Checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland: Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera)
expand article infoJere Kahanpää, Kaj Winqvist§, Theo Zeegers|
‡ University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
§ Unaffiliated, Turku, Finland
| Unaffiliated, Soest, Netherlands
Open Access


A checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae, Asilidae, Athericidae, Bombyliidae, Mythicomyiidae, Rhagionidae, Scenopinidae, Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae.


Species list, Finland, Diptera , biodiversity, faunistics


This part of the checklist of the Diptera of Finland covers non-eremoneuran true flies (Diptera: Brachycera). The brachyceran flies excluded from the clade Eremoneura are often called the ‘lower Brachycera’ due to their basal position in the true fly tree of life. It remains unclear whether this assemblage of families is a monophyletic clade. There are also several models for the relative relationships of the various superfamilies and families. A simple classification scheme following Marshall (2012) is adopted for this checklist. Only two infraorders, Tabanomorpha and Asilomorpha, are recognized. The presentation order of families follows Woodley et al. (2009).

World catalogues have recently been published for Stratiomyidae (Woodley 2001, 2011b), Xylomyidae (Woodley 2011a), Xylophagidae (Woodley 2011c), Bombyliidae (Evenhuis and Greathead 1999, 2003) and Mythicomyiidae (Evenhuis 2002). The Finnish species were last listed by Kahanpää and Winqvist (2005). Five species have been added since the last checklist: Haematopota italica Meigen, 1804, Lasiopogon septentrionalis Lehr, 1984, Nemotelus infortunatus Kahanpää, 2010, Xylophagus inermis Krivosheina & Krivosheina, 2000 and Zabrachia tenella (Jaennicke, 1866) (see Kahanpää 2013, Cannings and Kahanpää 2013, Kahanpää 2010, this paper, and Krivosheina and Rozkošný 1990 respectively). Table 1 summarizes the current family species counts for the world, Europe (based on Fauna Europaea), and Finland.

Table 1.

Number of species in tabanomorph and asilomorph families plus Acroceridae.

Family Number of species in Level of knowledge
World Europe Finland
Stratiomyidae 2715 (Woodley 2001, 2011b) 141 29 good
Xylomyidae 138 (Woodley 2011a) 13–14 1 good
Xylophagidae 134 (Woodley 2011c) 8 5 average–good
Rhagionidae 694 (Pape et al. 2011) 85 15–16 average–good
Athericidae 124 (Pape et al. 2011) 10 1 good
Tabanidae 4405 (Pape et al. 2011) 213 38–39 good
Asilidae 7513 (Pape et al. 2011) 524 35 good
Bombyliidae ~5000 (Evenhuis and Greathead 1999, 2003) 335 18–19 good
Mythicomyiidae ~330 (Evenhuis 2002, Pape et al. 2011) 30 1 average
Scenopinidae 416 (Pape et al. 2011) 17 3 good
Therevidae 1129 (Pape et al. 2011) 99 17 average–good
Acroceridae 392 (Pape et al. 2011) 34 5 average


The stratiomyoid and xylophagoid lineages are often treated as infraorders (Woodley et al. 2009).

The soldierflies (Stratiomyidae) are very diverse in the tropics but the species diversity decreases sharply towards the higher latitudes. The wood soldier flies (xylomyids) is a small fly family associated with dead wood. The Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica series has a volume on stratiomyoid flies (Rozkošný 1973). A new Nemotelus species was recently described from Finland (Kahanpää 2010a).

The Finnish rhagionids are relatively well known but a few additional species could occur in the country. Ptiolina is a problematic genus and the number of recognized species in Northern Europe has varied from two to seven during the last century. Athericidae was traditionally placed as a subfamily of Rhagionidae, but it seems more closely associated with Tabanidae (Marshall 2012). Itämies et al. (1990, 1993) have studied the distribution of Atherix ibis in Finland.

The Finnish xylophagid fauna is relatively well sampled. Adults of the North European species can be identified using Nartshuk (1988) or Kahanpää (2009). The larvae can also be identified at least at the last larval stage (Stubbs and Drake 2001, Krivosheina and Krivosheina 1966).

The tabanid nomenclature (especially Hybomitra) is quite convoluted and records in older publications must be taken with a grain of salt. Karvonen (1969) summarized the distribution of tabanids in Finland, but this work is now partially obsolete due to the difficulties in identifying Hybomitra and Haematopota before Chvála et al. (1972) was published. For identification of North European tabanids Chvála et al. (1972) complemented with pictures in Zeegers and van Haaren (2000) or Krčmar et al. (2011) is recommended. An illustrated guide to the Finnish species is in preparation (A. Haarto, unpublished).


The asilids and bombyliids of Finland are rather well known from a faunistic point of view but little is known about their ecology. Most of the North European species are easy to identify but problems with Villa resulted in a cascade of name changes in the late 20th century. Falck (2009) and Blöchlinger (2008) are good starting points for identifying Villa adults. François (1969) has male genitalia figures for some of the more difficult Villa species. The Mythicomyiidae or micro bee flies were long seen as a subfamily of Bombyliidae.

Identifying Thereva species was also fraught with difficulties in the past but by the end of the 20th century the North European fauna was pretty well understood. A review of the Finnish therevid fauna with keys has recently been published (Haarto and Winqvist 2006). The window flies, Scenopinidae, is a smallish asiloid lineage associated with the therevids. It has even been proposed they are a specialized subgroup of the Therevidae (Woodley 2009).


The small-headed flies (Acroceridae) are a fly family of obscure origin. Affinities with Nemestrinidae, Tabanoidea, Stratiomyoidea, Bombyliidae and Asilomorpha have been proposed (see Marshall 2012 for further discussion). Finnish acrocerid records are mostly of single adults caught by sweep-netting, although Storå (1956) found groups of 20–40 Acrocera orbiculus swarming on a coastal meadow. The acrocerid species seem to have declined in abundance during the 20th century. Four of our five Finnish species are now on the national red list (Kahanpää 2010b).

Checklist part 1: Tabanomorpha (sensu lato)

suborder Brachycera Macquart, 1834

clade Orthorrapha Brauer, 1863

superfamily Stratiomyoidea Latreille, 1802

STRATIOMYIDAE Latreille, 1802

BERIDINAE Westwood, 1838

BERIS Latreille, 1802

Beris chalybata (Forster, 1771)

Beris clavipes (Linnaeus, 1767)

Beris fuscipes Meigen, 1820

Beris hauseri Stuke, 2004

= strobli auct. nec. Dušek & Rozkošný, 1968

Beris morrisii Dale, 1841

NEMOTELINAE Kertész, 1912

NEMOTELUS Geoffroy, 1762

sg. Camptopelta Williston, 1917

Nemotelus nigrinus Fallén, 1817

sg. Nemotelus Geoffroy, 1762

Nemotelus infortunatus Kahanpää, 2010

Nemotelus notatus Zetterstedt, 1842

Nemotelus uliginosus (Linnaeus, 1767)


BERKSHIRIA Johnson, 1914

= Pseudowallacea Kertész, 1921

Berkshiria hungarica (Kertesz, 1921)

= albistylum misid.

= barovskii misid.


Neopachygaster meromelas (Dufour, 1841)

= orbitalis (Wahlberg, 1854)

ZABRACHIA Coquillett, 1901

Zabrachia minutissima (Zetterstedt, 1838)

Zabrachia tenella (Jaennicke, 1866) see Notes

SARGINAE Walker, 1834

CHLOROMYIA Duncan, 1837

Chloromyia formosa (Scopoli, 1763)


Microchrysa cyaneiventris (Zetterstedt, 1842)

Microchrysa flavicornis (Meigen, 1822)

Microchrysa polita (Linnaeus, 1758)

SARGUS Fabricius, 1798

Sargus cuprarius (Linnaeus, 1758)

Sargus flavipes Meigen, 1822

= nigripes Zetterstedt, 1842

= splendens auct. nec. Meigen, 1804

Sargus iridatus (Scopoli, 1763)

Sargus rufipes Wahlberg, 1854

STRATIOMYINAE Latreille, 1802

tribe Oxycerini Enderlein, 1914

OXYCERA Meigen, 1803

Oxycera centralis Loew, 1863

= centralis Frey, 1911 preocc.

= freyi Lindner, 1938

Oxycera dives Loew, 1845

Oxycera trilineata (Linnaeus, 1767)

tribe Stratiomyini Latreille, 1802

ODONTOMYIA Meigen, 1803

Odontomyia angulata (Panzer, 1798)

Odontomyia argentata (Fabricius, 1794)

Odontomyia microleon (Linnaeus, 1758)

OPLODONTHA Rondani, 1863

Oplodontha viridula (Fabricius, 1775)

STRATIOMYS Geoffroy, 1762

Stratiomys singularior (Harris, 1776)

= furcata Fabricius, 1794

XYLOMYIDAE Verrall, 1901

XYLOMYA Rondani, 1861

Xylomya czekanovskii Pleske, 1925

= interrupta auct. nec. (Pleske, 1926)

= maculata auct. nec. (Meigen, 1804)

superfamily Xylophagoidea Fallén, 1810


XYLOPHAGUS Meigen, 1803

= Erinna Meigen, 1800 suppr.

Xylophagus ater Meigen, 1804 see Notes

= compeditus Wiedemann, 1820

Xylophagus cinctus (De Geer, 1776)

Xylophagus inermis Krivosheina & Krivosheina, 2000 see Notes

= matsumurae misid.

Xylophagus junki (Szilády, 1932)

Xylophagus kowarzi (Pleske, 1925) see Notes

= ater auct. nec. Meigen, 1804

superfamily Rhagionoidea Latreille, 1802

RHAGIONIDAE Latreille, 1802

RHAGIONINAE Latreille, 1802

RHAGIO Fabricius, 1775

Rhagio annulatus (De Geer, 1776)

Rhagio lineola Fabricius, 1794

Rhagio maculatus (De Geer, 1776)

Rhagio notatus (Meigen, 1820)

Rhagio scolopaceus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Rhagio tringarius (Linnaeus, 1758)


CHRYSOPILUS Macquart, 1826

Chrysopilus auratus (Fabricius, 1805)

?= cristatus (Fabricius, 1775) nom. dubium

Chrysopilus luteolus (Fallén, 1814)

Chrysopilus nubecula (Fallén, 1814)

? Chrysopilus suomianus (Szilády, 1934) see Notes

SPANIINAE Rondani, 1856


Omphalophora oculata Becker, 1900

= lapponica Frey, 1911

PTIOLINA Zetterstedt, 1842

Ptiolina nigra Zetterstedt, 1842

Ptiolina nigrina Wahlgren, 1854 see Notes

Ptiolina nitida Wahlgren, 1854

Ptiolina obscura (Fallén, 1814)

SPANIA Meigen, 1830

Spania nigra Meigen, 1830

SYMPHOROMYIA Frauenfeld, 1867

sg. Paraphoromyia Becker, 1921

Symphoromyia crassicornis (Panzer, 1806)

ATHERICIDAE Nowicki, 1873

ATHERIX Meigen, 1803

Atherix ibis (Fabricius, 1798)

superfamily Tabanoidea Latreille, 1802

TABANIDAE Latreille, 1802


tribe Chrysopsini Lutz, 1905

CHRYSOPS Meigen, 1803

sg. Chrysops Meigen, 1803

Chrysops caecutiens (Linnaeus, 1758)

Chrysops divaricatus Loew, 1858

Chrysops nigripes Zetterstedt, 1838

= lapponicus Loew, 1858

Chrysops relictus Meigen, 1820

= melanopleurus Wahlberg, 1848

Chrysops rufipes Meigen, 1820

Chrysops sepulcralis (Fabricius, 1794)

Chrysops viduatus (Fabricius, 1794)

= pictus Meigen, 1820

TABANINAE Latreille, 1802

tribe Haematopotini Enderlein, 1922

HAEMATOPOTA Meigen, 1803

Haematopota crassicornis Wahlberg, 1848

Haematopota italica Meigen, 1804

Haematopota pluvialis (Linnaeus, 1758)

= italica misid.

? Haematopota subcylindrica Pandellé, 1883 see Notes

HEPTATOMA Meigen, 1803

Heptatoma pellucens (Fabricius, 1776)

tribe Tabanini Latreille, 1802

ATYLOTUS Osten Sacken, 1876

Atylotus fulvus (Meigen, 1820)

Atylotus plebeius (Fallén, 1817)

Atylotus rusticus (Linnaeus, 1767)

Atylotus sublunaticornis (Zetterstedt, 1842)

HYBOMITRA Enderlein, 1922

Hybomitra arpadi (Szilády, 1923)

Hybomitra astuta (Osten Sacken, 1876) see Notes

= polaris (Frey, 1915)

Hybomitra auripila (Meigen, 1820) see Notes

= aterrima (Meigen, 1820)

Hybomitra bimaculata (Macquart, 1826)

= tropica misid.

?= solstitialis (Meigen, 1820) see Notes

Hybomitra borealis (Fabricius, 1781)

= lapponicus (Wahlberg, 1848)

Hybomitra ciureai (Séguy, 1937)

= schineri Lyneborg, 1959

Hybomitra distinguenda (Verrall, 1909)

Hybomitra kaurii Chvála & Lyneborg, 1970

= borealis misid.

Hybomitra lundbecki Lyneborg, 1959

= fulvicornis misid.

Hybomitra lurida (Fallén, 1817)

Hybomitra montana (Meigen, 1820)

Hybomitra muehlfeldi (Brauer, 1880)

= flaviceps (Zetterstedt, 1842)

Hybomitra nigricornis (Zetterstedt, 1842)

Hybomitra nitidifrons (Szilády, 1914)

= confinis misid.

Hybomitra sexfasciata (Hine, 1923)

= borealis anderi Kauri, 1951

Hybomitra tarandina (Linnaeus, 1758)

Hybomitra tropica (Linnaeus, 1758)

TABANUS Linnaeus, 1758

Tabanus autumnalis Linnaeus, 1761

Tabanus bovinus Linnaeus, 1758

Tabanus bromius Linnaeus, 1758

Tabanus cordiger Meigen, 1820

Tabanus maculicornis Zetterstedt, 1842

Tabanus sudeticus Zeller, 1842

Checklist part 2: Asilomorpha

suborder Brachycera Macquart, 1834

clade Orthorrapha Brauer, 1863

superfamily Asiloidea Latreille, 1802

ASILIDAE Latreille, 1802

ASILINAE Latreille, 1802

ASILUS Linnaeus, 1758

Asilus crabroniformis Linnaeus, 1758


Didysmachus picipes (Meigen, 1820)

DYSMACHUS Loew, 1860

Dysmachus trigonus (Meigen, 1804)

MACHIMUS Loew, 1849

Machimus setibarbis Loew, 1849

NEOITAMUS Osten Sacken, 1878

Neoitamus cothurnatus (Meigen, 1820)

Neoitamus cyanurus (Loew, 1849)

Neoitamus socius (Loew, 1871)

NEOMOCHTHERUS Osten Sacken, 1878

Neomochtherus pallipes (Meigen, 1820)


Pamponerus germanicus (Linnaeus, 1758)


Philonicus albiceps (Meigen, 1820)


Rhadiurgus variabilis (Zetterstedt, 1838)

TOLMERUS Loew, 1849

Tolmerus atricapillus (Fallén, 1814)

Tolmerus pyragra (Zeller, 1840)

LAPHRINAE Macquart, 1838

tribe Andrenosomatini Hull, 1962

ANDRENOSOMA Rondani, 1856

Andrenosoma albibarbe (Meigen, 1820)

tribe Laphrini Macquart, 1838

CHOERADES Walker, 1851

Choerades fuliginosus (Panzer, 1798)

Choerades gilvus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Choerades igneus (Meigen, 1820)

Choerades lapponicus (Zetterstedt, 1842)

Choerades marginatus (Linnaeus, 1758)

LAPHRIA Meigen, 1803

Laphria flava (Linnaeus, 1761)

Laphria gibbosa (Linnaeus, 1758)


LEPTOGASTER Meigen, 1803

Leptogaster cylindrica (De Geer, 1776)

Leptogaster guttiventris Zetterstedt, 1842


tribe Dioctriini Hendel, 1936

DIOCTRIA Meigen, 1803

Dioctria atricapilla Meigen, 1804

Dioctria cothurnata Meigen, 1820

Dioctria hyalipennis (Fabricius, 1794)

Dioctria oelandica (Linnaeus, 1758)

Dioctria rufipes (De Geer, 1776)

tribe Stegopogonini Hull, 1962


Cyrtopogon flavimanus (Meigen, 1820)

Cyrtopogon lapponicus (Zetterstedt, 1838)

Cyrtopogon lateralis (Fallén, 1814)

Cyrtopogon luteicornis (Zetterstedt, 1842)

= luteicornis var. pollinosus Frey, 1911

Cyrtopogon pulchripes Loew, 1871

tribe Stichopogonini Hardy, 1930


Lasiopogon cinctus (Fabricius, 1781)

Lasiopogon septentrionalis Lehr, 1984

BOMBYLIIDAE Latreille, 1802

PHTHIRIINAE Becker, 1913

tribe Phthiriini Becker, 1913

PHTHIRIA Meigen, 1803

Phthiria pulicaria (Mikan, 1796)

BOMBYLIINAE Latreille, 1802

tribe Bombyliini Latreille, 1802

BOMBYLIUS Linnaeus, 1758

sg. Bombylius Linnaeus, 1758

Bombylius discolor Mikan, 1796

Bombylius major Linnaeus, 1758

Bombylius minor Linnaeus, 1758

= allibarbis Zetterstedt, 1842

= albibarbis emend.


Systoechus ctenopterus (Mikan, 1796)

= sulphureus (Mikan, 1796)

Systoechus gradatus (Wiedemann, 1820)

ANTHRACINAE Latreille, 1804

tribe Anthracini Latreille, 1804

ANTHRAX Scopoli, 1763

Anthrax anthrax (Schrank, 1781)

Anthrax trifasciatus Meigen, 1804

= leucogaster Wiedemann, 1820

Anthrax varius Fabricius, 1794

tribe Exoprosopini Becker, 1913

EXOPROSOPA Macquart, 1840

Exoprosopa capucina (Fabricius, 1781)

MICOMITRA Bowden, 1964

Micomitra stupida (Rossi, 1790)

tribe Villini Hull, 1973


Hemipenthes maura (Linnaeus, 1758)

Hemipenthes morio (Linnaeus, 1758)

THYRIDANTHRAX Osten Sacken, 1886

Thyridanthrax fenestratus (Fallén, 1814)

VILLA Lioy, 1864

Villa cingulata (Meigen, 1804)

? Villa halteralis (Kowarz, 1883) see Notes

Villa hottentotta (Linnaeus, 1758)

Villa modesta (Meigen, 1820)

Villa occulta (Wiedemann, 1820)


GLABELLULINAE Cockerell, 1914

GLABELLULA Bezzi, 1902

Glabellula arctica (Zetterstedt, 1838)

SCENOPINIDAE Burmeister, 1835

SCENOPINUS Latreille, 1802

Scenopinus fenestralis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Scenopinus niger (De Geer, 1776)

Scenopinus sp. A see Notes

= vitripennis misid.

THEREVIDAE Newman, 1834

THEREVINAE Newman, 1834

ACROSATHE Irwin & Lyneborg, 1981

Acrosathe annulata (Fabricius, 1805)

DIALINEURA Rondani, 1856

Dialineura anilis (Linnaeus, 1761)

DICHOGLENA Irwin & Lyneborg, 1981

Dichoglena nigripennis (Ruthe, 1831)

PANDIVIRILIA Irwin & Lyneborg, 1981

Pandivirilia eximia (Meigen, 1820)

PSILOCEPHALA Zetterstedt, 1838

Psilocephala imberbis (Fallén, 1814)

SPIRIVERPA Irwin & Lyneborg, 1981

Spiriverpa lunulata (Zetterstedt, 1838)

= clausa (Frey, 1911)

THEREVA Latreille, 1796

Thereva cinifera Meigen, 1830

= subfasciata Schummel, 1830

Thereva fuscinervis Zetterstedt, 1838

Thereva handlirschi Kröber, 1912

= praestans Collin, 1948

Thereva inornata Verrall, 1909

Thereva lanata Zetterstedt, 1838

Thereva microcephala Loew, 1847

Thereva nobilitata (Fabricius, 1775)

Thereva plebeja (Linnaeus, 1758)

Thereva strigata (Fabricius, 1794)

Thereva unica (Harris, 1780)

= bipunctata Meigen, 1820

Thereva valida Loew, 1847

= circumscripta auct. nec. Loew, 1847

Checklist part 3: families of uncertain position (incertae sedis)

suborder Brachycera Macquart, 1834

clade Orthorrapha Brauer, 1863

? superfamily Nemestrinoidea Griffith & Pidgeon, 1832


ACROCERA Meigen, 1803

= Paracrocera Mik, 1886

sg. Acrocera Meigen, 1803

Acrocera orbiculus (Fabricius, 1787)

= globulus (Panzer, 1804)

= borealis Zetterstedt, 1838

OGCODES Latreille, 1796

sg. Ogcodes Latreille, 1796

Ogcodes borealis Cole, 1919 see Notes

Ogcodes gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ogcodes nigripes (Zetterstedt, 1838) see Notes

Ogcodes pallipes Latreille in Olivier, 1812

Excluded species

Anastoechus nitidulus (Fabricius, 1794) labeling mistake

Beris geniculata Curtis, 1830 misidentified

Cliorismia ardea (Fabricius, 1794) not found within present borders

Cliorismia rustica (Panzer, 1804) not found within present borders

Choerades fimbriata (Meigen, 1820) mistake

Choerades ursulus (Loew, 1851) misidentified see Notes

Chrysopilus splendidus (Meigen, 1820) mistake

Cyrtopogon maculipennis (Macquart, 1834) labeling mistake

Epitriptus arthriticus (Zeller, 1840) mistake

Machimus gonatistes (Zeller, 1840) not found within present borders

Odontomyia hydroleon (Linnaeus, 1758) not found within present borders

Pandivirilia nigroanalis (Kröber, 1928) misidentified

Phthiria canescens Loew, 1846 not found within present borders

Tabanus miki Brauer, 1880 misidentified

Tolmerus cingulatus (Fabricius, 1781) mistake

Villa fasciata (Meigen, 1804) not found within present borders

= circumdata (Meigen, 1820)

= venusta (Meigen, 1820)

Villa longicornis Lyneborg, 1965 not found within present borders

Villa panisca (Rossi, 1790) not found within present borders

= circumdata auct. nec. (Meigen, 1820)

Xylophagus matsumurae Miyatake, 1965 misidentified


Choerades ursulus (Loew, 1851) is a poorly known taxon. It was synonymized with C. fuliginosus by Lehr (1991) but later considered valid by Bosák and Hradský (2001). Kahanpää and Winqvist (2005) accepted it as a Finnish species but upon re-examination we consider it most likely that the single Finnish specimen previously identified as C. ursulus is a dark male of C. fuliginosus.

Chrysopilus suomianus (Szilády, 1934). The type locality of this species is Enontekiö, Finland (Szilády 1934). Unfortunately the type material seems lost and the name is probably best treated as a nomen dubium. Based on Szilády’s original description it may be a dark form of C. nubecula.

Hybomitra astuta (Osten Sacken, 1876). Kahanpää and Winqvist (2005) could not locate any material in Finnish collections. Several new records of this species have since been made and its presence in Finland is now confirmed.

Hybomitra auripila (Meigen, 1820). The synonymy of Hybomitra auripila (Meigen, 1820) with H. aterrima (Meigen, 1820) was established by Schacht (1994) and is accepted here. Schiner (1862) already mentioned H. aterrima as synonym to H. auripila. Since we consider him to be the first revisor, the name H. auripila is valid under the current Code.

Hybomitra solstitialis (Meigen, 1820) has long been known to be a problematic taxon. It is separated from H. bimaculata (Macquart, 1826) based on color characters alone. The examined Finnish material includes a range of intermediates between typical H. bimaculata and H. solstitialis forms. It seems likely that the two names are synonymous, but types should be consulted before synonymy is formally published.

Haematopota subcylindrica Pandellé, 1883. First recorded from Finland by Vuorimies (1984). Unfortunately the specimens listed in his paper could not be found and their identification remains somewhat doubtful.

Ogcodes borealis Cole, 1919. A single Finnish specimen collected in the mid-19th century is the sole Palearctic record of this species. Originally identified and published by Hackman (1970), the record was later confirmed by Kahanpää and Winqvist (2005). O. borealis Cole sensuSchlinger (1960) may be a species complex.

Ogcodes nigripes (Zetterstedt, 1838) is probably a senior synonym of O. zonatus Erichson, 1840.

Ptiolina nigrina Wahlgren, 1854 may be a synonym of P. nigra Zetterstedt, 1842.

Scenopinus sp. A is an apparently undescribed species near S. fenestralis with black femora. It occurs widely in Finland in association with bird nests.

Villa halteralis (Kowarz, 1883). See Kahanpää and Winqvist (2005) for a discussion of the single supposed Finnish record of this species.

Xylophagus ater Meigen, 1804. This name has widely been used for two species. Old Finnish checklists (Frey et al. 1941, Hackman 1980) followed the model also used in the world checklist Woodley (2011c) and used this name for the species also known as Xylophagus kowarzi (Pleske, 1925). On the British Isles the name X. ater is used as a senior name for X. compeditus Wiedemann in Meigen, 1820. According to Alexander and Clements (1991) and Chandler (1998a, b) the British usage is correct and it is followed here. Thus, X. ater is the common species with females easily identified by the three stripes of dusting on the mesonotum.

Xylophagus inermis Krivosheina & Krivosheina, 2000 was described as a subspecies of X. matsumurae Miyatake, 1965 = maculatus Matsumura, 1916 (preoccupied by X. maculatus Meigen, 1804) (Krivosheina and Krivosheina 2000). It was raised to a full species status in the recent world catalogue (Woodley 2011c). All collected Finnish specimens formerly identified as X. matsumurae were examined and they belong to X. inermis.

Zabrachia tenella (Jaennicke, 1866). First recorded from Finland by Krivosheina and Rozkošný (1990). We have examined the Finnish Zabrachia material and confirmed the presence of both Z. tenella and Z. minutissima in the country.


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