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Revision of the genus Pseudapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae), with emphasis on the species in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica
expand article infoJose Fernandez-Triana, Daniel Janzen, Winnie Hallwachs, James Whitfield§, M. Alex Smith|, Robert Kula
† Canadian National Collection of Insects, Ottawa, and Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, Ottawa, Canada
‡ University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, United States of America
§ University of Illinois, Urbana, United States of America
| Department of Integrative Biology and the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, Ontario, Canada
¶ USDA-ARS, Washington, DC, United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

Pseudapanteles is a moderately diverse genus of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), endemic to the New World and with the vast majority of its species (including many undescribed) in the Neotropical region. We describe here 25 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica, based on 400 studied specimens. A key to all 36 known species of Pseudapanteles is provided (except for P. brunneus, only known from a single male), and species are placed in three newly created species-groups. Host records are known for only 25% of the species; most are solitary parasitoids of the caterpillars of several families of small Lepidoptera (Crambidae, Elachistidae, Gelechiidae, Incurvariidae, Sesiidae, Tineidae). DNA barcodes (part of the CO1 gene) were obtained for 30 species (83%), and provide a start for future study of the genus beyond ACG. Brief descriptions (generated by Lucid 3.5 software) and extensive illustrations are provided for all species. The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed: Pseudapanteles moerens (Nixon, 1965), comb. n., Pseudapanteles brunneus Ashmead, 1900, comb. rev., a lectotype is designated for Pseudapanteles ruficollis (Cameron, 1911), and the following 25 species nova of Pseudapanteles (all authored by Fernández-Triana and Whitfield): alfiopivai, alvaroumanai, analorenaguevarae, carlosespinachi, carlosrodriguezi, christianafigueresae, hernanbravoi, jorgerodriguezi, josefigueresi, laurachinchillae, luisguillermosolisi, margaritapenonae, mariobozai, mariocarvajali, maureenballesteroae, munifigueresae, oscarariasi, ottonsolisi, pedroleoni, raulsolorzanoi, renecastroi, rodrigogamezi, rosemarykarpinskiae, soniapicadoae, teofilodelatorrei.

Keywords

Pseudapanteles, Microgastrinae, New World, Area de Conservación Guanacaste, taxonomic review, parasitoid wasps, caterpillars, DNA barcoding, host species, Lucid software

Introduction

Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), in northwestern Costa Rica, has been inventorying all caterpillar taxa, their food plants, and their parasitoids since 1978 (Janzen et al. 2009, 2012, Fernández-Triana et al. 2014). The resulting thousands of specimens available for study provide the world’s best tropical location-based dataset for studying the taxonomy and host relationships of caterpillar parasitoids.

For the past decade, Microgastrinae wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) have been one of the most frequently reared and intensively studied groups of parasitoids in ACG (references to previously published papers were summarized in Fernández-Triana et al. 2014), although hundreds of species remain undescribed.

This paper is a continuation of those studies. It revises Pseudapanteles, a moderately diverse genus of Microgastrinae, which includes nine described species but many additional undescribed species in collections, mostly from South America. Ashmead (1898) originally described the genus, but it was not until Mason (1981) reclassified Microgastrinae that Pseudapanteles became widely accepted as a distinct genus. Mason redefined Pseudapanteles and restricted it to contain only eight New World species (six in the Neotropics), while also acknowledging that many undescribed Neotropical species were present in collections (Mason 1981). The limits of the genus (at least based on diagnostic morphological characters) have not changed, and scarce progress has been made since Mason’s work, with only one new species from the Nearctic, P. gouleti (Fernández-Triana 2010), being recently described.

Pseudapanteles species are mostly solitary parasitoids of caterpillars of several families of small Lepidoptera (Crambidae, Elachistidae, Gelechiidae, Incurvariidae, Sesiidae, Tineidae). However, most of the wasp species remain without known lepidopteran hosts.

We describe here 25 new species from ACG and provide a key and illustrations for all previously described species.

Methods

This study is based on wasp specimens from ACG that were either reared from caterpillar hosts or collected using Malaise traps; their host caterpillars and other ecological information are considered along with the 658 bp DNA barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene (Hebert et al. 2003) when available (Fig. 1). We also studied the holotypes of all 10 previously described species of Pseudapanteles. They are deposited in the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Ottawa, Canada (CNC), the Natural History Museum, London, England (BMNH), and the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, United States (NMNH).

Figure 1.

Neighbor-Joining (NJ – Saitou and Nei 1987) tree based on Kimura 2-parameter distances (K2P – Kimura 1980) made using MEGA6 (Tamura et al. 2013) of a single representative sequence from each species, selected based on longer read length and lower number of ambiguities. An NJ tree of all ACG specimens, made using BOLD, can be seen in Suppl. material 1.

Specimens of the new species are deposited in the CNC, BMNH, NMNH, the Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, United States (INHS), and the Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Santo Domingo, Costa Rica (INBio).

Morphological terms and measurements of structures are mostly as used by Mason (1981), Huber and Sharkey (1993), Whitfield (1997), Karlsson and Ronquist (2012), and Fernández-Triana et al. (2014). Natural history information (e.g., geographical distribution, hosts) is also provided in the key when available for a species. Those data are included in brackets at the end of the corresponding couplet and are intended as supplementary information to aid identification.

Descriptions of the new species are based on the study of all female specimens that were available for study (to reflect intraspecific variation), but always include data from the holotype. As an exception, three new species were described from males only because they were distinct enough to be recognized; the males of those three species will run through the key, but males of most species may not be readily identified unless associated with females via rearing or molecular data.

Lucid 3.5.4 (http://www.lucidcentral.com/) software was used to generate automatic descriptions of the species and to prepare Lucid identification keys. A dataset of 15 characters and 95 character-states was used to provide uniform descriptions for all new species. The description format includes one phrase per character, with the character mentioned first and the character-state following after a colon, e.g., “Metatarsus color: pale”. Whenever a species scored more than one character-state, the description included all of the pertaining character-states separated by “or”, e.g., “Metatarsus color: pale or dark”. Whenever a character-state was coded as uncertain due to poor condition of a specimen, the description includes the details of the character-state as best assessed, followed by a question mark, e.g., “Metatarsus color: pale (?)”. Sometimes a character could not be coded due to missing body parts in the available specimens; in such instances the feature was left out of the description for that particular species.

In most cases we used a simplified convention to code color, considering it as either pale (light yellow, orange-yellow, light brown-yellow) or dark (dark brown, black). For details on the exact color patterns on the body, we provide extensive photographic illustrations for every species.

We had to use logical characters in some couplets of the dichotomous key (e.g., “if”, “then”, “and”, “or”, “and/or”). Those words are shown in bold and italic to be explicit that in those cases more than one character state has to be considered.

Most photos were taken with a Keyence VHX-1000 Digital Microscope, using a lens with a range of 13–130 ×. Multiple images through the focal plane were taken of a structure and these were combined to produce a single in-focus image, using the software associated with the Keyence System.

Images of holotypes deposited in the NMNH were obtained using a GT Vision EntoVision imaging system consisting of a firewire JVC KY-75 3CCD digital camera mounted on a Leica M16 zoom lens via a Leica z-step microscope stand. The camera fed a desktop computer where the Archimed software program was used to export image stacks, and the CZPBatch software program was used to generate a composite image from the exported image stacks. Composite images were edited using Adode Photoshop CS4 to remove artifacts from stack processing and standardize background color. Plates were assembled using Adobe Illustrator CS4.

A map with the distribution of all species was generated using SimpleMappr (Shorthouse 2010).

DNA barcodes for all ACG inventory Pseudapanteles were obtained using DNA extracts prepared from single legs using a glass fibre protocol (Ivanova et al. 2006). Briefly, total genomic DNA was re-suspended in 30 μl of dH2O, and a 658-bp region near the 5’ terminus of the COI gene was amplified using standard primers (LepF1–LepR1) following established protocols (Smith et al. 2006, 2007, 2008). If the initial 658 bp amplification was unsuccessful, composite sequences were generated using internal primers. All information for the sequences associated with each individual specimen can be retrieved from the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD) (Ratnasingham and Hebert 2007) by Process ID (sequence accession) or here: https://doi.org/10.5883/DS-ASPSE.

In the taxonomic treatment of species, full details of the collecting (type) locality are given only for the holotype. We provide the country and province for paratypes, followed by ACG database codes (in the format “yy-SRNP-xxxxxx” for the host caterpillar or parasitoid lot reared from it, or “DHJPARxxxxxxx” for an individual parasitoid specimen). Those codes allow for the retrieval of detailed information of any specimen at http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu.

The new species from ACG were named to honor many of the Costa Rican political figures who have been important in all aspects of the founding, growth and evolution of ACG.

Results and discusion

Pseudapanteles is widely distributed in the New World (Fig. 2), ranging from 34°S in Argentina to 45°N in Canada (Whitfield 1995, 1997, Fernández-Triana 2010, 2014, Yu et al. 2012; data herein). Most of the species are Neotropical, with just a few extending north into the Nearctic Region. The collections we have examined contain many tens of additional undescribed species, mostly from South America (this area is understudied yet is probably the richest). We estimate that the actual richness of the genus will easily surpass 100 species when intensive studies, such as the present one in ACG, are done elsewhere.

Figure 2.

Distribution map of the described species of Pseudapanteles in the New World.

Mason (1981) characterized the hosts for species of Pseudapanteles as being plant-boring microlepidopterans, and subsequent rearing, mostly done in ACG, supports this assertion. However, there are also some leafminer hosts which appear to be restricted to only a few of the Pseudapanteles species found so far.

The genus Pseudapanteles is characterized by its elongate glossa which is strongly bilobed apically (as in Figs 40, 52, 95, 139, 144, 149, 152, 175), propodeum with a strongly defined median longitudinal carina (as in Figs 13, 18, 34, 44, 69, 77, 88, 93, 97, 101, 125, 140, 154, 177) but no transverse carina (traces of a transverse carina are very rarely present in a few Neotropical species), mediotergite 1 with a sharp median sulcus (as in Figs 13, 17, 46, 73, 88, 93, 101, 120, 125, 138, 182, 185), hypopygium with a large translucent fold with many pleats (as in Figs 6, 15, 30, 42, 57, 72, 128, 133, 141, 168, 171), and ovipositor sheaths at least 0.7 × as long as metatibia length. The only other genus that could be confused with Pseudapanteles is the more recently described Mariapanteles due to similar morphological features. However, Mariapanteles differs in having a complete or almost complete transverse carina on the propodeum which forks around the spiracles and reaches the lateral margins of the propodeum, and the hypopygium with no or few pleats (Whitfield et al. 2012). Another feature discussed by Whitfield et al. (2012) as being diagnostic to separate the two genera, the elongate glossa, is present in species of both genera and thus is no longer useful.

Below we describe 25 new species from ACG and propose two new combinations: Pseudapanteles moerens (Nixon, 1965), comb. n. (transferred from Apanteles), and Pseudapanteles brunneus Ashmead, 1900, comb. rev. (transferred from Apanteles). We recognize 36 species of Pseudapanteles as a result of this research (Table 1).

Species of Pseudapanteles currently recognized and their known distribution. All known records for Costa Rica are from Area de Conservación Guanacaste. The (*) after Hawaii means that Pseudapanteles dignus is not a native species but was introduced there.

Species Species-group Known distribution
Pseudapanteles abantidas (Nixon, 1965) gouleti Brazil
Pseudapanteles alfiopivai Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. annulicornis Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles alvaroumanai Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. annulicornis Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles analorenaguevarae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. annulicornis Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles annulicornis Ashmead, 1900 annulicornis Panama, St. Vincent
Pseudapanteles brunneus Ashmead, 1900, comb. rev. annulicornis St. Vincent
Pseudapanteles carlosespinachi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. annulicornis Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles carlosrodriguezi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. gouleti Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles christianafigueresae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. annulicornis Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck, 1938) annulicornis Argentina, Bermuda, Cuba, Hawaii (*), Mexico, Puerto Rico, United States, Virgin Islands
Pseudapanteles gouleti Fernández-Triana, 2010 gouleti Canada
Pseudapanteles hernanbravoi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. annulicornis Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles jorgerodriguezi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. annulicornis Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles josefigueresi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. annulicornis Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles laurachinchillae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. annulicornis Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles lipomeringis (Muesebeck, 1958) annulicornis Panama
Pseudapanteles luisguillermosolisi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. annulicornis Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles margaritapenonae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. annulicornis Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles mariobozai Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. annulicornis Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles mariocarvajali Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. mariocarvajali Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles maureenballesteroae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. gouleti Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles moerens (Nixon, 1965), comb. n. annulicornis Brazil
Pseudapanteles munifigueresae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. annulicornis Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles nerion (Nixon, 1965) annulicornis Brazil
Pseudapanteles nigrovariatus (Muesebeck, 1921) annulicornis United States
Pseudapanteles oscarariasi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. gouleti Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles ottonsolisi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. annulicornis Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles pedroleoni Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. annulicornis Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles raulsolorzanoi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. gouleti Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles renecastroi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. annulicornis Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles rodrigogamezi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. annulicornis Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles rosemarykarpinskiae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. gouleti Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles ruficollis (Cameron, 1911) annulicornis Costa Rica, Cuba, Guyana
Pseudapanteles sesiae (Viereck, 1912) annulicornis Canada, United States
Pseudapanteles soniapicadoae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. gouleti Costa Rica
Pseudapanteles teofilodelatorrei Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n. annulicornis Costa Rica

The new species described from ACG more than double the previous number of known species of Pseudapanteles. We are aware of an additional four to six species in the ACG inventory which are only represented by males and are virtually impossible to fully distinguish morphologically; they will remain undescribed until female specimens are available.

The known species of Pseudapanteles can be placed in three morphologically distinctive species groups, all of which are newly proposed in this paper. The mariocarvajali species-group comprises one species from ACG, which is unique on the basis of the almost quadrate mediotergite 2, and also has a large body size and fore wing length (>3.4 mm). Known hosts include species in two genera of Elachistidae, Chlamydastis and Stenoma. We have not seen more species of this group in the collections studied.

The gouleti species-group comprises eight described species, and a few other undescribed ones seen in collections. It includes two subgroups, one with the propodeum strongly sculptured (with transverse striation that sometimes look like carinae), and another subgroup with the propodeum clearly differentiated into an elevated central area and depressed posterolateral corners (with variable sculpturing). Known hosts are species of Elachistidae and Incurvariidae. The species rosemarykarpinskiae shows some features, especially the forewing venation and sculpturing of T1 and T2, that resemble the genus Rhygoplitis – a not particularly close genus based on previous studies, and thus is likely to be another example of convergence within Microgastrinae, as it has been pointed out in the past (e.g., Mason 1981). The gouleti species-group is likely to be split when the Neotropical fauna (especially that of South America) is further studied; some of its component species might even be placed in Mariapanteles. Conversely, the genus Mariapanteles might ultimately be synonymized with Pseudapanteles (e.g., Whitfield et al. 2012). Lacking a more complete and robust phylogeny of Microgastrinae, we tentatively consider this a species-group of Pseudapanteles.

The annulicornis species-group comprises the majority of the known species (27), as well as many tens of undescribed species seen in collections. It includes species of Pseudapanteles with a rather smooth propodeum and a strong median carina, the most commonly encountered propodeal sculpture condition in the genus; body size varies from the smallest known specimens of Pseudapanteles (~1.6 mm) to specimens up to 3.0 mm long (excluding the ovipositor). Known hosts are species of Crambidae, Gelechiidae, Sesiidae, and Tineidae. This group may also be split into several in the future, after the Neotropical fauna has been studied in detail.

Key to species of Pseudapanteles

[Below we use “T” to refer to mediotergites (e.g., T1 = mediotergite 1). The key is intended for female specimens, although males of some species will run to the correct couplet. The species P. brunneus Ashmead, 1900, described from St. Vincent Island (Caribbean), is only known from the male holotype, and cannot be identified using this key; however, there are only two known species of Pseudapanteles from St. Vincent Island: P. brunneus, which is dark brown on most of the meso- and metasoma dorsally, and P. annulicornis, which is entirely orange-yellow].

1 T2 subquadrate, width at posterior margin 1.7–1.8 × its length (Figs 100, 101); body length and fore wing length at least 3.4 mm (mariocarvajali species-group) [Hosts: Chlamydastis and Stenoma, Elachistidae. Distribution: ACG] Pseudapanteles mariocarvajali Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
T2 more transverse, width at posterior margin at least 2.7 × its length, usually much more (Figs 5, 13, 17, 26, 34, 41, 44, 49, 58, 64, 67, 73, 78, 80, 88, 91, 98, 112, 120, 125, 127, 135, 140, 148, 155, 161, 165, 167, 170, 179, 185); body length and fore wing at most 3.0 mm, usually much less (if rarely T2 width at posterior margin 2.1 × its length, then body and fore wing length 1.6 mm) 2
2(1) Propodeum mostly smooth and shiny, with well-defined median carina (at most with very few, short rugosities transverse to median carina) (as in Figs 13, 18, 34, 44, 49, 64, 69, 77, 88, 93, 97, 98, 109, 125, 145, 154, 159, 167, 185); and propodeum not differentiated into elevated central area and depressed posterolateral corners (annulicornis species-group) 3
Propodeum dull and mostly sculptured, covered by numerous transverse rugosities in addition to well-defined median carina (as in Figs 58, 135, 148, 150, 164, 165); if propodeum less sculptured, then clearly differentiated into elevated central area and depressed posterolateral corners (as in Fig. 177) (gouleti species-group) 28
3(2) Mesosoma entirely or almost entirely dark brown (at most orange-yellow on propleuron, pronotum partially, small spot on upper corner of mesopleuron, and small marks centrally on anteromesoscutum) (as in Figs 14, 19, 23, 3436, 3840, 4446, 4850, 77, 78) 4
Mesosoma with extensive orange to orange-yellow coloration (as in Figs 712, 24, 25, 5962, 7982, 8488) 17
4(3) All coxae entirely yellow or orange-yellow (at most with very small brown spot dorsally on anterior 0.1 of metacoxa) (Figs 49, 50, 74, 78, 121125) 5
Metacoxa entirely or partially brown (with at least brown spot covering anterior 0.3 of coxa) (as in Figs 46, 64, 65, 71, 72, 94, 105, 116, 154, 155) 7
5(4) Anterior 0.6 of mediotergite 1 and most of laterotergites orange-yellow (Fig. 49) and pterostigma transparent with thin margins brown (Fig. 51); ovipositor sheaths 0.7 × as long as metatibia; mediotergite 1 less strongly narrowing towards posterior margin (maximum width less than 2.0 × tergite width at posterior margin) (Fig. 49) [Hosts: six genera of Gelechiidae (Keiferia, Phthorimaea, Symmetrischema, Tildenia, Tuta). Distribution: Argentina, Bermuda, Cuba, Mexico, Puerto Rico, United States, Virgin Islands; introduced to Hawaii] Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck, 1938)
Metasoma dorsally entirely brown or mostly brown (Figs 75, 78, 121125) and/or pterostigma entirely brown (Fig. 75); ovipositor sheaths at least 0.9 × as long as metatibia (Fig. 121, 122); mediotergite 1 strongly narrowing towards posterior margin (maximum width more than 2.0 × tergite width at posterior margin) (Figs 78, 122, 125) 6
6(5) Metasoma almost entirely dark brown (except laterotergites 1 and 2) (Figs 121125); T2 width at posterior margin 2.9 × its length (Fig. 125); ovipositor sheaths as long as metatibia (Figs 121, 122) [Distribution: Brazil] Pseudapanteles nerion Nixon, 1965
Metasoma yellow-orange on anterior 0.5–0.6 of T1 and most of laterotergites and hypopygium (Fig. 74); T2 width at posterior margin 3.6–3.7 × its length (Fig. 78); ovipositor sheaths slightly shorter (0.9 x) than metatibia (Fig. 74) [Distribution: Costa Rica, ACG] Pseudapanteles laurachinchillae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
7(4) Head, flagellomeres, mesosoma and metasoma mostly dark brown to black (Figs 32, 3436, 169173); body length and fore wing length usually 2.3–3.0 mm 8
Head, mesosoma, and/or metasoma with yellow-orange coloration in some areas (as in Figs 14, 16, 22, 23, 45), if mostly dark brown, then body length and fore wing length less than 1.8 mm; body length usually less than 2.2 mm, if 2.5–2.8 mm then antenna with central flagellomeres white 9
8(7) Body length and fore wing length usually 3.0 mm; T1 relatively slightly narrowing towards posterior margin, its maximum width at most 1.4 × its width at posterior margin (Fig. 170); T2 width at posterior margin 2.5 × its length (Fig. 170) [Host: Synanthedon scitula, Sesiidae. Nearctic species. Distribution: Canada (Ontario) and the United States (District of Columbia, Florida, Indiana, New Jersey, Texas, Virginia)] Pseudapanteles sesiae (Viereck, 1912)
Body length and fore wing length 2.3–2.5 mm; T1 relatively strongly narrowing towards posterior margin, its maximum width 2.9 × its width at posterior margin (Figs 3436); T2 width at posterior margin 3.2 × its length (Fig. 34) [Host: Desmia sp., Crambidae. Neotropical species. Distribution: Costa Rica, ACG] Pseudapanteles carlosespinachi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
9(7) Antenna with central flagellomeres white and remaining flagellomeres brown (Figs 19, 22, 42); body length 2.5–2.8 mm, fore wing length 2.6–2.9 mm 10
Antenna with all flagellomeres dark brown; body length 1.6–2.2 mm, fore wing length 1.6–2.2 mm 11
10(9) Head mostly brown-black posteriorly, but orange on most of frons and face (Fig. 45); flagellomeres 6–10 (and posterior half of flagellomere 5) white (Fig. 42); anteromesoscutum entirely brown to black (Figs 44, 46); metatibia and metatarsus entirely yellow to orange (Figs 42, 46, 47) Pseudapanteles christianafigueresae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
Head posteriorly, frons and face brown-black (Fig. 19); flagellomeres 7–9 white (Figs 19, 22); anteromesoscutum with orange marks centrally (Figs 22, 23); metatarsus entirely, and posterior 0.2 of metatibia brown (Fig. 22) Pseudapanteles analorenaguevarae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
11 (9) Propleuron, pronotum partially, small spot on upper corner of mesopleuron, and small marks centrally on anteromesoscutum orange-yellow, rest of mesosoma dark brown (Figs 14, 16); head posteriorly dark brown to black, but partially orange on frons and face (Fig. 16) Pseudapanteles alvaroumanai Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
Mesosoma entirely dark brown; head posteriorly, frons and face brown to black (Figs 9598, 116, 117, 119, 120, 156, 157, 159161) 12
12(11) Metatibia dark brown at least on posterior 0.6 (as in Figs 116, 156, 158, 159); T1 maximum width (at approximately half length of tergite) at least 2.9 × its width at posterior margin (as in Figs 120, 161); T2 width at posterior margin at most 2.8 × its length 13
Metatibia dark brown at most on posterior 0.2 (Figs 65, 151, partially seen in Figs 71, 72); T1 maximum width (at approximately half length of tergite) 2.2–2.5 × its width at posterior margin; T2 width at posterior margin 3.7–4.1 × its length 15
13(12) Metatibia dark brown on posterior 0.9 (partially seen in Figs 156, 158, 159); pterostigma yellow-white, with very thin brown margins (Fig. 158); T1 length 4.6 × its width at posterior margin (Fig. 161); body length and fore wing length 1.6 mm Pseudapanteles rodrigogamezi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
Metatibia dark brown on posterior 0.6 (partially seen in Figs 94, 116); pterostigma entirely brown (Fig. 96); T1 length at least 5.5 × its width at posterior margin; body length and fore wing length at least 1.8 mm 14
14(13) T1 maximum width (at approximately half length of tergite) 3.8 × its width at posterior margin; T2 width at posterior margin 2.8 × its length (Fig. 120); body length and fore wing length 1.8 mm Pseudapanteles munifigueresae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
T1 maximum width (at approximately half length of tergite) 2.8 × its width at posterior margin; T2 width at posterior margin 2.2 × its length (Figs 9698); body length and fore wing length at least 2.1 mm Pseudapanteles mariobozai Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
15(12) Ovipositor sheaths 0.7 × as long as metatibia (Fig. 71); T1 length 4.0 × its width at posterior margin (Fig. 73) Pseudapanteles josefigueresi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
Ovipositor sheaths 0.9–1.0 × as long as metatibia (Figs 65, 151, 155); T1 length at least 4.5 × its width at posterior margin 16
16(15) T2 mostly longitudinally striate (except for small smooth central area) (Fig. 67); propodeum mostly smooth, with only median longitudinal carina (Fig. 66, 69); scutoscutellar sulcus with 6 impressed pits; ovipositor sheaths 0.9 × as long as metatibia (Fig. 65) [Rain forest, 575 m] Pseudapanteles jorgerodriguezi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
T2 mostly smooth and polished (Figs 154, 155); propodeum with short, carina like sculpture on lateral and posterior margins in addition to median longitudinal carina (Fig. 154); scutoscutellar sulcus with at least 8 impressed pits; ovipositor sheaths 1.0 × as long as metatibia (Figs 151, 155) [Dry forest under 300m] Pseudapanteles renecastroi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
17(3) Head entirely yellow-orange (Figs 79, 81, 83, 110, 111, 113) 18
Head mostly dark brown to black posteriorly, orange on most of frons and face (Figs 9, 11, 12, 59, 61, 62, 126, 128130, 180, 183, 184) 21
18(17) Meso- and metasoma entirely yellow, at most with darker (brown) areas on mesoscutellar arm, metanotum and along median longitudinal carina of propodeum (Figs 7982, 110115) [Distribution: Brazil, Panama] 19
Meso- and metasoma at least partially dark brown to black (Figs 136140, 143145) [Distribution: Costa Rica, ACG] 20
19(18) T1 narrowing towards posterior margin (Fig. 80); T2 smooth and subtriangular, width at posterior margin twice width at anterior margin; meso- and metasoma entirely yellow (Figs 7982) [Host: Lipomerinx prismatica, Tineidae. Distribution: Panama] Pseudapanteles lipomeringis (Muesebeck, 1958)
T1 barely narrowing towards posterior margin, its length 1.7 × its width at posterior margin (Figs 112, 115); T2 mostly with longitudinal striation and much more transverse (width at posterior margin 1.2 × width at anterior margin) (Fig. 112); darker areas (brown) on mesoscutellar arm, metanotum and along median longitudinal carina of propodeum (Figs 110, 111, 114) [Distribution: Brazil] Pseudapanteles moerens (Nixon, 1965)
20(18) Anteromesoscutum mostly orange but with brown marks laterally and centrally on anterior 0.3 (Figs 144, 145), rest of mesosoma orange (Figs 141143); T2 smooth (Fig. 143) Pseudapanteles pedroleoni Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
Anteromesoscutum entirely orange (Figs 138140); mesopleuron, metapleuron, axillar complex, metascutellum and propodeum dark brown to black (Figs 136140); T2 mostly longitudinally striate (Fig. 137) Pseudapanteles ottonsolisi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
21(17) Most of mesosoma (except for metanotum and propodeum black), metasoma and legs reddish brown (Figs 126130) [Distribution: United States (Georgia and Pennsylvania)] Pseudapanteles nigrovariatus (Muesebeck, 1921)
Mesosoma, metasoma and legs with different color patterns 22
22(21) Metacoxa dark brown to black (Figs 59, 60, 64, 180, 185); ovipositor sheaths at least 1.0 × as long as metatibia (Figs 59, 180, 182); T1 length at most 2.3 × its width at posterior margin; T1 maximum width (reached at approximately half length of tergite) 1.8 × its width at posterior margin 23
All coxae yellow (Figs 9, 13); ovipositor sheaths at most 0.9 × as long as metatibia (Figs 9); T1 length 3.4–5.0 × its width at posterior margin; T1 maximum width (reached at approximately half length of tergite) 2.3–2.9 × its width at posterior margin 24
23(22) Body length 2.8 mm, fore wing length 3.0 mm; pterostigma brown with anterior spot pale (Fig. 181); T1 length 1.8 × its width at posterior margin (Figs 182, 185); T2 smooth, its width at posterior margin 4.5 × its length [Host: unidentified Gelechiidae] Pseudapanteles teofilodelatorrei Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
Body length 2.5 mm, fore wing length 2.7 mm; pterostigma pale with thin brown margins (Fig. 60); T1 length 2.3 × its width at posterior margin (partially seen in Figs 60, 61, 64); T2 mostly longitudinally striate, its width at posterior margin 3.4 × its length (Fig. 64) Pseudapanteles hernanbravoi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
24(22) All flagellomeres brown (Figs 166168); T2 light brown (Figs 167, 168); metatibia yellow, with posterior 0.1–0.2 dark brown to black, metatarsus dark brown to black (Figs 167, 168); pterostigma pale, with thin brown margins (Fig. 168); ovipositor sheaths 0.9 × as long as metatibia (Figs 167, 168) [Hosts: Desmia spp., Spoladea recurvalis, Crambidae] Pseudapanteles ruficollis (Cameron, 1911)
Central flagellomeres white-yellow, rest dark brown to black (Figs 9, 11, 24, 28, 29); T2 orange-yellow (Figs 13, 26); metatibia and metatarsus yellow (Figs 10, 13, 24); pterostigma entirely dark or brown with anterior spot pale (Figs 10, 25); ovipositor sheaths 0.7–0.8 × as long as metatibia (Figs 9, 24) 25
25(24) T2 mostly longitudinally striate; antenna brown, with flagellomeres 4–8 white, white band clearly occupying more than one third of antenna length (Fig. 9) Pseudapanteles alfiopivai Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
T2 mostly smooth and polished; antenna brown with flagellomeres 6–8 white (rarely also posterior half of flagellomere 5), white band clearly occupying less than one third of antenna length (Figs 24, 28, 29) 26
26(25) Metasoma entirely orange-yellow (Figs 2427) [Distribution: Panama, St. Vincent] Pseudapanteles annulicornis Ashmead, 1900
Metasoma with T3+ partially brown (Figs 85, 88, 91, 93) [Distribution: Costa Rica, ACG] 27
27(26) Mesosoma mostly orange-yellow but with darker areas on propodeum, metapleuron, metascutellum and axillar complex (darker areas not clearly visible in holotype illustrated in Figs 8993, but clearly marked on most other specimens) Pseudapanteles margaritapenonae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
Mesosoma entirely orange-yellow (Fig. 8488) Pseudapanteles luisguillermosolisi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
28(2) Pterostigma yellow-white, with very thin brown margins (Fig. 106); and propodeum only slightly sculptured on posterolateral corners (Fig. 109); and propodeum differentiated into elevated central area (which is shiny) and depressed posterolateral corners; and metasoma tergites dark brown except anterior 0.6 of T1 yellow (Figs 106, 107, 109) Pseudapanteles maureenballesteroae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
Not as above, either pterostigma entirely or mostly brown (at most with small pale spot anteriorly); or propodeum dull and mostly sculptured, covered by numerous transverse rugosities in addition to well-defined median carina (as in Figs 55, 58); or metasoma tergites with different coloration (mostly yellow or entirely dark brown to black) 29
29(28) Mesosoma and metasoma (dorsally) entirely dark brown to black (Figs 3741) Pseudapanteles carlosrodriguezi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
Either mesosoma or metasoma with extensive yellow to orange areas (Figs 55, 58) 30
30(29) Metasomal tergites mostly yellow except dark brown T1 and light brown T2 (Figs 55, 58); mesosoma entirely black (Figs 5355, 58) [Host: Paraclemensia acerifoliella, Incurvariidae. Distribution: Nearctic, Canada] Pseudapanteles gouleti Fernández-Triana, 2010
Metasomal tergites entirely dark brown to black; mesosoma usually with at least a small area orange [Distribution: Neotropical, Brazil and Costa Rica (ACG)] 31
31(30) T1 almost parallel-sided, its length 2.4 × its width apically, and its maximum width (at approximately half length of tergite) 1.3 × width at posterior margin (Fig. 131); pronotal collar yellow-orange (Figs 131, 134); anteromesoscutum entirely orange-yellow (Figs 131, 134, 135) [Hosts: Antaeotricha (Elachistidae), two other unidentified Elachistidae] Pseudapanteles oscarariasi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
T1 clearly narrowing towards posterior margin, its length at least 3.3 × its width apically (usually much more), and its maximum width (at approximately half length of tergite) at least 1.9 × width at posterior margin (Figs 5, 150, 165, 176); pronotal collar dark brown to black (Figs 7, 162); anteromesoscutum entirely or mostly dark brown to black (Figs 148, 150, 165, 174, 175, 178), if mostly orange, then at least with brown spot centrally on anterior 0.2 (as partially seen in Fig. 8) 32
32(31) Anteromesoscutum mostly orange, with only brown spot centrally on anterior 0.2 (as partially seen in Fig. 8) [Distribution: Brazil] Pseudapanteles abantidas (Nixon, 1965)
Anteromesoscutum entirely or mostly dark brown to black (Figs 148, 150, 174, 175, 178) 33
33(32) Propodeum clearly differentiated into elevated central area and depressed posterolateral corners (Fig. 177); propodeum mostly smooth, with well-defined median carina and few short rugosities transverse to that carina (Fig. 177); antenna relatively shorter on its anterior half, with flagellomere 2 2.5 × as long as wide, and flagellomere 8 2.2 × as long as wide (Figs 174, 178) Pseudapanteles soniapicadoae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
Propodeum not differentiated into elevated central area and depressed posterolateral corners (Figs 148, 150, 164, 165); propodeum dull and mostly sculptured, covered by numerous transverse rugosities in addition to well-defined median carina (Figs 148, 150, 164, 165); antenna relatively longer on its anterior half, with flagellomere 2 at least 3.0 × as long as wide, and flagellomere 8 at least 2.6 × as long as wide (Figs 162, 163) 34
34(33) Anteromesoscutum, axillar complex and head (except for clypeus, labrum and mandibles) entirely dark brown to black (Figs 162, 163, 165); scape brown, same color as flagellomeres (Figs 162, 163) Pseudapanteles rosemarykarpinskiae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.
Anteromesoscutum and axillar complex with some orange spots, head mostly brown-black posteriorly but orange on most of frons and face (Figs 146, 148150); scape yellow, contrasting with brown flagellomeres (Fig. 149) Pseudapanteles raulsolorzanoi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Taxonomic treatment

Pseudapanteles abantidas (Nixon, 1965)

Figs 38

Apanteles abantidas Nixon, 1965: 142 (original description).

Pseudapanteles abantidus: Mason 1981: 86 (revised combination).

Holotype

♀ in BMNH (examined). BRAZIL, Nova Teutonia, 27°11'S, 52°23'W, 12.vii.1937, Fritz Plaumann, B.M. 1937-656.

Male

Unknown.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the gouleti species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on the coloration of anteromesoscutum and metasomal tergites, as well as shape of T1.

Comments

Only the holotype specimen is known.

Pseudapanteles alfiopivai Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 913

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Guanacaste Province, Sector El Hacha, Sendero Bejuquilla, 280m, 11.03004, -85.52699, 17.viii.1998. ACG database code: DHJPAR0012577.

Paratypes

3 ♂ (CNC). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: DHJPAR0013128, DHJPAR0025345, DHJPAR0031764.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on the combination of flagellomeres 4–8 white-yellow (occupying more than one third of antenna length), head mostly dark brown to black posteriorly, all coxae yellow, and T2 mostly striate.

Description

Female. Body length 2.0–2.1 mm. Fore wing length 2.2–2.3 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black; except for orange on most of frons and face, and yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Flagellomere color: central flagellomeres white-yellow, rest dark brown to black. Mesosoma color: entirely orange to yellow-orange. Metasoma color (dorsally): entirely orange to yellow-orange. Coxae color: all pale. Metatibia color: pale. Metatarsus color: pale. Pterostigma color: mostly dark, but with anterior pale spot. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 4.6–5.0 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 2.7–2.8 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 3.2–3.3 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly with longitudinally striate sculpture (sometimes with small, smooth area centrally). Ovipositor sheaths length: 0.8 × as long as metatibia.

Male. As female, but with all flagellomeres brown.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 4, barcode compliant sequences: 4.

Biology/ecology

Malaise-trapped.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG dry forest and rain forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Dr. Alfio Piva, a Costa Rican former Vice-President, in recognition of his many years of administrative support to Costa Rica’s INBio (Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad) and therefore of ACG, and of his policy efforts on behalf of conserving biodiversity in Costa Rica.

Pseudapanteles alvaroumanai Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 1418

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Guanacaste Province, Sector Cacao, Sendero Arenales, 1080m, 10.92471, -85.46738, 18.xii.2008. ACG database code: DHJPAR0031316.

Paratypes

16 ♂ (CNC, NMNH). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: DHJPAR0013423, DHJPAR0013648, DHJPAR0013654, DHJPAR0026205, DHJPAR0026226, DHJPAR0031220, DHJPAR0033731, DHJPAR0033732, DHJPAR0033734, DHJPAR0033742, DHJPAR0033748, DHJPAR0033768, DHJPAR0033896, DHJPAR0033902, DHJPAR0033903, DHJPAR0033906.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on the combination of flagellomeres brown, coloration of mesosoma (propleuron, pronotum partially, small spot on upper corner of mesopleuron, and small marks centrally on anteromesoscutum orange-yellow, rest dark brown), and metacoxa brown.

Description

Female. Body length 2.0–2.1 mm. Fore wing length 2.2–2.3 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black; except for orange on most of frons and face, and yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Flagellomere color: all flagellomere brown to black. Mesosoma color: mostly dark brown to black, with pronotum, propleura, anteromesoscutum, spot on mesopleura, and scutellar disc at least partially orange. Metasoma color (dorsally): mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow-orange anterior 0.4–0.6 of mediotergite 1. Coxae color: pale/pale/mostly or completely dark. Metatibia color: mostly pale, with posterior 0.1–0.2 dark. Metatarsus color: pale. Pterostigma color: mostly dark, but with anterior pale spot. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 3.6–4.0 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 2.5–2.6 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 3.6–3.7 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly with longitudinally striate sculpture (sometimes with small, smooth area centrally). Ovipositor sheaths length: 1.0 × as long as metatibia.

Male. As female, but with coloration of some specimens slightly darker.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 26, barcode compliant sequences: 26.

Biology/ecology

Malaise-trapped.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG cloud forest, dry forest and rain forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Dr. Alvaro Umaña in recognition of his untiring efforts on behalf of ACG from its initiation in 1985–86 to the present day, and from being then Costa Rica’s first Minister of the Environment (MINAE) to today’s global advocate for ACG as an example of conservation through biodiversity development.

Pseudapanteles analorenaguevarae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 1923

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Guanacaste Province, Sector Cacao, Sendero Circular, 1185 meters, 10.92714, -85.46683, 18.xii.2008. ACG database code: DHJPAR0031187.

Paratypes

11 ♂ (CNC). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: DHJPAR0013526, DHJPAR0031186, DHJPAR0031191, DHJPAR0031192, DHJPAR0031193, DHJPAR0031202, DHJPAR0031204, DHJPAR0031209, DHJPAR0031302, DHJPAR0031307, DHJPAR0031321.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on the combination of head brown, flagellomeres 7–9 white, anteromesoscutum with orange marks centrally, and metatarsus and posterior 0.2 of metatibia brown.

Description

Female. Body length 2.8–2.9 mm. Fore wing length 3.0–3.1 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Flagellomere color: central flagellomere white-yellow, rest dark brown to black. Mesosoma color: mostly dark brown to black, with pronotum, propleura, anteromesoscutum, spot on mesopleura, and scutellar disc at least partially orange. Metasoma color (dorsally): mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow-orange anterior 0.4–0.6 of mediotergite 1. Coxae color: pale/pale/pale but with anterior 0.1–0.2 dark. Metatibia color: mostly pale, with posterior 0.1–0.2 dark. Metatarsus color: dark. Pterostigma color: mostly dark, but with anterior pale spot. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 2.6–3.0 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 1.7–1.8 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 3.4–3.5 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly with longitudinally striate sculpture (sometimes with small, smooth area centrally). Ovipositor sheaths length: 1.0 × as long as metatibia.

Male. As female, but with all flagellomeres brown, and sometimes anteromesoscutum and metasoma darker.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 20, barcode compliant sequences: 20.

Biology/ecology

Malaise-trapped.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG cloud forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Sra. Ana Lorena Guevara, a key figure in INBio’s (Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad) development of biodiversity prospecting, and a Vice-Minister for the Environment who supported ACG growth and development throughout her four years in office in the 2010’s.

Pseudapanteles annulicornis Ashmead, 1900

Figs 2431

Pseudapanteles annulicornis Ashmead, 1900: 292 (original description).

Apanteles annulicornis: Szépligeti 1904: 109 (revised combination).

Pseudapanteles annulicornis: Mason 1981: 86 (revised combination).

Pseudapanteles brunneus Ashmead, 1900: 292 (original description). Synonymized under annulicornis (as Apanteles brunneus) in Wilkinson 1930: 154.

Holotype

♀ in BMNH (examined). ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES, St. Vincent Island (no further details known about type locality). B.M. Type HYM. 3.c.1077.

Other material examined

2 ♀ in CNC, St. Vincent island; 1 ♀ in CNC, Panama, Cerro Campana, 8°40'N, 79°50'W, 850m.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on the combination of metasoma entirely orange-yellow, mostly smooth and polished, and antenna brown with flagellomeres 6–8 white (rarely also posterior half of flagellomere 5), the band clearly occupying less than one third of antenna length.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 2, barcode compliant sequences: None.

Distribution

Panama, St. Vincent Island.

Comments

One female from Panama (in CNC collection) represents the first record of P. annulicornis for Central America, and suggests that the species might be more widespread than previously known. That specimen is morphologically very similar to the holotype and two other females from St. Vincent (not part of the type series; collected in 1972, and deposited in the CNC); the only difference observed was the white band on the antenna (starting on flagellomere 5 for the Panama specimen versus starting on flagellomere 6 on specimens from St. Vincent). Two partial DNA barcodes (99 and 164 base pairs respectively) were obtained and also support the view of a single species, as the partial barcodes differed in 2 base pairs between the Panama specimen and one of the females collected in 1972 in St. Vincent.

Pseudapanteles brunneus Ashmead, 1900

Pseudapanteles brunneus Ashmead, 1900: 292 (original description).

Apanteles brunneus: Szépligeti, 1904: 109 (revised combination).

Apanteles annulicornis: Wilkinson 1930: 154 (synonymized with Pseudapanteles annulicornis Ashmead, 1900).

Apanteles brunneus: Nixon 1965: 141 (revised status, see comments below).

Pseudapanteles brunneus: Mason 1981: 86 (revised combination).

Holotype

♂ in BMNH (not examined). ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES, St. Vincent Island (no further details known about the holotype locality).

Comments

Only the holotype specimen is known. Wilkinson (1930) synonymized Apanteles brunneus with Apanteles annulicornis, but that was later questioned by Nixon (1965) after examining the hind wings of both holotypes. Nixon implied reinstatement of Apanteles brunneus as a valid species but he did not revise its status explicitly. However, Mason (1981: 86) treated brunneus as a valid species of Pseudapanteles. This is the only species that we were not able to photograph for the present revision.

Pseudapanteles carlosespinachi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 3236

Holotype

♂ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Alajuela Province, Sector San Cristobal, Rio Blanco Abajo, 500m, 10.90037, -85.37254, 11.iii.2006. ACG database code: DHJPAR0004755.

Other material examined

1 ♀ (CNC). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: DHJPAR0039928.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on the combination of head, flagellomeres, mesosoma and metasoma mostly dark brown to black, body length and fore wing length 2.3–2.5 mm, and shape of T1 and T2.

Description

Male. Body length 2.0–2.1 mm. Fore wing length 2.2–2.3 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Mesosoma color: entirely dark brown to black. Metasoma color (dorsally): mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow-orange anterior 0.4–0.6 of mediotergite 1. Coxae color: pale/pale/mostly or completely dark. Metatibia color: mostly pale, with posterior 0.1–0.2 dark. Metatarsus color: dark. Pterostigma color: pale, with thin dark margins.

Female. See Comments section below.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 3, barcode compliant sequences: 2.

Biology/ecology

Hosts: Desmia sp. with interim name of Solis100 (Crambidae).

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG rain forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Sr. Carlos Espinach in recognition of his economic policy efforts for Costa Rica’s government since the early 1990’s, all of which greatly enhanced ACG growth and survival since the mid-1980’s.

Comments

Only the holotype male was used to morphologically characterize the species. The female specimen available for study was in poor condition and entirely bleached, with a coloration that most likely does not represent the actual females of this species.

Pseudapanteles carlosrodriguezi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 3741

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Guanacaste Province, Sector El Hacha, Sendero Bejuquilla, 280m, 11.03004, -85.52699, 3.v.1999. ACG database code: DHJPAR0012576.

Paratypes

2 ♂ (CNC). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: DHJPAR0013545, DHJPAR0013549.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the gouleti species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on the combination of mesosoma and metasoma (dorsally) entirely dark brown to black.

Description

Female. Body length 2.0–2.1 mm. Fore wing length 2.0–2.1 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Flagellomere color: all flagellomere brown to black. Mesosoma color: entirely dark brown to black. Metasoma color (dorsally): entirely dark brown to black. Coxae color: all pale. Metatibia color: mostly pale, with posterior 0.1–0.2 dark. Metatarsus color: dark. Pterostigma color: mostly dark, but with anterior pale spot. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 3.1–3.5 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 2.1–2.2 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 3.2–3.3 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly with longitudinally striate sculpture (sometimes with small, smooth area centrally). Ovipositor sheaths length: 1.0 × as long as metatibia.

Male. As female, with slightly darker body coloration.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 4, barcode compliant sequences: 4.

Biology/ecology

Malaise-trapped.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG dry forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Sr. Carlos Manuel Rodriguez, who has faithfully supported ACG policy for conservation through its biodiversity development from the early 1990’s through the present day, and has been especially important for the development of geothermal resources and land acquisition as a legal advisor, Vice-Minister and Minister of the Environment, all with special and detailed knowledge of Sector Santa Rosa of ACG.

Pseudapanteles christianafigueresae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 4247

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, Alajuela Province, ACG, Sector San Cristobal, Bosque Trampa Malaise, 815m, 10.86280, -85.38460, 13.xii.2007. ACG database code: DHJPAR0025960.

Paratypes

17 ♀, 41 # (BMNH, CNC, INBio, INHS, NMNH). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: DHJPAR0024675, DHJPAR0024987, DHJPAR0025702, DHJPAR0025895, DHJPAR0025902, DHJPAR0025985, DHJPAR0025966, DHJPAR0026012, DHJPAR0026026, DHJPAR0026065, DHJPAR0026081, DHJPAR0026084, DHJPAR0026088, DHJPAR0026652, DHJPAR0026717, DHJPAR0027075, DHJPAR0027138, DHJPAR0027164, DHJPAR0027242, DHJPAR0027392, DHJPAR0027591, DHJPAR0027621, DHJPAR0027627, DHJPAR0027646, DHJPAR0027655, DHJPAR0027656, DHJPAR0027657, DHJPAR0027658, DHJPAR0027661, DHJPAR0027663, DHJPAR0027664, DHJPAR0027667, DHJPAR0027699, DHJPAR0027670, DHJPAR0027673, DHJPAR0027675, DHJPAR0027689, DHJPAR0027690, DHJPAR0027691, DHJPAR0027693, DHJPAR0027698, DHJPAR0027700, DHJPAR0027701, DHJPAR0031297.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on the combination of head mostly brown-black posteriorly, but orange on most of frons and face, flagellomeres 6–10 (and posterior half of flagellomere 5) white, anteromesoscutum entirely brown to black, and metatibia and metatarsus entirely yellow to orange.

Description

Female. Body length 2.4–2.5 mm or 2.6–2.7 mm. Fore wing length 2.6–2.7 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black; except for orange on most of frons and face, and yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Flagellomere color: central flagellomere white-yellow, rest dark brown to black. Mesosoma color: entirely dark brown to black. Metasoma color (dorsally): mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow-orange anterior 0.4–0.6 of mediotergite 1. Coxae color: pale/pale/pale but with anterior 0.1–0.2 dark. Metatibia color: pale, rarely mostly pale, with posterior 0.1–0.2 dark. Metatarsus color: pale, rarely dark. Pterostigma color: entirely dark. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 4.1–4.5 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 2.3–2.4 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 3.6–3.7 × or 3.8–3.9 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly with longitudinally striate sculpture (sometimes with small, smooth area centrally). Ovipositor sheaths length: 1.0 × as long as metatibia or 1.1 × as long as metatibia.

Male. As female, but with all flagellomeres brown.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 47, barcode compliant sequences: 38.

Biology/ecology

Malaise-trapped.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG rain forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Sra. Christiana Figueres for her persistent interest in ACG survival since the early 1990’s, and up through her magnificent current efforts to get the world to reverse its climate change via the UN organizational capacity.

Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck, 1938)

Figs 4852

Apanteles dignus Muesebeck, 1938: 203 (original description).

Apanteles dignus: Shenefelt 1972: 492 (incorrect mention of date of original description as 1928).

Pseudapanteles dignus: Mason 1981: 86 (revised combination).

Holotype

♀ in NMNH (examined). UNITED STATES, California, Santa Ana. USNM type No. 52890.

Other material examined

2 ♂ in CNC, Mexico (intercepted in Canada, Ontario, Windsor).

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on the combination of mesosoma and coxae color, anterior 0.6 of mediotergite 1 and most of laterotergites orange-yellow, pterostigma transparent with thin margins brown and T1 shape.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 1, barcode compliant sequences: 1.

Biology/ecology

Hosts: Keiferia lycopersicella, Phthorimaea operculella, Symmetrischema capsica, Tildenia gudmannella, Tuta absoluta (Gelechiidae).

Distribution

Argentina, Bermuda, Cuba, Mexico, Puerto Rico, United States (California, Florida, introduced to Hawaii), US Virgin Islands.

Comments

In the CNC there are two male specimens (March, 1936, from Windsor, Ontario Canada); their labels state that the wasp specimens were intercepted on tomato from Mexico infested by Keiferia lycopersicella. Due to the known distribution of the species (mostly Neotropical, only marginally reaching the southern Nearctic), and the fact that those specimens were intercepted during the Canadian winter, we have no evidence that the species occurs in Canada.

Pseudapanteles gouleti Fernández-Triana, 2010

Figs 5358

Pseudapanteles gouleti Fernández-Triana, 2010: 23 (original description).

Holotype

♀ in CNC (examined). CANADA, Ontario, Ottawa, 45°21.365'N, 75°42.416'W.

Other material examined

All specimens mentioned in Fernández-Triana (2010 and 2014).

Diagnosis

It belongs to the gouleti species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on the combination of mesosoma entirely black and metasomal tergites mostly yellow except dark brown T1 and light brown T2.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 15, barcode compliant sequences: 13.

Biology/ecology

Hosts: Paraclemensia acerifoliella (Incurvariidae).

Distribution

Canada (Ontario in an area between 43–46°N and 74–80°W).

Comments

The species was recently proposed as of interest for conservation purposes (Fernández-Triana 2014).

Pseudapanteles hernanbravoi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 5964

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Guanacaste Province, Sector Santa Rosa, Bosque San Emilio, 300m, 10.84389, -85.61384, 19.iv.1999. ACG database code: DHJPAR0013144.

Paratypes

1 ♀ (CNC). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: DHJPAR0031742.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on the combination of body length 2.5 mm, fore wing length 2.7 mm; pterostigma pale with thin brown margins, T1 shape and T2 mostly longitudinally striate.

Description

Female. Body length 2.4–2.5 mm. Fore wing length 2.6–2.7 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black; except for orange on most of frons and face, and yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Flagellomere color: first 6–8 flagellomere lighter in color than the rest (which are dark brown to black), making the antenna look as bicolored. Mesosoma color: mostly orange, with parts or all of propodeum, metapleuron, metascutellum, and axillar complex brown to black. Metasoma color (dorsally): mostly yellow-orange, except for mediotergites 4–7 which are centrally brown. Coxae color: pale/pale/mostly or completely dark. Metatibia color: mostly pale, with posterior 0.1–0.2 dark. Metatarsus color: dark. Pterostigma color: pale, with thin dark margins. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 2.1–2.5 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 1.7–1.8 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 3.4–3.5 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly with longitudinally striate sculpture (sometimes with small, smooth area centrally). Ovipositor sheaths length: 1.1 × as long as metatibia.

Male. Unknown.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 2, barcode compliant sequences: 2.

Biology/ecology

Malaise-trapped.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG dry forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Sr. Hernan Bravo, who, as a Costa Rican Minister of the Environment and later, directly and indirectly supported ACG’s conservation through its biodiversity development, and especially with respect to geothermal resources

Pseudapanteles jorgerodriguezi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 6569

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Alajuela Province, Sector San Cristobal, Estacion San Gerardo, 575m, 10.88009, -85.38887, 22.vii.2007. ACG database code: DHJPAR0025854.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on the combination of ovipositor sheaths length, T2 mostly longitudinally striate (except for small smooth central area), propodeum mostly smooth (with only median longitudinal carina), and scutoscutellar sulcus with 6 impressed pits.

Description

Female. Body length 2.0–2.1 mm. Fore wing length 2.2–2.3 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Flagellomere color: all flagellomere brown to black. Mesosoma color: entirely dark brown to black. Metasoma color (dorsally): mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow-orange anterior 0.4–0.6 of mediotergite 1. Coxae color: pale/pale/mostly or completely dark. Metatibia color: mostly pale, with posterior 0.1–0.2 dark. Metatarsus color: dark. Pterostigma color: entirely dark. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 4.1–4.5 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 2.1–2.2 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 4.0–4.1 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly with longitudinally striate sculpture (sometimes with small, smooth area centrally). Ovipositor sheaths length: 0.9 × as long as metatibia.

Male. Unknown.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 1, barcode compliant sequences: 1.

Biology/ecology

Malaise-trapped.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG rain forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Sr. Jorge Rodriguez, who as a forester and a Costa Rican Vice-Minister and Minister of the Environment helped ACG forge new paths of self-support through Environmental Service Payments (Pagos para Servicios Ambientales).

Pseudapanteles josefigueresi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 7073

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Alajuela Province, Sector San Cristobal, Potrero Argentina, 520m, 10.89021, -85.38803, 16.vi.2007. ACG database code: DHJPAR0025751.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on the combination of relatively short ovipositor sheaths (0.7 × as long as metatibia) and T1 shape (T1 length 4.0 × its width at posterior margin).

Description

Female. Body length 2.0–2.1 mm. Fore wing length 2.2–2.3 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Flagellomere color: all flagellomere brown to black. Mesosoma color: entirely dark brown to black. Metasoma color (dorsally): mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow-orange anterior 0.4–0.6 of mediotergite 1. Coxae color: pale/pale/mostly or completely dark. Metatibia color: mostly pale, with posterior 0.1–0.2 dark. Metatarsus color: dark. Pterostigma color: entirely dark. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 3.6–4.0 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 2.1–2.2 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 4.0–4.1 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly with longitudinally striate sculpture (sometimes with small, smooth area centrally). Ovipositor sheaths length: 0.7 × as long as metatibia.

Male. Unknown.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 1, barcode compliant sequences: 1.

Biology/ecology

Malaise-trapped.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG rain forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Costa Rica’s former President Jose Maria Figueres in recognition of his steady and imaginative support of ACG foundation, growth and survival through non-damaging biodiversity development, beginning in the late 1980’s and continuing to the present day.

Pseudapanteles laurachinchillae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 7478

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Alajuela Province, Sector San Cristobal, Potrero Argentina, 520m, 10.89021, -85.38803, 20.ix.2007. ACG database code: DHJPAR0025675.

Paratypes

1 ♀ (CNC). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: DHJPAR0026060.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on the combination of metasoma yellow-orange on anterior 0.5–0.6 of T1 and most of laterotergites and hypopygium, T2 shape and ovipositor sheaths slightly shorter (0.9 ×) than metatibia.

Description

Female. Body length 2.0–2.1 mm or 2.2–2.3 mm. Fore wing length 2.2–2.3 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Flagellomere color: all flagellomere brown to black. Mesosoma color: entirely dark brown to black. Metasoma color (dorsally): mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow-orange anterior 0.4–0.6 of mediotergite 1. Coxae color: all pale. Metatibia color: mostly pale, with posterior 0.1–0.2 dark. Metatarsus color: dark. Pterostigma color: entirely dark. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 4.1–4.5 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 2.1–2.2 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 3.6–3.7 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly with longitudinally striate sculpture (sometimes with small, smooth area centrally). Ovipositor sheaths length: 0.9 × as long as metatibia.

Male. Unknown.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 2, barcode compliant sequences: 1.

Biology/ecology

Malaise-trapped.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG rain forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Sra. Laura Chinchilla, the first female president of Costa Rica and in gratitude for her persistent tolerance of ACG efforts to push the conservation envelope during her term in office.

Pseudapanteles lipomeringis (Muesebeck, 1958)

Figs 7983

Apanteles lipomeringis Muesebeck, 1958: 433 (original description).

Pseudapanteles lipomeringis: Mason 1981: 86 (revised combination).

Holotype

♀ in NMNH (examined). PANAMA, Summit, Canal Zone. USNM type No. 2793.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on the combination of mesosoma and metasoma entirely yellow, and shape of T1 and T2.

Biology/ecology

Host: Lipomerinx prismatica (Tineidae).

Distribution

Panama.

Pseudapanteles luisguillermosolisi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 8488

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Alajuela Province, Sector San Cristobal, Bosque Trampa Malaise, 815m, 10.86280, -85.38460, 11.iii.2008. ACG database code: DHJPAR0027669.

Paratypes

1 ♂ (CNC). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: 08-SRNP-3967.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on the combination of T2 mostly smooth and polished, antenna brown with flagellomeres 6–8 white (rarely also posterior half of flagellomere 5, white band clearly occupying less than one third of antenna length), and metasoma with T3+ partially brown. Those features are shared with the morphologically similar P. margaritapenonae, but P. luisguillermosolisi has the mesosoma entirely orange-yellow (while margaritapenonae has darker areas on propodeum, metapleuron, metascutellum and axillar complex).

Description

Female. Body length 2.4–2.5 mm. Fore wing length 2.6–2.7 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black; except for orange on most of frons and face, and yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Flagellomere color: central flagellomere white-yellow, rest dark brown to black. Mesosoma color: entirely orange to yellow-orange. Metasoma color (dorsally): mediotergites 1–2 orange-yellow, rest of mediotergites brown. Coxae color: all pale. Metatibia color: pale. Metatarsus color: pale. Pterostigma color: mostly dark, but with anterior pale spot. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 4.1–4.5 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 2.3–2.4 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 4.0–4.1 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly smoth and polished. Ovipositor sheaths length: 0.7 × as long as metatibia.

Male. The only known specimen is missing its head, but the coloration of mesosoma and metasoma is darker than the female holotype.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 1, barcode compliant sequences: 1.

Biology/ecology

Malaise-trapped.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG rain forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Sr. Luis Guillermo Solis, the newly-elected President of Costa Rica, and in appreciation of the new opportunity for further administrative evolution that his election offers to ACG in its quest for sustainable conservation through self-directed non-damaging biodiversity development.

Comments

Pseudapanteles luisguillermosolisi is morphologically similar to P. margaritapenonae, but the mesosoma is entirely orange yellow in the former compared to orange yellow but with darker areas on the propodeum, metapleuron, metascutellum and axillar complex in the latter. Also, these species are at least 25 base pairs different (4%) in the DNA barcoding region.

Pseudapanteles margaritapenonae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 8993

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, Alajuela Province, ACG, Sector San Cristobal, Rio Blanco Abajo, 500m, Latitude: 10.90037, Longitude: -85.37254, 12.iii.2008. ACG database code: DHJPAR0026704.

Paratypes

13 ♀, 141 ♂ (BMNH, CNC, INBio, INHS, NMNH). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: DHJPAR0024807, DHJPAR0024910, DHJPAR0025022, DHJPAR0025055, DHJPAR0025061, DHJPAR0025075, DHJPAR0025079, DHJPAR0025083, DHJPAR0025101, DHJPAR0025109, DHJPAR0025110, DHJPAR0025118, DHJPAR0025178, DHJPAR0025317, DHJPAR0025342, DHJPAR0025355, DHJPAR0025406, DHJPAR0025449, DHJPAR0025470, DHJPAR0025521, DHJPAR0025824, DHJPAR0025826, DHJPAR0025827, DHJPAR0025830, DHJPAR0025831, DHJPAR0025840, DHJPAR0025858, DHJPAR0025860, DHJPAR0025866, DHJPAR0025910, DHJPAR0025952, DHJPAR0025959, DHJPAR0026008, DHJPAR0026033, DHJPAR0026107, DHJPAR0026206, DHJPAR0026247, DHJPAR0026268, DHJPAR0026275, DHJPAR0026287, DHJPAR0026289, DHJPAR0026326, DHJPAR0026336, DHJPAR0026390, DHJPAR0026444, DHJPAR0026454, DHJPAR0026464, DHJPAR0026485, DHJPAR0026488, DHJPAR0026497, DHJPAR0026511, DHJPAR0026514, DHJPAR0026525, DHJPAR0026526, DHJPAR0026549, DHJPAR0026556, DHJPAR0026592, DHJPAR0026623, DHJPAR0026653, DHJPAR0027668, DHJPAR0026671, DHJPAR0026672, DHJPAR0026690, DHJPAR0026703, DHJPAR0026711, DHJPAR0026722, DHJPAR0026726, DHJPAR0026731, DHJPAR0026744, DHJPAR0026745, DHJPAR0026752, DHJPAR0026769, DHJPAR0026771, DHJPAR0026783, DHJPAR0026786, DHJPAR0026796, DHJPAR0026798, DHJPAR0026806, DHJPAR0026822, DHJPAR0026835, DHJPAR0026844, DHJPAR0026861, DHJPAR0026872, DHJPAR0026878, DHJPAR0026940, DHJPAR0026943, DHJPAR0026964, DHJPAR0026972, DHJPAR0026973, DHJPAR0026981, DHJPAR0026995, DHJPAR0026998, DHJPAR0027000, DHJPAR0027036, DHJPAR0027058, DHJPAR0027076, DHJPAR0027088, DHJPAR0027093, DHJPAR0027094, DHJPAR0027107, DHJPAR0027108, DHJPAR0027128, DHJPAR0027129, DHJPAR0026150, DHJPAR0027151, DHJPAR0027162, DHJPAR0027168, DHJPAR0027176, DHJPAR0027177, DHJPAR0027180, DHJPAR0027182, DHJPAR0027183, DHJPAR0027193, DHJPAR0027203, DHJPAR0027206, DHJPAR0027209, DHJPAR0027212, DHJPAR0027229, DHJPAR0027252, DHJPAR0027255, DHJPAR0027256, DHJPAR0027302, DHJPAR0027312, DHJPAR0027330, DHJPAR0027331, DHJPAR0027346, DHJPAR0027353, DHJPAR0027355, DHJPAR0027369, DHJPAR0027375, DHJPAR0027376, DHJPAR0027385, DHJPAR0027393, DHJPAR0027400, DHJPAR0027401, DHJPAR0027403, DHJPAR0027405, DHJPAR0027407, DHJPAR0027410, DHJPAR0027419, DHJPAR0027425, DHJPAR0027432, DHJPAR0027437, DHJPAR0027440, DHJPAR0027446, DHJPAR0027450, DHJPAR0027451, DHJPAR0027452, DHJPAR0027453, DHJPAR0027455, DHJPAR0027460, DHJPAR0027534, DHJPAR0027614, DHJPAR0033744.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on the combination of T2 mostly smooth and polished, antenna brown with flagellomeres 6–8 white (rarely also posterior half of flagellomere 5, white band clearly occupying less than one third of antenna length), and metasoma with T3+ partially brown. Those features are shared with the morphologically similar P. luisguillermosolisi, but P. margaritapenonae has darker areas on propodeum, metapleuron, metascutellum and axillar complex, while luisguillermosolisi has the mesosoma entirely orange-yellow.

Description

Female. Body length 2.2–2.3 mm or 2.4–2.5 mm. Fore wing length 2.4–2.5 mm or 2.6–2.7 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black; except for orange on most of frons and face, and yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Flagellomere color: central flagellomere white-yellow, rest dark brown to black. Mesosoma color: orange to yellow-orange, with propodeum, metascutellum and parts of axillar complex darker than rest of mesosoma; rarely anteromesoscutum with dark marks laterally and centrally on anterior 0.3. Metasoma color (dorsally): mediotergites 1–2 orange-yellow, rest of mediotergites brown. Coxae color: all pale. Metatibia color: pale. Metatarsus color: pale. Pterostigma color: entirely dark, rarely mostly dark, but with anterior pale spot. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 4.1–4.5 × or 4.6–5.0 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 2.3–2.4 × or 2.5–2.6 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 2.9–3.1 x, 3.2–3.3 x, rarely 3.4–3.5 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly smoth and polished. Ovipositor sheaths length: 0.7 × as long as metatibia.

Male. As female, but with all flagellomeres brown and darker body coloration (especially on anteromesoscutum and propodeum).

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 157, barcode compliant sequences: 152.

Biology/ecology

Malaise-trapped, ACG rainforest.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG rain forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Sra. Margarita Penon who listened patiently to a half hour of awkward academic description, addressed to Costa Rica’s political structure, of the ACG concept, translated it into two sentences for President-elect Oscar Arias in 1986, and thereby set the process in motion that protects all of these wasps and hundreds of thousands of other ACG species.

Comments

Pseudapanteles margaritapenonae is rather variable morphologically, with color varying from very dark brown (including marks on anteromesoscutum) to almost lacking dark areas. The latter extreme approaches the coloration of P. luisguillermosolisi. However, these species differ as described in the diagnosis and the comments for P. luisguillermosolisi.

Pseudapanteles mariobozai Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 9498

Holotype

♂ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Alajuela Province, Sector San Cristobal, Bosque Trampa Malaise, 815m, 10.86280, -85.38460, 16.vi.2007. ACG database code: DHJPAR0025932.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on the relatively extensive dark area on metatibia (0.6 its length), brown pterostigma, T1 and T2 shape, and body length of at least 2.1 mm.

Description

Male. Body length 2.2–2.3 mm. Fore wing length 2.2–2.3 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Mesosoma color: entirely dark brown to black. Metasoma color (dorsally): entirely dark brown to black. Coxae color: pale/pale/mostly or completely dark. Metatibia color: mostly dark, with anterior 0.4 pale. Metatarsus color: dark. Pterostigma color: entirely dark.

Female. Unknown.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 1, barcode compliant sequences: None.

Biology/ecology

Malaise-trapped.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG rain forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Sr. Mario Boza in recognition of his co-midwifery and constant caretaking of the Costa Rican National Park System, today the Areas Silvestres Protegidas (ASPs) of the Sistema de Areas de Conservacion (SINAC) of MINAE, as well as being the Director of Fundación Neotrópica when it received its first major donation for the ACG power line and land purchase in 1985.

Pseudapanteles mariocarvajali Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 99104

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Guanacaste Province, Sector San Cristobal, Tajo Angeles, 540m, 10.86472, -85.41531, 12.xii.2010. ACG database code: DHJPAR0041506.

Paratypes

6 ♀, 4 ♂ (CNC). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: DHJPAR0035505, DHJPAR0039022, DHJPAR0041914, DHJPAR0041975, DHJPAR0042032, DHJPAR0052339, DHJPAR0053022, DHJPAR0054758, DHJPAR0055487, DHJPAR0055525.

Diagnosis

It is the only known species in the mariocarvajali group, and can be separated from all other known species of Pseudapanteles based on the shape of T2, and length of body and fore wing.

Description

Female. Body length 3.4–3.5 mm. Fore wing length 3.4–3.5 mm. Head color: entirely yellow to orange. Flagellomere color: all flagellomere brown to black. Mesosoma color: mostly orange, with parts or all of propodeum, metapleuron, metascutellum, and axillar complex brown to black. Metasoma color (dorsally): mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow-orange anterior 0.4–0.6 of mediotergite 1. Coxae color: all pale. Metatibia color: mostly pale, with posterior 0.1–0.2 dark. Metatarsus color: dark. Pterostigma color: entirely dark. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 3.1–3.5 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 1.7–1.8 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 1.8–1.9 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly with longitudinally striate sculpture (sometimes with small, smooth area centrally). Ovipositor sheaths length: 1.2 × as long as metatibia or 1.3 × as long as metatibia.

Male. Much darker coloration than female, especially on metascutellum, propodeum, metacoxa and metasoma.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 10, barcode compliant sequences: 10.

Biology/ecology

Hosts: Stenoma adytomes, Stenoma sp. with interim name Janzen687 (Elachistidae).

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG dry forest and rain forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Sr. Mario Carvajal in recognition of his support, as Minister of Agriculture, for ACG biodiversity conservation through biodiversity development, and watchful support of ACG resources in the Fundacion de Parques Nacionales and in ACG.

Pseudapanteles maureenballesteroae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 105109

Holotype

♂ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Alajuela Province, Sector San Cristobal, Estación San Gerardo, 575 m, 10.88009, -85.38887, 15.iv.2008. ACG database code: DHJPAR0026281.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the gouleti species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group by the combination of pterostigma yellow-white, with very thin brown margins, propodeum only slightly sculptured on posterolateral corners and differentiated into elevated central area (which is shiny) and depressed posterolateral corners, and metasoma tergites dark brown except for anterior 0.6 of T1 which is yellow.

Description

Male. Body length 2.0–2.1 mm. Fore wing length 2.2–2.3 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Mesosoma color: entirely dark brown to black. Metasoma color (dorsally): mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow-orange anterior 0.4–0.6 of mediotergite 1. Coxae color: pale/pale/mostly or completely dark. Metatibia color: mostly pale, with posterior 0.1–0.2 dark. Metatarsus color: dark. Pterostigma color: pale, with thin dark margins.

Female. Unknown.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 1, barcode compliant sequences: 1.

Biology/ecology

Malaise-trapped.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG rain forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Sra. Maureen Ballestero, Diputada from Guanacaste, and stimulator and promoter of ACG’s efforts to develop its geothermal resources as part of its quest for financial independence and conservation through non-damaging biodiversity development.

Pseudapanteles moerens (Nixon, 1965), comb. n.

Figs 110115

Apanteles moerens Nixon, 1965: 145 (original description).

Holotype

♀ in BMNH (examined). BRAZIL, Nova Teutonia, 27°11'S, 52°23'W, 16.ix.1935, Fritz Plaumann, B.M. Type HYM. 3c.1483.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on head entirely yellow-orange, coloration of mesosoma and metasoma, and shape of T1 and T2.

Comments

Only the holotype specimen is known. Based on examination of the fore wing venation, propodeum median carina, mediotergites, hypopygium, ovipositor and ovipositor sheaths, this species clearly belongs to Pseudapanteles.

Pseudapanteles munifigueresae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 116120

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Alajuela Province, Sector San Cristobal, Rio Blanco Abajo, 500m, 10.90037, -85.37254, 23.iv.2008. ACG database code: DHJPAR0027221.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on metatibia relatively extensively dark (on posterior 0.6), shape of T1 and T2, and length of body and fore wing.

Description

Female. Body length 1.8–1.9 mm. Fore wing length 1.8–1.9 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Flagellomere color: all flagellomere brown to black. Mesosoma color: entirely dark brown to black. Metasoma color (dorsally): mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow-orange anterior 0.4–0.6 of mediotergite 1. Coxae color: pale/pale/mostly or completely dark. Metatibia color: mostly dark, with anterior 0.4 pale. Metatarsus color: dark. Pterostigma color: entirely dark. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 5.6–6.0 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 3.5 × or more. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 2.7–2.8 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly smoth and polished. Ovipositor sheaths length: 0.7 × as long as metatibia.

Male. Unknown.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 1, barcode compliant sequences: 1.

Biology/ecology

Malaise-trapped.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG rain forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Sra. Muni Figueres in recognition of her understanding and support of ACG biodiversity development since the late 1980’s, and most recently as Costa Rica’s Ambassador to the United States, based in Washington, D.C.

Pseudapanteles nerion (Nixon, 1965)

Figs 121125

Apanteles nerion Nixon, 1965: 142 (original description).

Pseudapanteles nerion: Mason 1981: 86 (revised combination).

Holotype

♀ in BMNH (examined). BRAZIL, Nova Teutonia, 27°11'S, 52°23'W, 26.iv.1938, Fritz Plaumann, B.M. 1938-682.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on metasoma almost entirely dark brown (except for laterotergites 1 and 2), T2 shape, and relatively long ovipositor sheaths (as long as metatibia).

Comments

Only the holotype specimen is known.

Pseudapanteles nigrovariatus (Muesebeck, 1921)

Figs 126130

Apanteles nigrovariatus Muesebeck, 1921: 523 (original description).

Pseudapanteles nigrovariatus: Mason 1981: 86 (revised combination).

Holotype

♀ in NMNH (examined). UNITED STATES, Pennsylvania, Mount Holly Springs. USNM type No. 22522.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on most of mesosoma (except for metanotum and propodeum black), metasoma and legs reddish brown.

Distribution

United States (Georgia, Pennsylvania).

Pseudapanteles oscarariasi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 131135

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Alajuela Province, Sector Rincon Rain Forest, Sendero Albergue Crater, 980m, 10.84886, -85.3281, 16.v.2010. ACG database code: DHJPAR0040498.

Paratypes

1 ♀, 2 ♂ (CNC). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: DHJPAR0039450, DHJPAR0043037, 10-SRNP-2415.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the gouleti species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on pronotal collar yellow-orange, anteromesoscutum entirely orange-yellow, metasomal tergites entirely dark brown to black, and shape of T1.

Description

Female. Body length 2.6–2.7 mm. Fore wing length 2.8–2.9 mm. Mesosoma color: mostly dark brown to black, with pronotum, propleura, anteromesoscutum, spot on mesopleura, and scutellar disc at least partially orange. Metasoma color (dorsally): mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow-orange anterior 0.4–0.6 of mediotergite 1. Coxae color: pale/pale/mostly or completely dark. Pterostigma color: entirely dark. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 2.1–2.5 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 1.3–1.4 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 2.5–2.6 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly with longitudinally striate sculpture (sometimes with small, smooth area centrally).

Male. Much darker coloration than female, especially on mesosoma and metasoma.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 5, barcode compliant sequences: 5.

Biology/ecology

Hosts: Elachistidae: Antaeotricha sp. with interim name Janzen888, and two other confamilials.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG cloud forest and rain forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of former President Oscar Arias who, upon listening to Margarita Penon’s summary of the ACG concept in 1986, set ACG survival policy in motion with “Sounds good to me if it doesn’t cost Costa Rica anything”; it hasn’t.

Pseudapanteles ottonsolisi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 136140

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Guanacaste Province, Sector Santa Rosa, Area Administrativa, 295m, 10.83764, -85.61871, 25.xii.2008. ACG database code: DHJPAR0031749.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on head entirely yellow-orange, anteromesoscutum entirely orange, T2 mostly longitudinally striate, and mesopleuron, metapleuron, axillar complex, metascutellum and propodeum dark brown to black.

Description

Female. Body length 2.6–2.7 mm. Fore wing length 2.8–2.9 mm. Head color: entirely yellow to orange. Flagellomere color: all flagellomere brown to black. Mesosoma color: mostly dark brown to black, with pronotum, propleura, anteromesoscutum, spot on mesopleura, and scutellar disc at least partially orange. Metasoma color (dorsally): mostly dark brown to black, with anterior 0.8 of mediotergite 1 and lateral areas on mediotergites 3–7 yellow-orange. Coxae color: pale/pale/mostly or completely dark. Metatibia color: mostly pale, with posterior 0.1–0.2 dark. Metatarsus color: dark. Pterostigma color: mostly dark, but with anterior pale spot. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 2.1–2.5 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 1.7–1.8 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 3.8–3.9 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly with longitudinally striate sculpture (sometimes with small, smooth area centrally). Ovipositor sheaths length: 0.9 × as long as metatibia.

Male. Unknown.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 1, barcode compliant sequences: 1.

Biology/ecology

Malaise-trapped.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG dry forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Sr. Otton Solis in recognition of his steadfast policy support of the ACG concept throughout two decades of Costa Rican political turmoil and the foundation of the party, PAC (Partido Accion Ciudadana), of Costa Rica’s President-elect Luis Guillermo Solis (no relative).

Pseudapanteles pedroleoni Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 141145

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Alajuela Province, Sector San Cristobal, Rio Blanco Abajo, 500m, 10.90037, -85.37254, 6.v.2008. ACG database code: DHJPAR0027329.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on head entirely yellow-orange, anteromesoscutum with brown marks laterally and centrally on anterior 0.3, rest of mesosoma orange, and T2 smooth.

Description

Female. Body length 2.6–2.7 mm. Fore wing length 2.6–2.7 mm. Head color: entirely yellow to orange. Flagellomere color: all flagellomere brown to black. Mesosoma color: mostly orange to yellow-orange, but with anteromesoscutum with dark marks laterally and centrally on anterior 0.3. Metasoma color (dorsally): mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow-orange anterior 0.4–0.6 of mediotergite 1. Coxae color: all pale. Metatibia color: pale. Metatarsus color: pale. Pterostigma color: entirely dark, rarely mostly dark, but with anterior pale spot. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 2.6–3.0 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 1.9–2.0 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 3.8–3.9 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly smoth and polished. Ovipositor sheaths length: 1.0 × as long as metatibia.

Male. Unknown.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 1, barcode compliant sequences: 1.

Biology/ecology

Malaise-trapped.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG rain forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Dr. Pedro Leon, fellow ACG watchdog, policy and biodiversity advisor, and analyst, and Director of the Fundacion de Parques Nacionales in its seminal role in ACG development, and companion throughout the ACG long march (Janzen 2000) and efforts to endow the entire Costa Rican national park system.

Pseudapanteles raulsolorzanoi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 146150

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Guanacaste Province, Sector Cacao, Cerro Pedregal, 1080m, 10.92767, -85.47449, 22.xi.2008. ACG database code: DHJPAR0033842.

Paratypes

1 ♀, 12 ♂ (BMNH, CNC, INBio, INHS, NMNH). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: DHJPAR0013239, DHJPAR0013404, DHJPAR0013405, DHJPAR0013411, DHJPAR0013416, DHJPAR0013419, DHJPAR0013420, DHJPAR0013422, DHJPAR0013425, DHJPAR0013426, DHJPAR0013427, DHJPAR0013605, DHJPAR0013609.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the gouleti species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on anteromesoscutum and axillar complex with some orange spots, head mostly brown-black posteriorly but orange on most of frons and face, and scape yellow, contrasting with brown flagellomeres.

Description

Female. Body length 2.2–2.3 mm. Fore wing length 2.4–2.5 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black; except for orange on most of frons and face, and yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Flagellomere color: all flagellomere brown to black. Mesosoma color: mostly dark brown to black, except for posterior 0.4 of anteromesoscutum orange. Metasoma color (dorsally): mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow-orange anterior 0.4–0.6 of mediotergite 1. Coxae color: pale/pale/mostly or completely dark. Metatibia color: pale. Metatarsus color: pale. Pterostigma color: entirely dark. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 4.1–4.5 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 1.9–2.0 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 3.2–3.3 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly with longitudinally striate sculpture (sometimes with small, smooth area centrally). Ovipositor sheaths length: 0.8 × as long as metatibia.

Male. As female, but with darker coloration on mesosoma, metasoma and legs.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 16, barcode compliant sequences: 16.

Biology/ecology

Malaise-trapped.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG dry forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Sr. Raul Solorzano, an environmental Vice-Minister and steadfast supporter of the foundation and survival of ACG in the swirling waters of governmental changes and 25 years of growth from a staid small national park to a dynamic large institution (http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr).

Pseudapanteles renecastroi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 151155

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Guanacaste Province, Sector Santa Rosa, Area Administrativa, 295m, 10.83764, -85.61871, 25.xii.2008. ACG database code: DHJPAR0031765.

Paratypes

2 ♀ (CNC). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: DHJPAR0013149, DHJPAR0031639.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on T2 mostly smooth, propodeum with short, carina like sculpture on lateral and posterior margins in addition to median longitudinal carina, and ovipositor sheaths relatively long (1.0 × as long as metatibia).

Description

Female. Body length 2.0–2.1 mm. Fore wing length 2.0–2.1 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Flagellomere color: all flagellomere brown to black. Mesosoma color: entirely dark brown to black. Metasoma color (dorsally): mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow-orange anterior 0.4–0.6 of mediotergite 1. Coxae color: pale/pale/mostly or completely dark. Metatibia color: mostly pale, with posterior 0.1–0.2 dark. Metatarsus color: dark. Pterostigma color: entirely dark. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 4.6–5.0 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 2.5–2.6 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 3.6–3.7 × or 4.0–4.1 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly smoth and polished. Ovipositor sheaths length: 1.0 × as long as metatibia.

Male. Unknown.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 2, barcode compliant sequences: 1.

Biology/ecology

Malaise-trapped.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG dry forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Dr. Rene Castro, a Minister of Costa Rica’s MINAE, who helped ACG and INBio in their early years of exploring conservation through non-damaging biodiversity development, promoted the development of Costa Rica’s carbon market, and tolerated the growing pains of decentralized administration of Costa Rica’s conserved wildlands.

Pseudapanteles rodrigogamezi Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 156161

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Alajuela Province, Sector Rincon Rain Forest, Estacion Caribe, 415m, 10.90187, -85.27495, 23.vi.2007. ACG database code: DHJPAR0025819.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on metatibia dark brown on posterior 0.9, pterostigma yellow-white, with very thin brown margins, T1 shape, and length of body and fore wing (1.6 mm).

Description

Female. Body length 1.6–1.7 mm. Fore wing length 1.6–1.7 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black; except for orange on most of frons and face, and yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Flagellomere color: all flagellomere brown to black. Mesosoma color: entirely dark brown to black. Metasoma color (dorsally): mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow-orange anterior 0.4–0.6 of mediotergite 1. Coxae color: pale/pale/mostly or completely dark. Metatibia color: mostly dark, with anterior 0.1 pale. Metatarsus color: dark. Pterostigma color: entirely pale. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 4.6–5.0 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 2.9–3.0 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 2.0–2.1 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly smoth and polished. Ovipositor sheaths length: 0.6 × as long as metatibia.

Male. Unknown.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 1, barcode compliant sequences: 1.

Biology/ecology

Malaise-trapped.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG rain forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Dr. Rodrigo Gamez in recognition of his founding and developing INBio, guiding the emergence of Costa Rican national conservation policy for non-damaging use, and being the primary supporter of ACG’s early efforts to establish its endowment-supported budgetary system.

Pseudapanteles rosemarykarpinskiae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 162165

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Guancaste Province, Sector Santa Rosa, Bosque San Emilio, 300m, 10.84389, -85.61384, 2.vi.2007. ACG database code: DHJPAR0013244.

Paratypes

15 ♀ (BMNH, CNC, INBio, INHS, NMNH). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: DHJPAR0013246, DHJPAR0024750, DHJPAR0031583, DHJPAR0031599, DHJPAR0031644, DHJPAR0031648, DHJPAR0031654, DHJPAR0031715, DHJPAR0031746, DHJPAR0031748, DHJPAR0031754, DHJPAR0031817, DHJPAR0031833, DHJPAR0031835, DHJPAR0031836.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the gouleti species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on anteromesoscutum, axillar complex and head (except for clypeus, labrum and mandibles) entirely dark brown to black, and scape brown, same color as flagellomeres.

Description

Female. Body length 2.2–2.3 mm. Fore wing length 2.0–2.1 mm or 2.2–2.3 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Flagellomere color: all flagellomere brown to black. Mesosoma color: entirely dark brown to black. Metasoma color (dorsally): entirely dark brown to black. Coxae color: pale/pale/mostly or completely dark. Metatibia color: pale. Metatarsus color: pale. Pterostigma color: entirely dark. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 3.6–4.0 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 1.9–2.0 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 2.9–3.1 × or 3.8–3.9 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly with longitudinally striate sculpture (sometimes with small, smooth area centrally). Ovipositor sheaths length: 1.0 × as long as metatibia or 1.1 × as long as metatibia.

Male. Unknown.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 41, barcode compliant sequences: 39.

Biology/ecology

Malaise-trapped.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG dry forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Sra. Rosemary Karpinski’s teamwork with Dr. Rodrigo Gamez to obtain the political approval that allowed for the germination and growth of ACG.

Pseudapanteles ruficollis (Cameron, 1911)

Figs 166168

Xanthomicrogaster ruficollis Cameron, 1911: 325 (original description).

Apanteles ruficollis: Wilkinson 1930: 281 (revised combination).

Pseudapanteles ruficollis: Mason 1981: 86 (revised combination).

Lectotype

♀ in BMNH (examined). GUYANA, no other locality or date information. Here we designate, to increase nomenclatural stability, a lectotype from the syntype series (which includes 4 ♀ and 4 ♂ all glued on the same card, with voucher code: “B.M. Type HYM. 3.c.985”). The lectotype is the female positioned at the lower row, left corner of the card (Figs 166, 168). The paralectotypes are conspecific with the lectotype.

Other material examined

24 ♀, 11 ♂ (CNC, NMNH). COSTA RICA, ACG, Alajuela Province, Sector Rincon Rain Forest, Estacion Llanura, 135m, 10.93332, -85.25331. ACG database codes: DHJPAR0026267, DHJPAR0047117, DHJPAR0047133, DHJPAR0052908, DHJPAR0053737, DHJPAR0053754, DHJPAR0053787, 11-SRNP-76958, 13-SRNP-76587.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on a combination of all flagellomeres brown, T2 light brown, metatibia yellow with posterior 0.1–0.2 dark brown to black, metatarsus dark brown to black, pterostigma pale with thin brown margins, and ovipositor sheaths 0.9 × as long as metatibia.

Description

Female. Body length 2.4–2.5 mm or 2.6–2.7 mm. Fore wing length 2.6–2.7 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black; except for orange on most of frons and face, and yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Flagellomere color: all flagellomere brown to black. Mesosoma color: mostly orange, with parts or all of propodeum, metapleuron, metascutellum, and axillar complex brown to black. Metasoma color (dorsally): mostly dark brown to black, except for yellow-orange anterior 0.4–0.6 of mediotergite 1. Coxae color: all pale. Metatibia color: mostly pale, with posterior 0.1–0.2 dark. Metatarsus color: dark. Pterostigma color: pale, with thin dark margins. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 3.6–4.0 x, rarely 3.1–3.5 × or 4.1–4.5 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 2.5–2.6 ×, 2.7–2.8 ×, rarely 2.9–3.0 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 3.8–3.9 × or 4.0–4.1 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly smoth and polished. Ovipositor sheaths length: 0.9 × as long as metatibia.

Male. Much darker coloration than female, especially on anteromesoscutum, propodeum, metacoxa, and metasoma.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 5, barcode compliant sequences: 5.

Biology/ecology

Hosts: Desmia ufeus, Desmia spp. with interim names Janzen18 and Janzen19; Spoladea recurvalis (Crambidae).

Distribution

Cuba, Costa Rica (ACG), Guyana.

Comments

The syntype series (from Guyana) is morphologically indistinguishable from the ACG specimens, so we treat them as conspecific. The description provided above is based on ACG specimens. All specimens of P. ruficollis in ACG have been reared from three species of Desmia caterpillars feeding on Vitaceae. In ACG, this wasp has not been reared from Spoladea recurvalis (Crambidae), the host reported for its rearing in Guyana, despite more than 190 rearing records for ACG S. recurvalis (that produced no microgastrine braconids). This moth is host-specific to Amaranthaceae herbs, and no Desmia have been reared from any of the thousands of caterpillar rearing records from ACG Amaranthaceae. However, adult Spoladea are black with white spots, as are Desmia, and are frequently misidentified as “a species of Desmia”. It is very likely that the Guyana record of P. ruficollis is actually a rearing from a batch of Desmia caterpillars, since the caterpillar that produced the wasps obviously could not be directly identified from an adult.

Pseudapanteles sesiae (Viereck, 1912)

Figs 169173

Apanteles (Pseudapanteles) sesiae Viereck, 1912: 146 (original description).

Pseudapanteles sesiae: Mason 1981: 86 (revised combination).

Holotype

♀ in NMNH (examined). UNITED STATES, Virginia, Vienna. USNM type No. 14324.

Other material examined

5 ♂ (CNC). Canada, Ontario, Niagara Falls; United States, Florida, Fort Ogden; Virgina, Falls Church; Virginia, Vienna.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on head, flagellomeres, mesosoma and metasoma dark brown to black, and body and fore wing length usually 3.0 mm.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 2, barcode compliant sequences: none.

Biology/ecology

Host: Synanthedon scitula (Sesiidae).

Distribution

Canada (Ontario), United States (District of Columbia, Florida, Indiana, New Jersey, Texas, Virginia).

Comments

Two partial DNA barcodes (100 and 164 base pairs respectively) were obtained from specimens from Canada (Ontario) and United States (Florida).

Pseudapanteles soniapicadoae Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 174179

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Guanacaste Province, Sector Santa Rosa, Bosque Humedo, 290m, 10.85145, -85.60801, 23.ii.1998. ACG database code: DHJPAR0013238.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the gouleti species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group by the combination of anteromesoscutum mostly dark brown to black, propodeum mostly smooth, with well-defined median carina and few short rugosities transverse to that carina, and antenna relatively shorter on its anterior half (with second flagellomere 2.5 × as long as wide, and eight flagellomere 2.2 × as long as wide).

Description

Female. Body length 1.8–1.9 mm. Fore wing length 2.0–2.1 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black; except for orange on most of frons and face, and yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Flagellomere color: all flagellomere brown to black. Mesosoma color: mostly dark brown to black, with pronotum, propleura, anteromesoscutum, spot on mesopleura, and scutellar disc at least partially orange. Metasoma color (dorsally): entirely dark brown to black. Coxae color: pale/pale/mostly or completely dark. Metatibia color: mostly pale, with posterior 0.1–0.2 dark. Metatarsus color: dark. Pterostigma color: mostly dark, but with anterior pale spot. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 3.1–3.5 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 1.9–2.0 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 3.6–3.7 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly with longitudinally striate sculpture (sometimes with small, smooth area centrally). Ovipositor sheaths length: 1.0 × as long as metatibia.

Male. Unknown.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 1, barcode compliant sequences: 1.

Biology/ecology

Malaise-trapped.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG dry forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Sra. Sonia Picado in recognition of her wise counsel in advising the legal-administrative process of the expropriation of Sector Santa Elena for ACG, while she was Costa Rica’s Ambassador to the United States.

Pseudapanteles teofilodelatorrei Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, sp. n.

Figs 180185

Holotype

♀ in CNC. COSTA RICA, ACG, Guanacaste Province, Sector El Hacha, Quebrada La Leona, 255m, 11.03028, -85.54781, 3.v.2011. ACG database code: DHJPAR0048162.

Paratype

1 ♀ (CNC). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: DHJPAR0045346.

Diagnosis

It belongs to the annulicornis species-group, and can be separated from other species within that group based on metacoxa dark brown to black, ovipositor sheaths at least 1.0 × as long as metatibia, length of body and fore wing over 2.8 mm, and shape of T1 and T2.

Description

Female. Body length 2.8–2.9 mm. Fore wing length 3.0–3.1 mm. Head color: mostly dark brown to black; except for orange on most of frons and face, and yellow clypeus, labrum, mandibles, and spot on lower corner of gena near oral foramen. Flagellomere color: all flagellomere brown to black. Mesosoma color: mostly dark brown to black, with pronotum, propleura, anteromesoscutum, spot on mesopleura, and scutellar disc at least partially orange. Metasoma color (dorsally): mediotergites 1–2 orange-yellow, rest of mediotergites brown. Coxae color: pale/pale/mostly or completely dark. Metatibia color: mostly pale, with posterior 0.1–0.2 dark. Metatarsus color: dark. Pterostigma color: mostly dark, but with anterior pale spot. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin 1.6–2.0 ×. Mediotergite 1 maximum width/width at posterior margin 1.5–1.6 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 4.4–4.5 ×. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: Mostly smoth and polished. Ovipositor sheaths length: 1.0 × as long as metatibia.

Male. Unknown.

Molecular data

Sequences in BOLD: 3, barcode compliant sequences: 3.

Biology/ecology

Hosts: Undetermined Gelechiidae with interim name gelJanzen01 Janzen830.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG dry forest.

Etymology

This species is named in honour of Dr. Teofilo de la Torre in recognition of his many years of guidance of ICE (Instituto Nacional de Electricidad), the National Electricity Institute, and his acceptance of ICE partnerships with ACG in biodiversity development.

Plates

Figures 3–8.

Pseudapanteles abantidas. 3 Habitus, lateral view 4 Fore wing 5 Metasoma, dorsal view 6 Metasoma, lateral view 7 Head and mesosoma (partially) lateral view 8 Mesosoma, dorsal view.

Figures 9–13.

Pseudapanteles alfiopivai. 9 Habitus, lateral view 10 Fore wing 11 Head, frontal view 12 Head and mesosoma (partially) dorso-lateral view 13 Propodeum and metasoma, lateral view.

Figures 14–18.

Pseudapanteles alvaroumanai. 14 Head, mesosoma and wings, lateral view (with partial metasoma visible in the background) 15 Metasoma and hind leg (partially), lateral view 16 Head, frontal view 17 Metasoma, dorsal view 18 Propodeum.

Figures 19–23.

Pseudapanteles analorenaguevarae. 19 Head and mesosoma (partially), dorso-lateral view 20 Fore wing 21 Metasoma, lateral view 22 Habitus, dorsal view 23 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view.

Figures 24–31.

Pseudapanteles annulicornis. 24 Habitus, lateral view 25 Fore wing. 26 Metasoma (partially), dorsal view (picture blurriness caused by wings) 27 Habitus, dorsal view 28 Antenna 29 Head, frontal view 30 Head (frontal), and metasoma (ventrally) showing hypopygium and ovipositor 31 Head and mesosoma (partially), dorsal view.

Figures 32–36.

Pseudapanteles carlosespinachi. 32 Habitus, lateral view 33 Fore wing 34 Mesosoma and metasoma (partially), dorsal view 35 Habitus, dorsal view 36 Detail of anteromesoscutum and mediotergite 1, dorsal view.

Figures 37–41.

Pseudapanteles carlosrodriguezi. 37 Habitus, lateral view 38 Fore wing 39 Head and mesosoma, lateral view 40 Head and mesosoma, frontal view 41 Metasoma, dorsal view.

Figures 42–47.

Pseudapanteles christianafigueresae. 42 Habitus, lateral view 43 Wings 44 Mesosoma and mediotergites 1 and 2, dorsal view 45 Head, frontal view 46 Habitus, dorsal view 47 Metasoma, dorsal view.

Figures 48–52.

Pseudapanteles dignus. 48 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view 49 Propodeum and metasoma, dorsal view 50 Habitus, lateral view 51 Fore wing 52 Head, frontal view.

Figures 53–58.

Pseudapanteles gouleti. Holotype specimen (53–58) and paratype specimen (57–58) 53 Habitus, lateral view 54 Wings, lateral view and metasoma (partially), dorso-lateral view 55 Habitus, dorsal view 56 Head, frontal view 57 Habitus, lateral view 58 Mesosoma and metasoma (partially), dorsal view.

Figures 59–64.

Pseudapanteles hernanbravoi. 59 Habitus, lateral view 60 Wings. 61 Head, mesosoma and mediotergite 1, dorsal view 62 Head, frontal view 63 Hind leg (except for coxa) 64 Habitus (partially), dorsal view.

Figures 65–69.

Pseudapanteles jorgerodriguezi. 65 Habitus, lateral view 66 Wings 67 Habitus, dorsal view 68 Head, frontal view 69 Propodeum.

Figures 70–73.

Pseudapanteles josefigueresi. 70 Head, frontal view 71 Habitus, lateral view 72 Wings 73 Habitus, dorsal view.

Figures 74–78.

Pseudapanteles laurachinchillae. 74 Habitus, lateral view 75 Wings 76 Head, frontal view 77 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view 78 Mesosoma and metasoma, dorsal view.

Figures 79–83.

Pseudapanteles lipomeringis. 79 Head and mesosoma (partially), dorsal view 80 Propodeum and metasoma, dorsal view 81 Habitus, lateral view 82 Wings 83 Head, frontal view.

Figures 84–88.

Pseudapanteles luisguillermosolisi. 84 Habitus, lateral view 85 Wings 86 Head, frontal view 87 Head and mesosoma (partially), dorsal view 88 Propodeum and metasoma, dorsal view.

Figures 89–93.

Pseudapanteles margaritapenonae. 89 Habitus, lateral view 90 Fore wing 91 Propodeum and metasoma, dorsal view 92 Head, frontal view (partial mesosoma and metasoma in the background) 93 Head, mesosoma and mediotergites 1–4, dorsal view.

Figures 94–98.

Pseudapanteles mariobozai. 94 Habitus, lateral view 95 Head, frontal view 96 Wings 97 Mesosoma and metasoma (partially), dorsal view 98 Habitus (partially), dorsal view.

Figures 99–104.

Pseudapanteles mariocarvajali. 99 Habitus, dorsal view 100 Wings 101 Propodeum, mediotergires 1–2, dorsal view 102 Habitus, lateral view 103 Head, frontal view 104 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view.

Figures 105–109.

Pseudapanteles maureenballesteroae. 105 Habitus, lateral view 106 Wings 107 Habitus, dorsal view 108 Habitus, frontal-lateral view 109 Propodeum (partially) and metasoma, dorsal view.

Figures 110–115.

Pseudapanteles moerens. 110 Habitus, dorso-lateral view 111 Wings 112 Mediotergites 1–4, dorsal view 113 Head, frontal view 114 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view 115 Metasoma, dorso-lateral view.

Figures 116–120.

Pseudapanteles munifigueresae. 116 Habitus, lateral view 117 Mesosoma, dorsal view 118 Wings 119 Head and mesosoma (partially), frontal view 120 Habitus, dorsal view.

Figures 121–125.

Pseudapanteles nerion. 121 Habitus, dorso-lateral view 122 Wings (partial habitus shown in dorsal view) 123 Head, mesosoma and metasoma (partially), frontal-lateral view 124 Mesosoma and metasoma, dorsal view 125 Details of mesosoma and mediotergites 1–3, dorsal view.

Figures 126–130.

Pseudapanteles nigrovariatus. 126 Head and mesosoma (partially), dorsal view 127 Propodeum and metasoma, dorsal view 128 Habitus, dorsal view 129 Fore wing 130 Head, frontal view.

Figures 131–135.

Pseudapanteles oscarariasi. 131 Habitus, dorso-lateral view 132 Wings 133 Hypopygium and ovipositor (partially), lateral view 134 Mesosoma, lateral view 135 Mesosoma and metasoma (partially), dorsal view.

Figures 136–140.

Pseudapanteles ottonsolisi. 136 Habitus, lateral view 137 Fore wing 138 Habitus, frontal-lateral view 139 Head, frontal view 140 Head, mesosoma and mediotergites 1–2, dorsal view.

Figures 141–145.

Pseudapanteles pedroleoni. 141 Habitus, lateral view 142 Fore wing 143 Mesosoma and metasoma (partially), dorsal view 144 head, frontal view 145 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view.

Figures 146–150.

Pseudapanteles raulsolorzanoi. 146 Habitus, lateral view 147 Wings 148 Mesosoma and metasoma (partially), dorsal view 149 Head (partially), dorsal view 150 Mesosoma and mediotergites 1–2, dorsal view.

Figures 151–155.

Pseudapanteles renecastroi. 151 Habitus, dorso-lateral view 152 Head, lateral; mesosoma and mediotergites 1–4, dorso-lateral view 153 Wings 154 Habitus, dorsal view 155 Metasoma, dorsal view.

Figures 156–161.

Pseudapanteles rodrigogamezi. 156 Habitus, lateral view 157 Head, frontal view 158 Wings 159 Mesosoma, dorsal view 160 Metasoma, lateral view 161 Metasoma, dorsal view.

Figures 162–165.

Pseudapanteles rosemarykarpinskiae. 162 Habitus, lateral view 163 Head, frontal view 164 Propodeum 165 Wings and most of body, dorsal view.

Figures 166–168.

Pseudapanteles ruficollis. 166 Details of the card with the lectotype (shown with a red circle superimposed to the figure) and paralectotypes 167 Female paralectotype, habitus, dorsal view 168 Female lectotype, habitus, lateral view.

Figures 169–173.

Pseudapanteles sesiae. 169 Head and mesosoma (partially), dorsal view 170 Propodeum and metasoma, dorsal view 171 Habitus, lateral view 172 Wings 173 Head, frontal view.

Figures 174–179.

Pseudapanteles soniapicadoae. 174 Head and mesosoma, dorso-lateral view 175 Head, frontal view 176 Metasoma (partially), dorsal view 177 Propodeum 178 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view 179 Metasoma, dorsal view.

Figures 180–185.

Pseudapanteles teofilodelatorrei. 180 Habitus, lateral view 181 Wings 182 Metasoma, dorso-lateral view 183 Head, frontal view 184 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view 185 Mesosoma and metasoma (partially), dorsal view.

Acknowledgments

Gavin Broad kindly sent us type specimens of the species deposited in London (UK). We emphatically and gratefully acknowledge the support of the ACG parataxonomist team (Janzen et al. 2009, Janzen and Hallwachs 2011) in finding and rearing these caterpillars, their parasites and their hyperparasites, and Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) for preserving the forests in which they live, and the Guanacaste Dry Forest Conservation Fund, the Wege Foundation, the International Conservation Fund of Canada, the JRS Biodiversity Foundation, Jessie Hill, Steve Stroud, Permian Global, and the University of Pennsylvania for funding portions of the research. This study was also supported by NSF DEB 0515699 to DHJ and by a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) Discovery Grant to MAS. Laboratory analyses of these sequences were funded by the Government of Canada through Genome Canada and the Ontario Genomics Institute (2008-0GI-ICI-03), and by BOLD/iBOL of the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario and University of Guelph. JFT gratefully acknowledges the support and sponsoring of the Lucid team (http://www.lucidcentral.com/). The comments from an anonymous reviewer considerably helped to improve the quality of the manuscript.

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