2-1-1. Abdomen with yellow dorsum and brown venter. Epigyne: semi-transparent, with part of spermathecae and copulatory ducts visible, posterior margin convax with a long, folded stretcher (Fig. 56B); posterior median fig, small, oval (Fig. 56B); copulatory ducts long, forming a semi-loop structure before connecting with spermathecae.

Male. Unknown.

Distribution

Known only from type localities.

Genus Nasoona Locket, 1982

Nasoona: Locket 1982: 366. Type species Nasoona prominula Locket, 1982 from Malaysia.

Nasoona asocialis (Wunderlich, 1974)

Oedothorax asocialis: Wunderlich 1974: 172, figs 6–7 (♀).

Nasoona asocialis: Tanasevitch 2014b: 78, figs 33–38, 44–50 (♂♀).

Material examined

2♂4♀, CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, 21°55.035'N, 101°16.500'E, elevation ca 558 m, 22.07.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, fogging; 3♀, 21°55.035'N, 101°16.500'E, elevation ca 558 m, 19.–25.02.2007, Primary tropical seasonal rain forest, hand-collecting; 1♀, 21°54.200'N, 101°16.923'E, elevation ca 608 m, 10.–20.06.2007, Paramichelia baillonii Plantation, hand-collecting; 3♂8♀, 21°55.139'N, 101°16.295'E, elevation ca 523 m, 30.11.2009, tropical evergreen rain forest, fogging.

Distribution

China, Laos, Nepal.

Nasoona crucifera (Thorell, 1895)

Erigone crucifera: Thorell 1895: 110 (♀).

Nasoona crucifera: Tanasevitch 2010: 104, figs 39–43 (♂♀).

Material examined

1♀, CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Botanical Garden, 21°57.445'N, 101°12.997'E, elevation ca 744 m, 5.–12.01.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, fogging; 1♂, 21°55.035'N, 101°16.560'E, elevation ca 558 m, 12.05.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, fogging; 1♂, 21°53.823'N, 101°17.072'E, elevation ca 613 m, 6.–12.03.2007, Paramichelia baillonii plantation, fogging; 1♀, 21°54.674'N, 101°16.207'E, elevation ca 583 m, 11.11.2009, rubber tree plantation, fogging; 1♀, 21°54.555'N, 101°16.860'E, elevation ca 610 m, 29.11.2009, evergreen forest, fogging; 1♂, G213 Road, 21°53.992'N, 101°16.948'E, elevation ca 596 m, 2.12.2009, Anogeissus acuminate plantation, fogging.

Distribution

China, Myanmar, Vietnam.

Genus Nasoonaria Wunderlich & Song, 1995

Nasoonaria: Wunderlich and Song 1995: 346. Type species Nasoonaria sinensis Wunderlich & Song, 1995 from China.

Nasoonaria circinata sp. n.

Figs 58, 59, 60, 61

Types

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, 21°55.035'N, 101°16.500'E, elevation ca 558 m, 22.07.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, fogging. Paratypes 1♂1♀, same data as holotype; 1♀, 21°54.718'N, 101°16.940'E, elevation ca 645 m, 5.–12.02.2007, primary tropical seasonal moist forest, Menglun Nature Reserve, hand-collecting; 2♂, 21°55.035'N, 101°16.500'E, elevation ca 558 m, 1.–15.04.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, Menglun Nature Reserve, trunk traps; 2♂2♀, 21°55.035'N, 101°16.500'E, elevation ca 558 m, 16.–31.05.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, pitfall traps; 2♂5♀, 21°54.380'N, 101°16.815'E, elevation ca 620 m, 21.11.2009, G213 Road, bamboo plantation, fogging; 10♂14♀, 21°54.614'N, 101°16.890'E, elevation ca 640 m, 14.11.2009, Lvshilin tropical rain forest, fogging; 4♀, 21°54.714'N, 101°16.935'E, elevation ca 660 m, 16.11.2009, Lvshilin tropical rain forest, fogging; 1♂13♀, 21°54.705'N, 101°16.898'E, elevation ca 664 m, 15.11.2009, Lvshilin tropical rain forest, fogging; 15♀, 21°53.646'N, 101°16.975'E, elevation ca 589 m, 26.11.2009, G213 Road, bamboo plantation, fogging; 3♀, 21°53.622'N, 101°16.955'E, elevation ca 581 m, 26.11.2009, G213 Road, bamboo plantation, fogging; 5♂7♀, 21°53.794'N, 101°17.152'E, elevation ca 594 m, 27.11.2009, G213 road, evergreen forest, fogging; 2♀, 21°54.089'N, 101°17.024'E, elevation ca 570 m, 28.11.2009, G213 road, fogging.

Etymology

This specific name originates from the Latin word ‘circinatus, meaning ‘coiled’, for the long embolus exhibiting coil-like loops; adjective.

Diagnosis

Male of N. circinata sp. n. can be distinguished from the type species by the modified carapace (Fig. 59E), prominent distal suprategular apophysis and the long, coiled embolus in palp (Fig. 58B). The female is distinguished from N. sinensis Wunderlich & Song, 1995 by the different pathway taken by the copulatory ducts and by the position of spermathecae (Fig. 60C).

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 2.35. Carapace 0.95 long, 0.75 wide, reddish brown, raised into a hump in the middle of the thoracic part, with a row of long setae growing along the axis from the ocular area to the hump. Sternum 0.47 long, 0.47 wide. Clypeus 0.16 high. Chelicerae promargin with 5 teeth, retromargin with 4 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.06, ALE 0.10, PME 0.08, PLE 0.10, AME-AME/AME 0.50, PME-PME/PME 0.50, AME-ALE/ALE 0.50, PME-PLE/PLE 0.75, coxae IV separated by 1.38 their width. Length of legs: I 4.27 (1.13, 0.30, 0.97, 1.09, 0.78), II 4.15 (1.09, 0.30, 1.13, 1.00, 0.63), III 3.13 (0.76, 0.28, 0.78, 0.78, 0.53), IV 4.01 (1.13, 0.25, 1.00, 1.00, 0.63). Leg formula: I-II-IV-III. TmI 0.61, TmIV 0.69. Tibial spine formula: 2-2-1-1. Palp: tibia cone-shaped, with slightly protruding dorsal apophysis (Fig. 59A) and 2 retrolateral trichobothria. Paracymbium ‘U’-shaped, with wide base and attenuated, round black apex (Fig. 58B); Embolus long, slim, forming two coils (Fig. 58A–D). Distal suprategular apophysis broad at base, distally taper (Fig. 58B).

Female (one of paratypes). Total length: 2.50. Carapace 0.90 long, 0.75 wide, similar to that of male in coloration, but slightly lighter, unmodified. Sternum 0.53 long, 0.53 wide. Clypeus 0.15 high. Chelicerae promargin with 6 teeth, retromargin with 4 teeth. Eyes diameter and interdistances: AME 0.08, ALE 0.10, PME 0.08, PLE 0.08, AME-AME/AME 0.25, PME-PME/PME 0.25, AME-ALE/ALE 0.30, PME-PLE/PLE 0.25, Coxae IV separated by 1.36 times their width. Lengths of legs: I 3.96 (1.10, 0.30, 1.06, 0.90, 0.60), II 3.71 (1.00, 0.30, 0.90, 0.88, 0.63), III 3.00 (0.81, 0.28, 0.75, 0.69, 0.47), IV 3.94 (1.06, 0.25, 1.00, 1.00, 0.63). Leg formula: I-IV-III-II. TmI 0.60, TmIV 0.66. Epigyne: ventral fig slightly narrowed mesally (Fig. 60A). Copulatory ducts long and sinuous, extending anteriorly then turning back to connect with spermathecae (Fig. 60C). Spermathecae globular, separated from each other by about 1.5 their diameters (Fig. 60C). Fertilization ducts directed mesally (Fig. 60C).

Distribution

Known only from type localities.

Nasoonaria sinensis Wunderlich & Song, 1995

Nasoonaria sinensis: Wunderlich and Song 1995: 347, figs 11–18 (♂♀).

Material examined

1♂, CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, 21°54.984'N, 101°16.982'E, elevation ca 656 m, 19.–26.05.2006, secondary tropical seasonal rain forest, hand-collecting; 1♂1♀, 21°54.747'N, 101°11.431'E, elevation ca 880 m, 19.–27.08.2006, secondary tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest, hand-collecting; 1♂, 21°54.984'N, 101°16.982'E, elevation ca 656 m, 5.–12.09.2006, secondary tropical seasonal rain forest, hand-collecting; 1♀, 21°54.772'N, 101°16.043'E, elevation ca 556 m, 19.–25.01.2007, Paramichelia baillonii plantation, hand-collecting; 1♀, 21°54.772'N, 101°16.043'E, elevation ca 556 m, 19.–25.01.2007, secondary tropical seasonal rain forest, hand-collecting.

Distribution

China.

Genus Nematogmus Simon, 1884

Nematogmus: Simon 1884: 615. Type species Theridion sanguinolentum Walckenaer, 1841.

Nematogmus sanguinolentus (Walckenaer, 1841)

Theridion sanguinolentum: Walckenaer 1841: 326 (♀).

Nematogmus sanguinolentus: Simon 1884: 615, figs 431–432 (♂♀).

Material examined

3♀, CHINA, Yunnan: Mengla County: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, Xiaolongha biodiversity preservation corridor, 21°24.832'N, 101°37.906'E, elevation ca 721 m, 18.11.2013, valley evergreen rain forest, sieving; 1♂9♀, Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, Xiaolongha biodiversity preservation corridor, 21°24.832'N, 101°37.906'E, elevation ca 721 m, 19.06.2013, valley evergreen rain forest, sieving; 3♀, Mengyang Town: Baihuashan Tunnel: Xishuangbanna nature reserve, 22°09.513'N, 100°53.220'E, elevation ca 894 m, 25.06.2013, tropical seasonal rain forest, sieving; 2♀, 22°09.481'N, 100°53.358'E, elevation ca 872 m, 29.06.2013, tropical seasonal rain forest, sieving.

Distribution

Palearctic.

Genus Neriene Blackwall, 1833

Neriene: Blackwall 1833: 188. Type species Neriene marginata Blackwall, 1833 (= N. clathrata (Sundevall, 1830)).

Neriene circifolia sp. n.

Figs 62, 63, 64, 65

Types

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan: Mengla County: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, Xiaolongha biodiversity preservation corridor, 21°24.236'N, 101°36.268'E, elevation ca 711 m, 17.06.2013, tropical seasonal rain forest, hand-collecting. Paratype 1♀, 21°24.159'N, 101°37.178'E, elevation ca 635 m, 27.06.2012, tropical seasonal rain forest, fogging.

Etymology

This specific name originates from the Latin words ‘circum’ meaning ‘in a circle’ and ‘folius’ meaning ‘leaf’, referring to the shape of the median membrane, the apex of which looks like a small, round leaf; term in apposition.

Diagnosis

This species is similar to N. birmanica (Thorell, 1887) by having small paracymbium with a curved, filiform tip (Fig. 62B) and the stout, wide terminal apophysis forming about one coil (Fig. 62D). It could be distinguished from N. birmanica by the shape of embolus and lamella. Neriene birmanica has sword-like embolus (Xu et al. 2010: fig. 6), a slim, spear-like lateral projection of the lamella (Xu et al. 2010: fig. 3), while N. circifolia sp. n. has a rostriform embolus, slightly curved at tip (Fig. 62C), and a broader and more sclerotized lateral projection of lamella (Fig. 62A). In female’s epigyne, the spiral grooves forming one more coil than that in N. birmanica (Fig. 64C).

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 2.19. Carapace 1.00 long, 0.86 wide, greenish brown in coloration. Sternum 0.59 long, 0.56 wide. Clypeus 0.19 high. Chelicerae promargin with 6 teeth, retromargin with 6 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.08, ALE 0.09, PME 0.10, PLE 0.10, AME-AME/AME 0.38, PME-PME/PME 0.60, AME-ALE/ALE 0.78, PME-PLE/PLE 1.00, coxae IV separated by 0.78 time their width. Length of legs: I 4.45 (1.19, 0.31, 1.06, 1.17, 0.72), II 3.68 (1.00, 0.31, 0.94, 1.05, 0.38), III 2.52 (0.69, 0.23, 0.53, 0.63, 0.44), IV 3.35 (0.83, 0.25, 0.75, 0.97, 0.55). Leg formula: I-II-IV-III. TmI 0.25. Patellar spine formula 2-2-2-2. Abdomen dark green with three irregular white patches at each lateral side. Palp: patella short, with one long dorsal seta; tibia with two retrolateral trichobothria, and long setae (Fig. 62A–B); paracymbium small, ‘J’-shaped, with a tapering tip (Figs 62B, 65B); lamella with three projections: anterior projection wide and blunt, the posterior one long, straight with slightly curved tip, the lateral one with sharp tip (Figs 62A, 63B). Terminal apophysis stout, broad, forming about one coil (Fig. 62D); median membrane with leaf-like tip (Fig. 62C); embolus simple, bending forward at half length, with beak-like tip (Fig. 62C).

Female (paratype). Total length: 2.68. Carapace 1.00 long, 0.64 wide, same coloration and pattern as male. Sternum 0.60 long, 0.50 wide. Clypeus 0.13 high. Chelicerae like in male. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.08, ALE 0.10, PME 0.08, PLE 0.08, AME-AME/AME 0.25, PME-PME/PME 0.25, AME-ALE/ALE 0.30, PME-PLE/PLE 0.25, coxae IV separated by 1.36 times their width. Length of legs: I 4.13 (1.10, 0.34, 1.00, 1.04, 0.65), II 3.90 (1.02, 0.31, 0.94, 1.02, 0.61), III 2.52 (0.70, 0.24, 0.52, 0.66, 0.40), IV 3.52 (0.94, 0.28, 0.75, 1.00, 0.55). Leg formula: I-II-IV-III. TmI 0.60. Spination of patella like in male. Epigyne: atrium broad (Fig. 64A), scape of dorsal fig with a slightly pointed end (Fig. 64C). Spiral grooves with about three coils (Fig. 64B–C). Spermathecae situated mesally (Fig. 64C).

Distribution

Known only from type localities.

Remarks

We have closely examined and taken photos of the holotype of Ambengana complexipalpis Millidge & Russell-Smith, 1992 (Museum of Natural History, Geneva, Dr Peter J. Schwendinger), both the left palp and the habitus (Fig. 66). By comparing it with the pictures from Xu’s paper (Xu et al. 2010: figs 1–7), a few differences were found in the detailed structure of palp between two species. Whether or not the new synonymy proposed by Xu et al. (2010) is valid is uncertain, and a further study is required.

Neriene macella (Thorell, 1898)

Linyphia macella: Thorell 1898: 319 (♂).

Neriene macella: van Helsdingen 1969: 186, figs 257–262 (♂♀).

Material examined

1♂, CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Botanical Garden, 21°54.463'N, 101°15.978'E, elevation ca 569 m, 5.–12.02.2007, rubber tree plantation, hand-collecting; 1♂, 21°54.463'N, 101°15.978'E, elevation ca 569 m, 19.–26.03.2007, rubber-tea plantation, hand-collecting; 1♂, 21°53.823'N, 101°17.072'E, elevation ca 613 m, 19.–26.04.2007, Paramichelia baillonii plantation, hand-collecting.

Distribution

China, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand.

Neriene nitens Zhu & Chen, 1991

Neriene nitens: Chen and Zhang 1991: 167, figs 166. 1–9 (♂♀).

Material examined

1♂, CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, 21°57.445'N, 101°12.997'E, elevation ca 744 m, 30.07.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, fogging.

Distribution

China.

Neriene strandia (Blauvelt, 1936)

Linyphia strandia: Blauvelt 1936: 116, pl. 5, figs 32–35, 37–38 (♂♀).

Material examined

1♂, CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Botanical Garden, 21°54.646'N, 101°16.257'E, elevation ca 572 m, 1.–9.10.2006, rubber-tea plantation, fogging.

Distribution

Borneo, China.

Genus Oedothorax Bertkau, 1883

Oedothorax Bertkau, in Förster and Bertkau 1883: 235. Type species Neriene gibbosa Blackwall, 1841.

Oedothorax biantu sp. n.

Figs 67, 68

Types

Holotype ♀: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, 21°54.380'N, 101°16.518'E, elevation ca 627 m, 22.11.2009, bamboo plantation, fogging.

Etymology

This name comes from the Chinese Pinyin ‘biān tū’, meaning ‘knobs on each side’, referring to the prominence on each side of the ventral fig of epigyne; noun in apposition.

Diagnosis

This species is diagnosed by short copulatory ducts (Fig. 67A), position of spermathecae (Fig. 67C); it differs from congeners by tibial spination (1-1-1-1 in new species and 2-2-1-1 in other), the knob on each side of ventral fig and the long slits on the ventral fig (Fig. 67A).

Description

Female (holotype). Total length: 1.45. Carapace 0.68 long, 0.56 wide, dark brown. Sternum 0.31 long, 0.35 wide. Clypeus 0.10 high. Chelicerae promargin with 3 teeth, retromargin with 3 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.04, ALE 0.06, PME 0.05, PLE 0.06, AME-AME/AME 0.75, PME-PME/PME 0.60, AME-ALE/ALE 0.33, PME-PLE/PLE 0.67, coxae IV separated by 1.36 times their width. Length of legs: I 1.57 (0.44, 0.19, 0.38, 0.31, 0.25), II 1.50 (0.43, 0.19, 0.35, 0.28, 0.25), III 1.32 (0.34, 0.16, 0.34, 0.25, 0.23), IV 1.63 (0.47, 0.16, 0.41, 0.34, 0.25). Leg formula: IV-I-II-III. TmI 0.59, TmIV 0.59. Tibial spine formula 1-1-1-1 Abdomen greenish grey. Epigyne: ventral fig broad and slightly swollen, with a wavy posterior rim and one small knob on each side (Figs 67A, 68A); copulatory ducts complex (Figs 67C, 68B); spermathecae oval, separated by 2.00 times their diameter; fertilization ducts short (Fig. 67B).

Male. Unknown.

Distribution

Known only from type locality.

Genus Oilinyphia Ono & Saito, 1989

Oilinyphia: Ono and Saito 1989: 232. Type species Oilinyphia peculiaris Ono & Saito, 1989 from Japan.

Oilinyphia hengji sp. n.

Figs 69, 70, 71, 72

Types

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, 21°54.725'N, 101°13.261'E, elevation ca 734 m, 8.08.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, fogging. Paratype 1♀, Lvshilin, 21°54.617'N, 101°16.843'E, elevation ca 738 m, 8.08.2011, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, fogging.

Etymology

The name comes from the Chinese Pinyin ‘héng jĭ’, which means ‘ridge’, referring to the transversal ridges on the dorsum of its abdomen; noun in apposition.

Diagnosis

This species is similar to O. jadbounorum Ponksee & Tanikawa, 2010 from Thailand by the body shape, conformation of palp and epigyne, but differs from sibling species by wide tip of the embolus (Fig. 69A) (pointed in O. jadbounorum (Ponksee and Tanikawa 2010: fig. 3)). Females of two species differ by the shape of the median extension of the ventral fig tapering in O. jadbounorum (Ponksee and Tanikawa 2010: fig. 2) and almost rectangular in the new species (Fig. 71A). The new species clearly differs from the generotype by having TmIV, 2 cheliceral teeth instead of 3, small papillae on the abdomen and by the shape of the copulatory organs.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 1.00. Carapace 0.53 long, 0.48 wide, reddish brown. Sternum 0.28 long, 0.35 wide, heart-shaped, sparsely clothed by small tubercles. Clypeus 0.08 high. Chelicerae promargin with 2 teeth, retromargin with 0 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.08, ALE 0.10, PME 0.08, PLE 0.07, AME-AME/AME 0.06, PME-PME/PME 0.75, AME-ALE/ALE 0.25, PME-PLE/PLE 0.29, coxae IV separated by 1.41 their diameters. Length of legs: I 1.72 (0.44, 0.16, 0.40, 0.41, 0.31), II 1.87 (0.48, 0.18, 0.45, 0.42, 0.34), III 1.31 (0.22, 0.12, 0.34, 0.33, 0.30), IV 1.72 (0.45, 0.15, 0.44, 0.38, 0.30). Leg formula: I-II-IV-III. TmI 0.32, TmIV 0.24. Abdomen dark green, cone-like with attenuated posterior tip, adorned with ridges and papillae. Palp: tibia with one retrolateral trichobothrium and without apophyses; paracymbium broad at base, ‘C’-shaped (Figs 69B, 72B); protegulum somewhat triangular (Fig. 77B); distal suprategular apophysis thorn-like (Fig. 69A–B); median membrane slender and short, with attenuated tip (Fig. 69C–D); lamella with three apophyses, the distal one long, with a blunt end; the mesal one short, with pointed apex; the proximal one long and straight; embolus short, broad, slightly curved (Figs 69A, 72A).

Female (paratype). Total length: 1.38. Carapace 0.56 long, 0.39 wide, same coloration as in male. Sternum 0.31 long, 0.35 wide. Clypeus 0.09 high. Chelicerae promargin with 3 teeth, retromargin with 3 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.05, ALE 0.05, PME 0.05, PLE 0.05, AME-AME/AME 0.20, PME-PME/PME 0.50, AME-ALE/ALE 0.60, PME-PLE/PLE 0.56, coxae IV separated by 1.36 times their width. Length of legs: I 1.90 (0.50, 0.15, 0.45, 0.45, 0.35), II 2.05 (0.50, 0.19, 0.50, 0.48, 0.35), III 1.67 (0.47, 0.16, 0.34, 0.38, 0.32), IV 1.63 (0.47, 0.16, 0.41, 0.34, 0.25). Leg formula: IV-I-II-III. TmI 0.28, TmIV 0.59. Abdomen same coloration and pattern as male. Epigyne: ventral fig wide, extended mesally with a truncated end (Fig. 71A); copulatory ducts short and simple; spermathecae oval, separated by less than their diameter (Fig. 71C); fertilization ducts short, turning upwards (Fig. 71B).

Distribution

Known only from type localities.

Genus Paikiniana Eskov, 1992

Paikiniana: Eskov 1992: 164. Type species Cornicularia bella Paik, 1978 from Korea.

Paikiniana furcata sp. n.

Figs 73, 74, 75, 76

Types

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan: Mengyang Town: Xishuangbanna nature reserve, 22°09.513'N, 100°53.220'E, elevation ca 894 m, 25.06.2013, tropical seasonal rain forest, sieving. Paratypes 4♂9♀, same data as holotype; 1♂10♀, 22°09.776'N, 100°52.565'E, elevation ca 921 m, 26.06.2013, tropical seasonal rain forest, sieving; 4♂1♀, Guanping Town: Xishuangbanna nature reserve, 22°13.646'N, 100°53.348'E, elevation ca 939 m, 27.06.2013, tropical seasonal rain forest, sieving; 1♀, 22°19.461'N, 100°53.429'E, elevation ca 851 m, 28.06.2013, tropical seasonal rain forest, sieving; 1♂, 22°19.463'N, 100°53.429'E, elevation ca 851 m, 29.06.2013, tropical seasonal rain forest, sieving; 3♂, Menghai Town: Mangunzi Village: Xishuangbanna nature reserve, 22°01.772'N, 100°23.711'E, elevation ca 1187 m, 25.06.2013, secondary tropical seasonal rain forest, sieving.

Etymology

This specific name was taken from the Latin word ‘furcatus’, which means ‘forked’, referring to the bifurcate tip of the distal suprategular process; adjective.

Diagnosis

The male is easily distinguished from other Paikiniana species by the forked end of distal suprategular apophysis and the slightly acute angle formed by the two retrolateral tibial apophyses (Fig. 73A–B). The shape of carapace lobe in P. furcillata sp. n. resembles that in P. vulgaris (Oi, 1960) (Oi 1960: fig. 15), but differs from it by the detailed structure of distal suprategular apophysis. The embolic division resembles that in P. lurida (Seo, 1991) (Song and Li 2008: fig. 53), but distinguished from it by the shape of embolic basal lobe and tailpiece (Fig. 73C). The female of the new species has a short projection from the dorsal fig (Fig. 75A), short copulatory ducts and large spermathecae (Fig. 75C), and is similar to P. biceps Song & Li, 2008 (Song and Li 2008: figs 42–45).

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 1.85. Carapace 0.94 long, 0.69 wide, bright orange, with horn-shaped cephalic lobe. Sternum 0.47 long, 0.53 wide. Clypeus 0.16 high. Chelicerae promargin with 4 teeth, retromargin with 4 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.06, ALE 0.06, PME 0.06, PLE 0.08, AME-AME/AME 0.33, PME-PME/PME 0.33, AME-ALE/ALE 0.10, PME-PLE/PLE 0.13, coxae IV separated by 1.14 times their width. Length of legs: I 2.88 (0.81, 0.25, 0.78, 0.63, 0.41), II 2.78 (0.78, 0.25, 0.75, 0.60, 0.40), III 2.17 (0.62, 0.20, 0.56, 0.49, 0.30), IV 2.85 (0.80, 0.25, 0.79, 0.65, 0.36). Leg formula: I-IV-II-III. TmI 0.46, TmIV 0.63. Tibial and patellar spine formula: 1-1-1-1. Palp: tibia distally broadened, cone-shaped, with 2 retrolateral trichobothria and 2 tibial apophyses forming an acute angle, the distal one flat, triangular, close to the cymbium, the proximal shorter, directed upward (Fig. 73B); paracymbium hook-shaped (Figs 73B, 76B); protegulum membranous (Fig. 73A); distal suprategular apophysis bifurcated at tip (Fig. 73A); embolic basal lobe small, pointed (Fig. 73C–D); tailpiece of radix leaf-like from the prolateral view (Figs 73A, 76A).

Female (one of paratypes). Total length: 2.22. Carapace 0.97 long, 0.80 wide, same as male in coloration, unmodified. Sternum 0.55 long, 0.58 wide. Clypeus 0.16 high. Chelicerae like in male. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.07, ALE 0.09, PME 0.08, PLE 0.08, AME-AME/AME 0.13, PME-PME/PME 0.38, AME-ALE/ALE 0.11, PME-PLE/PLE 0.25, coxae IV separated by 1.18 times their width. Length of legs: I 3.06 (0.88, 0.28, 0.82, 0.64, 0.44), II 2.92 (0.84, 0.28, 0.78, 0.63, 0.39), III 2.37 (0.66, 0.23, 0.58, 0.56, 0.34), IV 3.01 (0.88, 0.25, 0.81, 0.69, 0.38). Leg formula: I-IV- II-III. TmI 0.48, TmIV 0.36. Spination as in male. Epigyne: ventral fig basally wide, posterior rim narrowed (Fig. 75A); scapoid tongue-shaped; copulatory ducts short, mesally oriented, spermathecae somewhat elliptical, separated by their minimal diameter (Fig. 75B–C).

Distribution

Known only from type localities.

Genus Parameioneta Locket, 1982

Parameioneta: Locket 1982: 375. Type species Parameioneta spicata Locket, 1982 from Malaysia.

Parameioneta bishou sp. n.

Figs 77, 78, 79, 80

Types

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Botanical Garden, 5.–12.07.2007, fogging. Paratype 1♂, 21°54.555'N, 101°16.860'E, elevation ca 610 m, 29.11.2009, evergreen forest, fogging. Paratypes 1♀, 21°53.823'N, 101°17.072'E, elevation ca 613 m, 5.–12.03.2007, Paramichelia baillonii plantation, hand-collecting; 1♀, 21°54.459'N, 101°16.750'E, elevation ca 640 m, 20.XI.2009, G213 Road, secondary forest, fogging.

Etymology

This name is from the Chinese Pinyin ‘bì shǒu’, meaning ‘short/small sword’, which refers to the sword-shaped tibial dorsal apophysis; noun in apposition.

Diagnosis

Male of new species is similar to P. biobata Tu & Li, 2006, but differs in the following aspects: P. biobata has one curved tibial apophysis (Tu and Li 2006: fig. 7A), while P. bishou sp. n. has three (Figs 77A–B, 78A–B); paracymbium’s apex in P. bishou sp. n. is broad (Fig. 77B), not as slim as in P. biobata (Tu and Li 2006: fig. 7A); lamella characteristica in P. bishou sp. n. has two branches, both of which are long and pointed (Fig. 78B), while in P. biobata one is pointed, the other is broad at tip (Tu and Li 2006: fig. 7C). The female is distinguished from other congeners by the conformation of epigyne.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 1.52. Carapace 0.75 long, 0.54 wide, reddish brown. Sternum 0.40 long, 0.33 wide. Clypeus 0.10 high. Chelicerae promargin with 4 teeth, retromargin with 4 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.05, ALE 0.06, PME 0.06, PLE 0.06, AME-AME/AME 0.60, PME-PME/PME 0.67, AME-ALE/ALE 0.33, PME-PLE/PLE 0.67, coxae IV separated by 0.8 time their width. Length of legs: I 2.68 (0.72, 0.19, 0.70, 0.65, 0.42), II 2.39 (0.65, 0.18, 0.61, 0.55, 0.40), III 1.85 (0.50, 0.15, 0.45, 0.45, 0.30), IV 2.49 (0.69, 0.17, 0.65, 0.60, 0.38). Leg formula: I-IV-II-III. TmI 0.30. Abdomen grey, posterior end slightly darker than the anterior part. Palp: tibia with two retrolateral apophyses and one dorsal apophysis (Figs 77A–B, 78A–B); one tibial retrolateral apophysis sheet-like, slightly curved, the other close to patella, cone-shaped, slightly curved at tip; dorsal tibial apophysis sword-shaped; cymbium with a retrobasal excavation (Figs 77B, 80B); paracymbium ‘V’-shaped, with a pointed process at the turning point, tip broad (Fig. 77B); pit hook short, hooked at tip (Fig. 77D); radix with one small pointed apophysis dorsally (Fig. 77A); anterior terminal apophysis short, flag-like (Fig. 77C); posterior terminal apophysis long, sword-like (Fig. 78C); lamella characteristica with two branches, both long, with pointed apex (Fig. 78B); median membrane with a broad end (Fig. 77C).

Female (one of paratypes). Total length: 1. 38. Carapace 0.58 long, 0.42 wide, brown. Sternum 0.35 long, 0.31 wide. Clypeus 0.06 high. Chelicerae promargin with 3 teeth, retromargin with 4 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.04, ALE 0.06, PME 0.06, PLE 0.05, AME-AME/AME 1.00, PME-PME/PME 0.50, AME-ALE/ALE 0.33, PME-PLE/PLE 0.40, coxae IV separated by 0.92 their diameters. Length of legs: I 2.40 (0.63, 0.19, 0.63, 0.55, 0.40), II / (0.56, 0.17, /, /, /), III 1.66 (0.45, 0.15, 0.40, 0.40, 0.26), IV 2.24 (0.63, 0.16, 0.60, 0.51, 0.34). Leg formula: I-IV-III. Tm I 0.31, Abdomen light greenish grey, with pale patches. Epigyne: ventral fig oval, wider anteriorly, concave (Fig. 79A); scape ‘S’-shaped, folded, basally broad, with tapering tip (Fig. 79B–D); spermathecae long, narrow, ‘C’-shaped in lateral view (Fig. 79D).

Distribution

Known only from type localities.

Parameioneta multifida sp. n.

Figs 81, 82, 83, 84

Types

Holotype ♂: Holotype: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, 21°53.823'N, 101°17.072'E, elevation ca 613 m, 19.–26.05.2007, Paramichelia baillonii plantation, hand-collecting. Paratypes 1♂, same data as holotype; 9♂, 21°53.823'N, 101°17.072'E, elevation ca 613 m, 1.–9.11.2006, P. baillonii plantation, hand-collecting; 1♂, 21°53.823'N, 101°17.072'E, elevation ca 613 m, 1.–15.01.2007, P. baillonii plantation, pitfall traps; 1♀, 21°53.823'N, 101°17.072'E, elevation ca 613 m, 5.–12.01.2007, P. baillonii plantation, hand-collecting; 2♀, 21°53.823'N, 101°17.072'E, elevation ca 613 m, 19.–25.01.2007, P. baillonii plantation, hand-collecting; 1♀, 21°53.823'N, 101°17.072'E, elevation ca 613 m, 5.–12.02.2007, P. baillonii plantation, hand-collecting; 3♀, 21°53.823'N, 101°17.072'E, elevation ca 613 m, 1.–15.04.2007, P. baillonii plantation, pitfall traps; 1♂, 21°53.823'N, 101°17.072'E, elevation ca 613 m, 4.–11.04.2007, P. baillonii plantation, hand-collecting; 17♂, 21°53.823'N, 101°17.072'E, elevation ca 613 m, 1.–15.05.2007, P. baillonii plantation, pitfall traps; 1♀, 21°53.823'N, 101°17.072'E, elevation ca 613 m, 19.–26.05.2007, P. baillonii plantation, hand-collecting.

Etymology

This name originates from the Latin word ‘multi-’ and ‘-fidus’, and the combination means ‘multiply-clefted’, referring to the apex of lamella characteristica; adjective.

Diagnosis

The new species differs from other congeners by the shape of lamella characteristica (Fig. 81A–B) and the tip of embolus (Fig. 81C–D).

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 1.31. Carapace 0.63 long, 0.55 wide, yellow. Abdomen greenish brown. Sternum 0.38 long, 0.36 wide. Clypeus 0.13 high. Chelicerae promargin with 4 teeth, retromargin with 2 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.07, ALE 0.07, PME 0.06, PLE 0.07, AME-AME/AME 0.10, PME-PME/PME 0.50, AME-ALE/ALE 0.29, PME-PLE/PLE 0.43, coxae IV separated by their width. Length of legs: I 2.34 (0.60, 0.19, 0.63, 0.53, 0.39), II 2.13 (0.56, 0.18, 0.55, 0.48, 0.36), III 1.70 (0.44, 0.16, 0.40, 0.40, 0.30), IV 2.24 (0.58, 0.18, 0.60, 0.50, 0.38). Leg formula: I-IV-II-III. TmI 0.21. Palp: tibia with one retrolateral trichobothrium and one dorsal trichobothrium; tibial retrolateral apophysis with a patch of small tubercles (Figs 81B, 92A); paracymbium ‘C’-shaped, mesally broad (Fig. 81B); pit hook on distal part of suprategulum, short (Fig. 81C–D); lamella characteristica long, narrow, belt-like, then directed distally (Figs 81A–B, 82B); anterior terminal apophysis long, with tapering tip; posterior terminal apophysis short and erect (Fig. 81C–D); median membrane in ill-defined shape, covering the tip of embolus (Figs 81B, 82B); embolus with a pointed tip (Fig. 81D).

Female. Total length: 1.41. Carapace 0.63 long, 0.44 wide, yellow. Abdomen tanned. Sternum 0.34 long, 0.31 wide. Clypeus 0.08 high. Chelicerae promargin with 4 teeth, retromargin with 3 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.04, ALE 0.05, PME 0.06, PLE 0.04, AME-AME/AME 0.50, PME-PME/PME 0.50, AME-ALE/ALE 0.40, PME-PLE/PLE 0.50, coxae IV separated by 1.44 their diameters. Length of legs: I 1.96 (0.50, 0.16, 0.52, 0.44, 0.34), II 1.80 (0.47, 0.16, 0.45, 0.42, 0.30), III 1.72 (0.39, 0.16, 0.45, 0.42, 0.30), IV 1.93 (0.53, 0.15, 0.50, 0.45, 0.30). Leg formula: I-IV-II-III. TmI 0.32, TmIV 0.38. Epigyne: trapezoidal; scape long and folded (Fig. 83B–C); in lateral view, proscape bulged; copulatory ducts going along the scape, then turning aside to connect with spermathecae (Figs 83C, 84B); spermathecae long, with two cells (Fig. 83C).

Distribution

Known only from type localities.

Parameioneta tricolorata sp. n.

Figs 85, 86, 87, 88

Types

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, 21°53.823'N, 101°17.072'E, elevation ca 613 m, 19.–26.05.2007, Paramichelia baillonii plantation, hand-collecting. Paratypes 1♂, 21°54.684'N, 101°16.319'E, elevation ca 585 m, 5.–12.10.2006, rubber tree plantation, hand-collecting; 1♀, 21°54.772'N, 101°16.043'E, elevation ca 556 m, 5.–12.12.2006, P. baillonii plantation, hand-collecting; 21°54.035'N, 101°16.500'E, elevation ca 558 m, 5.–12.01.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, hand-collecting; 1♂, 21°54.684'N, 101°16.319'E, elevation ca 585 m, 16.–31.01.2007, rubber tree plantation, hand-collecting; 3♂, 21°54.684'N, 101°16.319'E, elevation ca 585 m, 1.–15.03.2007, rubber tree plantation, pitfall traps; 4♂, 21°54.498'N, 101°16.326'E, elevation ca 586 m, 1.–15.04. 2007, rubber tree plantation, pitfall traps; 1♀, 21°54.498'N, 101°16.326'E, elevation ca 586 m, 1.–15.04.2007, rubber tree plantation, trunk traps; 1♂, 21°53.823'N, 101°17.072'E, elevation ca 613 m, 4.–11.05.2007, P. baillonii plantation, hand-collecting; 1♂, 21°55.551'N, 101°16.923'E, elevation ca 561 m, 10.–20.06.2007, rubber-tea plantation, hand-collecting; 1♂, 21°54.646'N, 101°16.257'E, elevation ca 572 m, 1.–9.10.2007, rubber-tea plantation, pitfall traps; 1♂, 21°54.705'N, 101°16.898'E, elevation ca 656 m, 13.11.2009, Lvshilin tropical rain forest, fogging.

Etymology

This name comes from the Latin ‘tres-’, meaning ‘three’, and the Latin word ‘coloratus’, meaning ‘colored’, and the combination refers to the three transversal bands of different colors on the dorsum of the abdomen; adjective.

Diagnosis

This species is similar to P. biobata Tu & Li, 2006 by the shape of embolus (Tu and Li 2006: fig. 8C; Fig. 85D) and the median membrane (Tu and Li 2006: fig. 8B); differs in the following aspects: P. tricolorata sp. n. has a much smaller tibial dorsal apophysis (Fig. 85B); the shape of radix is different in two species (Tu and Li 2006: fig. 7B; Fig. 85A); the structure of lamella characteristica differs in two species. The color pattern of abdomen in P. tricolorata sp. n. (Fig. 86C) is quite similar to the type species P. spicata Locket, 1982 (Locket 1982: fig. 72). The epigyne of female resembles greatly that of P. spicata (Locket 1982: fig. 78), but differs in the wider distal end of the scape.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 1.31. Carapace 0.59 long, 0.47 wide, unmodified, earthy yellow. Sternum 0.38 long, 0.30 wide. Clypeus 0.11 high. Chelicerae promargin with 5 teeth, retromargin with 4 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.04, ALE 0.07, PME 0.06, PLE 0.06, AME-AME/AME 0.50, PME-PME/PME 0.50, AME-ALE/ALE 0.14, PME-PLE/PLE 0.33, coxae IV separated by their width. Length of legs: I 2.60 (0.68, 0.18, 0.70, 0.60, 0.44), II 2.23 (0.60, 0.16, 0.58, 0.50, 0.39), III 1.71 (0.46, 0.15, 0.40, 0.40, 0.30), IV 2.29 (0.63, 0.15, 0.60, 0.53, 0.38). Leg formula: I-IV-II-III. TmI 0.33. Abdomen with three belts of different colors: from light grey to pale to dark grey with green tone. Palp: tibia with one retrolateral and one dorsal trichobothrium; dorsal tibial apophysis small, hooked (Fig. 85B); paracymbium ‘C’-shaped (Figs 85B, 86B); pit hook short, hooked at tip (Fig. 86A); lamella characteristica with two branches, one long, tapered at tip, the other broad and shorter, with a pointed apex (Fig. 86B); embolus stout, with opening at tip (Fig. 85D).

Female (paratype). Total length: 1.54. Carapace 0.63 long, 0.52 wide, dark yellow. Sternum 0.34 long, 0.36 wide. Clypeus 0.16 high. Chelicerae promargin with 7 teeth, retromargin with 4 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.03, ALE 0.08, PME 0.08, PLE 0.07, AME-AME/AME 1.00, PME-PME/PME 0.38, AME-ALE/ALE 0.38, PME-PLE/PLE 0.29, coxae IV separated by 0.84 time their width. Length of legs: I 2.22 (0.50, 0.20, 0.63, 0.52, 0.37), II 2.38 (0.64, 0.20, 0.60, 0.56, 0.38), III 1.98 (0.53, 0.19, 0.44, 0.46, 0.36), IV 2.49 (0.70, 0.18, 0.63, 0.60, 0.38). Leg formula: IV-II-I-III. TmI 0.29, TmIV absent. Abdomen greyish green with beige patches on the dorsum. Epigyne: trapezoidal with narrower posterior end (Fig. 87A); scape long, distal part with a broad tip (Fig. 87C); spermathecae with two chambers (Fig. 87C).

Distribution

Known only from type localities.

Genus Prosoponoides Millidge & Russell-Smith, 1992

Prosoponoides: Millidge and Russell–Smith 1992: 1369. Type species Prosoponoides hamatus Millidge & Russell-Smith, 1992 from Sumatra.

Prosoponoides hamatus Millidge & Russell-Smith, 1992

Prosoponoides hamatus: Millidge and Russell–Smith 1992: 1371, figs 1–4, 8–11. (♂♀).

Material examined

1♂, CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, 21°57.809'N, 101°12.173'E, elevation ca 888 m, 4.08.2007, secondary tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest, fogging; 2♂, 21°57.669'N, 101°11.893'E, elevation ca 790 m, 7.08.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, fogging; 1♂, 21°54.725'N, 101°13.261'E, elevation ca 734 m, 8.08.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, fogging.

Distribution

China, Sumatra.

Genus Saitonia Eskov, 1992

Saitonia: Eskov 1992: 49. Type species Araeoncus muscus Saito, 1989 from Japan.

Saitonia kawaguchikonis Saito & Ono, 2001

Saitonia kawaguchikonis: Saito and Ono 2001: 39, figs 81–85 (♂♀).

Material examined

1♀, CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, 21°54.684'N, 101°16.319'E, elevation ca 585 m, 5.–12.11.2006, rubber tree plantation, hand-collecting; 1♂, 21°54.463'N, 101°15.978'E, elevation ca 569 m, 5.–12.12.2006, rubber tree plantation, hand-collecting; 1♀, 21°54.408'N, 101°16.326'E, elevation ca 586 m, 19.–25.12.2006, rubber tree plantation, hand-collecting; 2♀, 21°54.498'N, 101°16.326'E, elevation ca 586 m, 10.–20.01.2007, rubber tree plantation, hand-collecting; 1♂ 21°54.463'N, 101°15.978'E, elevation ca 569 m, 16.–28.02.2007, rubber tree plantation, pitfall traps; 3♂, 21°54.463'N, 101°15.978'E, elevation ca 569 m, 16.–31.05.2007, rubber tree plantation, pitfall traps.

Distribution

China, Japan.

Smerasia gen. n.

Type species

Smerasia obscurus sp. n.

Etymology

The generic name is a combination of ‘smer’ and ‘Asia’, ‘smer’ is the first a few letters of the genus name Smermisia, which is similar to this new genus by the conformation of the male palp. Gender is masculine.

Diagnosis

This genus resembles Neotropical genera Smermisia Simon, 1894 and Myrmecomelix Millidge, 1993 in the general appearence of the male palp and the conformation of embolic division (Miller 2007). They all have a fig-like radix, and an erect anterior radical process. Smerasia gen. n. differs from similar genera by having short and weakly sclerotized, less pointed, membranous embolus (Fig. 89C–D) (Miller 2007: figs 63–64, 104), and the paracymbium in Smerasia gen. n. is attenuated at apex and much more curved in general (Fig. 89B). The epigyne in Smerasia gen. n. is wide and with a convex dorsal fig (Fig. 91A), which is quite different from that in Smermisia and Myrmecomelix.

Description

Small sized Erigoninae. Carapace uniformly yellow. Male with modified carapace: PME area elevated with sulci behind PME and pit in them. Carapace unmodified in female. Abdomen pale with dark spinnerets area. Chelicerae in male with 5 promarginal and 5 retromarginal teeth, while female with 4 promarginal and 4 retromarginal teeth. Tibial spine formula: 2-2-1-1. TmI ca 0.80, TmIV ca 0.70.

Male palp: tibia with one short and straight dorsal apophysis; paracymbium with black, attenuated apex (Fig. 89B); protegulum small (Figs 89B, 92B); radix simple, fig-like, with short, broad tailpiece (Figs 89A, 92A); anterior radical process straight, curved, with a pointed tip (Figs 89A, 92A); distal suprategular apophysis with a broad tip (Fig. 89C–D); embolus short, inconspicuous (Fig. 89A).

Epigyne: ventral fig wide, with rounded posterior margin (Figs 91A); dorsal fig mesally concave; copulatory ducts straight (Figs 91C); spermathecae with multi-chambers, the bigger one elliptical (Fig. 91C); fertilization ducts rather short (Fig. 91B).

Species composition

Type species only: Smerasia obscurus sp. n.

Distribution

China.

Smerasia obscurus sp. n.

Figs 89, 90, 91, 92

Types

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, 21°57.784'N, 101°11.947'E, elevation ca 895 m, 6.08.2007, secondary tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest, fogging. Paratypes 5♂, same data as holotype; 2♀, 21°55.035'N, 101°16.500'E, elevation ca 558 m, 22.07.2007, primary tropical seasonal forest, fogging; 5♂1♀, 21°57.809'N, 101°12.173'E, elevation ca 888 m, 4.08.2007, secondary tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest, fogging; 3♂ 1♀, 21°54.813'N, 101°12.634'E, elevation ca 876 m, 5.08.2007, secondary tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest, fogging; 6♂1♀, 21°54.767'N, 101°11.431'E, elevation ca 880 m, 6.08.2007, secondary tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest, fogging; 2♂, 21°57.669'N, 101°11.893'E, elevation ca 790 m, 7.08.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, fogging; 8♂, 21°54.725'N, 101°13.261'E, elevation ca 734 m, 8.08.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, fogging; 1♂, 21°54.200'N, 101°16.923'E, elevation ca 608 m, 18.08.2007, Paramechelia baillonii plantation, fogging.

Etymology

This name is derived from the Latin word ‘obscurus’, which means ‘obscure’, referring to the ambiguous shape of the embolus; adjective.

Diagnosis

See diagnosis of the genus.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 1.76. Carapace 0.70 long, 0.64 wide, PME area mildly elevated, post-ocular sulci with pits stretching along the base of lobe laterally, light yellow. Sternum 0.41 long, 0.50 wide. Clypeus 0.23 high. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.05, ALE 0.06, PME 0.05, PLE 0.06, AME-AME/AME 0.40, PME-PME/PME 0.40, AME-ALE/ALE 0.33, PME-PLE/PLE 1.00, coxae IV separated by 1.92 times their width. Length of legs: I 3.52 (0.95, 0.23, 0.88, 0.96, 0.50), II 3.56 (0.94, 0.22, 0.91, 0.94, 0.55), III 2.62 (0.72, 0.20, 0.60, 0.70, 0.40), IV 3.28 (0.90, 0.20, 0.78, 0.90, 0.50). Leg formula: II-I-III-IV. TmI 0.82, TmIV 0.73. Abdomen pale. Palp: see description of the genus.

Female (one of paratypes). Total length: 1.88. Carapace 0.75 long, 0.75 wide, unmodified, yellow. Sternum 0.42 long, 0.50 wide. Clypeus 0.16 high. Chelicerae promargin with 4 teeth, retromargin with 4 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.05, ALE 0.06, PME 0.06, PLE 0.05, AME-AME/AME 0.63, PME-PME/PME 0.50, AME-ALE/ALE 0.33, PME-PLE/PLE 0.33, coxae IV separated by 2.00 times their width. Length of legs: I 3.84 (1.02, 0.23, 1.02, 1.02, 0.55), II 3.98 (1.09, 0.23, 1.02, 1.08, 0.56), III 2.89 (0.80, 0.20, 0.64, 0.78, 0.47), IV 3.44 (0.98, 0.22, 0.81, 0.94, 0.49). Leg formula: IV-I-II-III. TmI 0.84, TmIV 0.75. Abdomen light yellow, with dark spinnerets. Epigyne: see description of the genus.

Distribution

Known only from type localities.

Genus Tapinopa Westring, 1851

Tapinopa: Westring 1851: 38. Type species Linyphia longidens Wider, 1834 from Palearctic.

Tapinopa undata sp. n.

Figs 93, 94, 95

Types

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, 21°54.200'N, 101°16.923'E, elevation ca 608 m, 5.–12.11.2006, Paramichelia baillonii plantation, hand-collecting. Paratypes 1♂, 21°54.200'N, 101°16.923'E, elevation ca 608 m, 1.–15.07.2006, P. baillonii plantation, hand-collecting; 1♂, 21°54.772'N, 101°16.043'E, elevation ca 556 m, 19.–25.11.2006, P. baillonii plantation, hand-collecting; 1♂, 21°54.772'N, 101°16.043'E, elevation ca 556 m, 19.–25.12.2006, P. baillonii plantation, hand-collecting.

Etymology

This name is derived from the Latin word ‘undatus’, which means ‘wavy’, referring to the shape of the proximal edge of the paracymbium; adjective.

Diagnosis

This species is related to T. vara Locket, 1982 (from Malaysia), but differs in the shape and size of terminal apophysis (Locket 1982: figs 100–102); the pit hook in T. undata sp. n. is longer and has a more pointed tip compared to the related species (Fig. 93C).

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 1.16, carapace 0.75 long, 0.63 wide, orange-yellow, with dark lateral bands. Sternum 0.38 long, 0.38 wide. Clypeus 0.09 high. Chelicerae promargin with 2 teeth, retromargin with 3 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.06, ALE 0.06, PME 0.06, PLE 0.06, AME-AME/AME 0.33, PME-PME/PME 1.00, AME-ALE/ALE 0.50, PME-PLE/PLE 0.67, Coxae IV separated by their width. Length of legs: I 3.00 (0.78, 0.21, 0.79, 0.73, 0.49), II 2.73 (0.70, 0.19, 0.70, 0.67, 0.47), III 1.92 (0.53, 0.17, 0.40, 0.47, 0.35), IV 2.46 (0.66, 0.16, 0.56, 0.65, 0.43). Leg formula: I-II-IV-III. TmI 0.20. Patellar spination formula: 2-1-1-1. Abdomen pale, with ill-defined dark spots around its circumference, and a large spot at the posterior end. Palp: tibia short, with one retrolateral trichobothrium; paracymbium complex, ‘J’-shaped, with wavelike posterior margin, apex trifurcate (Figs 93B, 95B); proximal cymbial extension turning basally, with a truncated tip (Fig. 93A–B); terminal apophysis of radix with three branches, all with curved silhouette; pit hook long, with an acute apex (Fig. 93C); radix with three projections, the posterior one stretching along paracymbium (Figs 93A, 95A); embolus short and pointed, with opening at tip (Fig. 93D).

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

Known only from type localities.

Tapinopa vara Locket, 1982

Tapinopa vara: Locket 1982: 380, figs 96–105 (♂♀).

Material examined

2♀, CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, 21°54.718'N, 101°16.940'E, elevation ca 645 m, 19.–25.09. 2006, secondary tropical seasonal moist forest, hand-collecting; 1♂, 21°54.813'N, 101°12.634'E, elevation ca 876 m, 5.–12.10.2006, secondary tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest, hand-collecting; 3♀, 21°54.772'N, 101°16.043'E, elevation ca 556 m, 19.–25.11.2006, P. baillonii plantation, hand-collecting; 3♀, 21°54.772'N, 101°16.043'E, elevation ca 556 m, 19.–25.01.2007, P. baillonii plantation, hand-collecting; 1♂, 21°54.813'N, 101°12.634'E, elevation ca 876 m, 5.–12.03.2007, secondary tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest, hand-collecting; 1♂, 21°54.463'N, 101°15.978'E, elevation ca 569 m, 19.–26.05.2007, rubber tree plantation, hand-collecting; 1♂, 21°54.684'N, 101°16.319'E, elevation ca 585 m, 10.–20.06.2007, rubber tree plantation, hand-collecting.

Distribution

China, Malaysia.

Genus Theoa Saaristo, 1995

Theoa: Saaristo 1995: 45. Type species Theonina tricaudata Locket, 1992 from Malaysia.

Theoa bidentata sp. n.

Figs 96, 97, 98, 99

Types

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, 21°54.463'N, 101°15.978'E, elevation ca 569 m, 4.–11.05.2007, rubber tree plantation, hand-collecting. Paratypes 5♂, same data as holotype; 1♀, 21°55.551'N, 101°16.923'E, elevation ca 561 m, 1–9.09.2006, rubber-tea plantation, pitfall traps; 4♂, 21°54.463'N, 101°15.978'E, elevation ca 569 m, 1.01.2007, rubber tree plantation, hand-collecting; 4♂1♀, 21°54.684'N, 101°16.319'E, elevation ca 585 m, 16.–31.01.2007, rubber tree plantation, pitfall traps; 2♂, 21°54.684'N, 101°16.319'E, elevation ca 585 m, 4.–11.04.2007, rubber tree plantation, hand-collecting; 4♂, 21°54.684'N, 101°16.319'E, elevation ca 585 m, 1–15.05.2007, rubber tree plantation, pitfall traps; 3♂, 21°54.684'N, 101°16.319'E, elevation ca 585 m, 4.–11.V.2007, rubber tree plantation, hand-collecting; 3♂, 21°54.684'N, 101°16.319'E, elevation ca 585 m, 16–31.05.2007, rubber tree plantation, pitfall traps; 3♂, 21°54.772'N, 101°16.043'E, elevation ca 556 m, 19.–26.05.2007, Paramichelia baillonii plantation, hand-collecting; 1♀, 21°54.772'N, 101°16.034'E, elevation ca 556 m, 1.–15.06.2007, P. baillonii plantation, trunk traps; 1♂, 21°57.445'N, 101°12.997'E, elevation ca 774 m, 10.–20.06.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, hand-collecting.

Etymology

This name is combined by ‘bi’, and ‘dentatus’, meaning ‘with two teeth’, which refers to the two projections on the lateral margin of the prolateral cymbial outgrowth; adjective.

Diagnosis

This species is distinguished as a member of Theoa by the extension at the dorso-mesal side of cymbium, and the sickle-shaped embolus with Fickert’s gland about half way along (Locket 1982: fig. 87). The large spermathecae on each side of the epigyne also resembles those in T. tricaudata (Locket 1982: fig. 89). It differs from the type species in the following aspects: the apex of cymbial outgrowth in T. bidentata sp. n. is bifid (Fig. 96A), not trifid as in T. tricaudata (Locket 1982: fig. 86); the pit hook in T. bidentata is not a discrete structure and is pointed, which differs from the bifid one in T. tricaudata; the terminal apophyses in the two species are of different shapes (Locket 1982: fig. 84; Fig. 96B); the spermathecae are more distantly spaced in T. bidentata (Fig. 98A). The two species also differ in spination: 1-0-0-0 or 1-1-1-0 in the generotype and 2-2-2-2 in the new taxon.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 1.10. Carapace 0.60 long, 0.50 wide, unmodified, dark orange. Sternum 0.35 long, 0.34 wide. Clypeus 0.16 high. Chelicerae promargin with 5 teeth, retromargin with 4 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.03, ALE 0.06, PME 0.07, PLE 0.06, AME-AME/AME 0.01, PME-PME/PME 0.40, AME-ALE/ALE 0.67, PME-PLE/PLE 0.43, coxae IV separated by 1.33 times their width. Length of legs: I 2.51 (0.66, 0.16, 0.70, 0.55, 0.44), II 2.32 (0.63, 0.16, 0.61, 0.53, 0.39), III 1.78 (0.48, 0.16, 0.42, 0.39, 0.33), IV 2.33 (0.64, 0.16, 0.63, 0.52, 0.38). Leg formula: I-IV-II-III. TmI 0.45. Tibial spine formula 2-2-2-2. Palp: tibia small, with one retrolateral trichobothrium; paracymbium ‘F’-shaped, two branches, both tapered at tip (Figs 96B, 99B); cymbium with a dorsal knob (Figs 96A, 99B); prolateral side of cymbium well-developed, almost fully covering the tegulum and suprategulum (Fig. 96A); cymbial outgrowth with two teeth-like processes at the lateral margin (Fig. 96A); pit hook bifid at tip (Fig. 96B); terminal apophysis in ill-defined shape, broad at ventral view (Fig. 96B); median membrane with a blunt apex, slightly bending forward; embolus sickle-shaped, inwardly curved, with a small, pointed embolus proper (Figs 96C, 99A); thumb of embolus small, located below embolus proper (Fig. 96C); Fickert’s gland present in radix (Figs 96C, 99A).

Female (one of paratypes). Total length: 1.24. Carapace 0.55 long, 0.43 wide, brownish orange. Sternum 0.30 long, 0.34 wide. Clypeus 0.11 high. Chelicerae promargin with 3 teeth, retromargin with 4 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.03, ALE 0.06, PME 0.06, PLE 0.06, AME-AME/AME 0.33, PME-PME/PME 0.50, AME-ALE/ALE 0.33, PME-PLE/PLE 0.50, coxae IV separated by their width. Length of legs: I 2.37 (0.61, 017, 0.65, 0.50, 0.44), II 2.33 (0.59, 0.19, 0.58, 0.46, 0.41), III 1.76 (0.48, 0.15, 0.41, 0.38, 0.34), IV 2.24 (0.60, 0.16, 0.60, 0.48, 0.40). Leg formula: I-II-IV-III. TmI 0.24. Spine formula as in male. Abdomen greenish grey on dorsum, dark grey on venter. Epigyne: a wide and short ventral fig; scape long, ribbon-like, with copulatory openings at its broad end, (Fig. 98B–D); spermathecae small, separated by about four times their diameter (Fig. 98B).

Distribution

Known only from type localities.

Theoa vesica sp. n.

Figs 100, 101, 102, 103

Types

Holotype: ♂: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, 21°57.010'N, 101°12.058'E, elevation ca 814 m, 18.08.2011, valley rain forest, fogging. Paratypes 1♀, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, 21°55.035'N, 101°16.500'E, elevation ca 558 m, 1.–15.07.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, trunk traps; 1♀, 21°54.813'N, 101°12.634'E, elevation ca 876 m, 4.–11.04.2007, secondary tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest, trunk traps.

Etymology

The name is derived from the Latin word ‘vesica’, which means ‘bladder, purse’, referring to the pouch-shaped structure in the vulva; noun in apposition.

Diagnosis

The male is recognized by the huge cymbial outgrowth (Fig. 100B), and the cresent-shaped embolus with large Fickert’s gland about half way along (Fig. 100C). The female has unusually small spermathecae situated laterally (Fig. 102C). It also differs from other congeners by having TmIV.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 1.78. Carapace 0.90 long, 0.73 wide, unmodified, brownish red. Sternum 0.45 long, 0.50 wide. Clypeus 0.22 high. Chelicerae promargin with 2 teeth, retromargin with 3 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.06, ALE 0.06, PME 0.06, PLE 0.06, AME-AME/AME 0.01, PME-PME/PME 0.83, AME-ALE/ALE 0.76, PME-PLE/PLE 1.33, coxae IV separated by their width. Length of legs: I 3.90 (0.94, 0.25, 1.06, 0.98, 0.67), II 3.76 (1.00, 0.22, 1.00, 0.94, 0.60), III 2.98 (0.84, 0.23, 0.72, 0.72, 0.47), IV 3.49 (1.00, 0.24, 0.94, 0.93, 0.38). Leg formula: I-IV-II-III. TmI 0.26, TmIV 0.18. Tibial spine formula: 2-2-2-2. Abdomen dark green. Palp: tibia slightly elongated; paracymbium ‘C’-shaped, with a prominent distal end (Figs 100B, 101B); cymbium with a prominent process, extending proximally then turning dorsally (Fig. 100A); embolus sickle-shaped, with a small, pointed embolus proper (Fig. 100C); thumb of embolus with indented fringe (Fig. 100D); Fickert’s gland very large (Fig. 100C).

Female (one of paratypes). Total length: 1.88. Carapace 0.85 long, 0.68 wide, brownish yellow. Sternum 0.47 long, 0.48 wide. Clypeus 0.16 high. Chelicerae promargin with 3 teeth, retromargin with 5 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.06, ALE 0.06, PME 0.06, PLE 0.07, AME-AME/AME 0.17, PME-PME/PME 0.83, AME-ALE/ALE 0.67, PME-PLE/PLE 0.86, coxae IV separated by their width. Length of legs: I 4.24 (1.09, 0.25, 1.16, 1.10, 0.64), II 3.80 (1.00, 0.25, 1.00, 0.94, 0.61), III 3.12 (0.80, 0.23, 0.81, 0.78, 0.50), IV 3.84 (1.09, 0.22, 0.98, 1.00, 0.55). Leg formula: I-IV-II-III. TmI 0.24, TmIV 0.14. Spine formula like in male. Abdomen pale. Epigyne: ventral fig bulgy (Figs 102A, 103A); scape short and broad (Fig. 102B); copulatory ducts long, following a complicated route (Fig. 102C); spermathecae small, held by a shield-like structure at each side of the epigyne (Figs 102C, 103B).

Distribution

Known only from type localities.

Vittatus gen. n.

Type species

Vittatus fencha sp. n.

Etymology

The generic name is an arbitrary combination of letters. Gender is masculine.

Diagnosis

It is easily distinguished from other erigonine genera by its ribbon-like convector, its droplet-shaped cymbium and its prominent anterior radical apophysis (Figs 108A, 111B). The epigyne in this genus has a wide atrium and a scapoid.

Description

Small sized Erigoninae. Carapace brown, modified in male (with small hump around PME and short sulci). Chelicerae with 5 promarginal and 4 retromarginal teeth in male, and with 5 promarginal and 5 retromarginal teeth in female. Chaetotaxy: tibial spine formula: 2-2-1-1. TmI ca 0.61, TmIV ca 0.61.

Male palp: tibia with trichobothria (prolateral and dorsal) and 2 apophyses: prolateral apophyses tongue-shaped, located near tibial base; dorsal apophysis, with a cup-like stem, and a petal-like extension around the upper-rim of the stem, bending downward (Figs 108B, 111B), Cymbium droplet-shaped (subtriangular) with elongate tip. Paracymbium ‘C’-shaped, broad at base (Fig. 108B). Tegulum small, with protegulum protruding ventrally (Fig. 108B). Anterior radical process bifurcate, with sharp tips (Fig. 111B); convector ribbon-like, with a tapering tip (Figs 108B, 111A); embolus long and sinuous, with a small thumb near embolus tip (Fig. 108C–D).

Epigyne: ventral fig mesally concave, with a scapoid (Fig. 110A); copulatory ducts simple (Fig. 110C); spermathecae dewdrop-shaped (Fig. 110C).

Species composition

Vittatus bian sp. n, the type species V. fencha sp. n, V. latus sp. n, and V. pan sp. n.

Distribution

China.

Vittatus bian sp. n.

Figs 104, 105, 106, 107

Types

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, 21°57.809'N, 101°12.173'E, elevation ca 888 m, 4.08.2007, secondary tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest, fogging. Paratypes 3♀, 21°54.767'N, 101°11.431'E, elevation ca 880 m, 6.08.2007, secondary tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest, fogging; 1♀, 21°54.646'N, 101°16.257'E, elevation ca 572 m, 16.07.2007, rubber tree plantation, fogging.

Etymology

This specific name is taken from the Chinese Pinyin ‘biān’, meaning ‘whip’, referring to the long, whip-like embolus; noun in apposition.

Diagnosis

This species is similar to V. pan sp. n. in the whip-like embolus and its turning direction (Fig. 104B), but differs by its dark coloration (light in V. pan sp. n.) (Fig. 105C), lack of ventral tibial apophysis, straight dorsal tibial apophysis (Fig. 105A) and scape with terminal transversal arms (Fig. 106A).

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 1.40. Carapace 0.60 long, 0.50 wide, brown, with two rows of long setae between AME and PME. Sternum 0.36 long, 0.34 wide. Clypeus 0.11 high. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.04, ALE 0.06, PME 0.05, PLE 0.05, AME-AME/AME 0.75, PME-PME/PME 0.80, AME-ALE/ALE 0.67, PME-PLE/PLE 1.60, coxae IV separated by 1.60 times their width. Length of legs: I 2.45 (0.64, 0.19, 0.69, 0.56, 0.37), II 2.34 (0.61, 0.16, 0.63, 0.57, 0.37), III 1.55 (0.47, 0.16, 0.31, 0.31, 0.30), IV 2.38 (0.63, 0.18, 0.61, 0.61, 0.35). Leg formula: I-IV-II-III. TmI 0.53, TmIV 0.52. Abdomen greenish brown. Palp: tibia with one dorsal apophysis subdivided on the top (Fig. 105A). Cymbium droplet-shaped (Fig. 105A); paracymbium ‘C’-shaped, with a leaf-like apex (Fig. 104B). Bulb with a flattened subtegulum and a slightly protruding tegulum (Fig. 104A). Embolus long, whip-like; convector long, ribbon-like (Fig. 104B). Embolus and convector of equal length. Radical apophysis straight, bifurcate (Fig. 104B).

Female (one of paratypes). Total length: 1.53. Carapace 0.51 long, 0.52 wide, dark brown, with black pattern. Sternum 0.38 long, 0.36 wide. Clypeus 0.09 high. Chelicerae promargin with 4 teeth, retromargin with 4 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.04, ALE 0.06, PME 0.04, PLE 0.04, AME-AME/AME 1.00, PME-PME/PME 0.75, AME-ALE/ALE 0.67, PME-PLE/PLE 1.25, coxae IV separated by 1.33 times their width. Length of legs: I 2.27 (0.59, 0.17, 0.61, 0.54, 0.36), II 2.24 (0.61, 0.20, 0.58, 0.50, 0.35), III 1.82 (0.50, 0.15, 0.44, 0.44, 0.29), IV 2.25 (0.62, 0.18, 0.58, 0.55, 0.32). Leg formula: I-IV-II-III. TmI 0.56, TmIV 0.54. Abdomen dark brown. Epigyne: a ventral fig semi-rounded, mesally concave, with a membraneous scapoid, equipped by membraneous arm at each side of the tip (Fig. 106A); dorsal fig wide, with blunt posterior rim; spermathecae somewhat oval (Fig. 106C).

Distribution

Known only from type localities.

Vittatus fencha sp. n.

Figs 108, 109, 110, 111

Types

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, 21°57.445'N, 101°12.997'E, elevation ca 744 m, 30.07.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, fogging. Paratypes 9♂9♀, same data as holotype; 3♂4♀, 21°57.669'N, 101°11.893'E, elevation ca 790 m, 7.08.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, fogging; 14♂43♀, 21°54.725'N, 101°13.261'E, elevation ca 734 m, 8.08.2007, primary tropical seasonal rain forest, fogging.

Etymology

The name for this species is derived from the Chinese Pinyin ‘fēn chà’, which means ‘forked’, in reference to the fork-shaped anterior radical apophysis in male; term in apposition.

Diagnosis

It differs from other congeners by the stem-cup-shaped dorsal tibial apophysis (Fig. 108B) and the ribbon-like embolus with a small outgrowth near tip in palp (Fig. 109B); female resembles V. bian sp. n. in the closely positioned spermathecae (Figs 106C, 110C), but differs in the short and unmodified scapoid (Fig. 110A).

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 1.80. Carapace 0.60 long, 0.53 wide, ocular area mildly lifted with short setae, brown. Sternum 0.39 long, 0.39 wide. Clypeus 0.13 high. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.05, ALE 0.07, PME 0.06, PLE 0.06, AME-AME/AME 0.50, PME-PME/PME 1.67, AME-ALE/ALE 0.71, PME-PLE/PLE 0.67, coxae IV separated by 1.50 times their width. Length of legs: I 2.87 (0.75, 0.22, 0.78, 0.70, 0.42), II 2.80 (0.76, 0.20, 0.70, 0.66, 0.48), III 2.17 (0.63, 0.18, 0.50, 0.50, 0.36), IV 2.58 (0.63, 0.16, 0.70, 0.70, 0.39). Leg formula: I-II-IV-III. TmI 0.61, TmIV 0.61. Abdomen brown. Palp: see description of the genus.

Female (one of paratypes). Total length: 1.85. Carapace 0.65 long, 0.56 wide, unmodified, same as male in coloration. Sternum 0.41 long, 0.44 wide. Clypeus 0.13 high. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.04, ALE 0.05, PME 0.04, PLE 0.05, AME-AME/AME 0.8, PME-PME/PME 1.5, AME-ALE/ALE 0.9, PME-PLE/PLE 1.1, coxae IV separated by 1.58 times their width. Length of legs: I 2.59 (0.75, 0.19, 0.64, 0.63, 0.38), II 2.49 (0.69, 0.20, 0.60, 0.60, 0.40), III 2.09 (0.63, 0.16, 0.45, 0.50, 0.35), IV 2.50 (0.70, 0.20, 0.60, 0.60, 0.40). Leg formula: I-IV-II-III. TmI 0.60, TmIV 0.63. Abdomen brown. Epigyne: see description of the genus.

Distribution

Known only from type localities.

Vittatus latus sp. n.

Figs 112, 113, 114, 115

Types

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, 21°57.809'N, 101°12.173'E, elevation ca 888 m, 4.08.2007, secondary tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest, fogging. Paratypes 12♀, same data as holotype; 3♀, 21°57.784'N, 101°11.947'E, elevation ca 895 m, 6.08.2007, secondary tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest, fogging; 3♀, 21°54.767'N, 101°11.431'E, elevation ca 880 m, 6.08.2007, secondary tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest, fogging.

Etymology

This specific name is taken from the Latin word ‘latus’, meaning ‘broad’, in reference to the wide base of the embolus; adjective.

Diagnosis

This species greatly resembles V. fencha sp. n., but differs in the following aspects: the anterior radical process in V. latus sp. n. is larger and has a hooked tip (Fig. 112A); the embolus is wider at the base, without thumb near tip (Fig. 112B); the scapoid of V. latus sp. n. is much longer and the spermathecae are distantly separated (Fig. 114A, C). Palpal patella is modified with a hump in V. latus sp. n.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 1.75. Carapace 0.75 long, 0.68 wide, unmodified, orange. Abdomen pale, with greenish grey spinnerets. Sternum 0.38 long, 0.44 wide. Clypeus 0.18 high. Chelicerae promargin with 5 teeth, retromargin with 3 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.04, ALE 0.05, PME 0.03, PLE 0.04, AME-AME/AME 0.75, PME-PME/PME 1.67, AME-ALE/ALE 1.80, PME-PLE/PLE 2.50, coxae IV separated by 1.73 of their diameters. Length of legs: I 3.03 (0.80, 0.23, 0.81, 0.75, 0.44), II 2.90 (0.80, 0.22, 0.78, 0.70, 0.40), III 2.38 (0.64, 0.20, 0.56, 0.60, 0.38), IV 2.89 (0.80, 0.20, 0.75, 0.75, 0.39). Leg formula: I-II-IV-III. TmI 0.67, TmIV 0.63. Palp: tibial prolateral apophysis modified, a tube-like process stretching from the distal margin of tibia, slightly curved (Fig. 112B), developed into a broader, hollow structure, with sulci along the bottom (Fig. 112A); a belt of conspicuous papillae stretching from the inner surface of the sulci to the bifid apex (Fig. 112A); cymbium lunar-shaped (Figs 112B, 115B); paracymbium ‘J’-shaped, narrow (Fig. 112A); distal suprategular apophysis triangular, slightly hooked at tip (Fig. 112B); embolus long and wide, accompanied by convector, following the same route (Figs 112A–B, 115A–B).

Female (one of paratypes). Total length: 1.88. Carapace 0.80 long, 0.63 wide, unmodified, orange. Abdomen pale, with greenish-grey spinnerets and dark patches around them. Sternum 0.47 long, 0.47 wide. Clypeus 0.15 high. Chelicerae promargin and retromargin with 5 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.04, ALE 0.06, PME 0.06, PLE 0.05, AME-AME/AME 0.75, PME-PME/PME 0.60, AME-ALE/ALE 0.50, PME-PLE/PLE 0.67, Coxae IV separated by 1.54 times their width. Lengths of legs: I 2.94 (0.75, 0.25, 0.81, 0.69, 0.44), II 2.82 (0.75, 0.23, 0.70, 0.70, 0.44), III 2.36 (0.63, 0.23, 0.55, 0.56, 0.39), IV 2.96 (0.80, 0.20, 0.74, 0.74, 0.48). Leg formula: IV-I -II-III. TmI 0.69, TmIV 0.68. Patellar spine formula: 2-2-2-2. Epigyne: scapoid ribbon-like, with a slightly concave tip (Fig. 114A); dorsal fig with an opening at the posterior rim (Fig. 114A–C); copulatory ducts follow a path from the middle to each side, then up to the spermathecae (Fig. 114D); spermathecae elliptical (Fig. 114A).

Distribution

Known only from type localities.

Vittatus pan sp. n.

Figs 116, 117, 118, 119

Types

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan: Menglun Town: Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, 21°54.772'N, 101°16.043'E, elevation ca 556 m, 18.07.2007, Paramichelia baillonii plantation, fogging. Paratypes 2♀, 21°55.035'N, 101°16.500'E, elevation ca 558 m, 22.07.2007, primary tropical seasonal forest, fogging; 5♂1♀, 21°57.809'N, 101°12.173'E, elevation ca 888 m, 4.08.2007, secondary tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest, fogging.

Etymology

This name is derived from the Chinese Pinyin ‘pán’ meaning ‘fig’, for the broad, fig-like terminal apophysis in this species; noun in apposition.

Diagnosis

It differs from the congener V. bian sp. n. by light coloration, much shorter dorsal tibial apophysis (Fig. 117A), prominent and broad branch of radical apophysis (Fig. 117B) and short scape (as long as wide).

Description

Male (holotype). Total length: 1.56. Carapace 0.69 long, 0.59 wide, yellow, PME area elevated to form a lobe, post-ocular sulci stretching along base of lobe laterally (Fig. 53E). Sternum 0.44 long, 0.44 wide. Clypeus 0.15 high. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.06, ALE 0.08, PME 0.06, PLE 0.08, AME-AME/AME 0.50, PME-PME/PME 0.50, AME-ALE/ALE 0.50, PME-PLE/PLE 1.13, coxae IV separated by 2.00 times their width. Length of legs: I 2.83 (0.75, 0.19, 0.75, 0.71, 0.43), II 2.88 (0.75, 0.23, 0.75, 0.70, 0.45), III 2.22 (0.61, 0.17, 0.55, 0.55, 0.34), IV 2.67 (0.73, 0.17, 0.67, 0.69, 0.41). Leg formula: II-I-IV-III. TmI 0.54, TmIV 0.51. Abdomen pale, with a small black patch posteriorly (Fig. 117C). Palp: tibia with two retrolateral one dorsal trichobothria, a row of setae retrolaterally (Fig. 116B) and two tibial apophyses, ventral and dorsal; dorsal apophysis short, and scale-like, with a bent tip (Figs 116B, 117A); ventral apophysis short and stout with a rounded tip (Fig. 116A); paracymbium ‘J’-shaped, with a leaf-shaped apex (Fig. 116B); radical apophysis with two prominent branches, one stretching along the cymbium, broad and slightly bent distally (Fig. 116A), the other smaller with an attenuated tip (Fig. 116B); convector long, sigmoid (Fig. 116B).

Female (one of paratypes). Total length: 1.50. Carapace 0.63 long, 0.55 wide, unmodified, yellow. Sternum 0.41 long, 0.45 wide. Clypeus 0.09 high. Chelicerae promargin with 4 teeth, retromargin with 4 teeth. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.06, ALE 0.07, PME 0.06, PLE 0.07, AME-AME/AME 0.33, PME-PME/PME 0.17, AME-ALE/ALE 0.23, PME-PLE/PLE 0.33, coxae IV separated by 1.92 times their width. Length of legs: I 2.67 (0.72, 0.22, 0.68, 0.65, 0.40), II 2.64 (0.70, 0.20, 0.64, 0.68, 0.42), III 2.26 (0.63, 0.19, 0.55, 0.55, 0.34), IV 2.81 (0.78, 0.22, 0.70, 0.70, 0.41). Leg formula: IV-I-II-III. TmI 0.80, TmIV 0.70. Abdomen light yellow, with dark spinnerets. Epigyne: ventral fig wide, with arc-like posterior margin (Figs 118A, 119C); scapoid short, tongue-shaped, as long as wide; dorsal fig wide; copulatory ducts short (Figs 118C, 119D); spermathecae round, separated by 2.5 diameters (Fig. 118B); fertilization ducts relatively long (Fig. 118B).

Distribution

Known only from type localities.

Discussion

The process of matching the sexes of the Xishuangbanna linyphiids collected from the forest canopy is arduous, especially with the occurrence of similar habitus and conformation of epigynes (Figs 46, 62, 99). In order to solve this problem, we conducted molecular work to obtain DNA sequence barcodes of COI from freshly collected linyphiid spiders (mostly from canopies), and constructed a Neighbor-joining tree. The pairing results are shown in Figure 121.

We have described some new species based on only one sex, which is an unconventional act. However, we feel reasonably certain that our conclusions are generally valid and taxonomically informative. While there may be errors in the identification of some species, finding the other sex of monotypic species will take much time and effort, and we believe it is best to share our information as soon as possible. Further investigations should be conducted in Xishuangbanna and neighboring places. More new discoveries will definitely benefit our understanding of the systematics of the linyphiids from Southeast Asia.

Plates

Figure 1.

Asiagone perforata. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, ventral view D Embolic division, dorsal view. Scale bars: A as B, D as C.

Figure 2.

Asiagone perforata. A Palp, ventral view B Palp, dorsal view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: B as A, C and D as E.

Figure 3.

Asiagone perforata. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: B as C, D and E as F.

Figure 4.

Asiagone perforata. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Epigyne, ventral view D Vulva, dorsal view. Scale bars: B as A, C as D.

Figure 5.

Bathyphantes paracymbialis. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, retrolateral view D Embolic division, ventral view. Scale bars: A as B, D as C.

Figure 6.

Bathyphantes paracymbialis. A Palp, dorsal view B Palp, ventral view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: A as B, C and D as E.

Figure 7.

Bathyphantes paracymbialis. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: C as B, D and E as F.

Figure 8.

Bathyphantes paracymbialis. A palp, prolateral view b palp, retrolateral view c epigyne, ventral view d vulva, dorsal view. Scale bars: A as B, C as D.

Figure 9.

Batueta cuspidata sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, prolateral view D Embolic division, retrolateral view. Scale bars: A as B, D as C.

Figure 10.

Batueta cuspidata sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, dorsal view B Palp, ventral view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: B as A, C and E as D.

Figure 11.

Batueta cuspidata sp. n., female paratype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: B as C, D and E as F.

Figure 12.

Batueta cuspidata sp. n., male holotype (A–B) and female paratype (C–D). A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Epigyne, ventral view D Vulva, dorsal view. Scale bars: A as B, C as D.

Figure 13.

Batueta similis. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, prolateral view D Embolic division, retrolateral view. Scale bars: A as B, D as C.

Figure 14.

Batueta similis. A Palp, ventral view B Palp, dorsal view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: A as B, D as C.

Figure 15.

Batueta similis. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: C as B, D and F as E.

Figure 16.

Batueta similis. A Epigyne, ventral view B Vulva, dorsal view Scale bar: A as B.

Figure 17.

Capsulia laciniosa sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, ventral view D distal part of suprategulum, ventral view. Scale bars: A as B.

Figure 18.

Capsulia laciniosa sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, dorsal view B Palp, ventral view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: B as A, C and D as E.

Figure 19.

Capsulia laciniosa sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view. Scale bar: A as B.

Figure 20.

Cirrosus atrocaudatus sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, prolateral view D Embolic division, retrolateral view. Scale bars: B as A, C as D.

Figure 21.

Cirrosus atrocaudatus sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, dorsal view B Palp, ventral view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: A as B, C and E as D.

Figure 22.

Cirrosus atrocaudatus sp. n., female paratype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: C as B, E and F as D.

Figure 23.

Cirrosus atrocaudatus sp. n., male holotype (A–B) and female paratype (C–D). A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Epigyne, ventral view D Vulva, dorsal view. Scale bars: A as B, C as D.

Figure 24.

Conglin personatus sp. n., female holotype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: B as C, E and F as E.

Figure 25.

Conglin personatus sp. n., female holotype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Vulva, dorsal view Scale bar: B as A.

Figure 26.

Curtimeticus nebulosus p. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, retrolateral view D Embolic division, prolateral view. Scale bars: A as B, D as C.

Figure 27.

Curtimeticus nebulosus sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, dorsal view B Palp, ventral view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: B as A, C and D as E.

Figure 28.

Curtimeticus nebulosus sp. n., female paratype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: C as B, D and E as F.

Figure 29.

Curtimeticus nebulosus sp. n., male holotype (A–B) and female paratype (C–D). A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Epigyne, ventral view D Vulva, dorsal view. Scale bar: B as A, C as D.

Figure 30.

Dactylopisthes separatus sp. n., female holotype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: C as B, D and E as F.

Figure 31.

Dactylopisthes separatus sp. n., female holotype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Vulva, dorsal view. Scale bars: A as B.

Figure 32.

Gladiata fengli sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division with broken DSA, prolateral view D Embolic division with broken DSA, retrolateral view. Scale bars: B as A, C as D.

Figure 33.

Gladiata fengli sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, dorsal view B Palp with broken DSA, ventral view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: A as B, C and D as E.

Figure 34.

Gladiata fengli sp. n., female paratype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: B as C, D and F as E.

Figure 35.

Gladiata fengli sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view. Scale bar: A as B.

Figure 36.

Glebala aspera sp. n., male holotype. A Right palp, prolateral view B Right palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division of right palp, prolateral view D Embolic division of right palp, retrolateral view. Scale bars: A as B, C as D.

Figure 37.

Glebala aspera sp. n., male holotype. A Right palp, ventral view B Right palp, dorsal view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: B as A, C and D as E.

Figure 38.

Glebala aspera sp. n., male holotype. A Right palp, prolateral view B Right palp, retrolateral view. Scale bar: A as B.

Figure 39.

Glomerosus lateralis sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, dorsal view D Embolic division, ventral view. Scale bars: A as B, D as C.

Figure 40.

Glomerosus lateralis sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, dorsal view B Palp, ventral view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: A as B, D and E as C.

Figure 41.

Glomerosus lateralis sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view. Scale bar: B as A.

Figure 42.

Gongylidiellum bracteatum sp. n., female holotype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: C as B, D and E as F.

Figure 43.

Gongylidiellum bracteatum sp. n., female holotype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Vulva, dorsal view Scale bar: B as A.

Figure 44.

Houshenzinus xiaolongha sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, ventral view D Embolic division, dorsal view. Scale bar: B as A, C as D.

Figure 45.

Houshenzinus xiaolongha sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, doral view B Palp, ventral view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: A as B, C and E as D.

Figure 46.

Houshenzinus xiaolongha sp. n., female paratype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: C as B, D and F as E.

Figure 47.

Kaestneria bicultrata. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, retrolateral view D Embolic division, prolateral view. Scale bars: B as A, C as D.

Figure 48.

Kaestneria bicultrata. A Palp, ventral view B Palp, dorsal view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: A as B, D and E as C.

Figure 49.

Kaestneria bicultrata. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view. Scale bar: A as B.

Figure 50.

Laogone bai sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, dorsal view D Embolic division, ventral view. Scale bars: A as B, D as C.

Figure 51.

Laogone bai sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, dorsal view B Palp, ventral view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: A as B, C and D as E.

Figure 52.

Laogone lunata sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, dorsal view D Embolic division, ventral view. Scale bars: A as B, D as C.

Figure 53.

Laogone lunata sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, dorsal view B Palp, ventral view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: A as B, D and E as C.

Figure 54.

Laogone lunata sp. n., female paratype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: C as B, D and E as F.

Figure 55.

Laogone lunata sp. n., male holotype (A–B) and female paratype (C–D). A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Epigyne, ventral view D Vulva, dorsal view. Scale bars: A as B, C as D.

Figure 56.

Maro bulbosus sp. n., female holotype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, lateral view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: B as C, D and E as F.

Figure 57.

Maro bulbosus sp. n., female holotype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Vulva, dorsal view Scale bar: A as B.

Figure 58.

Nasoonaria circinata sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, ventral view D Embolic division, dorsal view. Scale bars: A as B, C as D.

Figure 59.

Nasoonaria circinata sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, dorsal view B Palp, ventral view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: A as B, C and D as E.

Figure 60.

Nasoonaria circinata sp. n., female paratype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: B as C, D and E as F.

Figure 61.

Nasoonaria circinata sp. n., male holotype (AB) and female paratype (CD). A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Epigyne, ventral view D Vulva, dorsal view. Scale bars: A as B, C as D.

Figure 62.

Neriene circifolia sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolus, prolateral view D Terminal apophysis, prolateral view E Median apophysis, ventral view. Scale bars: B as A, C and D as E.

Figure 63.

Neriene circifolia sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, dorsal view B Palp, ventral view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: B as A, C and E as D.

Figure 64.

Neriene circifolia sp. n., female paratype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: C as B, D and F as E.

Figure 65.

Neriene circifolia sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view. Scale bar: A as B.

Figure 66.

Ambengana complexipalpis, male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Palp, ventral view D Habitus, lateral view. Scale bar: A and C as B.

Figure 67.

Oedothorax biantu sp. n., female holotype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: C as B, D and E as F.

Figure 68.

Oedothorax biantu sp. n., female holotype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Vulva, dorsal view Scale bar: B as A.

Figure 69.

Oilinyphia hengji sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, dorsal view D Embolic division, ventral view. Scale bars: A as B, C as D.

Figure 70.

Oilinyphia hengji sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, ventral view B Palp, dorsal view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: A as B, D and E as C.

Figure 71.

Oilinyphia hengji sp. n., female paratype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: C as B, D and F as E.

Figure 72.

Oilinyphia hengji sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view. Scale bar: A as B.

Figure 73.

Paikiniana furcata sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, retrolateral view D Embolic division, prolateral view. Scale bars: B as A, C as D.

Figure 74.

Paikiniana furcata sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, dorsal view B Palp, ventral view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: B as A, C and D as E.

Figure 75.

Paikiniana furcata sp. n., female paratype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: B as C, D and F as E.

Figure 76.

Paikiniana furcata sp. n., male holotype (A–B) and female paratype (C–D). A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Epigyne, ventral view D Vulva, dorsal view. Scale bar: B as A, C as D.

Figure 77.

Parameioneta bishou sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, prolateral view D Embolic division, retrolateral view. Scale bars: A as B, C as D.

Figure 78.

Parameioneta bishou sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, dorsal view B Palp, ventral view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: A as B, C and D as E.

Figure 79.

Parameioneta bishou sp. n., female paratype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Vulva, lateral view E Habitus, dorsal view F Habitus, ventral view G Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: B and D as C, F and G as E.

Figure 80.

Parameioneta bishou sp. n., male holotype (A–B) and female paratype (C–D). A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view. C Epigyne, ventral view D Vulva, dorsal view. Scale bars: A as B, D as C.

Figure 81.

Parameioneta multifida sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, prolateral view D Embolic division, retrolateral view. Scale bars: B as A, D as C.

Figure 82.

Parameioneta multifida sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, dorsal view B Palp, ventral view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: A as B, C and D as E.

Figure 83.

Parameioneta multifida sp. n., female paratype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: B as C, D and E as F.

Figure 84.

Parameioneta multifida sp. n., male holotype (A–B) and female paratype (C–D). A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Epigyne, ventral view D Vulva, dorsal view. Scale bars: A as B, C as D.

Figure 85.

Parameioneta tricolorata sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, retrolateral view D Embolic division, prolateral view. Scale bars: A as B, D as C.

Figure 86.

Parameioneta tricolorata sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, dorsal view B Palp, ventral view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: B as A, C and D as E.

Figure 87.

Parameioneta tricolorata sp. n., female paratype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: C as B, D and F as E.

Figure 88.

Parameioneta tricolorata sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view. Scale bar: A as B.

Figure 89.

Smerasia obscurus sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, retrolateral view D Embolic division, prolateral view. Scale bars: B as A, C as D.

Figure 90.

Smerasia obscurus sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, dorsal view B Palp, ventral view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: B as A, C and E as D.

Figure 91.

Smerasia obscurus sp. n., female paratype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: C as B, D as F.

Figure 92.

Smerasia obscurus sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view. Scale bar: B as A.

Figure 93.

Tapinopa undata sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, retrolateral view D Embolic division, prolateral view. Scale bars: B as A, C as D.

Figure 94.

Tapinopa undata sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, ventral view B Palp, dorsal view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: B as A, C and E as D.

Figure 95.

Tapinopa undata sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view. Scale bar: B as A.

Figure 96.

Theoa bidentata sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolus, retrolateral view D Embolus, prolateral view. Scale bars: B as A, C as D.

Figure 97.

Theoa bidentata sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, ventral view B Palp, dorsal view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: A as B, C and E as D.

Figure 98.

Theoa bidentata sp. n., female paratype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Epigyne, lateral view E Habitus, dorsal view F Habitus ventral view G Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: C and D as B, E and F as G.

Figure 99.

Theoa bidentata sp. n., male holotype (AB) and female paratype (CD). A Embolus, retrolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Epigyne, ventral view D Vulva, dorsal view. Scale bars: C as D.

Figure 100.

Theoa vesica sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolus, retrolateral view D Embolus, prolateral view. Scale bars: B as A, D as C.

Figure 101.

Theoa vesica sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, ventral view B Palp, dorsal view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: B as A, C and D as E.

Figure 102.

Theoa vesica sp. n., female paratype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: B as C, D and E as F.

Figure 103.

Theoa vesica sp. n., female paratype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Vulva, dorsal view.

Figure 104.

Vittatus bian sp. n., male holotype. A Right palp, prolateral view B Right palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division of the right palp, prolateral view D Embolic division of the right Palp, retrolateral view. Scale bars: A as B, D as C.

Figure 105.

Vittatus bian sp. n., male holotype. A Right palp, dorsal view B Right palp, ventral view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: A as B, C and D as E.

Figure 106.

Vittatus bian sp. n., female paratype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bar: D and E as F.

Figure 107.

Vittatus bian sp. n., male holotype (AB) and female paratype (CD). A Right palp, prolateral view B Right palp, retrolateral view C Epigyne, ventral view D Vulva, dorsal view. Scale bars: B as A, C as D.

Figure 108.

Vittatus fencha sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, retrolateral view D Embolic division, prolateral view. Scale bars: B as A, C as D.

Figure 109.

Vittatus fencha sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, dorsal view B Palp, ventral view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: B as A, C and D as E.

Figure 110.

Vittatus fencha sp. n., female paratype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: C as B, D and E as F.

Figure 111.

Vittatus fencha sp. n., male holotype (AB) and female paratype (CD). A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Epigyne, ventral view D Vulva, dorsal view. Scale bar: D as C.

Figure 112.

Vittatus latus sp. n., male holotype. A Right palp, prolateral view B Right palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division of the right palp, prolateral view D Embolic division of the right palp, retrolateral view. Scale bar: D as C.

Figure 113.

Vittatus latus sp. n., male holotype. A Right palp, dorsal view B Right palp, ventral view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bar: C and D as E.

Figure 114.

Vittatus latus sp. n., female paratype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: C as B, D and E as F.

Figure 115.

Vittatus latus sp. n., male holotype (AB) and female paratype (CD). A Right palp, prolateral view B Right palp, retrolateral view C Epigyne, ventral view D Vulva, dorsal view. Scale bar: A as B.

Figure 116.

Vittatus pan sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Embolic division, retrolateral view D Embolic division, prolateral view. Scale bars: B as A, C as D.

Figure 117.

Vittatus pan sp. n., male holotype. A Palp, dorsal view B Palp, ventral view C Habitus, dorsal view D Habitus, ventral view E Habitus, lateral view. Scale bars: A as B, C and E as D.

Figure 118.

Vittatus pan sp. n., female paratype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Epigyne, dorsal view C Vulva, dorsal view D Habitus, dorsal view E Habitus, ventral view F Habitus lateral view. Scale bars: C as B, D and E as F.

Figure 119.

Vittatus pan sp. n., male holotype (AB) and female paratype (CD). A Palp, prolateral view B Palp, retrolateral view C Epigyne, ventral view D Vulva, dorsal view. Scale bar: A as B, C as D.

Figure 120.

Four main collection localities in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan China. 1 Menglun Town 2 Mengla Town 3 Mengyang Town 4 Menghai Town.

Figure 121.

Neighor-joining tree based on DNA barcode of the mitochondrial COI sequences from paired Xishaungbanna linyphiids (marked in blue) and sequences deposited in BOLD systems (marked in black). (K2P model, bootstrap=1000, bootstrap values less than 20% are not shown).

Acknowledgement

The manuscript benefited greatly from comments by Drs Yuri M. Marusik (Magadan, Russia) and Andrei V. Tanasevitch (Moscow, Russia). David John Court (Singapore) kindly checked the English. Dr Peter Jäger (Frankfurt am Main, Germany) kindly checked the etymologies. Drs Guo Zheng (IZCAS, now Shenyang Normal University), Zhiyuan Yao (IZCAS), Zhigang Chen (IZCAS) and the late Guo Tang (Hunan Normal University) kindly helped in the field work. This study was supported by the National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (China National Funds for Distinguished Young Scientists-31025023 and 31272280), by the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KSCX2-EW-Z-8), and partly also by a grant (No. O529YX5105) from the Key Laboratory of the Zoological Systematics and Evolution of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

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