Checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera) of Finland
expand article infoJari Ilmonen
† Metsähallitus Natural Heritage Services, Vantaa, Finland
Open Access


A checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera) is provided for Finland and recognizes 56 species. One new record has been added (Simulium latipes) and one name sunken in synonymy (Simulium carpathicum). Furthermore, Simulium tsheburovae is treated as a doubtful record.


Checklist, Finland, Diptera, Simuliidae


Simuliidae is a relatively small family of nematoceran flies, comprised of 2,163 species (2,151 living and 12 fossil) world-wide (Adler and Crosskey 2014). Numerous taxonomical confusions and different views on nomenclature between eastern and western scientists have created confusion in blackfly studies for many decades. Some taxonomical issues concerning species occurring in North Europe have been resolved by recent synonymisations (Raastad et al. 2010, Adler and Crosskey 2014). Systematics and nomenclature of the enumeration follow that of Adler and Crosskey (2014), and only the most relevant synonyms used in previous checklists for Finland are listed.

The faunistic level of knowledge in Finland is good, only few changes were made since compilation of the previous checklist (Ilmonen and Adler 2008). Few additional species can be expected to be found, and many taxonomical issues have been resolved within the last two decades.

Number of species:

World: 2151 species (Adler and Crosskey 2014)

Europe: 230 species (Adler and Crosskey 2014)

Finland: 56 species

Faunistic knowledge level in Finland: good


Nematocera Dumeril, 1805

infraorder Culicomorpha Hennig, 1948

superfamily Chironomoidea Newman, 1834

SIMULIIDAE Newman, 1834

SIMULIINAE Newman, 1834

tribe Prosimuliini Enderlein, 1921

HELODON Enderlein, 1921

Helodon ferrugineus (Wahlberg, 1844)

PROSIMULIUM Roubaud, 1906

Prosimulium hirtipes (Fries, 1824)

Prosimulium luganicum Rubtsov, 1956

Prosimulium macropyga (Lundström, 1911)

Prosimulium ursinum (Edwards, 1935)

tribe Simuliini Newman, 1834

CNEPHIA Enderlein, 1921

Cnephia eremites Shewell, 1952

Cnephia pallipes (Fries, 1824)

= lapponica (Enderlein, 1921)

GRENIERA Doby & David, 1959

Greniera ivanovae Ivashchenko, 1970

METACNEPHIA Crosskey, 1969

Metacnephia bilineata (Rubtsov, 1940)

= saileri (Stone, 1952)

Metacnephia lyra (Lundström, 1911)

= tabescentifrons (Enderlein, 1929)

= trigoniformis Yankovsky, 2003

Metacnephia tredecimata (Edwards, 1920)

SIMULIUM Latreille, 1802

sg. Boophthora Enderlein, 1921

Simulium erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776)

sg. Eusimulium Roubaud, 1906

Simulium angustipes Edwards, 1915

= securiforme (Rubtsov, 1956)

Simulium aureum Fries, 1824

Simulium velutinum (Santos Abreu, 1922)

sg. Boreosimulium Rubzov & Yankovsky, 1982

Simulium annulus (Lundström, 1911)

Simulium baffinense Twinn, 1936

Simulium crassum (Rubtsov, 1956)

sg. Hellichiella Rivosecchi & Cardinali, 1975

Simulium dogieli (Rubtsov, 1956)

Simulium latipes (Meigen, 1804)

Simulium usovae (Golini, 1987)

sg. Nevermannia Enderlein, 1921

= Cnetha Enderlein, 1921

Simulium angustitarse (Lundström, 1911)

Simulium beltukovae (Rubtsov, 1956)

= carpathicum (Knoz, 1961)

Simulium bicorne Dorogostaisky, Rubtsov & Vlasenko, 1935

Simulium cryophilum (Rubtsov, 1959)

= carthusiense f. brevicaulis Dorier & Grenier, 1961

Simulium curvans (Rubtsov & Carlsson, 1965)

Simulium dendrofilum (Patrusheva, 1962)

Simulium fontinale Radzivilovskaya, 1948

Simulium juxtacrenobium Bass & Brockhouse, 1990

Simulium lundstromi (Enderlein, 1921)

Simulium silvestre (Rubtsov, 1956)

Simulium vernum Macquart, 1826

= pritzkowi (Enderlein, 1926)

sg. Schoenbaueria Enderlein, 1921

Simulium pusillum Fries, 1824

Simulium subpusillum Rubtsov, 1940

sg. Simulium Latreille, 1802

Simulium annulitarse Zetterstedt, 1838

Simulium argyreatum Meigen, 1838

Simulium frigidum Rubtsov, 1940

Simulium intermedium Roubaud, 1906

Simulium longipalpe Beltyukova, 1955

= curvistylus Rubtsov, 1957

Simulium monticola Friederichs, 1920

Simulium morsitans Edwards, 1915

Simulium murmanum Enderlein, 1935

= forsi (Carlsson, 1962)

Simulium noelleri Friederichs, 1920

Simulium ornatum Meigen, 1818

Simulium paramorsitans Rubtsov, 1956

Simulium posticatum Meigen, 1838

= austeni Edwards, 1915

= verecundum misid.

Simulium reptans (Linnaeus, 1758)

Simulium rostratum (Lundström, 1911)

= sublacustre Davies, 1966

Simulium rubtzovi Smart, 1945

Simulium transiens Rubtsov, 1940

Simulium truncatum (Lundström, 1911)

Simulium tuberosum (Lundström, 1911)

Simulium tumulosum Rubtsov, 1956

Simulium vulgare Dorogostaisky, Rubtsov & Vlasenko, 1935

sg. Wilhelmia Enderlein, 1921

Simulium equinum (Linnaeus, 1758)

= zetlandense (Davies, 1966)

STEGOPTERNA Enderlein, 1930

Stegopterna trigonium (Lundström, 1911)

= richteri (Enderlein, 1930)

Excluded species

Simulium fuscipes (Fries, 1824) see Notes

Simulium lineatum (Meigen, 1804) misidentified, most likely S. equinum

Simulium meigeni Rubzov & Carlsson, 1965 see Notes

= pygmaeum of some authors

Simulium tsheburovae (Rubtsov, 1956) see Notes


Simulium fuscipes (Fries, 1824). Adler and Crosskey (2014) treat fuscipes as a valid species of S. ruficorne species group in the subgenus Nevermannia, but no known records exist from Finland.

Simulium meigeni Rubzov & Carlsson, 1965. Adler and Crosskey (2014) recognize the identity of S. meigeni within the subgenus Hellichiella, but there are no known records of this species in Finland. The name pygmaeum in Kuusela (1971) refers to the form of pygmaeum that is a synonym for pusillum, not meigeni (see Adler and Crosskey 2014).

Simulium tsheburovae (Rubtsov, 1956). No confirmed records of this species exist from Finland (Raastad et al. 2010), and the name probably subsumes one or more of the existing species within the subgenus Hellichiella (Adler and Crosskey 2014).


  • Ilmonen J, Adler P (2008) Updated checklist of the black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Finland. British Simuliid Group Bulletin 29: 9–15.
  • Kuusela K (1971) Preliminary notes on the blackfly species (Dipt., Simuliidae) of Finland. Annales Entomologici Fennici 37: 190–194.
  • Raastad JE, Usova ZV, Kuusela K (2010) Blackflies of Northern Europe (Diptera: Simuliidae). CD-ROM. ETI Bioinformatics, Amsterdam.