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Review Article
Taxonomic studies of the Lygephila lubrica (Freyer, 1842) species complex with notes on other species in the genus (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Toxocampinae)
expand article infoOleg Pekarsky
† Unaffiliated, Budapest, Hungary
Open Access

Abstract

The taxa of the Lygephila lubrica (Freyer, 1846) species complex are revised. The genital features of all known taxa are described and illustrated, with special reference to the structure of the vesica. Genitalia of L. lubrica from different places in Russia, Central Asia and China are studied, illustrated and compared with different Mongolian populations. L. kazachkaratavika, described as a subspecies, is raised to a species level, stat. n. Neotypes of Lygephila lubrosa (Staudinger, 1901), L. lubrosa kazachkaratavika Stshetkin YuL & Stshetkin YuYu, 1994 [1997] and L. lubrosa orbonaria Stshetkin YuL & Stshetkin YuYu, 1994 [1997] are designated. The female genitalia of the type of L. lupina (Graeser, 1890) is described and illustrated for the first time, and L. mirabilis (Bryk, 1948) treated here as a junior subjective synonym, syn. n.

Keywords

Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Toxocampinae, Lygephila lubrica species complex, L. mirabilis, L. lupina, vesica structure

Introduction

This paper is dedicated to clarify the taxonomic status of the taxa in the L. lubrica species group, which is proved to contain more than a single species. Special attention was paid to revising the poorly-known taxa described from Central Asia and the identity of the historical names that have been used confusingly in the literature. The examined material is considered as representative for the entire area of the species complex, including all available types preserved in the collections of Püngeler, Staudinger, Bang-Haas, and Stshetkin. Neotypes are designated when required by the taxonomic results.

Materials and methods

Male and female genitalia were dissected and mounted in Euparal on glass sides. Photos of genitalia were made by Svitlana Pekarska using a Nikon SMZ745T microscope and Moticam 2500 camera. Photos of imagines where taken by the author using a Nikon D3000/Sigma 105, f/2.8 camera.

Abbreviations: HNHM = Hungarian Natural History Museum Budapest (Hungary); IZIP = Institute of Zoology and Parasitology, Tajik Academy of Sciences Dushanbe (Tajikistan); MA = Matov Alexey, St. Petersburg (Russia); MNHU = Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (Germany); NHMW = Naturhistorisches Museum Wien (Vienna, Austria); ZISP = Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences St. Petersburg (Russia); ZFMK = Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut und Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn; ZSM = Zoologische Staatssammlung München; AV = Anton Volynkin (Barnaul, Russia); GB = Gottfried Behounek (Grafing, Germany); JB = János Babics (Budapest, Hungary); OP = Oleg Pekarsky (Budapest, Hungary); LR = László Ronkay (Budapest, Hungary); WB = Wiltshire Berlin (slide made by Edward P. Wiltshire in the collection of MNHU).

Systematic accounts

Description of the Lygephila lubrica species complex

Head and body brownish grey with frons and collar chocolate brown. Forewing broad, apex less pointed than in the L. lusoria group (Babics and Ronkay 2009, Pekarsky 2013), ground colour brownish grey or unicolorous grey with traceable crosslines; orbicular stigma as a small white dot, reniform stigma large, approximately triangular, dark brown; hindwing ground color varies from brown and greyish brown to yellowish or intensive ochreous, discal spot visible only on underside, transverse line distinct, marginal band conspicuously dark. Male genitalia of L. lubrica nearly symmetrical; clasping apparatus of other species slightly asymmetrical (right valva narrower with longer ampulla), uncus well developed, long, strong, its distal half broadened with acute tip; valva margins more or less parallel with rounded apex; clasper long, sclerotized, digitiform, located subapically; aedeagus cylindrical, long, straight; vesica globular, membranous, multidiverticulate (six or seven diverticula various in shape and size), terminal tube long, membranous; ostium bursae large; antrum sclerotized, funnel shaped with considerable cleft in middle of posterior margin; ductus bursae small, corpus bursae membranous, elliptical or ovoid.

Lygephila lubrica lubrica (Freyer, 1846)

Figs 1–10

Ophiusa lubrica Freyer, 1846, Neuere Beiträge zur Schmetterlingskunde mit Abbildungen nach der Natur. 6: 7, Tab. 483, fig. 4. (TL: not given)

Synonymy: Lygephila lubrica sublubrica (Staudinger, 1896);

Toxocampa lubrica var. sublubrica Staudinger, 1896, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift Iris 8: 271. (TL: [Mongolia, Uliastai], Uliassutai)

Type material examined

Lygephila lubrica sublubrica (Staudinger, 1896), Type ♂, [Mongolia, Uliastai], Uliassataj, slide No. WB12 (coll. MNHU).

Additional material examined

2 ♂♂ & 1 ♀, Russia, C Tuva, W of Ujukskyi Mts, Kamennyi riv. valley, h=800–1000 m, 11–20.07.2003, leg. S. Vaschenko, slide Nos: OP1955m, OP2438m, OP1956f (coll. O. Pekarsky); 1 ♂, Russia, Altai Mts, 700 m, Kupchegen, 23–25.VII.2002, leg. Hácz & Juhász, slide No. OP1962m (coll. O. Pekarsky); 1 ♂, Russia, NW Altai Mts, Tigireksky ridge, slide No. AV0907 (coll. A. Volynkin); 1 ♂ Russia, Altai rep., Aktash, 1400 m, 12–14.VIII.2010, leg. R. Yakovlev, slide No. OP2439m (coll. O. Pekarsky); 1 ♀, Russia, SE Altai Mts, Aktash vill., slide No. AV0906 (coll. A. Volynkin); 1 ♂, Mongolia, Central aim., Nr. 1148, leg. Z. Kaszab, slide No. LR1401m (coll. HNHM); 1 ♂, Mongolia, Chövsgöl aimak, Nr. 1128, leg. Z. Kaszab, slide No. LR1402m (coll. HNHM); 1 ♀, Mongolia, Central aimak, 26 km O von Somon Lun, 1180 m, Nr. 260, 3.VIII.1964, leg. Z. Kaszab, slide No. OP2010f (coll. HNHM); 1 ♂ & 2 ♀♀, Mongolia, Selenga aimak, Orhon v., Sir Orhon, 715 m, N49°08'956", E105°15'099", 3–4.07.2004, leg. K. Gaskó, slide Nos: OP2296m, OP2295f, OP2297f (coll. P. Gyulai); 1 ♂, [Kazakhstan], Russia, Uralsk, 1937.VII., ex coll. Velez, slide No. LR1403m, (coll. HNHM); 1 ♂ & 1 ♀, [Kazakhstan], Uralsk, slide Nos: Hacker2536m/ZSM2510m, Hacker2334f/ZSM2508f (coll. ZSM); 1 ♂ & 1 ♀, Russia, S Ural, Orenburg reg., Donskoe vill., Verbljushka Mt., 25–29.6.2009, leg. L. Srnka, slide Nos: OP2124m, OP2125f (coll. O. Pekarsky); 4 ♂♂ & 1 ♀, Russia, Bashkortostan, Yantysh vill., 29–31.VII.2011 slide Nos: OP2005m, OP2007m, OP2440m, OP2441m, OP2006f (coll. O. Pekarsky); 1 ♂ & 1 ♀, Russia, Kabardino-Balkaria, C Caucasus Mts, Bydyk, 1250m, 18.7.2012, leg. L. Srnka, slide Nos: OP2151m, OP2152f (coll. O. Pekarsky); 1 ♀, Kasakhstan, 40 km W Ust Kamenogorsk, Kalbinski Altai, Monastyri, 600 m, 06.08.1994, leg. Lukhtanov, slide No. OP2013f (coll. P. Gyulai); 1 ♂, Kazakhstan, Boro-Khoro Mts, 30km N of Panfilov, (20 km from Chinese border), N44°29'765" E80°03'848", 1830 m, 30.06.2010, leg. S.K. Korb, slide No. OP2083m (coll. O. Pekarsky); 1 ♂, Kirgizstan, Inner Tjan-Shan, Min-Kush circ., 2300 m, 2.08.2000, leg. I. Pljushtch, slide No. OP2004m (coll. O. Pekarsky); 1 ♂ & 1 ♀, Kyrgyzstan, Naryn reg., Kekemeren river, n., Sarykamysh, 1400 m, 6–8.07.1996, leg. V.A. Lukhtanov, slide Nos: OP2015m, OP2016f (coll. P. Gyulai); 1 ♂, [Kyrhyzstan], Issykkul, Tianschan, 949, ex coll. Kotzsch, slide No. OP2426m (coll. ZFMK); 2 ♀♀, China, Xinyiang [Xinjiang] – Uygur, Boro Horo Shan, Balguntay city, 2000 m, 13.7.1996, leg. Nykl, slide Nos: OP2011f, OP2012f (coll. P. Gyulai); 1 ♂, China, Boro Boro shan, Balguntay city, 2000 m, 13.7.1996, slide No. OP2289m (coll. P. Gyulai); 1 ♀, Aksu Bakalik, Anf. VI.1912, ex coll. Rückbeil, slide No. OP2339f (coll. ZSM); 1 ♂, Aksu Bakalik, Anf. VI.1912, ex coll. Rückbeil, slide No. OP2338m (coll. ZSM); 1 ♂, [China], Aksu, [19]11, 225, ZFMK76/64 Boppard, slide No. OP2427m (coll. ZFMK); 1 ♂, Mongolia, Uliasutai, slide No. 0326Matov (coll. ZISP); 1 ♂, [Mongolia], Uliassatai, 946, ex coll. Kotzsch, 8/57, slide No. OP2428m (coll. ZFMK); 1 ♂ & 1 ♀, SW Mongolia, Hovd aimak, Bodonchijn-Gol basin, Hundij-Gol riv. valley, 1600 m, 46°06’N; 92°30’E, 3.vii.2010, leg. E. Guskova & R. Yakovlev, slide Nos: OP1957m, OP1958f (coll. O. Pekarsky); 2 ♂♂, W Mongolia, Hovd aimak, near Erdene-Buren somon, h=1 400 m, 04.07.2007, leg. Yakovlev R.V. & Guskova E.V., slide Nos: AV0283, AV0285 (coll. A. Volynkin); 1 ♂ & 1 ♀, Mongolia, Hovd Aimak, Altaj Mts, 10 km NE of Dott, 2000 m, 10.08.1996, leg. S. Farkas & I.Zs. Tóth, slide No. OP2290m, OP2291f (coll. P. Gyulai); 2 ♂♂ & 1 ♀, W Mongolia, Hovd aimak, near Erdene-Buren-Somon, 1400 m, 1.07.2010, 2500–2850 m, leg. R. Yakovlev, E. Guskova, slide Nos: OP2350m, OP2351m, OP2352f (coll. O. Pekarsky); 1 ♂, Mongolia, Bulgan aimak, 54 km W of Erdenecant, 1260 m, 104°05’E 47°05’N, 22.07.1987, leg. L. Peregovits, M. Hreblay & T. Stéger, slide No. OP2008m (coll. HNHM); 1 ♂, Mongolia, [Khentii] Chentaj aimak, Tsenkher-Mandal, Modoto, 1600–1800 m, 9–14.07.1984, leg. K. Cerny, slide No. GB2550m, (coll. G. Behounek); 1 ♂, [Russia], Yakovlevka Spas. u., Ussur. kr., 12.VIII.[1]926, [leg.] D’iakonv Filip’ev (in russian), slide No. 0330Matov, (coll. ZISP); 1 ♀, Russia, Primorsky ter., Lesozavodsk reg., Innokentievka, 26–30.VIII.[19]94, slide No. OP2298f (coll. P. Gyulai); 1 ♀, [China], Mien-shan (Prov. Shansi), Obere Höhe ca. 2000 m, 2.8.1937. [leg.] H. Höne, slide No. OP2423f, 2 ♂♂, 9.8.1937, slide Nos: OP2421m, OP2425m, 1 ♂, 13.8.1937, slide No. OP2422m (coll. ZFMK); 1 ♀, [China], Tapaishan im Tsinling, Sued-Shensi, Ca. 3000 m, 17.6.1936, [leg.] H. Höne, slide No. OP2424f (coll. ZFMK).

Taxonomy

Lygephila lubrica was described in 1846 by Freyer in the genus Ophiusa. The exact type locality was not given in the original paper and also there was no information about the types. In 1896, Staudinger supposed during the description of Toxocampa lubrica var. sublubrica, that Ophiusa lubrica was described by Freyer from Altai: «Freyer sagt von seiner Lubrica nur, dass er sie von Kindermann erhielt; es muss sicher die von diesem Sammler im Altai gefundene Art sein, von der ich drei Stücke aus Lederer’s Sammlung besitze». Based on this assumption the type locality of L. lubrica is most probably “Russian Altai” near Ust-Bukhtarminsk settlement (not existing now), which was located near the junction of the Bukhtarma and Irtysh rivers in the modern territory of Kazakhstan. Staudinger & Wocke (1871) placed this species in the genus Toxocampa, and later Staudinger (1896) described a variation named as sublubrica from Uliastai on the western edge of Khangai Mountains in the western part of Mongolia. The type specimen of sublubrica was not found in the collection of MNHU in Berlin however the genitalia slide made by Edward Wiltshire is in the museum (genitalia slide collection, Figs 27, 28). The current combination – Lygephila lubrica – occurs first in Sheljuzhko (1967) and later in Ronkay (1983). The taxon sublubrica is considered as a subspecies of L. lubrica in these two works. Poole (1989) incorrectly treated Lygephila lubrica (Freyer, 1842) as a new combination, and listed Toxocampa lubrica var. sublubrica Staudinger, 1896 and Toxocampa lubrica var. lubrosa Staudinger, 1901, and have been listed as such in subsequent works (e.g., Goater et al. 2003; Kononenko 2010).

Diagnosis

The main external distinctive feature of the species is the brownish-grey ground colour of forewings and hindwings. Lygephila lubrica differs from the externally somewhat similar L. lubrosa by its characteristic brownish-grey ground color of the forewings; from L. kazachkaratavika by more unicolorous forewings with a less-developed pattern; and from both related species by its brownish hindwings, which are generally ochreous in the two latter species. The differences in the genitalia structures among the three similar species are easily recognisable in both sexes. In males, the uncus dilation in L. lubrica is wider than in L. lubrosa, but narrower than in L. kazachkaratavika, and the ampulla is more proximal, closer to the middle of the valve, than in the two other species; in the females, the cleft on the posterior margin of the antrum is U-shaped or V-shaped in L. lubrica, whereas in L. lubrosa it is evenly concave; in L. kazachkaratavika the ostium cleft is deep, narrow, slit-like.

Description

Wingspan 37–50 mm, on average 42–48 mm. Head and body brownish grey; collar dark chocolate brown. Forewing brownish grey, sometimes dark brown; subbasal line indistinct; antemedial line arched, consisting of two elongated patches; medial fascia diffuse, wide and waved, with two costal patches; reniform stigma approximately triangular, dark brown, sometimes with sharp extension at inner corner and with satellite streak-like spots on outer margin; orbicular stigma as small white dot; postmedial line distinct; subterminal line with light fascia; terminal line a black sinuous stripe. Hindwing varies from brown to greyish brown; transverse line distinct; narrow discal spot present on underside; outer dark third with defuse inner margin; fringes as ground color.

Male genitalia (Figs 2132, 3941). Uncus with short stem and dilated distal two thirds, apex with fine tip, anal tube membranous with characteristic oval hardening of tissue - scaphial crown on scaphium and sclerotized fig on subscaphium; valva elongated, relatively wide with parallel margins, valval apex rounded; clasper digitiform, slightly curved towards costa, situated rather far from apex. Aedeagus straight, long, tubular. Vesica globular, multidiverticulate, membranous; 1st subbasal diverticulum small, adjacent to 2nd terminal diverticulum; medial diverticulum large, tapering, with medium-large oblong chamber at base; 1st terminal diverticulum large, more or less wedge shaped with one part densely scobinated and membranous, cauliflower-like, opposite part bears numerous small pockets; 2nd terminal diverticulum tubular, scobinated on top; 3rd terminal diverticulum irregular shaped with large rectangular scobinated basal part and membranous cylindrical extension; 4th terminal diverticulum medium sized, situated between 1st and 3rd medial diverticulum; 2nd subbasal diverticulum small, tubular, sometimes chili-pepper-like (Fig. 41), terminal tube membranous, as long as aedeagus, opening point of terminal tube located subbasally near carina.

Female genitalia (Figs 4657). Ovipositor relatively large, broad, papillae anales hairy with long setae on apical edges. Apophyses anteriores stout, apophyses posteriores thin, longer than apophyses anteriores. Ostium broad, antrum tapering, funnel shaped, posterior margin incised producing large U-shaped cleft; ductus bursae small, inflated with ventral sclerotized ribbon; appendix bursae small; corpus bursae membranous, ovoid.

Figures 1–10.

Adults. Lygephila lubrica 1 ♂, Russia, Orenburg 2 ♀, Russia, Orenburg 3 ♂, Kazakhstan, Boro-Khoro Mts 4 ♀, Kabardino-Balkaria, Bydyk 5 ♀, Kyrgyzstan, Naryn reg. 6 ♀, China, Xinyiang – Uygur 7 ♂, Russia, Altai, Kupchegen 8 ♀, Russia, Tuva 9 ♂, SW Mongolia, Hovd aimak 10 ♀, SW Mongolia, Hovd aimak.

Distribution

Siberian. Distributed from Zaporozhie region of Ukraine to Rostov, Samara, Povolzhie regions to Ural of Russia through Kazakhstan, Russian Altai and northern Mongolia.

Lygephila lubrosa lubrosa (Staudinger, 1901)

Figs 17, 18

Toxocampa lubrica var. lubrosa Staudinger, 1901, Catalog der Lepidopteren des Palaearctischen Faunengebietes. I: 252. (TL: [Kazakhstan], Ili, [Kyrgyzstan, Issyk Kul], “Iss. K.”)

Type material examined

Neotype (here designated) male, Kazakhstan, Ili river valley near bridge 23,4 km asimut 222 from Koktal, 600 m, N43°58'004", E79°35'905", 04.07.2010, leg. S.K. Korb, slide No. OP2082m (coll. O. Pekarsky, deposited in HNHM Budapest).

Additional material examined

1 ♂, with same data as neotype; 1 ♂ & 1 ♀, Kazakhstan, Ili river valley near Koktal, 506 m, N43°57'57.50", E79°36'1.06", 03.07.2010, leg. S.K. Korb, slide No. OP2489f (coll. O. Pekarsky); 1 ♀, [Kazakhstan], Syr-Daria, Baigacum, Koshantschikoff, 23.6.1913, 4/7, ex. coll. Püngeler, slide No. OP1979f (coll. MNHU); 1 ♂, [Kazakhstan], Aj-Darle, Syr-Darja, 25.V.1909, leg. Koshantshikoff, slide No. 0325Matov (coll. ZISP).

Taxonomy

Described by Staudinger in 1901 as a variation of L. lubrica; with the type locality mentioned as [Kazakhstan], Ili [river] and [Kyrgyzstan], Issyk Kul [lake]. The original description stated that the forewings are pale grey (“cinereo-griseis”) without dark outer part, and that the hindwings are ochreous with broad marginal fascia. This description corresponds exactly with the external appearance of the moths from Ili river in Kazakhstan, therefore the neotype is designated from this area. Moths from Issyk Kul show, however, marked differences in habitus, especially the brown coloration of most parts of the forewings. These two taxa are different in genital structures of both sexes, which are discussed in detail under L. kazachkaratavika. Starting from the 1980’s, Stshetkin YuL treated L. lubrosa in his publications as a distinct species (Stshetkin et al. 1988, Stshetkin 1991). The explanation of this act was given only in 1994 [1997] by Stshetkin YuL & Stshetkin YuYu. Their argumentation was based only on the original description of L. lubrosa, but neither the type material nor the genitalia of the syntypes were studied. Unfortunately, the authors evidently failed in their taxonomic interpretation of the species complex. They were correct to suppose L. lubrosa Staudinger, 1901 is a separate taxon different from L. lubrica, but they failed to define this taxon, and did not recognize that the yellowish hindwinged populations include two different species.

The main fault of the Stshetkins’ work is the lack of definition of L. lubrosa Staudinger, 1901. In their article they provided the following description of the genitalia of L. lubrosa: “Гениталии самца симметричные. Ункус слабо изогнутый, расширенный в средней части, заостренный. Вальвы удлинённые с немного выпуклыми дорзальными и вентральными краями. Вершинный отросток класпера пальцеобразный, длиннее, чем у L. lubrica; его конец находится близ дорзального края вальвы (у L. lubrica он далеко не достигает края). Конец вальвы от основания этого отростка до его заднего конца заметно короче, чем у L. lubrica. В оральной трети длины вальвы продольная хитинизированная складка класпера, направляясь орально, плавно прогибается несколько к вентральному краю вальвы и при этом не образует резкого угла с бугорком-гарпой, имеющегося у L. lubrica Frr. Нижняя фультура под эдеагусом без особого изгиба прямо идет в сторону саккуса, как у L. lusoria L.” The translation of this text is as follows: “The male genitalia are symmetrical. Uncus slightly curved, dilated in the middle part, pointed. Valva elongated with slightly convex dorsal and ventral edges. Apex of clasper digitiform, longer than that of L. lubrica; its end close to the dorsal margin of the valva (as for L. lubrica, the latter is far from reaching the margin). The end of the valva from the base of the clasper till its back end is noticeably longer than that of L. lubrica. In the oral [basal] third of the valva, the longitudinal chitinized fold of the clasper is directed orally [basally] and is slightly curved towards the ventral margin of the valva without forming an abrupt angle with the hump-harpe, which is typical for L. lubrica Frr. Lower fultura [juxta] under aedeagus almost straight and directed towards the saccus as L. lusoria L.” This description is contradictory as it includes characteristics of both yellow hindwinged species occurring in Central Asia. To be precise, “Uncus dilated in the middle part” is only typical for the moth (L. kazachkaratavika) from Kyrgyzstan (lake Issyk Kul) and Kazakhstan (city of Kizilorda and station Baigacum on the river Syr Darja) (Figs 37, 38); “Apex of clasper digitiform and longer than that of L. lubrica; its end close to the dorsal margin of the valva” is only typical for the moths (L. lubrosa) from Kazakhstan (river Ili) and Tajikistan (river Pianj) (Figs 3336). The female genitalia are described as follows: “В гениталиях самки копулятивная сумка мешковидная и вместе с едва заметным бугорком-буллой вся перепончатая (у L. lubrica булла конусовидная, хитинизированная, как и весь проток и часть сумки). Проток сумки значительно короче, его оральная часть перепончатая”. The translation is as follows: “In the female genitalia the copulative pouch [corpus bursae] is saccular and all membranous along with a barely noticeable bulla (while the bulla of L. lubrica is conical and chitinized as well as the whole antrum and part of the pouch [corpus bursae]). The antrum is significantly shorter with membranous oral [basal] part.” The characteristics mentioned as “the antrum is significantly shorter than that of L. lubrica” partially corresponds to the moths from the Ili region. However, it is not diagnostic because in many specimens of L. lubrica the antrum has the same length. The antrum of the moths (L. kazachkaratavika) from the Issyk Kul region and the river Syr-Darja is one and a half times longer than that of L. lubrica and two times longer than that of the moths from the valley of the river Ili (L. lubrosa). The other characteristics mentioned by the authors are general, non-autapomorphic and unsuitable for determination.

In the same work the authors described two subspecies of L. lubrosa on the basis of external characteristics, admitting that the two subspecies do not differ in genitalia structure from the nominotypical subspecies. However, the moths from the Kazakh Karatau, station Balamurum collected by V. Kozhantshikov in 1909 (L. kazachkaratavika) differ significantly in their genitalia structure from the moths from the valleys of the river Ili (L. lubrosa lubrosa) and the river Pianj (L. lubrosa orbonaria). All above-mentioned data prove that the authors did not consider the subject of their research, which caused unsatisfactory results and added further difficulties for the clarification of this species-complex. A further difficulty is that the authors did not define holotypes or paratypes (or simply type series) for the newly described taxa. According to the information from the museum curators of ZISP and IZIP, they do not possess the aforesaid type specimens with the corresponding type labels.

In order to correctly identify the taxa of this species complex, in view of complexity of the current taxonomic situation, and to give an accurate definition of L. lubrosa, it is necessary to designate a neotype of this taxon.

Diagnosis

Easily distinguishable from all other members of the species group by its unicolorous grey forewings. Comparing the genital structures of the taxa of the group, it differs from all related species by the narrow uncus without a real dilatation (only some slight thickening is present), the wide valva, and the subapically located, strong clasper with its tip reaching the valval edge (males); and by the funnel-shaped antrum bent dorsally at 45 degrees, being a unique female character for the whole genus (Fig. 60).

Description

Wingspan 42–46 mm. Head and body grey with some brownish scales; collar chocolate brown. Forewing almost unicolorous, wing pattern poorly developed; subbasal line hardly traceable, represented by groups of dark scales on veins; antemedial line semicircular; medial shade not expressed; reniform stigma small, indistinct, with one or two black dots basad; orbicular stigma small dot-like; postmedial and subterminal lines distinct; terminal line a row of black dots on veins. Hindwing pale ochreous; transverse line not discernible; outer dark third with sharply defined inner margin; fringes ochreous.

Male genitalia (Figs 33, 34, 44, 45). Uncus long, stout, slightly thickened medially with skewed fine tip, anal tube membranous with oval hardening of tissue - scaphial crown on scaphium and sclerotized fig on subscaphium; valva elongated, wide, with parallel margins in the middle, valval apex rounded; clasper digitiform, strong, thickened with wide base, placed subapically, asymmetrical, left one shorter than the right one, both almost reach valval costa. Aedeagus tubular with narrow, long, acute sclerotised lamina on ventral side of carina. Vesica globular, multidiverticulate, membranous; basal diverticulum small; medial diverticulum large with small lateral hemispherical bulging; 1st terminal diverticulum large, more or less wedge shaped, membranous with cauliflower-like part bearing numerous small pockets; 2nd terminal diverticulum large, cone shaped, scobinated on top; 3rd terminal diverticulum medium-sized, bifurcated, Y-shaped; 4th terminal diverticulum large, bilobate, located oppositely to the 3rd medial diverticulum; terminal tube membranous as long as aedeagus, opening point of terminal tube located near to carina.

Female genitalia (Figs 5861). Ovipositor relatively large, broad, papillae anales hairy with long setae on apical edges. Apophyses anteriores stout, apophyses posteriores thin, longer than apophyses anteriores. Antrum funnel shaped, bent dorsally at 45 degrees, boomerang shaped from lateral view; ostium bursae broad, posterior margin U-shaped; ductus bursae medium sized; appendix bursae small; corpus bursae membranous, bevelled oval.

Figures 11–20.

Adults. 11–16 Lygephila kazachkaratavika 11 neotype, ♂, Balamurum 12 ♀, Kazakhstan, Baigacum 13 ♂, Kazakhstan, Taldy-Kurgan reg. 14 ♀, Kazakstan, Baigacum 15 ♂, Kyrgyzstan, Issyk Kul 16 ♀, Kyrgyzstan, Issyk Kul 17, 18 L. lubrosa lubrosa 17 neotype, ♂, Kazakhstan, Ili river 18 ♀, Kazakhstan, Baigacum 19, 20 L. lubrosa orbonaria 19 neotype, ♂, Tajikistan, Pianj river 20 ♂, Tajikistan, Pianj river.

Destribution

Kazakhstan, valley of the river Ili.

Lygephila lubrosa orbonaria Stshetkin YuL & Stshetkin YuYu, 1994 [1997]

(TL: SW Tajikistan, “Tigrovaya balka” reserve)
Figs 19, 20

Type material examined

Neotype (here designated) male, Tajikistan, down stream of Planj river, “Tigrovaya Balka” reserve, 1–5.08.2006, leg. V. Gurko, slide No. JB1218m (coll. P. Gyulai, will be deposited in HNHM Budapest).

Additional material examined

1 ♂, S. Tajikistan, down stream of Pianj riv., “Tigrovaya Balka” reserve, 1–5.08.2006, V. Gurko lgt., slide No. OP2268m (coll. M. Dvořák).

Taxonomy

Described as a subspecies of L. lubrosa. The original description does not contain any information about the genitalia structures. However, the male genitalia show some recognisable differences compared with those of the nominate subspecies.

There is no trustworthy information about the holotype and paratypes of this taxon. According to the information from the Lepidoptera collection of IZIP, Stshetkins’s collection was totally destroyed sometime after the end of the 1990‘s. Also, there are no corresponding type labels in institute’s collection. To ensure the stability and identification of the taxon it is necessary to designate a neotype of Lygephila lubrosa orbonaria.

Diagnosis

Differs from L. lubrosa lubrosa by its smaller size and better marked reniform stigma. In the male genitalia, ssp. orbonaria differs from ssp. lubrosa by its narrower uncus without a medial thickening, and the narrower upper part of valva with more expressed asymmetry.

Description

Wingspan 34–43 mm. The external features, with the exception of the smaller size and somewhat roundish forewing, match those of the nominate subspecies.

Male genitalia (Figs 35, 36). Uncus long, stout, sabre-like, anal tube membranous with oval hardening of tissue - scaphial crown on scaphium and sclerotized fig on subscaphium; valva elongated, wide, with parallel margins in the middle, tapering to apex; clasper digitiform, strong, thickened with wide base, placed subapically, somewhat asymmetrical, left one short, right one longer, almost reaches costa. Aedeagus tubular with narrow, long, acute sclerotised lamina on ventral side of carina. Vesica globular, multidiverticulate, membranous; basal diverticulum small; medial diverticulum large with small lateral hemispherical bulging; 1st terminal diverticulum large, more or less wedge shaped, membranous with cauliflower-like part bearing numerous small pockets; 2nd terminal diverticulum large, cone shaped, scobinated on top; 3rd terminal diverticulum medial sized, bifurcated, Y-shaped; 4th terminal diverticulum large, bilobate, located opposite to 3rd medial diverticulum; terminal tube membranous, as long as aedeagus, opening point of terminal tube located near carina.

Female genitalia. Unknown.

Figures 21–26.

Clasping apparatus. Lygephila lubrica.

Figures 27–32.

Clasping apparatus and genitalia slide. Lygephila lubrica.

Figures 33–38.

Clasping apparatus. 33, 34 Lygephila lubrosa lubrosa 33 neotype 35, 36 L. lubrosa orbonaria 35 neotype 37, 38 L. kazachkaratavika 37 neotype.

Distribution

SW Tajikistan, Pianj river valley.

Lygephila kazachkaratavika Stshetkin YuL & Stshetkin YuYu, 1994 [1997], stat. n.

(TL: Kazakhstan, Balamurum)
Figs 1116

Lygephila lubrosa kazachkaratavika Stshetkin YuL & Stshetkin YuYu, 1994 [1997]

Type material examined

Neotype (here designated) male (Fig. 11), 1 ♂, [Kazakhstan], Balamurum, Kara-tau, 1909.VI.21, leg. Koshantshikoff [Kozhantshikov], ex coll. John, slide No. OP2009m (coll. HNHM Budapest).

Additional material examined

1 ♀, label1: [Kyrgyzstan], Asia Centr., (Issykul), 1896, revers label1: Toxocampa, von R. Tancré, 5.98, ex. coll. Püngeler, slide No. OP1981f (coll. MNHU); 1 ♂, [Kyrgyzstan], Issi-Kul, slide No. OP2067m (coll. NHMW); 1 ♀, label1: [Kazakhstan], Syr-Daria, Baigacum, Koshantschikoff, revers label1: 20.6.13, label2: 21/6, 1913, 3/7; 1 ♀, label1: [Kazakhstan], Syr-Daria, Baigacum, Koshantschikoff, revers label1: 21.6.13, label2: 21/6, 1913, 4/7; 1 ♀, label1: [Kazakhstan], Syr-Daria, Baigacum, Koshantschikoff, revers label1: 22.6.13, label2: 22/6, 1913, 5/7, ex. coll. Püngeler, slide No. OP1932f (coll. MNHU); 1 ♀, label1: [Kazakhstan], Syr-Daria, Baigacum, Koshantschikoff, revers label1: 23.VI.13, label2: 23/6, 1913, 6/7, ex. coll. Püngeler, slide No. OP1980f (coll. MNHU); 1 ♂, Kazakhstan, Taldy-Kurgan reg., Ili riv., Boroghudsir, 450m, 7–19.06.1996, slide No. OP2017m (coll. P. Gyulai).

Taxonomy

Described as subspecies of L. lubrosa. It is known that the author did not visit the museum collection of ZIN (ZISP) before writing his article on Lygephila and did not designate a holotype (personal comment of A. Matov). Also, potential type material of Lygephila lubrosa kazachkaratavika has not been found in any of the private collections where Stchetkin YuL’s material was purchased. So, the holotype most likely was never designated. To ensure stability of nomenclature and identification of the taxon it is necessary to designate neotype. A specimen from Kozhantshikov’s material preserved in the HNHM Budapest with the same label data as published in original description is hereby designated as neotype.

Diagnosis

Easily separable from L. lubrica and L. lubrosa by the very contrasting, well-developed pattern on the forewings. In the male genitalia, it differs from all close relatives by its wider dilatation of the uncus, and the more acute apex of the valva (males); the longer antrum with a deep slit-like cleft on the posterior margin is diagnostic for females.

Description

Wingspan 41–44 mm. Head and body brownish grey; collar dark chocolate brown. Forewing contrastingly marked, variable in coloration from mottled light greyish brown to uniform dark brown; noctuid pattern well developed; subbasal line traceable; antemedial line arched, consisting of three elongated patches edged by light fascia basally; medial shade waved, bifurcated from below cell to anal margin, with two costal patches; reniform stigma somewhat triangular, black, sometimes with satellite streak-like spots on outer margin; orbicular stigma absent; postmedial line distinct; subterminal line with light fascia; terminal line a row of black dots. Hindwing ochreous; transverse line distinct; small discal spot present on underside; border between pale proximal part and dark outer third diffuse; fringes ochreous.

Male genitalia (Figs 37, 38, 42, 43). Uncus stem short, stout, distal part dilated, terminated in fine tip; anal tube membranous with oval hardening of tissue - scaphial crown on scaphium and with sclerotized fig on subscaphium; valva elongated, relatively wide with parallel margins in the middle and convergent basally and distally; clasper digitiform, undulate, placed subapically, not reaching costa. Aedeagus straight, long, tubular, with small sclerotized fig on ventral side of carina. Vesica globular, multidiverticulate, membranous; basal diverticulum small; medial diverticulum large, cupola shaped with two hemispherical chambers medially and basally; 1st terminal diverticulum large, more or less wedge shaped, with one part densely scobinated and membranous cauliflower-like, opposite part bearing numerous small pockets; 2nd terminal diverticulum tubular, elongated, scobinated on top; 3rd terminal diverticulum medium sized with lateral bulging; 4th terminal diverticulum large, conical, situated opposite to 3rd medial diverticulum; terminal tube membranous, as long as aedeagus, opening point of terminal tube located subbasally near carina.

Female genitalia (Figs 62, 63). Ovipositor relatively large, broad, papillae anales hairy with very long setae on apical edges. Apophyses anteriores long and thin, apophyses posteriores thin, somewhat longer than apophyses anteriores. Ostium broad, antrum tapering, funnel shaped, posterior margin deeply incised producing slit-like cleft; ductus bursae small; appendix bursae small; corpus bursae membranous, ovoid.

Figures 39–41.

Vesica structure of Lygephila lubrica. 39, 40 Mongolia, Hovd aimak, slide No. OP1957m 39 lateral view 40 lateral view opposite side 41 Russia, Altai, Kupchegen, slide No. OP1962m, lateral view.

Figures 42–45.

Vesica structure. 42, 43 Lygephila kazachkaratavika, neotype, Kazakhstan, Balamurum, slide No. OP2009m 42 lateral view 43 lateral view opposite side 44, 45 L. lubrosa lubrosa, neotype, Kazakhstan, Ili river, slide No. OP2082m 44 lateral view 45 lateral view opposite side.

Figures 46–63.

Female genitalia. 46–57 Lygephila lubrica 58–61 L. lubrosa lubrosa 58 ventral view 59 dorsal view 60 lateral view 61 lateral view 62, 63 L. kazachkaratavika.

Distribution

Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan.

Lygephila lupina (Graeser, 1890), stat. n.

Figs 64, 65

Toxocampa lupina Graeser, 1890, Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift, 35: 71–84. (TL: [Russia, Judish Autonomy, Radde] Raddefka)

Synonymy: Lygephila mirabilis (Bryk, 1948), syn. n.

Eccrita mirabilis Bryk, 1948 (TL: N Korea, Shuotsu)

Type material examined

♀ Type, Amur Centr. (Radde), [18]87, ex. coll. Püngeler, slide No. OP1931f (coll. MNHU).

Additional material examined

1 ♀, [RFE], Ussuriysk dist., Kajmanovka, 20.VII.[19]82, leg. Ivanov, slide No. 0321Matov (coll. ZISP). 1 ♀, [China], Tapaishan im Tsinling, Sued-Shensi, Ca. 1700 m, 14.7.1936, H. Höne, slide No. OP2402f, 1 ♀, [China], Tapaishan im Tsinling, Sued-Shensi, Ca. 1700 m, 10.8.1936, H. Höne, slide No. OP2403f (coll. ZFMK).

Note

There is a lot of confusion between L. mirabilis and L. vulcanea (Butler, 1881) in the literature with regard to illustrations of the adults and genitalia. The taxonomic clarification of this problem will be given in a separate publication.

Taxonomy

The identity of L. lupina was unclear for a long time. Lygephila lupina was described, according to the original description, from Radde, central Amur [Khabarovsk region] (Graeser 1890) on the basis of a single male from the collection of Taylor Tancré, in comparison with Lygephila maxima (Bremer, 1861). The Püngeler collection, now in MNHU, contains a female specimen with a type label (Fig. 64). One can be convinced from the information given by the handwriting of Püngeler on the opposite side of the collecting label (made in May 1905) that this is a true type specimen from the Tancré collection and it is a female, not a male. Thus, Graeser was mistaken about the sex of the type specimen. The study of the genitalia of the type specimen reveals that L. lupina is conspecific with the species known as L. mirabilis (Bryk, 1948). Lygephila mirabilis, therefore, is a junior synonym of L. lupina, syn. n.

Figures 64–69.

64–66 Adults. 64, 65 Lygephila lupina (=mirabilis) 64 ♀, Type, Russia, Raddefka 65 Russia, Kajmanovka 66 L. vulcanea ♀, Japan 67–69 Female genitalia 67, 68 Lygephila lupina (=mirabilis) 67 Russia, Raddefka, slide No. OP1931f 68 Russia, Kajmanovka, slide No. 0321Matov 69 L. vulcanea, Japan, slide No. OP2442f.

Diagnosis

The distinctive features of L. lupina and L. vulcanea (Fig. 66) are given in the works of Sviridov (1990) and Kononenko (1996) (under the names L. vulcanea and L. mirabilis). The main external differences between the two species are found in the colouration and shape of the forewing: L. lupina is broader winged and paler in colouration, usually ochreous brown to buff coloured, whereas L. vulcanea is darker, deep brown to claret brown, most often with a clearly visible violaceous shade and the forewing apex is somewhat more pointed. In the majority of the specimens the reniform stigma of L. lupina is stronger, sharper, and more distinctly marked against the paler background. The female genitalia differ from those of L. vulcanea (Fig. 69) by the shallower incision of the posterior margin of the antrum.

Description

Wingspan 44–49 mm. Head and body brownish grey; collar dark chocolate brown. Forewing brownish grey with sparse dark brown irroration; subbasal line indistinct; antemedial line arched with costal patch; reniform stigma large, dark brown, consists of 5 or 6 streak-like spots; orbicular stigma absent; postmedial and subterminal lines distinct; terminal line a row of black dots. Hindwing brownish; small discal spot present on underside; outer third dark brown; fringes as ground color.

Female genitalia (Figs 67, 68). Ovipositor long, papillae anales large, hairy with long setae on apical edges. Apophyses anteriores relatively short, apophyses posteriores thin, longer than apophyses anteriores. Antrum long, narrow anteriorly, dilated posteriorly, ostium broad, posterior margin with small U-shaped cleft. Corpus bursae membranous, ovoid.

Distribution

Russian Far East, China, Korea.

Acknowledgements

I would like to express my profound gratitude to László Ronkay, Donald Lafontaine and Alberto Zilli for reading the manuscript and for their critical comments, to Gábor Ronkay (Budapest, Hungary), Péter Gyulai (Miskolc, Hungary) and Gottfried Behounek (Grafing bei München, Germany) for access to their extensive private collections. I’m grateful to Johann Stumpf (Lauda-Koenigshofen, Germany), Armin Becher (Freudenberg, Germany), Marek Dvořák (Smrčná, Czech Republic), Luboš Srnka (Lehota pod Vtáčnikom, Slovakia), Matjaž Černila (Kamnik, Slovenia), Aidas Saldaitis (Vilnius, Lithuania) and particularly Stanislav Korb (Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia) for providing material from their collections for the examination; to Keitaro Eda (Shizuoka, Japan) for granted Lygephila material from Japan; to Vlad Proklov (London, UK) for faunistics information of L. lubrica; to Vadim Zolotukhin (Uljanovsk, Russia) for his kind help in finding the material for study; to Evgenij Rutjan (Kiev, Ukraine) and Damir Sharafutdinov (Dushanbe, Tajikistan) for help in finding literature; to Anton Volynkin (Barnaul, Russia) for genitalia photos of L. lubrica from Altai; to Alexey Matov (ZISP, St. Petersburg, Russia) for adult and genitalia photos of L. lubrica, L. lubrosa and L. mirabilis and the great help in finding literature; to Martin Lödl and Sabine Gaal-Haszler (NHM, Vienna), Wolfram Mey (MNHU, Berlin), Axel Hausmann (ZSM, München) and especially to Dieter Stüning (ZFMK, Bonn) for access to the museum collections and for their help in finding literature.

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