Checklist of the familes Chaoboridae, Dixidae, Thaumaleidae, Psychodidae and Ptychopteridae (Diptera) of Finland
expand article infoJukka Salmela, Lauri Paasivirta§, Gunnar Kvifte|
‡ Natural Heritage Services (Metsähallitus), Rovaniemi, Finland
§ Unaffiliated, Salo, Finland
| Bergen Museum, Bergen, Norway
Open Access


A checklist of the families Chaoboridae, Dixidae, Thaumaleidae, Psychodidae and Ptychopteridae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is given. Four species, Dixella dyari Garret, 1924 (Dixidae), Threticus tridactilis (Kincaid, 1899), Panimerus albifacies (Tonnoir, 1919) and P. przhiboroi Wagner, 2005 (Psychodidae) are reported for the first time from Finland.


Finland, Diptera , species list, biodiversity, faunistics


Psychodidae or moth flies are an intermediately diverse family of nematocerous flies, comprising over 3000 species world-wide (Pape et al. 2011). Its taxonomy is still very unstable, and multiple conflicting classifications exist (Duckhouse 1987, Vaillant 1990, Ježek and van Harten 2005). The nomenclature used in the Finnish check-list follows the Norwegian one (Kvifte et al. 2011). For differences between the taxonomy used herein and that used in previous works on Finnish Psychodidae (e.g. Hackman 1980, Salmela 2003, 2005, Salmela et al. 2007, Autio and Salmela 2010) see Kvifte et al. (2011). Two species, Pneumia nubila and Pneumia palustris, listed in the previous check-lists by Hackman (1980) and Wagner (2013) have not been confirmed through study of material. Of these, P. palustris have been suggested to be synonymous with Pneumia gracilis (Eaton, 1893) (Withers 1989). Both these species have been linked to some taxonomic confusion in the past, and thus the record of P. nubila may represent Pneumia trivialis. The present check-list contains the first Finnish records of the species Threticus tridactilis (Kincaid, 1899), Panimerus albifacies (Tonnoir, 1919) and P. przhiboroi Wagner, 2005 (see Notes).

Finnish Psychodidae are very well studied compared to other Nordic countries, however new species are still being discovered at a regular rate. Most of these are new country records, but in recent years the fauna has also yielded some species new to science (Salmela et al. 2012, Kvifte unpubl.). This trend is likely to continue. Probably between twelve and thirty further species can be expected to be found in the Finnish fauna. There are no good identification sources available for Psychodids, as all works suffer from taxonomic or nomenclatural errors and/or insufficient descriptions. The best works relevant to the Finnish fauna are Vaillant (1971-1983), Withers (1989) and Wagner (1997c, genera only).

Phantom midges (Chaoboridae) are close relatives to mosquitoes (Culicidae) and meniscus midges (Dixidae) (Saether 1970, 1997). There are around 50 known species of phantom midges in the world and 15 in the palearctic region, of which five are holoarctic species. In Finland, there are eight species in three genera (Hirvenoja 1960, Hackman 1980, in which the species in the genus Mochlonyx were still doubtful).

The only strictly lacustrine species in Finland is Chaoborus flavicans. The other species live in small fishless lakes, ponds and springs where their predators are mainly dragon flies, dytiscid beetles and frogs. Chaoborus nyblaei and Cryophila lapponica are found from small fishless ponds on fells and ponds created by melting water. However, in 2013 larvae of C. nyblaei were found from the boreal zone, NE Lapland (Savukoski) from a small but permanent pond. Chaoborus pallidus lives in eutrophic lakes and small lakes in southern and central Finland (Hirvenoja 1960, 1963, Paasivirta 2002). However, there have not been any systematic surveys of the fauna across the biogeographic provinces and the conservation statuses of the species have not been evaluated. Finnish species can be identified by using Saether (1997, 2002).

Meniscus midges (Dixidae) belong to infraorder Culicomorpha. There are nearly 200 known species of which 53 occur in the Palaearctic region. In Finland two genera and 16 species are present (Hackman 1980, Salmela 2003, Salmela et al. 2007). One species (Dixella dyari Garret, 1924) is reported here for the first time from Finland (see Notes). Larvae of meniscus midges dwell in or slightly above water meniscus, having a characteristic U-shaped position (Wagner 1997a). Members of the genus Dixella are associated with lentic or slow flowing waters, such as ponds, lake shores and bog pools. Species of the genus Dixa are lotic, dwelling in running waters of varying size. Two Finnish species, Dixa dilatata and D. submaculata prefer springs and spring brooks. The Finnish fauna is generally rather well known, although three species have hitherto been collected from single localities. One northern Dixa species close to D. dilatata is still undescribed. A majority of the species can be identified by using Martini (1928), Peus (1934, 1936), Vaillant (1967) and Disney (1999).

Trickle midges (Thaumaleidae) is a small family belonging to infraorder Culicomorpha. Globally, nearly 200 species are known of which 76 are European. Central European mountains harbor a rich assemblage of trickle midges (Wagner 2002), at least if compared to the poor diversity (5 spp.) in Fennoscandian area (Wagner 1997b, Andersen et al. 2013). Only one species, Thaumalea truncata, has been hitherto recorded from Finland (see the discussion in Andersen et al. 2013). Larvae of trickle midges dwell on hygropetric substrates or splash zones of running waters (Wagner 1997b). Thaumalea truncata occurs mainly in northern Finland, both boreal and subarctic ecoregions, and adult specimens have been caught around springs and headwater streams (Salmela 2003, Salmela 2008).

Phantom crane flies (Ptychopteridae) belong to infraorder Ptychopteromorpha, being a sister group of Psychdomorpha and Culicomorpha (Wiegmann et al. 2011). Ptychopteridae is a small family with over 69 species in the world and 14 in Europe. Seven species are known from Finland, all belonging to the genus Ptychoptera. Only one Finnish species, Ptychoptera minuta, is widespread, locally abundant and almost ubiquitous. Other species are much less frequent, occurring in peatlands, headwater streams, springs and swamps. Adult Ptychoptera superficially resemble Tipuloidea crane flies, being slender and having long legs. Larvae of Ptychoptera live in shallow aquatic habitats, usually in soft substrates (Andersson 1997). Finnish species can be identified by using Andersson (1997) and Krzeminski (1986).

Table 1.

Number of species by family.

Family Number of species in Level of knowledge
World (Pape et al. 2011) Europe Finland
Psychodidae 2958 493 61–63 average
Chaoboridae 54 9 8 good
Dixidae 186 32 16 average
Thaumaleidae 182 76 1 good
Ptychopteridae 69 (Wagner et al. 2008) 14 7 good


Nematocera Dumeril, 1805

infraorder Psychodomorpha Hennig, 1968

PSYCHODIDAE Newman, 1834

PSYCHODINAE Newman, 1834

tribe Pericomaini Enderlein, 1935

PARABAZARELLA Vaillant, 1983

Parabazarella subneglecta (Tonnoir, 1922)

BERDENIELLA Vaillant, 1976

Berdeniella freyi (Berdén, 1954)

CLYTOCERUS Eaton, 1904

sg. Boreoclytocerus Duckhouse, 1978

Clytocerus ocellaris (Meigen, 1818)

Clytocerus rivosus (Tonnoir, 1919)

Clytocerus tetracorniculatus Wagner, 1977

PERICOMA Walker, 1856

sg. Pachypericoma Vaillant, 1978

Pericoma blandula Eaton, 1893

Pericoma nielseni Kvifte, 2010

= formosa Nielsen, 1964 (preocc. Meunier, 1905)

sg. Pericoma Walker, 1856

Pericoma rivularis Berdén, 1954

PNEUMIA Enderlein, 1935

Pneumia borealis (Berdén, 1954)

Pneumia bucegica (Vaillant, 1981)

Pneumia mutua (Eaton, 1893)

? Pneumia nubila (Meigen, 1818)

? Pneumia palustris (Meigen, 1818)

Pneumia pilularia (Tonnoir, 1940)

Pneumia stammeri (Jung, 1954)

Pneumia trivialis (Eaton, 1893)

Pneumia ussurica (Wagner, 1994)

ULOMYIA Walker, 1856

Ulomyia cognata (Eaton, 1893)

Ulomyia fuliginosa (Meigen, 1804)

tribe Psychodini Newman, 1834


Philosepedon balkanicus Krek, 1970

Philosepedon humeralis (Meigen, 1818)

Philosepedon soljani Krek, 1971

PSYCHODA Latreille, 1796

Psychoda albipennis Zetterstedt, 1850

= parthenogenetica Tonnoir, 1940

Psychoda alternata Say, 1824

Psychoda brevicornis Tonnoir, 1940

Psychoda buxtoni Withers, 1988

Psychoda cinerea Banks, 1894

Psychoda crassipenis Tonnoir, 1940

Psychoda cultella Salmela, Kvifte & More, 2012

Psychoda erminea Eaton, 1898

Psychoda gemina (Eaton, 1904)

Psychoda grisescens Tonnoir, 1922

Psychoda itoco Tokunaga & Komyo, 1955

Psychoda lativentris Berdén, 1952

Psychoda lobata Tonnoir, 1940

Psychoda minuta Banks, 1894

Psychoda phalaenoides Linnaeus, 1758

Psychoda satchelli Quate, 1955

Psychoda setigera Tonnoir, 1922

Psychoda trinodulosa Tonnoir, 1922

Psychoda uniformata Haseman, 1907

THRETICUS Eaton, 1904

Threticus tridactilis (Kincaid, 1899)


Trichopsychoda hirtella (Tonnoir, 1919)

tribe Maruinini Enderlein, 1937

LOBULOSA Szabo, 1960

Lobulosa pollex (Berdén, 1954)

TONNOIRIELLA Vaillant, 1971

Tonnoiriella nigricauda (Tonnoir, 1919)

tribe Mormiini Enderlein, 1937

MORMIA Enderlein, 1935

Mormia niesiolowskii Wagner, 1985

Mormia strobli (Ježek, 1986)

tribe Paramormiini Enderlein, 1937

PARAJUNGIELLA Vaillant, 1972

Parajungiella consors (Eaton, 1893)

Parajungiella ellisi (Withers, 1987)

Parajungiella pseudolongicornis Wagner, 1975

LEPISEODINA Enderlein, 1937

Lepiseodina rothschildi (Eaton, 1912)

PANIMERUS Eaton, 1913

sg. Panimerus Eaton, 1913

Panimerus albomaculatus (Wahlgren, 1904)

Panimerus notabilis (Eaton, 1893)

sg. Psycmera Ježek, 1984

Panimerus albifacies (Tonnoir, 1919)

Panimerus intellegus (Jung, 1956)

Panimerus przhiboroi Wagner, 2005

PARAMORMIA Enderlein, 1935

Paramormia polyscoidea (Krek, 1970)

Paramormia ustulata (Walker, 1856)

PERIPSYCHODA Enderlein, 1935

Peripsychoda auriculata (Curtis, 1839)

Peripsychoda fusca (Macquart, 1826)


Telmatoscopus advena (Eaton, 1893)

Telmatoscopus similis Tonnoir, 1922

SYCORACINAE Rondani, 1856

SYCORAX Haliday in Curtis, 1839

Sycorax silacea Haliday in Curtis, 1839

infraorder Culicomorpha Hennig, 1948

superfamily Culicoidea Meigen, 1818

CHAOBORIDAE Newman, 1834

CHAOBORUS Lichtenstein, 1800

sg. Chaoborus Lichtenstein, 1800

Chaoborus crystallinus (De Geer, 1776)

Chaoborus flavicans (Meigen, 1830)

Chaoborus obscuripes (van der Wulp, 1859)

sg. Peusomyia Sæther, 1970

Chaoborus pallidus (Fabricius, 1794)

sg. Schadanophasma Dyar & Shannon, 1924

Chaoborus nyblaei (Zetterstedt, 1838)

CRYOPHILA Edwards, 1930

Cryophila lapponica (Martini, 1928)

MOCHLONYX Loew, 1844

Mochlonyx fuliginosus Felt, 1905

= M. martinii Edwards, 1930

= M. velutinus of authors

Mochlonyx velutinus (Ruthe, 1831)

= M. culiciformis (De Geer, 1776) preocc.

DIXIDAE Schiner, 1868

DIXA Meigen, 1818

Dixa dilatata Strobl, 1900

Dixa nebulosa Meigen, 1830

Dixa puberula Loew, 1849

Dixa submaculata Edwards, 1920

DIXELLA Dyar & Shannon, 1924

Dixella aestivalis (Meigen, 1818)

Dixella amphibia (De Geer, 1776)

Dixella autumnalis (Meigen, 1838)

Dixella borealis (Martini, 1928)

Dixella dyari (Garret, 1924)

Dixella filicornis (Edwards, 1926)

Dixella hyperborea (Bergroth, 1889)

Dixella laeta (Loew, 1849)

Dixella naevia (Peus, 1934)

Dixella nigra (Staeger, 1840)

Dixella obscura (Loew, 1849)

Dixella serotina (Meigen, 1818)


THAUMALEA Ruthe, 1831

Thaumalea truncata Edwards, 1929

infraorder Ptychopteromorpha Wood & Borkent, 1986

superfamily Ptychopteroidea Osten Sacken, 1862

PTYCHOPTERIDAE Osten Sacken, 1862

PTYCHOPTERA Meigen, 1803

sg. Paraptychoptera Tonnoir, 1919

Ptychoptera lacustris Meigen, 1830

Ptychoptera paludosa Meigen, 1804

sg. Ptychoptera Meigen, 1803

Ptychoptera albimana (Fabricius, 1787)

Ptychoptera contaminata (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ptychoptera hugoi Tjeder, 1968

Ptychoptera minuta Tonnoir, 1919

Ptychoptera scutellaris Meigen, 1818

Excluded species

Dixa maculata Meigen, 1818. There is one female specimen collected from Russia, Kantalaks (=Kandalaksha) that belongs to Dixella borealis.


Threticus tridactilis: Ostrobotthnia borealis pars borealis, Rovaniemi, Nammalikkokivalo, 13.6.–11.7.2004, J. Salmela leg.; Regio kuusamoensis, Taivalkoski, Poikaloukusanoja, 1.6.–1.7.2006, J. Salmela leg.; Regio kuusamoensis, Taivalkoski, Syväoja 1.6.-1.7.2006, J. Salmela leg.

Panimerus albifacies: Regio aboensis, Turku, Pomponrahka-Isosuo mire conservation area, 1.8.–28.9.2011, J. Salmela & E. Nummela leg.

Panimerus przhiboroi: Ostrobotthnia borealis pars borealis, Tervola, Ruuttulammi conservation area, 4.6.–2.7.2012 J. Salmela leg. (New for European fauna)

Psychoda albipennis Zetterstedt has been confirmed to occur in Finland by Bo-W. Svensson (female specimen from Tavastia australis, South Finland, Tampere, 2009, J. Salmela leg.).

Dixella dyari: Lapponia enontekiensis, Enontekiö, Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park, Lumikero E, 25.8.2010, J. Salmela leg.


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