Checklist of the family Pipunculidae (Diptera) of Finland
expand article infoChristian Kehlmaier
‡ Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden, Dresden, Germany
Open Access


A checklist of the Pipunculidae (Diptera) cited from Finland is presented. At present, 107 species have been recorded.


Checklist, Finland, Diptera , Pipunculidae


Pipunculidae or big-headed flies can be readily identified at family level by their large compound eyes occupying almost the entire globular head. Additional morphological autapomorphies at the family rank of this group are their enlarged anterior ommatidial facets in the female including a so far unique retina1 pattern among Diptera, the piercer-like shape of the female ovipositor and the presence of a chitinized postspiracular fig of their last instar larvae (Wada 1991, Rafael and De Meyer 1992). Due to the small to medium sized adults (2–12 mm), their uniform dark appearance and their rather cryptic lifestyle, it takes some effort to detect them in the field. Therefore, Pipunculidae can best be collected by Malaise traps, although a trained eye and patience can yield species rich catches by hand-netting as well. Big-headed flies can be found in a variety of habitats, where they are hovering in between herbal vegetation or among leaves of bushes and trees, searching for food sources (mainly honeydew) and mating partners or for suitable hosts for their parasitic larvae, which are important endoparasitoids of nymphal and adult Auchenorrhyncha (Chalarinae and Pipunculinae) and adult Tipulidae (Nephrocerinae) (Koenig and Young 2007). This highly specialized life-style is unique to this family of Diptera. Hardly any larvae have been described so far and the knowledge about their host specificity is fragmentary. For the European fauna, host records are available for 30% of the 209 known species, i.e., 62 pipunculid species have been reared from 59 host species in the past (Kehlmaier unpublished).

The knowledge of the Finnish fauna can be considered as good, with the latest review published only recently by Kehlmaier and Ståhls (2007). Whereas about a dozen additional species can be expected to be found, the distribution of the individual taxa within Finland is largely unknown.

Identification:Pipunculidae taxonomy largely depends on male genitalic features. Therefore, dissection of the male genital apparatus is essential and a high magnification of at least 50 times should be used for identification. Females can best be identified through a combination of outer anatomical features primarily based on the shape of the ovipositor. Most pipunculid genera present in Europe have been taxonomically reviewed within the past three decades. As no comprehensive key exists for northern Europe, adults have to be identified with the following set of publications: Chalarus (Kehlmaier and Assmann 2008, Kehlmaier 2010), Jassidophaga and Verrallia (Kuznetzov 1992, Kehlmaier 2006), Nephrocerus (Grootaert and De Meyer 1986), Cephalopsini (De Meyer 1989, Ackland 1993, Kehlmaier and De Meyer 2005, Kehlmaier 2008), Eudorylini (Kehlmaier 2005, Kuznetzov 1990), Pipunculini (Kehlmaier 2008), Dorylomorpha (Albrecht 1990), Tomosvaryella (Földvári and De Meyer 1999, Kehlmaier 2008).

Number of species:

World: 1428 species (Pape et al. 2011)

Europe: 209 species

Finland: 107 species

Faunistic knowledge level in Finland: good


suborder Brachycera Macquart, 1834

clade Eremoneura Lameere, 1906

clade Aschiza Becher, 1882

superfamily Syrphoidea Latreille, 1802


CHALARINAE Aczél, 1939

CHALARUS Walker, 1834

Chalarus basalis Loew, 1873

Chalarus brevicaudis Jervis, 1992

Chalarus decorus Jervis, 1992

Chalarus elegantulus Jervis, 1992

= absconditus Kehlmaier in Kehlmaier & Assmann, 2008

Chalarus fimbriatus Coe, 1966

Chalarus gynocephalus Jervis, 1992

Chalarus holosericeus (Meigen, 1824)

= perplexus Jervis, 1992

Chalarus immanis Kehlmaier, 2008

Chalarus indistinctus Jervis, 1992

Chalarus juliae Jervis, 1992

Chalarus latifrons Hardy, 1943

Chalarus pughi Coe, 1966

Chalarus spurius (Fallén, 1816)

= obscurus (Zetterstedt, 1838)

= argenteus misid.


Jassidophaga beatricis (Coe, 1966)

Jassidophaga fasciata (von Roser, 1840)

= setosa (Verrall, 1901)

Jassidophaga pilosa (Zetterstedt, 1838)

Jassidophaga villosa (von Roser, 1840)

Jassidophaga spec. A


Verrallia aucta (Fallén, 1817)


NEPHROCERUS Zetterstedt, 1838

Nephrocerus flavicornis Zetterstedt, 1844

Nephrocerus lapponicus Zetterstedt, 1838

Nephrocerus scutellatus (Macquart, 1834)


tribe Cephalopsini Macquart, 1834

CEPHALOPS Fallén, 1810

sg. Cephalops Fallén, 1810

Cephalops aeneus Fallén, 1810

Cephalops vittipes (Zetterstedt, 1844)

= annulipes (Zetterstedt, 1838) in part

sg. Parabeckerias De Meyer, 1994

Cephalops obtusinervis (Zetterstedt, 1844)

sg. Semicephalops De Meyer, 1994

Cephalops carinatus (Verrall, 1901)

Cephalops straminipes (Becker, 1900)

= chlorionae (Frey, 1945)

Cephalops subultimus Collin, 1956

Cephalops varipes (Meigen, 1824)

= semifumosus (Kowarz, 1887)

CEPHALOSPHAERA Enderlein, 1936

Cephalosphaera furcata (Egger, 1860)

Cephalosphaera germanica Aczél, 1940

tribe Eudorylini Rafael & De Meyer, 1992


Clistoabdominalis doczkali Kehlmaier, 2005

EUDORYLAS Aczél, 1940

Eudorylas angustimembranus Kozánek & Kwon, 1991

= kozaneki De Meyer, 1993

Eudorylas arcanus Coe, 1966

Eudorylas barkalovi Kuznetzov, 1990

Eudorylas carpathicus Kozánek, 1993

Eudorylas coloratus (Becker, 1897)

Eudorylas elephas (Becker, 1897)

Eudorylas fascipes (Zetterstedt, 1844)

Eudorylas furvulus Collin, 1956

Eudorylas fuscipes (Zetterstedt, 1844)

= roseri misid.

= trochanteratus misid.

Eudorylas fusculus (Zetterstedt, 1844)

Eudorylas goennersdorfensis Dempewolf & Dunk, 1996

Eudorylas inferus Collin, 1956

Eudorylas jenkinsoni Coe, 1966

Eudorylas johnenae Dempewolf, 1996

Eudorylas kowarzi (Becker, 1897)

Eudorylas montium (Becker, 1897)

Eudorylas obscurus Coe, 1966

Eudorylas restrictus Coe, 1966

= pannonicus misid.

Eudorylas slovacus Kozánek, 1993

Eudorylas stackelbergi Kuznetzov, 1990

Eudorylas subfascipes Collin, 1956

Eudorylas subterminalis Collin, 1956

Eudorylas terminalis (Thomson, 1870)

Eudorylas unicolor (Zetterstedt, 1844)

Eudorylas vonderdunki Dempewolf, 1998

Eudorylas zermattensis (Becker, 1897)

Eudorylas zonatus (Zetterstedt, 1849)

Eudorylas zonellus Collin, 1956

tribe Microcephalopsini Rafael & De Meyer, 1991


Microcephalops opacus (Fallén, 1816)

= vestitus (Becker, 1900)

tribe Pipunculini Walker, 1834

PIPUNCULUS Latreille, 1802

Pipunculus calceatus von Roser, 1840

Pipunculus campestris Latreille, 1802

= ater Meigen, 1824

= spinipes Meigen, 1830

= thomsoni Becker, 1897

Pipunculus dimi Kuznetzov, 1991

Pipunculus elegans Egger, 1860

= spinipes auct. nec Meigen, 1830

Pipunculus fonsecai Coe, 1966

Pipunculus lenis Kuznetsov, 1991

= thomsoni auct. nec Becker, 1897

Pipunculus lichtwardti Kozanek, 1981

Pipunculus oldenbergi Collin, 1956

Pipunculus omissinervis Becker, 1889

Pipunculus tenuirostris Kozanek, 1981

= balticus Kuznetzov, 1991

Pipunculus violovitshi Kuznetzov, 1991

= varipes auct. nec Meigen, 1824

Pipunculus zugmayeriae Kowarz, 1887

tribe Tomosvaryellini Hardy, 1943


sg. Dorylomorpha Aczél, 1939

Dorylomorpha aczeli (Hardy, 1947)

Dorylomorpha confusa (Verrall, 1901)

Dorylomorpha extricata (Collin, 1937)

Dorylomorpha imparata (Collin, 1937)

Dorylomorpha rufipes (Meigen, 1824)

= xanthoceroides (Aczél, 1939)

Dorylomorpha spinosa Albrecht, 1979

sg. Dorylomyia Albrecht, 1990

Dorylomorpha beckeri (Aczél, 1939)

Dorylomorpha xanthocera (Kowarz, 1887)

sg. Dorylomyza Albrecht, 1990

Dorylomorpha albitarsis (Zetterstedt, 1844)

Dorylomorpha anderssoni Albrecht, 1979

Dorylomorpha canadensis Hardy, 1943

Dorylomorpha clavata Albrecht, 1979

Dorylomorpha clavifemora Coe, 1966

Dorylomorpha fennica Albrecht, 1979

Dorylomorpha hackmani Albrecht, 1979

Dorylomorpha haemorrhoidalis (Zetterstedt, 1838)

Dorylomorpha infirmata (Collin, 1937)

Dorylomorpha lautereri Albrecht, 1990

Dorylomorpha occidens (Hardy, 1939)

Dorylomorpha onegensis Albrecht, 1990

Dorylomorpha platystylis Albrecht, 1979

Dorylomorpha praetermissa Albrecht, 1979

Dorylomorpha xanthopus (Thomson, 1870)

sg. Pipunculina Albrecht, 1990

Dorylomorpha borealis (Wahlgren, 1910)

Dorylomorpha maculata (Walker, 1834)


= Alloneura Rondani, 1856 nomen nudum

Tomosvaryella cilitarsis (Strobl, 1910)

= forsiusi (Frey, 1932)

Tomosvaryella coquilletti (Kertész, 1907)

Tomosvaryella geniculata (Meigen, 1824)

= nigritula (Zetterstedt, 1844)

Tomosvaryella kalevala Kehlmaier, 2008

Tomosvaryella kuthyi Aczél, 1944

Tomosvaryella minuscula (Collin, 1956)

= magyarica Földvári & De Meyer, 1999

Tomosvaryella palliditarsis (Collin, 1931)

Tomosvaryella rossica Kuznetzov, 1993

Tomosvaryella sylvatica (Meigen, 1824)

Excluded species (as discussed in Kehlmaier and Ståhls 2007)

Claraeola halterata (Meigen, 1838) misidentified

Dorylomorpha incognita (Verrall, 1901) misidentified

Clistoabdominalis trochanteratus (Becker, 1900) misidentified

Dasydorylas roseri (Becker, 1897) misidentified

Eudorylas pannonicus (Becker, 1897) misidentified


Chalarus argenteus Coe, 1966. The single Finnish specimen previously identified as C. argenteus was re-examined and was found to belong to C. spurius (Kaj Winqvist, pers. comm.).

Jassidophaga spec. A. The specimens summarised under this place holder in Kehlmaier and Ståhls (2008) might represent an additional species. Using the key in Kuznetzov (1992), males run towards the Eastern Palaearctic J. kurilensis (Kuznetzov, 1992), whereas females are closest to J. beatricis.


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