ZooKeys 436: 1–355, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.436.5766
The genus Cephaloleia Chevrolat, 1836 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae)
Charles L. Staines 1, Carlos García-Robledo 1,2,3
1 Department of Entomology, MRC 187, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013-7012, U.S.A.
2 Department of Botany, MRC-166, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA
3 Primary affiliation: Departamento de Interacciones Multitróficas, Instituto de Ecología, A.C., Xalapa, Veracruz 91070, México

Corresponding author: Charles L. Staines (stainesc@si.edu)

Academic editor: A. Konstantinov

received 10 June 2013 | accepted 29 May 2014 | Published 22 August 2014
(C) 2014 Charles L. Staines. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
For reference, use of the paginated PDF or printed version of this article is recommended.

Citation: Staines CL, García-Robledo C (2014) The genus Cephaloleia Chevrolat, 1836 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae). ZooKeys 436: 1–355. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.436.5766

Abstract

The species of the Neotropical genus Cephaloleia Chevrolat, 1836 are revised. We present a key to the known larvae of Cephaloleia (8 species), a key to the 95 species known to occur in Mexico, Central America and the West Indies, and a key to the 138 species known to occur in South America. All identification keys were translated to Spanish. Descriptions for the 214 known species of Cephaloleia as well as illustrations for 212 species are presented. The following species are removed from Cephaloleia: C. bipartita Pic, 1926c is transferred to Hybosispa Weise, 1910; C. minasensis Pic, 1931 and C. viridis Pic, 1931 are transferred to Stenispa Baly, 1858. The following species are described as new: C. abdita sp. n. from Brazil; C. amba sp. n. from Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru; C. angustacollis sp. n. from Ecuador; C. brevis sp. n. from French Guiana; C. calathae sp. n. from Costa Rica; C. chica sp. n. from Peru; C. conforma sp. n. from Costa Rica; C. crenulata sp. n. from Ecuador; C. gemma sp. n. from Bolivia and Brazil; C. horvitzae sp. n. from French Guiana; C. interrupta sp. n. from Costa Rica; C. kressi sp. n. from Costa Rica; C. lenticula sp. n. from Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, and Suriname; C. nana sp. n. from Ecuador; C. ochra sp. n. from Ecuador; C. stainesi sp. n. from Costa Rica; and C. susanae sp. n. from Brazil and Ecuador. Cephaloleia simoni Pic, 1934 is treated as Incertae sedis. The larvae of C. erichsonii Baly, 1858 and C. puncticollis Baly, 1885 are described and illustrated.

Keywords

Cephaloleia, key to species, new species, biology, Neotropics

Introduction

The Neotropical genus Cephaloleia was erected by Chevrolat (1836) for the species Hispa metallica Fabricius, 1801 and Hispa nigricornis Fabricius, 1792. The type species is Cephaloleia nigricornis (Fabricius) designated by Staines (1991(1992)). Cephaloleia is distributed from the south of Mexico to Argentina.

The entire genus has never been revised and identifications to species are challenging. There have been four published keys to Cephaloleia- Uhmann (1930a) for 22 species from Costa Rica, Uhmann (1936a) for 31 species, Staines (1996) for 88 species from Central America and the West Indies, and Staines (2009b) for five species known from the Caribbean. In this revision we include 214 species.

In addition to a general overview of the literature on the taxonomy, ecology, and evolution of Cephaloleia, we present species descriptions for all species and images for all but two species (i.e. Cephaloleia vittata Staines, 1996 and Cephaloleia amblys Staines, 1996 whose type specimens were not available for this revision). We have been unable to locate the type of Cephaloleia simoni Pic, 1934, any specimen identified as Cephaloleia simoni, or any specimen which can be assigned to this species based on the short original description. We are treating this species as incertae sedis. We also included three identification keys: first a key to the known larvae of Cephaloleia. Then a key to the Cephaloleia of Mexico, Central America and the West Indies and finally a key to the Cephaloleia of South America. All keys were translated to Spanish.

The taxonomy of Cephaloleia species in Central America is very stable as a result of decades of research. Having a key only for the Mexican and Central American species will facilitate species identification for researchers working on this region. The identification of South American species is more challenging because of the high diversity of Cephaloleia in this continent. Although our key to the South American Cephaloleia includes all known species, researchers must remember that there are still many species to be described in this region. This last key is therefore a tool for both the identification and discovery of species in South America.

Materials and methods

Adult descriptions. For this study, measurements were taken with an ocular micrometer. Pronotal length and width were taken along the midlines. Elytral width was measured at the humerus. Elytral length was measured from the base to the apex. Total length was measured from the base of the antennae to the apex of the elytra. In recording label data from type specimens, a slash (/) divides data on different labels; brackets ([]) contain explanatory information. Data from other specimens are reported nearly as they appear on labels, but with some standardization in the format of dates, punctation, or sequence of information. In specimens examined a question mark (?) indicates unknown province or state.

Material was studied from the following collections

AJGC A. J. Gilbert, Fresno, CA, USA

AMNH American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, USA

ANSP Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, USA

BMNH The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom

BYUC Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA

CASC California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA, USA

CDFA California Department of Food and Agriculture, Sacremento, CA, USA

CMNC Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

CNC Canadian National Collection, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

DEIC Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheburg, Germany

DWC D. Windsor, Cuidad de Panama, Panama

EGRC E. G. Riley, College Station, TX, USA

EMEC Essig Museum of Entomology, Berkeley, CA, USA

FMNH Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL, USA

FSCA Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, FL, USA

INBIO Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Santo Domingo de Jeredia, Costa Rica

INHS Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, IL, USA

ISNB Institut Royal des Science Naturelle de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium

LSC L. Sekerka, Liberec, Czech Republic

MACN Museo Argentina de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Buenos Aires, Argentina

MNHN Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

MUCR University of Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica

NMW Naturhistorisches Museum in Wien, Vienna, Austria

SEMC University of Kansas, Snow Entomological Museum, Lawrence, KS, USA

STMD Museum für Tierkunde, Dresden, Germany

TAMU Texas A and M University, College Station, TX USA

UMMZ University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

USNM National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Instution, Washington, DC, USA

ZMHB Museum für Naturkunde de Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany

Larva descriptions. Measurements were taken with an ocular micrometer or from scanning electron microscope images. Total larval length was measured from the anterior to the posterior margins. Total width was measured at the widest point.

Diet records. We performed a comprehensive summary of diet records in published ecological studies. Although the diets of some populations of Cephaloleia are thoroughly studied, our knowledge on the full diet breadth of Cephaloleia species at broad geographic ranges is still fragmentary. We recommend to researchers interested in understanding the diet breadth of Cephaloleia species at a broad geographic scale, to be cautious when combining literature records from different populations. One potential source of error when combining records from different studies is that several species of Cephaloleia display similar morphology, leading to potential misidentifications. Because we did not have access to all specimens used in ecological studies, we could not confirm that such identifications are correct.

Another potential issue in the study of Cephaloleia diets using published records is that we don't understand to which extent putative Cephaloleia species might include several cryptic species. It is possible that species assumed to locally feed on a broad range of hosts might be a complex of sympatric cryptic species. It is also possible that populations with different diets are allopatric cryptic species. We suggest to researchers interested in studying Cephaloleia host associations to review the original literature and if possible the Cephaloleia and plant specimens used in each study. An ideal approach to address these issues is to combine morphological, ecological and molecular information to delimit Cephaloleia species (García–Robledo et al. 2013a).

Systematic account
Cephaloleia Chevrolat, 1836
Cephaloleia Chevrolat 1836: 30. Type species: Hispa nigricornis Fabricius, designated by Staines 1991(1992): 247. Chevrolat 1843: 350 (noted); Blanchard 1845: 182 (redescription); Orbigny 1845: 60 (noted); Erichson 1847: 151 (noted); Guérin–Méneville 1855: 601 (faunal list); Baly 1858: 39 (redescription), 1869: 367 (noted), 1875: 74 (noted), 1885: 8 (distribution); Chenu and Desmarest 1870: 341 (noted); Chapuis 1875: 277 (redescription); Chenu 1884: 341 (noted); Sharp and Muir 1912: 567 (male genitalia); Maulik 1916: 568 (museum list), 1932: 294 (larva), 1933: 935 (host plants); Uhmann 1930a: 232 (Costa Rica species), 1936a: 109 (noted), 1948a: 217 (noted), 1957a: 14 (catalog), 1964a: 402 (catalog); Lepesme 1947: 529 (host plants); Guérin 1953: 97 (faunal list); Buck 1958: 146 (museum list); Beutelspacher and Batze 1975: 159 (host plants); Wilcox 1983: 136 (catalog); Gilbert and Smiley 1978: 90 (noted); Seeno and Wilcox 1982: 159 (genera); Machado–Allison et al. 1983: 248 (noted); Jolivet 1988: 14 (host plants), 1989: 303 (host plants); Strauss 1988: 95 (noted); Naeem 1990: 31 (ecology); Staines 1991(1992): 247 (type species), 1996: 4 (Central America species), 1996(1997): 13 (Nicaragua species), 1997: 413 (Uhmann species list), 1999: 240 (mimicry), 2002: 731 (key to genera), 2004: 311 (host plants), 2009a: 21 (redescription); Mariau 1994: 254 (noted); Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995: 143 (host plants); Mexzón 1997: 28 (host plant); Staines and Staines 1999: 523 (Baly species list); Jolivet and Verma 2002: 61 (noted); Erwin and Medina 2003: 13 (predator); Arroyo et al. 2004: 203 (host plants); Farrell and Sequeira 2004: 175 (evolution); McKenna and Farrell 2005: 118 (phylogeny), 2006: 10949 (phylogeny); Strong and Sanderson 2006: 10827 (phylogeny); Williams 2006: 201 (noted); Chaboo 2007: 44 (noted); Frank and Barreta 2010: 8 (predator); García–Robledo et al. 2010: 50 (noted); Lawrence et al. 2011: 13 (phylogeny); Sekerka et al. 2013: 303 (noted); Schmitt and Frank 2013: 57 (biology).
Cephalolia Blanchard 1845: 162 (misspelling). Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3601 (catalog); Donckier 1899: 547 (catalog); Weise 1910: 82 (redescription), 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 9 (catalog); Bruch 1915: 375 (faunal list); Handlirsch 1925: 666 (classification); Uhmann 1936b: 481 (key), 1942: 94 (morphology); Bryant 1942: 205 (faunal list); Monrós and Viana 1947: 162 (Argentina species); Guérin 1953: 97 (faunal list).
Uhmannispa Monrós and Viana 1947: 172. Type species: Uhmannispa maculata Monrós and Viana 1947, by monotypy. Uhmann 1957a: 14 (synonymy); Staines 1995: 863 (Monrós species list).
Description.

Body elongate, rather subparallel (rarely oval), flat or moderately convex. Head: small; eyes oval, convex, finely faceted, slightly prominent (Figs 19–20); labrum rather large (Fig. 19), anterior margin rounded; maxillary palps with palpomere 1 short, 2 oblong conic, 3 shorter than 1 or 2, 4 subequal in length to 2, truncate at apex (Fig. 19). Antenna: filiform, slightly thickened at apex. Pronotum: quadrangular, square or transverse; frequently widest just behind apical angle; usually margined laterally, sometimes canaliculate; basal margin bisinuate or occasionally biangulate. Scutellum: short; pentagonal or triangular (Fig. 21). Elytron: variable in form and color; with 10 puncture rows plus a short scutellar row; very narrowly margined (Fig. 22); one segment of abdomen exposed. Venter: prosternum strongly contracted between coxae, truncate at base; mesosternum short, transverse; metasternum larger; suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 often obsolete (at least in middle). Leg: short; femur dilated in middle; tibia short, dilated toward apex, obliquely truncate at apex; tarsi wide, short; claws divaricate (Figs 25–26).

Larval morphology.

In general, larvae of Cephaloleia Chevrolat are rounded oval, longer than wide, with even, regular margins formed by wide expansion of all segments from pronotum to caudal abdominal segment forming a scale-like shield (Figs 2754); head and legs concealed by broadly flattened margins (Figs 2754); margins can display setae (Figs 1418); expansions extending far forward in front of the head for a distance much greater than the width or length of the head (Figs 2754), beyond the thorax at the sides to a width greater than ½ the width of the body proper and beyond the abdomen at the sides to a width wider on each side than the width of abdomen proper, width at caudal end nearly as great as at anterior end; expansions narrowly laminate; segments more or less distinct with spiracles (Fig. 13), sides plicate; elevated along central longitudinal medial line which is wider after the middle to the prothorax and narrows on tergites 7–9. Divisions between the head and the prosternum and abdominal tergites 7–9 are not clearly defined. Dorsal surface convex. Head retracted (Figs 11, 15); antenna with three antennomeres (Fig. 17). Legs consist of two distinct segments plus base; ending with a single strong recurved claw (Figs 12, 16).

Taxonomic position.

Historically Cephaloleia has been placed in the tribe Cephaloleiini Chapuis, 1875 (Staines 2002). The tribe Cephaloleiini has been synonymized with the tribe Imatidiini Chapuis, 1875 (Monrós and Viana 1947, Borowiec 1995, Staines 2002). However, Lawrence et al. (2011) demonstrated that the true author of Imatidiini is Hope (1840). This makes Imatidiini a senior subjective synonym of Cephaloleiini (ICZN 1999, Art. 23.1). The tribe Imatidiini contains 17 genera (Staines 2002). Cephaloleia can be distinguished from the other genera by the following combination of characters: antennae with 11 antennomeres; mouth not projecting forward; elytra subparallel; body not cylindrical; apical margin of pronotum truncate or weakly rounded in middle; base of elytra without carina; last three abdominal sterna not hirsute; and pygidium generally exposed.

Species excluded from Cephaloleia.

Three species currently in Cephaloleia need to be assigned to other genera. Cephaloleia bipartita Pic, 1926c belongs to Hybosispa Weise, 1910 due to the pronotum lacking a seta in any angle, the antennae being inserted into pits and the deep excavation of the frons. Cephaloleia minasensis Pic, 1931d and Cephaloleia viridis Pic, 1931d belong to Stenispa Baly, 1858 due to the antennae being inserted into shallow pits which are divided by a longitudinal keel, the shape of the basal two antennomeres, and the cylindrical body shape. The species Cephaloleia lalli (cited in McKenna and Farrell 2006) is not a valid name (ICZN Art. 15). Requests for this specimen or additional information were not responded to.

Remarks.

Most Cephaloleia species are generally similar in appearance. Some species are easily recognized by the body shape or color pattern. Other species can only be distinguished by the sculpture of the head. Important sculpturing is the degree and strength of punctation on the vertex (Fig. 20) and the presence, absence or shape of sulci or carinae (Fig. 20). The sulci or carinae sometimes continue between the antennal bases and onto the frons. Characters on the antennae are also important. The relative lengths of the first three antennomeres and the presence or absence of triangular projections on antennomeres two to four distinguish a number of species. Antennal projections are not used in the key for some species since the presence or absence of projections is a sexual character in these species. If the pronotal margin is canaliculate (channeled or grooved) or not is extremely useful with some species. Another useful character is whether the elytra have a declivity from behind the humerus at puncture row 7. Also on the elytra the arrangement of the apical punctures is useful in species determinations. Male and female genitalia were examined and found not useful for species determinations but the shape of the last sternite is useful for gender identification (Figs 23–24).

There are three groups of species which differ from the general pattern of the genus but do not clearly belong to other genera or justify erecting a new genus so are retained in Cephaloleia. The barroi-group (Cephaloleia barroi Uhmann, 1959c and Cephaloleia sandersoni Staines, 1996) have a convex, rounded body similar to the genera Demotispa Baly, 1858 and Stilnapsis Weise, 1905b. The gracilis-group (Cephaloleia gracilis Baly, 1878, Cephaloleia formosus Staines, 1996, and Cephaloleia vagelineata Pic, 1926c) are much more flattened than other Cephaloleia and have the elytral apex truncate. The humeralis-group (Cephaloleia humeralis Weise, 1910, Cephaloleia obsoleta Weise, 1910, and Cephaloleia uhmanni Staines, 1996) resembles members of Stenispa but differ in several characters.

Species hypotheses included in this revision are based on similarities with morphological characters of type specimens. However, molecular analyses suggest that some Cephaloleia species are not monophyletic but a complex of cryptic species (McKenna and Farrell 2005). Therefore, future studies will need to combine traditional taxonomy with ecological and molecular data to elucidate species boundaries.

Figures 1–10.

Cephaloleia beetles and their host plants 1 Cephaloleia alternans in a Calathea (Marantaceae) rolled leaf. Madre Selva Station, Dto Loreto, Peruvian Amazon Scale bar equals 1 cm 2 Cephaloleia placida eggs attached to a Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae) leaf. La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Scale bar equals 1 mm 3 Cephaloleia dilaticollis first instar larva feeding on Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae). La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Scale bar equals 3 mm 4–10 Examples of Cephaloleia host plant families, Scale bars equal 10 cm: 4 Heliconiaceae (Heliconia imbricata). La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica 5 Zingiberaceae (Renealmia costaricensis). La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica 6 Costaceae (Costus malortieanus) La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica 7 Marantaceae (Calathea leucostachys). Braulio Carrillo National Park, Costa Rica 8 Cannaceae (Canna bangii). Machu Picchu pueblo, Dto Cuzco, Peru 9 Bromeliaceae (Pitcairnia arcuata) Braulio Carrillo National Park, Costa Rica 10 Orchidaceae (Oerstedella exasperata) Quijada del Diablo, Prov. Chiriquí, Panama. (Figure 10 from Sekerka et al. 2013).

Figures 11–14.

Larva of Cephaloleia erichsonii. (La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica) 11 Head 12 Leg 13 Spiracle 14 dorsal view of setae in the lateral margin.

Figures 15–18.

Larva of Cephaloleia puncticollis. (Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica) 15 Head 16 Leg 17 Antenna 18 dorsal view of setae in the lateral margin.

Figures 19–26.

Adult structures and sexual dimorphism in Cephaloleia beetles 19 Head and mouth parts (Cephaloleia belti) 20 Head, dorsal view showing carina (Cephaloleia dilaticollis) 21 Scutellum (Cephaloleia belti) 22 impressions and setae on elytron (Cephaloleia belti) 23–24 typical sexual dymorphism in last abdominal segment (Cephaloleia dilaticollis): 23 Female 24 Male 25–26 Sexual dymorphism in setose attachment pads (Cephaloleia dilaticollis) 25 Female tarsa with bifurcate setal tips 26 Male tarsa with bifurcate and discoidal setal tips. All specimens were collected at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Scale bar equals in all panels equal 200 μm.

Figures 27–34.

Cephaloleia larval stages 27–28 Cephaloleia belti, first instar, dorsal and ventral views 29–30 Cephaloleia belti, second instar, dorsal and ventral views 31–32 Cephaloleia dilaticollis, first instar, dorsal and ventral views 33–34 Cephaloleia dilaticollis, second instar, dorsal and ventral views. All specimens collected at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Scale bars in all panels equal 1 mm.

Figures 35–42.

Cephaloleia larval stages 35–36 Cephaloleia dorsalis at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, first instar, dorsal and ventral views 37–38 Cephaloleia dorsalis, second instar, dorsal and ventral views 39–40 Cephaloleia histrionica at Braulio Carrillo National Park, 1500 m. elevation, Costa Rica, first instar, dorsal and ventral views 41–42 Cephaloleia histrionica, second instar, dorsal and ventral views. Scale bars in all panels equal 1 mm.

Figures 43–50.

Cephaloleia larval stages 43–44 Cephaloleia placida at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, first instar, dorsal and ventral views 45–46 Cephaloleia placida, second instar, dorsal and ventral views 47–48 Cephaloleia puncticollis at Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica, first instar, dorsal and ventral views, specimen preserved in alcohol 49–50 Cephaloleia puncticollis, second instar, dorsal and ventral views, specimen preserved in alcohol. Scale bars in all panels equal 1 mm.

Figures 51–54.

Cephaloleia larvae 51–52 Cephaloleia erichsonii at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, second instar, dorsal and ventral views 53–54 Cephaloleia orchideivora at Quijada del Diablo, Prov. Chiriquí, Panama 53 first instar, dorsal view 54 second instar, dorsal view (Figures 53–54 from Sekerka et al. 2013).

Figures 55–59.

Cephaloleia pupae 55 Cephaloleia belti (La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica) 56 Cephaloleia dilaticollis (La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica) 57 Cephaloleia dorsalis (La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica) 58 Cephaloleia placida (La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica) 59 Cephaloleia puncticollis (Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica). Scale bars in all panels equal 2 mm.

Phylogeny and the tempo in the diversification of Cephaloleia

A molecular phylogeny that included sequences from the mtDNA CO1 gene, the entire tRNA-Leu, and a portion of the mtDNA COII gene for 98 taxa suggests that Cephaloleia as a monophyletic genus (McKenna and Farrell 2005). Although molecular and morphological evidence suggests that Cephaloleia is a monophyletic genus, the tempo in diversification of Cephaloleia beetles is still in debate.

McKenna and Farrell (2006) proposed an early origin of Cephaloleia, i.e., during the Cretaceous – Paleogene boundary event (ca. 65.5 Ma) and a subsequent adaptive radiation during the latest Paleocene – early/middle Eocene (ca. 54.97–43.47) (Fig. 60). Under this scenario, a co-diversification of Cephaloleia and their host plants is proposed.

Figure 60.

Phylogenetic relationships and two hypotheses in the tempo of evolutionary radiation of Cephaloleia. Note in the timeline the proposed origin of Cephaloleia by McKenna and Farrell 2006 and Gómez–Zurita et al. 2007. Chronogram modified from McKenna and Farrell 2006.

This early origin is controversial, as the evidence used to time early interactions between Zingiberales and ancestors of Cephaloleia was the herbivory damage found on fossil leaves of Zingiberopsis, an extinct genus of Zingiberaceae (Wilf et al. 2000). To honor the seminal work by D. R. Strong Jr on rolled-leaf beetles, this feeding damage was proposed as an ichnotaxon and named Cephaloleichnites strongi.

The assumption that these fossil herbivore bites can be only attributed to an ancestor of Cephaloleia beetles is problematic for the following reasons. First, in the study by Wilf et al. (2000), it was assumed that the damage could be the product of ancestors of Cephaloleia or Chelobasis beetles. However, molecular studies demonstrated that Chelobasis is not closely related to the genus Cephaloleia (McKenna and Farrell 2006).

Second, herbivory damage similar to the one described on Zingiberopsis fossils can be produced by other insects. In a study that predated Wilf et al. (2000), D. R. Strong described in Zingiberales leaves herbivory damage by Coleoptera and Lepidoptera that resembled rolled-leaf beetle herbivory (Auerbach and Strong 1981). In a more recent study we described similar herbivory patterns by larvae of Pyralidae and Choreutidae (Lepidoptera) and Anopsilus weevils (Curculionidae, Coleoptera) in four families of extant Zingiberales (García–Robledo and Staines 2008).

Estimates of the tempo of initial diversification of Cephaloleia based only on molecular data suggests a more recent origin between 40–55 Ma (Gómez–Zurita et al. 2007) (Fig. 60). This scenario challenges previous hypothesis of co-diversification between Cephaloleia and Zingiberales as the diversification of Cephaloleia occurred millions of years after the diversification of their Zingiberales host plants (Fig. 60).

Identification of Cephaloleia species using DNA barcodes

DNA barcodes are short DNA sequences (ca. 600 bp) that can be used to identify organisms to the species-level. This technique compares the appropriate DNA barcode loci (e.g., the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase, CO1 in insects) of an unidentified specimen to a known DNA barcode library.

In a study testing the accuracy of DNA barcodes to identify Cephaloleia species, we obtained DNA barcodes (CO1 sequences) for multiple individuals representing a whole community of Cephaloleia beetles in a tropical montane forest in Costa Rica (García–Robledo et al. 2013a). In this community, the DNA barcode CO1 was able to identify individuals to the species level with 100% accuracy (Figure 61). Species identification of immature Cephaloleia species is challenging. However, using the DNA barcode CO1 we successfully identified to the species level immature stages such as eggs and larvae, linking these life stages to their host plant species (García–Robledo et al. 2013a). Future studies must address if the DNA barcode CO1 is also a reliable identification tool in studies at broader geographic scales.

Figure 61.

Identification of Cephaloleia species using the DNA barcode COI. All specimens were obtained between 600–700 m.a.s.l. in a tropical premontane rain forest in Braulio Carrillo National Park, Costa Rica. Neighbor-joining tree includes bootstrap values (%) supporting species identifications. Boxes group individuals within each species (Modified from García-Robledo et al. in press).

We expect that as the DNA barcode library for Cephaloleia beetles becomes more comprehensive, DNA barcodes will play a fundamental role in the discovery of cryptic species and the delimitation of species boundaries. This molecular tool will have a great impact in our understanding of patterns of host plant use, and the geographic distribution of Cephaloleia species (García–Robledo et al. 2013a).

Summary of the biology

The biology of various species of Cephaloleia have been studied by Strong (1977a, b, 1982a, b, 1983), Seifert and Seifert (1976a, b, 1979a), Strong and Wang (1977), Auerbach and Strong (1981), Morrison and Strong (1981), Seifert (1982, 1984), Johnson (2004a, b, 2005), Johnson and Horvitz (2005), García–Robledo and Horvitz (2009, 2011), García–Robledo et al. (2010, 2013a, 2013b). Many of the identifications made by earlier authors were incorrect to species but now have been assigned to the correct species (Staines 2004).

Most Cephaloleia species feed on the scroll formed by the young rolled leaves of various Zingiberales (Heliconiaceae, Zingiberaceae, Costaceae, Marantaceae, and Cannaceae) (Figs 1, 4–10). This feeding habit gave rise to the name "rolled-leaf Hispinae" (Fig. 1). Rolled leaves are tender and wet, but dry and toughen quickly after unfurling. In small Zingiberales the leaves remain rolled for less than a week but large Zingiberales may have leaves which remain rolled for as long as 25 days. In some species, adult and larvae of Cephaloleia also feed on the petioles and inflorescence bracts of their host plants.

Cephaloleia beetles evolved in the Neotropics. After the introduction of exotic Zingiberales to America, several species were recorded expanding their diets and completing their life cycle on invasive Zingiberales from India and the Pacific Islands. Paleotropical Zingiberales currently used as hosts by Cephaloleia include Cheilocostus speciosus (Costaceae), Musa velutina (Musaceae), Alpinia purpurata and Alpinia zerumbet (Zingiberaceae) (García–Robledo and Horvitz 2012). When Neotropical Zingiberales are introduced to a new locality, the local species of Cephaloleia expand their diets to such novel hosts (García–Robledo and Horvitz 2012). In this monograph we included several records of Central American Cephaloleia feeding on Zingiberales recently introduced from South America.

Cephaloleia species also feed on non-Zingiberaceous host plants. Adult Cephaloleia were recorded feeding on plants from the families Arecaceae, Bromeliaceae, Orchidaceae, and Poaceae (García–Robledo et al. 2013a; Sekerka et al. 2013). In a tropical montane forest at Las Alturas Biological Station in the Coto Brus province of Costa Rica, near the Panama border, we recorded adults of Cephaloleia stevensi feeding on Tradescantia zanonia (Commelinaceae). Larvae of Cephaloleia were recorded feeding on Arecaceae, Bromeliaceae, and Orchidaceae (Fig. 9) (García–Robledo et al. 2013a; Sekerka et al. 2013).

Cephaloleia eggs are flat (Fig. 2), with a thin chorion so they are subject to desiccation. Eggs are laid on host surfaces. Oviposition sites vary among beetle species and host plant. The most common oviposition sites are leaf surfaces, petioles of immature leaves or inflorescence bracts. Eggs hatch after 10 to 20 days.

Larvae begin feeding immediately upon the part of the plant on which the egg was laid. Cephaloleia larvae have a water penny-like appearance (Fig. 3). They are flat and well adapted to moving between the wet surfaces of Zingiberales leaves and stems. Larvae grow very slowly and have two instars (Figs 2754). Time from larval eclosion to pupation is about 30 to 60 days (Figs 5559). During their development, larvae of leaf and stem-feeding species utilize several leaves. Inflorescence-feeding larvae are restricted to a single inflorescence. The larvae of Cephaloleia neglecta and Cephaloleia puncticollis have a setose venter which may be an adaptation to life in water inside the bracts. They do not possess the abdominal gills or anal filaments of Psephenidae (Coleoptera, water penny beetles) which they resemble. Cephaloleia species are not leaf-miners; they feed on the plant by dragging their mandibles across the plant surface while they crawl forward. This leaves an irregularly shaped feeding scar and a trail of frass. Pupation occurs above ground usually on the stalk of the host plant and lasts about 20 days.

Adult Cephaloleia species are found in the same habitat as larvae. Females are usually larger than males. Cephaloleia frequently display sexual dimorphism in the last abdominal segment (Figs 23–24). Tarsal papillae are also sexually dimorphic. Females display bifurcated tarsal papillae (Fig. 25). Males display a combination of bifurcated and discoid papillae (Fig. 26).

Key to the described larvae of Cephaloleia
1 Dorsum with medial ridge from anterior to posterior margins 2
Dorsum without medial ridge from anterior to posterior margins; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama Cephaloleia histrionica Baly (Figs 3942)
2(1) Dorsal medial ridge setose 6
Dorsal medial ridge non-setose 3
3(2) Dorsum with surface shallowly rugose; Panama Cephaloleia orchideivora Sekerka et al. (Figs 5354)
Dorum with surface punctate 4
4(3) Metanotum without sulcus or carina 5
Metanotum with transverse sulcus near base; Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama Cephaloleia puncticollis Baly (Figs 4750, 15–18)
5(4) Pronotum with two diagonal carinae laterally; abdominal tergites 7–9 with two diagonal carinae; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama Cephaloleia dorsalis Baly (Figs 3538)
Pronotum without two diagonal carinae laterally; abdominal tergites 7–9 without two diagonal carinae; Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Peru Cephaloleia erichsonsii Baly (Figs 5152, 11–14)
6(2) Mesonotum without carina; Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama Cephaloleia placida Baly (Figs 4346)
Mesonotum with carina 7
7(6) Mesonotum with medial V-shaped carina; metanotum irregularly plicate medially; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama Cephaloleia belti Baly (Figs 27–30)
Mesonotum with carina on outer margin; metanotum with diagonal carina on each side of middle; Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Venezuela Cephaloleia dilaticollis Baly (Figs 31–34)
Clave para las larvas descritas de Cephaloleia
1 Dorso con cresta medial desde el margen anterior hasta el margen posterior 2
Dorso sin cresta desde el margen anterior hasta el margen posterior; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panamá Cephaloleia histrionica Baly (Figs 3942)
2(1) Cresta medial dorsal setosa 6
Cresta medial dorsal no setosa 3
3(2) Dorso con rugosidades poco profundas; Panamá Cephaloleia orchideivora Sekerka et al. (Figs 5354)
Dorso puntuado 4
4(3) Metanoto sin sulco o carina 5
Metanoto con sulco transversal cerca de la base; Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panamá Cephaloleia puncticollis Baly (Figs 4750, 15–18)
5(4) Pronoto con dos carinas diagonales en los flancos laterales; terguitos abdominales 7–9 con dos carinas diagonales; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panamá Cephaloleia dorsalis Baly (Figs 3538)
Pronoto sin dos carinas diagonales en los flancos laterales; terguitos abdominales 7–9 sin dos carinas diagonales; Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panamá, Perú. Cephaloleia erichsonii Baly (Figs 5152, 11–14)
6(2) Metanoto sin carina; Colombia, Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia placida Baly (Figs 4346)
Metanoto con carina 7
7(6) Mesonoto con carina medial en forma de V: metanoto con pliegues mediales irregulares; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, México, Nicaragua, Panamá Cephaloleia belti Baly (Figs 27–30)
Mesonoto con carina sobre el margen externo; metanoto con carina diagonal en los flancos medios; Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, México, Nicaragua, Panamá, Perú, Venezuela Cephaloleia dilaticollis Baly (Figs 31–34)
Key to the Cephaloleia species of Mexico, Central America and the West Indies
1 Elytral punctures in regular rows (at least on basal ½) 2
Elytral punctures irregular; Costa Rica Cephaloleia irregularis Uhmann (Fig. 169)
2(1) Body convex, rounded 3
Body more or less flattened 4
3(2) Vertex of head densely punctate; pronotum with lateral margin evenly arcuate; antennomere 1 clavate, 2 ½ length of 1; Cuba Cephaloleia barroi Uhmann (Fig. 82)
Vertex of head sparsely punctate; pronotum with lateral margin straight for basal ⅓ then rounding to anterior angle; antennomeres 1–2 transverse, subequal in length; Jamaica Cephaloleia sandersoni Staines (Fig. 230)
4(2) Apex of elytra truncate; lateral margin of pronotum serrate; smaller species (<5.5 mm); elytral puncture rows converge and unite apically; Belize, Colombia, Panama Cephaloleia formosus Staines (Fig. 145)
Apex of elytra rounded; lateral margin of pronotum smooth 5
5(4) Additional punctures present between elytral puncture rows 7 and 8; Panama Cephaloleia orchideivora Sekerka et al. (Fig. 201)
Additional punctures absent between elytral puncture rows 7 and 8 6
6(5) Lateral margin of elytra smooth 7
Lateral margin of elytra denticulate; Colombia, Costa Rica, Venezuela Cephaloleia cyanea Staines (Fig. 109)
7(6) Apical margin of elytra denticulate 8
Apical margin of elytra smooth 13
8(7) Dorsum unicolorous 9
Dorsum bicolorous 10
9(8) Entirely black; elytral puncture rows converging and uniting apically; Mexico Cephaloleia punctatissima Weise (Fig. 218)
Dorsum metallic blue; elytral puncture rows obsolete apically; Costa Rica Cephaloleia gilvipes Uhmann (Fig. 152)
10(8) Pronotum red 11
Pronotum yellow with black longitudinal vitta; Costa Rica Cephaloleia deficiens Baly (Fig. 112)
11(10) Vertex of head concave between eyes 12
Vertex of head flat between eyes; Costa Rica, Mexico Cephaloleia atriceps Pic (Fig. 80)
12(11) Suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua Cephaloleia ruficollis Baly (Fig. 226)
Suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 complete; Costa Rica, Panama Cephaloleia schmidti Uhmann (Fig. 232)
13(7) Elytra with declivity beginning just behind humerus at puncture row 7 14
Elytra without declivity beginning just behind humerus at puncture row 7 41
14(13) Vertex of head concave between eyes 15
Vertex of head flat between eyes 27
15(14) Elytral puncture rows obsolete apically 16
Elytral puncture rows distinct apically 18
16(15) Elytra expanding apically; Costa Rica, Panama Cephaloleia quadrilineata Baly (Fig. 220)
Elytra parallel-sided 17
17(16) Antennomeres 1 and 2 elongate; Guatemala, Mexico Cephaloleia suaveola Baly (Fig. 243)
Antennomere 1 incrassate, 2 transverse; Costa Rica, Panama Cephaloleia nevermanni Uhmann (Fig. 191)
18(15) Elytra vittate 19
Elytra unicolorous or maculate 20
19(18) Pronotum impunctate; antennomeres 3–4 triangular; Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Panama Cephaloleia bella Baly (Fig. 84)
Pronotum punctate laterally; antennomere 2 triangular; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama Cephaloleia vicina Baly (Fig. 266)
20(18) Dorsum unicolorous 21
Dorsum bicolorous 23
21(20) Pronotum with disc impunctate, punctate laterally; large (>7.0 mm) 22
Pronotum densely punctate; smaller (<5.0 mm); Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico Cephaloleia fulvolimbata Baly (Fig. 149)
22(21) Elytral puncture rows confused at apex; Costa Rica, Panama Cephaloleia flava Uhmann (Fig. 141)
Elytral puncture rows distinct at apex; Costa Rica, Mexico, Panama Cephaloleia gratiosa Baly (in part) (Fig. 154)
23(20) Pronotum and elytra same color 24
Pronotum and elytra different colors 25
24(23) Suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; Costa Rica, Panama Cephaloleia nigropicta Baly (Fig. 195)
Suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 complete; Bolivia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru Cephaloleia laeta Waterhouse (Fig. 171)
25(23) Suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela Cephaloleia pretiosa Baly (Fig. 214)
Suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 complete 26
26(25) Pronotum impunctate medially, punctate laterally; antennomere 1 clavate; Costa Rica, Mexico, Panama Cephaloleia gratiosa Baly (in part) (Fig. 154)
Pronotum sparsely punctate; antennomere 1 elongate; Panama Cephaloleia lepida Staines (Fig. 175)
27(14) Dorsum unicolorous 28
Dorsum bicolorous 30
28(27) Elytra with sutural angle without tooth; pronotum without impression laterally 29
Elytra with sutural angle with tooth; pronotum with impression laterally; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama Cephaloleia instabilis Baly (in part) (Fig. 166)
29(28) Pronotum finely punctate; suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 complete; antennomere 1 subequal in length to 3; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama Cephaloleia congener Baly (Fig. 103)
Pronotum sparsely punctate; suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; antennomere 1 subequal in length to 2–4; Costa Rica Cephaloleia immaculata Staines (Fig. 163)
30(27) Elytron immaculate 31
Elytron maculate or vittate 32
31(30) Pronotum with impression laterally; antennomeres 1–4 compressed laterally; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama Cephaloleia instabilis Baly (in part) (Fig. 166)
Pronotum without impression laterally; antennomere 1 compressed laterally; Costa Rica, Mexico Cephaloleia fulvicollis Weise (Fig. 147)
32(30) Elytron with longitudinal vitta on disc or lateral margin 33
Elytron without longitudinal vitta on disc or lateral margin 36
33(32) Elytron with longitudinal vitta on lateral margin; Costa Rica, Panama Cephaloleia marginella Uhmann (Fig. 184)
Elytron with longitudinal vitta on disc 34
34(33) Suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; Costa Rica, Panama Cephaloleia heliconiae Uhmann (Fig. 157)
Suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 complete 35
35(34) Pronotum punctate; antennomeres 2–4 triangular; Costa Rica, Panama Cephaloleia championi Baly (Fig. 95)
Pronotum sparsely punctate; antennomeres 2–3 triangular; Colombia, Panama Cephaloleia luctuosa Guérin-Méneville (Fig. 179)
36(32) No antennomeres triangular 37
Some antennomeres triangular 40
37(36) Suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; Costa Rica, Panama Cephaloleia fenestrata Weise (Fig. 139)
Suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 complete 38
38(37) Pronotum nearly impunctate 39
Pronotum with disc impunctate, punctate laterally; elytral punctures larger on disc than laterally; puncture row 10 distant from lateral margin; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama Cephaloleia histrionica Baly (Fig. 159)
39(38) Vertex of head punctate; antennomeres 1–4 compressed laterally; pronotum immaculate; Costa Rica Cephaloleia stainesi García-Robledo, sp. n. (Fig. 273)
Vertex of head impunctate; antennomeres 1–4 not compressed laterally; pronotum maculate; Costa Rica, Nicaragua Cephaloleia reventazonica Uhmann (Fig. 223)
40(36) Antennomere 3 triangular; Panama Cephaloleia leucoxantha Baly (Fig. 176)
Antennomeres 2–4 triangular; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama Cephaloleia instabilis Baly (in part) (Fig. 166)
41(13) Dorsum unicolorous 42
Dorsum bicolorous 75
42(41) Elytra maculate or vittate 43
Elytra unicolorous 54
43(42) Vertex of head concave between eyes 44
Vertex of head flat between eyes 47
44(43) Pronotum strongly densely punctate; suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; Costa Rica, Panama Cephaloleia stevensi Baly (Fig. 240)
Pronotum moderately punctate; suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 complete 45
45(44) Antennomere 1 longer than 2 46
Antennomere 1 subequal to 2; pronotum without V-shaped depression basally; Costa Rica Cephaloleia interrupta García-Robledo & Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 167)
46(45) Antennomere 1 subequal in length to 3; basic body color metallic green; Panama Cephaloleia eumorpha Staines (Fig. 134)
Antennomere 1 subequal to 2–4 combined; basic body color black; Mexico Cephaloleia postuma Weise (Fig. 212)
47(43) Suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 complete 48
Suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially 51
48(47) Antennomere 1 subequal in length to 2; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama Cephaloleia dorsalis Baly (Fig. 127)
Antennomere 1 more than length of 2 49
49(48) Antennomere 1 as long as 2–4 combined 50
Antennomere 1 shorter than 2–4 combined; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua Cephaloleia suturalis Baly (Fig. 248)
50(49) Elytral puncture rows obsolete after middle; vertex of head without medial sulcus; pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate; Costa Rica Cephaloleia adusta Uhmann (Fig. 64)
Elytral puncture rows complete; vertex of head with medial sulcus; pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally; Costa Rica Cephaloleia kressi García-Robledo, sp. n. (Fig. 272)
51(47) Antennomere 1 transverse; Mexico Cephaloleia chevrolatii Baly (Fig. 96)
Antennomere 1 elongate or clavate 52
52(51) Antennomere 1 clavate; elytra with humerus impunctate 53
Antennomere 1 elongate; elytra with humerus punctate; Brazil, Costa Rica, Panama Cephaloleia elegantula Baly (Fig. 129)
53(51) Antennomere 1 as long as 2 and 3 combined; elytra with sutural angle without tooth; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama Cephaloleia stenosoma Baly (in part) (Fig. 239)
Antennomere 1 as long 3; elytra with sutural angle with minute tooth; Bolivia, Colombia, Panama, Peru, Venezuela Cephaloleia partita Weise (Fig. 206)
54(42) Dorsum metallic blue, pronotum with lateral margin paler; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama Cephaloleia metallescens Baly (Fig. 188)
Dorsum black or reddish-brown 55
55(54) Vertex of head concave between eyes 56
Vertex of head flat between eyes 63
56(55) Dorsum black; Mexico Cephaloleia punctatissima Weise (Fig. 218)
Dorsum reddish-brown 57
57(56) Suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 complete 58
Suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially 59
58(57) Larger species (more than 5.0 mm) 60
Smaller species (less than 4.0 mm); Dominica, Grenada Cephaloleia simplex Staines (Fig. 236)
59(58) Pronotum with disc punctate; Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama Cephaloleia distincta Baly (Fig. 125)
Pronotum with disc impunctate; Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama Cephaloleia placida Baly (Fig. 210)
60(58) Antennomere 1 subequal in length to 2; Costa Rica, Panama Cephaloleia sulciceps Baly (Fig. 246)
Antennomere 1 longer than 2 61
61(60) Antennomere 1 subequal in length to 2–3 combined; vertex of head with medial carina; size larger (8.0 mm); Costa Rica, Panama Cephaloleia mauliki Uhmann (Fig. 169)
Antennomere 1 not subequal in length to 2–3 combined; vertex of head without medial carina; size smaller (<6.0 mm) 62
62(61) Antennomere 1 subequal in length to 3; pronotum densely punctate; Trinidad Cephaloleia brunnea Staines (Fig. 90)
Antennomere 1 not subequal in length to 3; pronotum sparsely punctate; Trinidad Cephaloleia rubra Staines (Fig. 225)
63(55) Dorsum black; Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama Cephaloleia tenella Baly (Fig. 250)
Dorsum reddish-brown 64
64(63) Body elongate, rounded 66
Body nearly rectangular in outline 65
65(64) Elytra with puncture rows 6–9 obsolete on humerus; suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 complete; Costa Rica, Guatemala Cephaloleia aequilata Uhmann (Fig. 66)
Elytra with puncture rows 6–9 present on humerus; suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Venezuela Cephaloleia dilaticollis Baly (Fig. 119)
66(65) Suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 complete 67
Suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially 70
67(66) Antennomeres 1–2 subglobose; Costa Rica, Panama Cephaloleia cylindrica Staines (Fig. 110)
Antennomeres 1–2 elongate 68
68(66) Antennomere 1 subequal to 2–4 combined, clavate; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama Cephaloleia antennalis Donckier (Fig. 72)
Antennomere 1 shorter than 2–4 combined, elongate 69
69(68) Pronotum with disc punctate; pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally; Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama Cephaloleia puncticollis Baly (Fig. 219)
Pronotum with disc impunctate; pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama Cephaloleia sallei Baly (Fig. 229)
70(66) Elytra with puncture rows confused basally; Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico Cephaloleia perplexa Baly (Fig. 208)
Elytra with puncture rows distinct basally 71
71(70) Antennomere 1 at least 2× length of 2 72
Antennomere 1 less than 2× length of 2 74
72(71) Elytra with sulcus on humeral callus; Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Peru Cephaloleia erichsonii Baly (Fig. 132)
Elytra without sulcus on humeral callus 73
73(72) Antennomere 1 clavate, 2× length of 2; elytral punctures obovate, not larger on disc; Costa Rica Cephaloleia conforma García-Robledo & Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 102)
Antennomere 1 elongate, 3× length of 2; elytral punctures rounded, larger on disc; Costa Rica Cephaloleia calathae García-Robledo & Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 93)
74(71) Elytra with puncture rows confused apically; antennomere 1 longer than 2; Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Venezuela Cephaloleia nigricornis Fabricius (Fig. 193)
Elytra with puncture rows distinct apically; antennomere 1 subequal in length to 2; Mexico Cephaloleia delectabilis Staines (Fig. 114)
75(41) Elytra maculate or vittate 78
Elytra unicolorous 76
76(75) Vertex of head concave between eyes; Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Venezuela Cephaloleia neglecta Weise (Fig. 190)
Vertex of head flat between eyes 77
77(76) Pronotum darker than elytra; antennomere 1 longer than 2; Panama Cephaloleia amblys Staines (Image not available)
Pronotum paler than elytra; antennomere 1 subequal in length to 2; Panama Cephaloleia facetus Staines (Fig. 136)
78(75) Elytra maculate 80
Elytra vittate 84
79(78) Vertex of head concave between eyes 81
Vertex of head flat between eyes 82
80(79) Color black with reddish humeral macula; Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama Cephaloleia uhmanni Staines (Fig. 261)
Color different 81
81(80) Antennomere 1 longer than 2; pronotal punctures more dense laterally; elytral puncture rows confused apically; Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Panama, Venezuela Cephaloleia trimaculata Baly (Fig. 256)
Antennomere 1 subequal to 2; pronotal punctures uniformly distributed; elytral puncture rows obsolete apically; Costa Rica, Panama Cephaloleia weisei Staines (Fig. 269)
82(80) Pronotum with disc impunctate, punctate laterally; antennomere 1 clavate, longer than 2 and 3 combined; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama Cephaloleia stenosoma Baly (in part) (Fig. 239)
Pronotum punctate; antennomere 1 elongate, not longer than 2 and 3 combined 83
83(82) Antennomere 1 subequal in length to 2; pronotum with basal impression; Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama Cephaloleia splendida Staines (Fig. 237)
Antennomere 1 twice length of 2; pronotum with lateral impression; Costa Rica, Panama Cephaloleia turrialbana Uhmann (Fig. 260)
84(79) Vertex of head concave between eyes 85
Vertex of head flat between eyes 91
85(84) Humerus nearly impunctate 86
Humerus punctate 87
86(85) Suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; sutural angle of elytra with small tooth; Panama Cephaloleia scitulus Staines (Fig. 233)
Suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 complete; sutural angle of elytra without small tooth; Mexico, Peru, Venezuela Cephaloleia parenthesis Weise (Fig. 205)
87(85) Elytral puncture rows nearly obsolete apically 88
Elytral puncture rows distinct apically 89
88(87) Antennomere 1 incrassate, subequal in length to 2–4 combined; Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama Cephaloleia ornatrix Donckier (Fig. 203)
Antennomere 1 elongate, shorter than 2–4 combined; Mexico Cephaloleia presignis Staines (Fig. 213)
89(87) Antennomere 1 subequal in length to 2–4 combined; Costa Rica, Mexico Cephaloleia separata Baly (Fig. 235)
Antennomere 1 ⅓ length of 2–4 combined 90
90(89) Elytra with additional row of punctures after row 7; sutural angle of elytra notched; suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 complete; Costa Rica, Panama Cephaloleia apicata Uhmann (Fig. 75)
Elytra without additional row of punctures after row 7; sutural angle of elytra rounded; suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; Costa Rica Cephaloleia disjuncta Staines (Fig. 124)
91(84) Elytra with sutural angle emarginate; Guatemala Cephaloleia lateralis Baly (Fig. 172)
Elytra with sutural angle rounded 92
92(91) Elytra with humerus impunctate 94
Elytra with humerus punctate 93
93(92) Antennomere 1 as long as 2–3 combined; Guatemala, Mexico Honduras, Panama Cephaloleia discoidalis Baly (Fig. 123)
Antennomere 1 shorter than 2–3 combined; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama Cephaloleia stenosoma Baly (in part) (Fig. 239)
94(92) Elytra with puncture rows obsolete apically 95
Elytra with puncture rows distinct apically 97
95(94) Antennomere 1 subequal to 3; suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama Cephaloleia trivittata Baly (Fig. 257)
Antennomere 1 3× length of 3; suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 complete 96
96(95) Pronotum impunctate; pro-, meso-, and metasterna punctate laterally; Costa Rica Cephaloleia triangularis Staines (Fig. 254)
Pronotum punctate laterally; pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate; Panama Cephaloleia erugatus Staines (Fig. 133)
97(94) Antennomere 1 subequal in length to 2 98
Antennomere 1 much longer than 2 99
98(97) Antennomere 1 subequal to 3; 2 transverse; pronotal punctures dense, uniform; Costa Rica, Panama Cephaloleia semivittata Baly (Fig. 234)
Antennomere 1 subequal in length to 2; 2 elongate; pronotum irregularly punctate; Costa Rica Cephaloleia vittata Staines (Image not available)
99(97) Antennomere 1 as long as 2–4 combined; pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally 100
Antennomere 1 as long as 2–3 combined; pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate; Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama Cephaloleia consanguinea Baly (Fig. 104)
100(99) Sutural angle of elytra with small tooth; puncture rows distinct apically; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama Cephaloleia belti Baly (Fig. 85)
Sutural angle of elytra without small tooth; puncture rows converge and unite apically; Colombia, Panama Cephaloleia variabilis Staines (Fig. 265)
Clave para las especies de Cephaloleia de México, Centro América y las Indias Occidentales
1 Puntuaciones elitrales en filas regulares (al menos en la mitad basal) 2
Puntuaciones elitrales irregulares; Costa Rica Cephaloleia irregularis Uhmann (Fig. 169)
2(1) Cuerpo convexo, redondeado 3
Cuerpo más o menos aplanado 4
3(2) Vértice de la cabeza densamente puntuado; pronoto con márgenes laterales homogéneamente recurvadas; antenómero 1 clavado, 2 ½ veces la longitud de 1; Cuba Cephaloleia barroi Uhmann (Fig. 82)
Vértice de la cabeza escasamente puntuado; pronoto con márgenes laterales rectas desde ⅓ de la base, luego redondeados hacia el ángulo anterior; antenómeros 1–2 transversos, subiguales en longitud; Jamaica Cephaloleia sandersoni Staines (Fig. 230)
4(2) Apice de los élitros truncados; márgen lateral del pronoto aserrado; especie más pequeña (<5.5 mm); puntuaciones elitrales en filas que convergen y se unen apicalmente; Belice, Colombia, Panamá Cephaloleia formosus Staines (Fig. 145)
Apice de los élitros redondeados; márgenes laterales del pronoto liso 5
5(4) Puntuaciones elitrales adicionales presentes entre las filas de filas de puntuaciones elitrales 7 y 8; Panamá Cephaloleia orchideivora Sekerka et al. (Fig. 201)
Puntuaciones adicionales ausentes entre filas de puntuaciones elitrales 7 y 8 6
6(5) Márgenes laterales de los élitros lisos 7
Márgenes laterales de los élitros denticuladas; Colombia, Costa Rica, Venezuela Cephaloleia cyanea Staines (Fig. 109)
7(6) Márgenes apicales de los élitros denticuladas 8
Márgenes apicales de los élitros lisas 13
8(7) Dorso unicolor 9
Dorso bicolor 10
9(8) Completamente negro; puntuaciones de los élitros en filas que convergen y se unen en el ápice; México Cephaloleia punctatissima Weise (Fig. 218)
Dorso azul metálico; filas de puntuaciones de los élitros obsoletas apicálmente; Costa Rica Cephaloleia gilvipes Uhmann (Fig. 152)
10(8) Pronoto rojo 11
Pronoto amarillo con líneas longitudinales negras; Costa Rica Cephaloleia deficiens Baly (Fig. 112)
11(10) Vértice de la cabeza cóncavo entre los ojos 12
Vértice de la cabeza aplanado entre los ojos; Costa Rica, México Cephaloleia atriceps Pic (Fig. 80)
12(11) Sutura entre el esterno 1 y 2 obsoleta medialmente; Belice, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, México, Nicaragua Cephaloleia ruficollis Baly (Fig. 226)
Sutura entre el esterno 1 y 2 completa; Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia schmidti Uhmann (Fig. 232)
13(7) Elitros con declive comenzando justo detrás del húmero en la fila de puntuaciones 7 14
Elitros sin declive comenzando justo detrás del húmero en la fila de puntuaciones 7 41
14(13) Vértice de la cabeza cóncavo entre los ojos 15
Vértice de la cabeza aplanado entre los ojos 27
15(14) Puntuaciones elitrales en filas obsoletas apicálmente 16
Puntuaciones elitrales en filas diferenciadas apicálmente 18
16(15) Elitros se expanden apicalmente; Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia quadrilineata Baly (Fig. 220)
Elitros con bordes paralelos 17
17(16) Antenómeros 1 y 2 alargados; Guatemala, México Cephaloleia suaveola Baly (Fig. 243)
Antenómero 1 engrosado, 2 transverso; Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia nevermanni Uhmann (Fig. 191)
18(15) Elitros con líneas 19
Elitros de un solo color o con mancha 20
19(18) Pronoto sin puntuaciones; antenómeros 3–4 triangulares; Colombia, Costa Rica, México, Panamá Cephaloleia bella Baly (Fig. 84)
Pronoto puntuado lateralmente; antenómero 2 triangular; Costa Rica, Guatemala, México, Panamá Cephaloleia vicina Baly (Fig. 266)
20(18) Dorso unicolor 21
Dorso bicolor 23
21(20) Pronoto con disco sin puntuaciones, puntuado lateralmente; grande (>7.0 mm) 22
Pronoto densamente puntuado; pequeño (<5.0 mm); Belice, Guatemala, Honduras, México Cephaloleia fulvolimbata Baly (Fig. 149)
22(21) Líneas de puntuaciones elitrales confusas en el ápice; Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia flava Uhmann (Fig. 141)
Líneas de puntuaciones elitrales diferenciables en el ápice; Costa Rica, México, Panamá Cephaloleia gratiosa Baly (en parte) (Fig. 154)
23(20) Pronoto y élitros del mismo color 24
Pronoto y élitros con colores diferentes 25
24(23) Sutura entre los esternos abodominales 1 y 2 obsoleta medialmente; Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia nigropicta Baly (Fig. 195)
Sutura entre esternos 1 y 2 completa; Bolivia, Ecuador, Panamá, Perú Cephaloleia laeta Waterhouse (Fig. 171)
25(23) Sutura entre los esternos abdominales 1 y 2 obsoleta medialmente; Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panamá, Ecuador, Perú, Venezuela Cephaloleia pretiosa Baly (Fig. 214)
Sutura entre los esternos abdominales 1 y 2 completa 26
26(25) Pronoto sin puntuaciones en la zona medial, puntuado lateralmente; antenómero 1 clavado; Costa Rica, México, Panamá Cephaloleia gratiosa Baly (en parte) (Fig. 154)
Pronoto escasamente puntuado; antenómero 1 alargado; Panamá Cephaloleia lepida Staines (Fig. 175)
27(14) Dorso unicoloro 28
Dorso bicolor 30
28(27) Elitros con sutura angulada sin diente; pronoto sin impresiones laterales 29
Elitros con sutura angulada con diente; pronoto con impresiones laterales; Costa Rica, Guatemala, México, Panamá Cephaloleia instabilis Baly (en parte) (Fig. 166)
29(28) Pronoto finamente puntuado; sutura entre esternos abdominales 1 y 2 completa; antenómero 1 subigual en longitud a 3; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panamá Cephaloleia congener Baly (Fig. 103)
Pronoto escasamente puntuado; sutura entre los esternos abdominales 1 y 2 obsoletas medialmente; antenómero 1 subigual en longitud a 2 y 4; Costa Rica Cephaloleia immaculata Staines (Fig. 163)
30(27) Elitros sin manchas 31
Elitros con manchas o líneas 32
31(30) Pronoto con impresiones laterales; antenómeros 1–4 comprimidos lateralmente; Costa Rica, Guatemala, México, Panamá Cephaloleia instabilis Baly (en parte) (Fig. 166)
Pronoto sin impresiones laterales; antenómero 1 comprimido lateralmente; Costa Rica, México Cephaloleia fulvicollis Weise (Fig. 147)
32(30) Elitros con líneas longitudinales sobre el disco ó las márgenes laterales 33
Elitros sin líneas longitudinales sobre el disco ó las márgenes laterales 36
33(32) Elitros con líneas longitudinales en las márgenes laterales; Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia marginella Uhmann (Fig. 184)
Elitros con líneas longitudinales sobre el disco 34
34(33) Sutura entre esternos abdominales 1 y 2 ausente medialmente; Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia heliconiae Uhmann (Fig. 157)
Sutura entre esternos abdominales 1 y 2 completa 35
35(34) Pronoto puntuado; antenómero 2–4 triangular; Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia championi Baly (Fig. 95)
Pronoto escasamente puntuado; antenómero 2–3 triangular; Colombia, Panamá Cephaloleia luctuosa Guérin-Méneville (Fig. 179)
36(32) Ningún antenómero triangular 37
Algunos antenómeros triangulares 40
37(36) Sutura entre esternos abdominales 1 y 2 obsoletos medialmente; Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia fenestrata Weise (Fig. 139)
Sutura entre esternos abdominales 1 y 2 completa 38
38(37) Pronoto casi sin puntuaciones 39
Pronoto con disco sin puntuaciones, puntuaciones laterales presentes; puntuaciones en los élitros más grandes en el disco que lateralmente; puntuaciones de la fila 10 distantes del margen lateral; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panamá Cephaloleia histrionica Baly (Fig. 159)
39(38) Vértice de la cabeza puntuada; antenómeros 1–4 comprimidos lateralmente; pronoto sin mancha Costa Rica Cephaloleia stainesi García-Robledo, sp. n. (Fig. 273)
Vértice de la cabeza sin puntuaciones; antenómeros 1–4 no comprimidos lateralmente; pronoto sin manchas; Costa Rica, Nicaragua Cephaloleia reventazonica Uhmann (Fig. 223)
40(36) Antenómero 3 triangular; Panamá Cephaloleia leucoxantha Baly (Fig. 176)
Antenómero 2–4 triangular; Costa Rica, Guatemala, México, Panamá Cephaloleia instabilis Baly (en parte) (Fig. 166)
41(13) Dorso unicolor 42
Dorso bicolor 75
42(41) Elitros de un solo color 43
Elitros no manchados ni con líneas 54
43(42) Vértice de la cabeza cóncavo entre los ojos 44
Vértice de la cabeza aplanado entre los ojos 47
44(43) Pronoto fuerte y densamente puntuado; sutura entre los esternos abdominales 1 y 2 obsoleta medialmente; Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia stevensi Baly (Fig. 240)
Pronoto moderadamente puntuado; sutura entre los esternos abdominales 1 y 2 completa 45
45(44) Antenómero 1 es más largo que 2 46
Antenómero 1 subigual a 2; pronoto sin depresión basal en forma de V; Costa Rica Cephaloleia interrupta García-Robledo & Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 167)
46(45) Antenómero 1 subigual en longitud a 3; color del cuerpo es verde metálico; Panamá Cephaloleia eumorpha Staines (Fig. 134)
Antenómero 1 subigual a 2–4 combinados; color del cuerpo es negro; México Cephaloleia postuma Weise (Fig. 212)
47(43) Sutura entre esternos abdominales 1 y 2 completa 48
Sutura entre esternos abdominales 1 y 2 obsoleta medialmente 51
48(47) Antenómero 1 subigual en longitud a 2; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panamá Cephaloleia dorsalis Baly (Fig. 127)
Antenómero 1 más largo que 2 49
49(48) Antenómero 1 tan largo como 2–4 combinados; 50
Antenómero 1 más corto que 2–4 combinados; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua Cephaloleia suturalis Baly (Fig. 248)
50(49) Filas de puntuaciones elitrales obsoletas en la mitad posterior; vértice de la cabeza sin sulco; pro-, meso-, y metaesternos sin puntuaciones; Costa Rica Costa Rica Cephaloleia adusta Uhmann (Fig. 64)
Filas de puntuaciones elitrales completas; vértice de la cabeza con sulco medial; pro-, meso-, and metaesternos sin puntuaciones mediales, puntuados lateralmente punctate laterally; Costa Rica Cephaloleia kressi García-Robledo, sp. n. (Fig. 272)
51(47) Antenómero 1 transverso; México Cephaloleia chevrolatii Baly (Fig. 96)
Antenómero 1 alargado o clavado 52
52(51) Antenómero 1 clavado; élitros con húmeros sin puntuaciones 53
Antenómero 1 alargado; élitros con húmeros puntuados; Brasil, Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia elegantula Baly (Fig. 129)
53(51) Antenómero 1 tan largo como 2 y 3 combinados; élitros con ángulo de la sutura sin diente; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panamá Cephaloleia stenosoma Baly (en parte) (Fig. 239)
Antenómero 1 tan largo como 3; élitros con ángulo de la sutura con diente diminuto; Bolivia, Colombia, Panamá, Perú, Venezuela Cephaloleia partita Weise (Fig. 206)
54(42) Dorso azul metálico, pronoto con márgenes laterales pálidas; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panamá Cephaloleia metallescens Baly (Fig. 188)
Dorso negro o café rojizo 55
55(54) Vértice de la cabeza cóncavo entre los ojos 56
Vértice de la cabeza aplanado entre los ojos 63
56(55) Dorso negro; México Cephaloleia punctatissima Weise (Fig. 218)
Dorso rojizo-café 57
57(56) Sutura entre los esternos abdominales 1 y 2 completa 58
Sutura entre los esternos abdominales 1 y 2 obsoleta 59
58(57) Especie más grande (más de 5.0 mm) 60
Especie más pequeña (menos de 4.0 mm); Dominica, Grenada Cephaloleia simplex Staines (Fig. 236)
59(58) Pronoto con disco puntuado; Colombia, Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia distincta Baly (Fig. 125)
Pronoto con disco sin puntuaciones; Colombia, Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia placida Baly (Fig. 210)
60(58) Antenómero 1 subigual en longitud que 2; Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia sulciceps Baly (Fig. 246)
Antenómero 1 más largo que 2 61
61(60) Antenómero 1 subigual en longitud que 2–3 combinados; vértice de la cabeza con carina medial; grande (8.0 mm); Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia mauliki Uhmann (Fig. 169)
Antenómero 1 no es subigual en longitud que 2–3 combinados; vértice de la cabeza sin carina medial; pequeño (<6.0 mm) 62
62(61) Antenómero 1 subigual en longitud a 3; pronoto densamente puntuado; Trinidad Cephaloleia brunnea Staines (Fig. 90)
Antenómero 1 no es subigual en longitud que 3; pronoto es escasamente puntuado; Trinidad Cephaloleia rubra Staines (Fig. 225)
63(55) Dorso negro; Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, México, Nicaragua, Panamá Cephaloleia tenella Baly (Fig. 250)
Dorso café-rojizo 64
64(63) Cuerpo alargado, redondeado 66
Cuerpo casi rectangular 65
65(64) Elitros con fila de puntuaciones 6–9 obsoletas en el húmero; sutura entre los esternos abdominales 1 y 2 completas; Costa Rica, Guatemala Cephaloleia aequilata Uhmann (Fig. 66)
Elitros con filas de puntuaciones 6–9 presentes en el húmero; sutura entre los esternos abdominales 1 y 2 obsoleta medialmente; Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, México, Nicaragua, Panamá, Perú, Venezuela Cephaloleia dilaticollis Baly (Fig. 119)
66(65) Sutura entre los esternos abdominales 1 y 2 completa 67
Sutura entre los esternos abdominales 1 y 2 obsoleta medialmente 70
67(66) Antenómero 1–2 alargados; Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia cylindrica Staines (Fig. 110)
Antenómero 1–2 no subgloboso 68
68(66) Antenómero 1 subigual a 2–4 combinados, clavado; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panamá Cephaloleia antennalis Donckier (Fig. 72)
Antenómero 1 más corto que 2–4 combinados, alargados 69
69(68) Pronoto con disco puntuado; pro-, meso-, y metaesternos sin puntuaciones mediales, puntuados lateralmente; Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panamá Cephaloleia puncticollis Baly (Fig. 219)
Pronoto con disco sin puntuaciones; pro-, meso-, y metaesterno sin puntuaciones; Costa Rica, Guatemala, México, Panamá Cephaloleia sallei Baly (Fig. 229)
70(66) Elitros con líneas de puntuaciones confusas basalmente; Belice, Costa Rica, Guatemala, México Cephaloleia perplexa Baly (Fig. 208)
Elitros con puntuaciones diferenciables basalmente 71
71(70) Antenómero 1 al menos dos veces el largo de 2 72
Antenómero 1 menos de dos veces el largo de 2 74
72(71) Elitros con sulco en el callo humeral; Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panamá, Perú Cephaloleia erichsonii Baly (Fig. 132)
Elitros sin sulco en el callo humeral 73
73(72) Antenómero 1 clavado, dos veces la longitud de 2; Puntuaciones elitrales obovadas, no son grandes en el disco; Costa Rica Cephaloleia conforma García-Robledo & Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 102)
Antenómero 1 alargado, tres veces la longitud de 2; puntuaciones elitrales redondeadas, grandes en el disco; Costa Rica Cephaloleia calathae García-Robledo & Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 93)
74(71) Elitros con filas de puntuaciones confusas en el ápice; antenómero 1 más largo que 2; Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guayana Francesa, Guatemala, Honduras, México, Panamá, Perú, Venezuela Cephaloleia nigricornis Fabricius (Fig. 193)
Elitros con filas de puntuaciones diferenciables apicalmente; antenómero 1 subigual a 2; México Cephaloleia delectabilis Staines (Fig. 114)
75(41) Elitros con mancha o línea 79
Elitros de un solo color 77
76(75) Vértice de la cabeza comprimido entre los ojos; Bolivia, Brasíl, Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá, Perú, Venezuela Cephaloleia neglecta Weise (Fig. 190)
Vértice de la cabeza aplanado entre los ojos 77
77(76) Pronoto más oscuro que los élitros; antenómero 1 más largo que 2; Panamá Cephaloleia amblys Staines (Image not available)
Pronoto más pálido que los élitros; antenómero 1 subigual en longitud que 2; Panamá Cephaloleia facetus Staines (Fig. 136)
78(75) Elitros con mancha 80
Elitros con líneas 84
79(78) Vértice de la cabeza cóncavo entre los ojos 81
Vértice de la cabeza aplanado entre los ojos 82
80(79) Color negro con mancha humeral rojiza; Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panamá Cephaloleia uhmanni Staines (Fig. 261)
Otro color 81
81(80) Antenómero 1 más largo que 2; puntuaciones en el pronoto más densas lateralmente; puntuaciones elitrales en filas confusas apicalmente; Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guayana Francesa, Panamá, Venezuela Cephaloleia trimaculata Baly (Fig. 256)
Antenómero 1 subigual que 2; puntuaciones pronotales uniformemente distribuidas; filas de puntuaciones elitrales obsoletas apicalmente; Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia weisei Staines (Fig. 269)
82(80) Pronoto con discos sin puntuaciones, puntuado lateralmente; antenómero 1 clavado, más largo que 2 y 3 combinados; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panamá Cephaloleia stenosoma Baly (en parte) (Fig. 239)
Pronoto puntuado; antenómero 1 alargado, no más largo que 2 y 3 combinados 83
83(82) Antenómero 1 subigual en longitud a 2; pronoto con impresiones basales; Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panamá Cephaloleia splendida Staines (Fig. 237)
Antenómero 1 dos veces la longitud de 2; pronoto con impresiones laterales; Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia turrialbana Uhmann (Fig. 260)
84(79) Vértice de la cabeza cóncavo entre los ojos 85
Vértice de la cabeza aplanado entre los ojos 91
85(84) Húmero aproximadamente sin punturas 86
Húmero no es aproximadamente sin punturas 87
86(85) Sutura entre los esternos abdominales 1 y 2 obsoletos medialmente; ángulo sutural de los élitros con un pequeño diente; Panamá Cephaloleia scitulus Staines (Fig. 233)
Sutura entre los esternos abdominales 1 y 2 completa; ángulo sutural de los élitros sin un pequeño diente; México, Perú, Venezuela Cephaloleia parenthesis Weise (Fig. 205)
87(85) Puntuaciones de la fila de los élitros casi obsoletas apicalmente 88
Puntuaciones de la fila de los élitros diferenciables apicalmente 89
88(87) Antenómero 1 engrosado, subigual en longitud a 2–4 combinados; Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panamá Cephaloleia ornatrix Donckier (Fig. 203)
Antenómero 1 alargado, más corto que 2–4 combinados; México Cephaloleia presignis Staines (Fig. 213)
89(87) Antenómero 1 subigual en longitud a 2–4 combinados; Costa Rica, México Cephaloleia separata Baly (Fig. 235)
Antenómero 1 ⅓ la longitud de 2–4 combinados 90
90(89) Elitros con fila adicional de puntuaciones luego de fila 7; ángulo sutural de los élitros con muescas; sutura entre los esternos abdominales 1 y 2 completa; Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia apicata Uhmann (Fig. 75)
Elitros sin fila adicional de puntuaciones luego de fila 7; ángulo sutural de los élitros redondeado; sutura entre los esternos abdominales 1 y 2 obsoleta medialmente; pronoto comprimido lateralmente; Costa Rica Cephaloleia disjuncta Staines (Fig. 124)
91(84) Elitros con ángulo sutural sin margen; Guatemala Cephaloleia lateralis Baly (Fig. 172)
Elitros con ángulo sutural redondeado 92
92(91) Elitros sin puntuaciones en los húmeros 94
Elitros con puntuaciones en los húmeros 93
93(92) Antenómero 1 tan largo como 2–3 combinados; Guatemala, México Honduras, Panamá Cephaloleia discoidalis Baly (Fig. 123)
Antenómero 1 más corto que 2–3 combinados; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panamá Cephaloleia stenosoma Baly (en parte) (Fig. 239)
94(92) Elitros con filas de puntuaciones apicalmente obsoletas 95
Elitros con filas de puntuaciones apicalmente diferenciables 97
95(94) Antenómero 1 subigual a 3; sutura entre esternos abdominales 1 y 2 obsoleta medialmente; Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panamá Cephaloleia trivittata Baly (Fig. 257)
Antenómero 1 tres veces la longitud de 3; sutura entre los esternos abdominales 1 y 2 completa 96
96(95) Pronoto sin puntuaciones; pro-, meso y metaesternos puntuados lateralmente; Costa Rica Cephaloleia triangularis Staines (Fig. 254)
Pronoto puntuado lateralmente; pro-, meso-, y metaesternos sin puntuaciones; Panamá Cephaloleia erugatus Staines (Fig. 133)
97(94) Antenómero 1 subigual en longitud a 2 98
Antenómero 1 mucho más largo que 2 99
98(97) Antenómero 1 subigual a 3; 2 transverso; puntuaciones pronotales densas, uniformes; Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia semivittata Baly (Fig. 234)
Antenómero 1 subigual en longitud a 2; 2 alargado; pronoto irregularmente puntuado; Costa Rica Cephaloleia vittata Staines (Imagen no disponible)
99(97) Antenómero 1 tan largo como 2–4 combinados; pro-, meso-, y metaesternos sin puntuaciones medialmente, puntuados lateralmente 100
Antenómero 1 tan largo como 2–3 combinados; pro-, meso-, y metaesternos sin puntuaciones; Belice, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panamá Cephaloleia consanguinea Baly (Fig. 104)
100(99) Angulo sutural de los élitros con pequeño diente; filas de puntuaciones diferenciables apicalmente; Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, México, Nicaragua, Panamá Cephaloleia belti Baly (Fig. 85)
Angulo sutural de los élitros sin diente pequeño; filas de puntuaciones convergen y se unen apicalmente; Colombia, Panamá Cephaloleia variabilis Staines (Fig. 265)
Key to the Cephaloleia known to occur in South America
1 Elytra with exterior apical angle angulate 2
Elytra with exterior apical angle rounded 4
2(1) Pronotum with lateral margin serrulate 3
Pronotum with lateral margin smooth; “Amazonas” Cephaloleia gracilis Baly (Fig. 153)
3(2) Pronotum with anterior angle angulate; suture between abdominal sterna 1 & 2 complete; Brazil Cephaloleia vagelineata Pic (Fig. 264)
Pronotum with anterior angle rounded; suture between abdominal sterna 1 & 2 obsolete medially; Belize, Colombia, Panamá Cephaloleia formosus Staines (Fig. 145)
4(1) Dorsum unicolorous 5
Dorsum at least bicolorous 55
5(4) Dorsum metallic blue or with metallic sheen 6
Dorsum black, brown or yellowish-brown 13
6(5) Pronotum with distinct sulcus parallel to lateral margin; Colombia, Venezuela Cephaloleia aeneipennis Baly (Fig. 65)
Pronotum without distinct sulcus parallel to lateral margin 7
7(6) Lateral margin of pronotum serrulate; Colombia Cephaloleia tarsata Baly (in part) (Fig. 249)
Lateral margin of pronotum smooth 8
8(7) Lateral margin of elytra serrulate; Colombia, Costa Rica, Venezuela Cephaloleia cyanea Staines (Fig. 109)
Lateral margin of elytra smooth 9
9(8) Apical margin of elytra serrulate; Brazil, Ecuador Cephaloleia emarginata Baly (Fig. 130)
Apical margin of elytra smooth 10
10(9) Pronotum with transverse basal impression; Argentina, Brazil Cephaloleia nitida Uhmann (Fig. 196)
Pronotum without transverse basal impression 11
11(10) Antennomere 1 cylindrical 12
Antennomere 1 subglobose; Brazil Cephaloleia diplothemium Uhmann (Fig. 122)
12(11) Antennomere 1 shorter than 3; elytral punctures larger laterally; prosternum rugose laterally; Brazil, Ecuador Cephaloleia caeruleata Baly (Fig. 92)
Antennomere 1 longer than 3; elytral punctures same size laterally; prosternum alutaceous laterally; Brazil Cephaloleia dilatata Uhmann (Fig. 118)
13(5) Dorsum black 14
Dorsum brown or yellowish-brown 27
14(13) Vertex of head with medial fovea; Brazil Cephaloleia zikani Uhmann (Fig. 271)
Vertex of head with medial carina or sulcus 15
15(14) Lateral margin of pronotum serrulate 16
Lateral margin of pronotum not serrulate 19
16(14) Apical margin of elytra smooth 17
Apical margin of elytra serrate; Brazil, Ecuador Cephaloleia elaeidis Maulik (Fig. 128)
17(16) Antennomere 2 obconic 18
Antennomere 2 cylindrical; French Guiana, Suriname Cephaloleia donckieri Pic (Fig. 126)
18(17) Elytral punctures in regular rows to apex; Brazil Cephaloleia depressa Baly (Fig. 116)
Elytral puncture rows converging and uniting apically; Colombia Cephaloleia tarsata Baly (in part) (Fig. 249)
19(15) Lateral margin of pronotum canaliculate 20
Lateral margin of pronotum margined 24
20(19) Pronotum with basal impression present 21
Pronotum with basal impression absent; Bolivia, Brazil Cephaloleia coroicoana Uhmann (Fig. 107)
21(20) Elytra with punctures nearly obsolete basally; Brazil Cephaloleia rufipes Pic (Fig. 227)
Elytra with punctures distinct basally 22
22(21) Elytra with punctures nearly obsolete apically; Brazil, Paraguay Cephaloleia fiebrigi Uhmann (Fig. 140)
Elytral with punctures distinct apically 23
23(22) Elytra with puncture rows distinct to apex; pronotum with disc impunctate; Brazil, Suriname Cephaloleia deplanata Uhmann (Fig. 115)
Elytra with puncture rows converging and uniting apically; pronotum with disc punctate; Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay Cephaloleia marantae Uhmann (Fig. 183)
24(19) Vertex of head without medial sulcus or carina; Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela Cephaloleia nigrithorax Pic (Fig. 194)
Vertex of head with medial sulcus or carina 25
25(24) Vertex of head with medial sulcus 26
Vertex of head with medial carina; Brazil Cephaloleia impressa Baly (Fig. 164)
26(24) Elytra with declivity beginning at puncture row 7; antennomere 1 longer than 3; Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay Cephaloleia funesta Baly (Fig. 150)
Elytra without declivity beginning at puncture row 7; antennomere 1 shorter than 3; Brazil Cephaloleia obsoleta Weise (Fig. 198)
27(13) Lateral margin of pronotum with a lens-like swelling toward anterior angle; Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, Suriname Cephaloleia lenticula Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 174)
Lateral margin of pronotum without a lens-like swelling toward anterior angle 28
28(27) Anterior angle of pronotum angulate 29
Anterior angle of pronotum rounded 30
29(27) Vertex of head with medial sulcus; antennomeres 1 and 3 subequal in length; Brazil, Venezuela Cephaloleia cognata Baly (Fig. 100)
Vertex of head with medial carina; antennomeres 1 and 2 subequal in length; Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela Cephaloleia dilaticollis Baly (Fig. 119)
30(28) Vertex of head with fovea; Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela Cephaloleia affinis Baly (Fig. 67)
Vertex of head without fovea 31
31(30) Pronotum with lateral margin canaliculate 32
Pronotum with lateral margin margined 48
32(30) Vertex of head without sulcus or carina 33
Vertex of head with sulcus or carina 39
33(32) Pronotum with transverse basal impression medially 34
Pronotum without transverse basal impression medially 35
34(33) Elytra with punctures nearly obsolete at apex; Brazil, Peru Cephaloleia nigriceps Baly (Fig. 192)
Elytra with punctures distinct at apex; Ecuador Cephaloleia lojaensis Pic (Fig. 178)
35(33) Elytral punctures confluent; Ecuador, Peru Cephaloleia chimboana Uhmann (Fig. 98)
Elytral punctures distinct 36
36(35) Elytral punctures nearly obsolete apically; Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Peru Cephaloleia erichsonii Baly (Fig. 132)
Elytral punctures distinct to apex 37
37(36) Elytra with puncture rows converging and uniting apically; Bolivia Cephaloleia latipennis Pic (Fig. 173)
Elytra with puncture rows distinct apically 38
38(37) Antennomere 1 incrassate, longest; Colombia Cephaloleia polita Weise (Fig. 211)
Antennomere 1 transverse, not longest; Brazil, Peru Cephaloleia dimidiaticornis Baly (Fig. 121)
39(32) Vertex of head with medial sulcus 40
Vertex of head with medial carina 44
40(39) Pronotum with transverse basal impression; Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru Cephaloleia corallina Erichson (Fig. 106)
Pronotum without transverse basal impression 41
41(40) Antennae (except basal antennomere) black; Brazil, French Guiana, Peru Cephaloleia proxima Baly (Fig. 216)
Antennal color different 42
42(41) Meso- and metasterna impunctate 43
Meso- and metasterna punctate laterally; Brazil Cephaloleia apicicornis Baly (Fig. 77)
43(42) Vertex of head concave between eyes; antennomere 2 longer than 4; anterior angle of pronotum angulate; Brazil, Ecuador Cephaloleia halli Uhmann (Fig. 156)
Vertex of head flat between eyes; antennomeres 2 and 4 subequal in length; anterior angle of pronotum rounded; Ecuador Cephaloleia ochra Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 199)
44(42) Pronotum without transverse basal impression 45
Pronotum with transverse basal impression 46
45(44) Antennomere 1 longer than 2 and 3 combined; Colombia, Ecuador, Peru Cephaloleia unctula Pic (Fig. 262)
Antennomere 1 subequal in length to 2; Brazil Cephaloleia subdepressa Baly (Fig. 244)
46(44) Antennomere 2 longer than 1; Brazil, Peru Cephaloleia interstitialis Weise (Fig. 168)
Antennomere 1 longer than 2 47
47(46) Antennomere 1 longer than 2 and 3 combined; Brazil, Ecuador Cephaloleia striata Weise (Fig. 242)
Antennomere 1 shorter than 2 and 3 combined; Brazil Cephaloleia truncatipennis Baly (Fig. 258)
48(31) Pronotum with basal impression 49
Pronotum without basal impression 50
49(48) Vertex of head with medial carina; elytra slightly costate apically; Brazil, Peru Cephaloleia approximata Baly (Fig. 79)
Vertex of head without medial carina or sulcus; elytra not slightly costate apically; Brazil Cephaloleia bucki Uhmann (Fig. 91)
50(48) Vertex of head without sulcus or carina 51
Vertex of head with sulcus or carina 52
51(50) Lateral margin of pronotum crenulate; vertex of head punctate; antennomeres 1 and 2 subequal in length; Ecuador Cephaloleia crenulata Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 108)
Lateral margin of elytra smooth; vertex of head impunctate; antennomere 1 2× length of 2; Brazil, Colombia Cephaloleia steinhauseni Uhmann (Fig. 238) (in part)
52(50) Vertex of head with medial carina; Brazil, Peru, Venezuela Cephaloleia opaca Baly (Fig. 200)
Vertex of head with medial sulcus 53
53(52) Vertex of head punctate 54
Vertex of head impunctate; Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Panama, Peru, Venezuela Cephaloleia nigricornis (Fabricius) (Fig. 193)
54(53) Elytral puncture rows regular to apex; antennomere 3 longer than 1; smaller species (5.0 mm); Brazil Cephaloleia castanea Pic (Fig. 94)
Elytral puncture rows converging and uniting apically; antennomere 3 shorter than 1; larger species (7.6–9.6 mm); Colombia, Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia distincta Baly (Fig. 125)
55(4) Elytra unicolorous 56
Elytra with more than one color 68
56(55) Pronotum black 57
Pronotum reddish or yellowish 63
57(56) Lateral margin of pronotum canaliculate 58
Lateral margin of pronotum margined 59
58(57) Pronotum without transverse basal impression; antennomere 1 longer than 2; Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru Cephaloleia clarkella Baly (Fig. 99)
Pronotum with transverse basal impression; antennomere 1 subequal in length to 2; Brazil, Peru, Venezuela Cephaloleia luridipennis (Weise) (Fig. 180)
59(57) Vertex of head with medial sulcus 60
Vertex of head without medial sulcus 61
60(59) Apical margin of elytra smooth; Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Panamá, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela Cephaloleia pretiosa Baly (Fig. 214)
Apical margin of elytra finely serrulate; French Guiana Cephaloleia brevis Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 89)
61(59) Pronotum with transverse basal impression 62
Pronotum without transverse basal impression; Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru Cephaloleia flavipennis Baly (Fig. 142)
62(61) Lateral margin of pronotum canaliculate; Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Venezuela Cephaloleia neglecta Weise (Fig. 190)
Lateral margin of pronotum margined; Colombia, Venezuela Cephaloleia collaris Weise (Fig. 101)
63(56) Lateral margin of pronotum finely serrulate 64
Lateral margin of pronotum smooth 65
64(63) Pronotum immaculate, reddish; Peru Cephaloleia abdominalis Pic (Fig. 63)
Pronotum with medial black longitudinal vitta; Brazil, Ecuador Cephaloleia susanae Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 247)
65(63) Vertex of head with fovea; Colombia, Ecuador, Peru Cephaloleia princeps Baly (Fig. 215)
Vertex of head without fovea 66
66(63) Vertex of head with medial sulcus 67
Vertex of head without medial sulcus; Brazil, Colombia Cephaloleia steinhauseni Uhmann (Fig. 238) (in part)
67(65) Antennomere 2 longer than 3; Brazil, Peru Cephaloleia amazona Baly (Fig. 69)
Antennomere 3 longer than 2; Argentina, Brazil Cephaloleia teutonica Uhmann (Fig. 252)
68(55) Dorsum black with reddish macula at humeri 69
Dorsum colored differently 70
69(68) Antennomere 2 obconic; pronotum with medial basal impression; Brazil, Peru Cephaloleia humeralis Weise (Fig. 162)
Antennomere 2 subglobose; pronotum without medial basal impression; Argentina Cephaloleia tucumana Weise (Fig. 259)
70(68) Elytra with apical part darker than basal 71
Elytra with transverse or longitudinal vitta(e) or with macula(e) or fascia(e) 82
71(70) Pronotum with medial longitudinal vitta; Ecuador Cephaloleia rosenbergi Weise (Fig. 224)
Pronotum without medial longitudinal vitta 72
72(71) Vertex of head with medial sulcus 73
Vertex of head without medial sulcus 76
73(72) Pronotum with transverse basal impression 74
Pronotum without transverse basal impression 75
74(73) Antennomere 1 longer than 3; Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela Cephaloleia histrio Guérin-Méneville (Fig. 158)
Antennomere 1 subequal in length to 3; Colombia, French Guiana Cephaloleia forestieri Pic (Fig. 144)
75(73) Antennomere 2 longer than 3; elytral puncture rows distinct to apex; Brazil Cephaloleia basalis Pic (Fig. 83)
Antennomere 2 subequal in length to 3; elytral puncture rows converging and uniting apically; Brazil Cephaloleia waterhousei Baly (Fig. 268)
76(72) Pronotum with transverse basal impression; Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru Cephaloleia grayei Baly (Fig. 155)
Pronotum without transverse basal impression 77
77(76) Head flat between eyes 78
Head concave between eyes 80
78(77) Elytral puncture rows distinct along suture near apex; Colombia Cephaloleia apicalis Baly (Fig. 74)
Elytral puncture rows obsolete along suture near apex; Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador Cephaloleia fulvipes Baly (Fig. 148)
80(77) Lateral margin of pronotum straight 81
Lateral margin of pronotum sinuate; Brazil Cephaloleia apicenotata Uhmann (Fig. 76)
81(80) Antennomere 2 oval; elytral punctures obsolete apically; Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela Cephaloleia bicolor Uhmann (Fig. 86)
Antennomere 2 elongate; elytral punctures not obsolete apically; Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru (?) Cephaloleia bicoloriceps Pic (Fig. 87)
82(71) Elytra with one or two transverse bands 83
Elytra without transverse bands 93
83(80) Lateral margin of elytra with black markings extending to puncture row 6 84
Lateral margin of elytra not as above 86
84(83) Lateral margin of pronotum canaliculate; Ecuador Cephaloleia bifasciata Weise (Fig. 88)
Lateral margin of pronotum margined 85
85(84) Vertex of head without medial sulcus; Ecuador Cephaloleia hnigrum Pic (Fig. 160)
Vertex of head with medial sulcus; Colombia, Ecuador Cephaloleia recondita Pic (Fig. 222)
86(83) Vertex of head with medial fovea present; Ecuador Cephaloleia angustacollis Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 71)
Vertex of head with medial fovea absent 87
87(86) Vertex of head with medial sulcus absent 90
Vertex of head with medial sulcus 88
88(87) Lateral margin of pronotum canaliculate 89
Lateral margin of pronotum margined; Colombia Cephaloleia succincta Guérin-Méneville (Fig. 245)
89(88) Antennomere 2 elongate; lateral margin of pronotum sinuate at base; larger species, > 8.0 mm; Ecuador, Peru Cephaloleia alternans Waterhouse (Fig. 68)
Antennomere 2 subglobose; lateral margin of pronotum straight; smaller species, <4.0 mm; Ecuador Cephaloleia nana Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 189)
90(87) Antennomere 3 triangular 91
Antennomere 3 cylindrical 92
91(90) Antennomeres 1 and 2 subequal in length; lateral margin of pronotum serrulate; Colombia, Ecuador, Peru Cephaloleia amba Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 70)
Antennomere 1 2× length of 2; lateral margin of pronotum smooth; Ecuador, Peru Cephaloleia degandei Baly (Fig. 113)
92(90) Pro-, meso-, and metasterna punctate laterally; antennomeres 4–10 decreasing in length; Ecuador Cephaloleia applicata Pic (Fig. 78)
Pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate; antennomeres 4–10 subequal in length; Brazil, Ecuador Cephaloleia nubila Weise (Fig. 197)
93(82) Elytra with longitudinal stripes or vittae 94
Elytra with spots or maculae 113
94(93) Elytra with only sutural area darkened 95
Elytra different 98
95(94) Pronotum totally black; Ecuador Cephaloleia balyi Duvivier (Fig. 81)
Pronotum yellow with or without black markings 96
96(95) Pronotum with black longitudinal vitta from base to apex; yellow; Ecuador Cephaloleia marshalli Uhmann (Fig. 185)
Pronotum unicolorous 97
97(96) Vertex of head with medial sulcus; lateral margin of pronotum straight; Brazil Cephaloleia fryella Baly (Fig. 146)
Vertex of head with medial carina; lateral margin of pronotum sinuate; Brazil Cephaloleia lydiae Uhmann (Fig. 181)
98(94) Elytra predominately yellow with black vittae 99
Elytra not predominately yellow with black vittae 105
99(98) Elytra with lateral margin all or partly darkened 100
Elytra with lateral margin not darkened 101
100(99) Lateral margin of pronotum straight; smaller species (6.2 mm); Ecuador Cephaloleia felix Waterhouse (Fig. 138)
Lateral margin of pronotum rounded, sinuate at base; larger species (9.0 mm); Colombia Cephaloleia whitei Baly (Fig. 270)
101(99) Pronotum without dark markings 102
Pronotum with dark markings 104
102(101) Vertex of head without medial carina; antennomere 3 shorter than 1 103
Vertex of head with medial carina; antennomere 3 longer than 1; Brazil Cephaloleia abdita Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 62)
103(102) Antennomeres 1–2 paler; elytra with puncture rows 3–4 confused at base; Brazil Cephaloleia trilineata Uhmann (Fig. 255)
Antennomeres all dark; elytra with puncture rows 3–4 not confused at base; Brazil Cephaloleia gemma Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 151)
104(102) Pronotum with medial longitudinal vitta; larger species (5.9–6.1 mm); Bolivia, Peru Cephaloleia convexifrons Pic (Fig. 105)
Pronotum with triangular macula behind head; smaller species (<4.0 mm); Peru Cephaloleia chica Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 97)
105(98) Pronotum black with pale margins 106
Pronotum different 107
106(105) Antennomeres 1 and 2 transverse; Brazil Cephaloleia flavovittata Baly (Fig. 143)
Antennomere 1 elongate, 2 transverse; Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, French Guiana Cephaloleia deyrollei Baly (Fig. 117)
107(105) Pronotum unicolorous 108
Pronotum with black markings 109
108(107) Vertex of head with medial fovea; pronotum without transverse basal impression; Argentina, Brazil Cephaloleia picta Baly (Fig. 209)
Vertex of head with medial sulcus; pronotum with transverse basal impression; Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Venezuela Cephaloleia vittipennis Weise (Fig. 267)
109(107) Vertex of head without sulcus or carina; Colombia, Panama Cephaloleia variabilis Staines (Fig. 265)
Vertex of head with sulcus or carina 110
110(109) Vertex of head flat between eyes; Colombia, Panama Cephaloleia luctuosa Guérin-Méneville (Fig. 179)
Vertex of head concave between eyes 111
111(110) Suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 obsolete 112
Suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 complete; French Guiana, “Amazonas” Cephaloleia eximia Baly (Fig. 135)
112(111) Pro-, meso, and metasterna impunctate; Brazil, Ecuador, Peru Cephaloleia saundersii Baly (Fig. 231)
Pro, meso-, and metasterna punctate; Peru Cephaloleia pulchella Baly (Fig. 217)
113(93) Elytra black with 2 yellowish humeral maculae and 2 apical maculae; Colombia, Ecuador, Peru Cephaloleia tetraspilota Guérin-Méneville (Fig. 251)
Elytral markings different 114
114(113) Pronotum different color than elytra 115
Pronotum same color as elytra 123
115(114) Pronotum with transverse basal impression medially 120
Pronotum without transverse basal impression 116
116(115) Vertex of head impunctate; Brazil Cephaloleia maculipennis Baly (Fig. 182)
Vertex of head punctate 117
117(116) Lateral margin of pronotum rounded 118
Lateral margin of pronotum straight 119
118(117) Vertex of head flat between eyes; Brazil Cephaloleia emdeni Uhmann (Fig. 131)
Vertex of head concave between eyes; Bolivia, Brazil Cephaloleia parvula Weise (Fig. 207)
119(117) Vertex of head with faint medial sulcus; “Amazonas” Cephaloleia thiemei Weise (Fig. 253)
Vertex of head without medial sulcus; Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela Cephaloleia trimaculata Baly (Fig. 256)
120(115) Lateral margin of pronotum canaliculate 121
Lateral margin of pronotum margined 122
121(120) Vertex of head concave between eyes, densely punctate; Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela Cephaloleia ornata Waterhouse (Fig. 202)
Vertex of head flat between eyes, finely punctate; Colombia, Venezuela Cephaloleia fasciata Weise (Fig. 137)
122(120) Elytra with ovoid black medial macula on apical ½; pronotum red laterally; Peru Cephaloleia uniguttata Pic (Fig. 263)
Elytra with black humeral and scutellar maculae basally and irregular transverse band from suture to lateral margin; pronotum black; Ecuador Cephaloleia insidiosa Pic (Fig. 165)
123(114) Pronotum with longitudinal black vitta 124
Pronotum without longitudinal black vitta 127
122(121) Vertex of head with small tubercle; Colombia, Ecuador Cephaloleia daguana Uhmann (Fig. 111)
Vertex of head without small tubercle 122
123(122) Vertex of head impunctate; lateral margin of pronotum canaliculate; Bolivia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru Cephaloleia laeta Waterhouse (Fig. 171)
Vertex of head irregularly punctate; lateral margin of pronotum margined 126
124(123) Vertex of head with medial carina; pronotum without oblique impression laterally reaching to basal margin; smaller species (<5.0 mm); French Guiana Cephaloleia horvitzae Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 161)
Vertex of head without medial carina; pronotum with oblique impression laterally reaching to basal margin; larger species (>6.0 mm); Brazil, Ecuador, Peru Cephaloleia antennata Waterhouse (Fig. 73)
125(121) Vertex of head with medial carina 126
Vertex of head without medial carina 129
126(125) Pronotum with impression 127
Pronotum without impression; Ecuador, Peru Cephaloleia dilectans Pic (Fig. 120)
127(125) Pronotum with oblique impression on each side; Brazil Cephaloleia ornatula Donckier (Fig. 204)
Pronotum without oblique impression on each side 128
128(127) Lateral margins of pronotum straight, parallel; scutellum alutaceous; pronotum much narrower than base of elytra; Brazil Cephaloleia strandi Uhmann (Fig. 241)
Lateral margins of pronotum straight, divergent; scutellum punctate; pronotum nearly as wide as the base of the elytra; Argentina Cephaloleia maxima Uhmann (Fig. 187)
129(125) Vertex of head with medial sulcus; Argentina, Brazil Cephaloleia linkei Uhmann (Fig. 177)
Vertex of head without medial sulcus 130
130(129) Lateral margin of pronotum sinuate at base, then rounded to apex; Argentina, Brazil Cephaloleia sagittifera Uhmann (Fig. 228)
Lateral margin of pronotum straight at base 131
131(130) Lateral margin of pronotum not divergent, canaliculate; Peru Cephaloleia quinquemaculata Weise (Fig. 221)
Lateral margin of pronotum divergent, margined; Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru Cephaloleia kolbei Weise (Fig. 170)
Clave para las especies de Cephaloleia en Sur América
1 Elitros con ápice exterior angulado 2
Elitros con ángulo externo apical redondeado 4
2(1) Pronoto con márgenes laterales aserradas 3
Pronoto con márgenes laterales lisas; “Amazonas” Cephaloleia gracilis Baly (Fig. 153)
3(2) Pronoto con ángulo anterior angulado; sutura entre esternos abdominales 1 & 2 completos; Brasil Cephaloleia vagelineata Pic (Fig. 264)
Pronoto con ángulo anterior redondeado; sutura entre esternos abdominales 1 & 2 medialmente obsoleta; Belice, Colombia, Panamá Cephaloleia formosus Staines (Fig. 145)
4(1) Dorso unicolor 5
Dorso como mínimo bicolor 55
5(4) Dorso azul metálico o con brillo metálico 6
Dorso negro, amarillo o café-amarillento 13
6(5) Pronoto con sulco evidente paralelo a las márgenes laterales; Colombia, Venezuela Cephaloleia aeneipennis Baly (Fig. 65)
Pronoto sin sulco evidente paralelo a las márgenes laterales 7
7(6) Márgenes laterales aserradas; Colombia Cephaloleia tarsata Baly (en parte) (Fig. 249)
Márgenes laterales del pronoto lisas 8
8(7) Márgenes laterales de los élitros aserradas; Colombia, Costa Rica, Venezuela Cephaloleia cyanea Staines (Fig. 109)
Márgenes laterales de los élitros lisas 9
9(8) Márgenes apicales de los élitros aserradas; Brasil, Ecuador Cephaloleia emarginata Baly (Fig. 130)
Márgenes apicales de los élitros lisas 10
10(9) Pronoto con impresiones basales transversales; Argentina, Brasil Cephaloleia nitida Uhmann (Fig. 196)
Pronoto sin impresiones basales transversales 11
11(10) Antenómero 1 cilíndrico 12
Antenómero 1 subgloboso; Brasil Cephaloleia diplothemium Uhmann (Fig. 122)
12(11) Antenómero 1 más corto que 3; puntuaciones de los élitros más grandes lateralmente; proesterno rugoso lateralmente; Brasil, Ecuador Cephaloleia caeruleata Baly (Fig. 92)
Antenómero 1 más largo que 3; puntuaciones de los élitros de igual tamaño lateralmente; proesterno alutaceo lateralmente; Brasil Cephaloleia dilatata Uhmann (Fig. 118)
13(5) Dorso negro 14
Dorso café o café-amarillento 27
14(13) Vértice de la cabeza con fovea medial; Brasil Cephaloleia zikani Uhmann (Fig. 271)
Vértice de la cabeza con carina o sulco medial 15
15(14) Márgenes laterales del pronoto aserradas 16
Márgenes laterales del pronoto no aserradas 19
16(14) Margen apical de los élitros lisa 17
Margen apical de los élitros aserrada; Brasil, Ecuador Cephaloleia elaeidis Maulik (Fig. 128)
17(16) Antenómero 2 obocónico 18
Antenómero 2 cilíndrico; Guayana Francesa, Surinam Cephaloleia donckieri Pic (Fig. 126)
18(17) Puntuaciones elitrales en filas regulares hacia el ápice; Brasil Cephaloleia depressa Baly (Fig. 116)
Puntuaciones elitrales en filas que convergen y se unen apicálmente; Colombia Cephaloleia tarsata Baly (Fig. 249) (En parte)
19(15) Márgenes laterales del pronoto caniculadas 20
Márgenes laterales del pronoto con márgen 24
20(19) Pronoto con impresiones basales 21
Pronoto sin impresiones basales; Bolivia, Brasil Cephaloleia coroicoana Uhmann (Fig. 107)
21(20) Elitros con puntuaciones basales casi obsoletas; Brasil Cephaloleia rufipes Pic (Fig. 227)
Elitros con puntuaciones basalmente diferenciables 22
22(21) Elitros con puntuaciones apicales basales casi obsoletas; Brasil, Paraguay Cephaloleia fiebrigi Uhmann (Fig. 140)
Elitros con puntuaciones apicales diferenciables 23
23(22) Elitros con filas de puntuaciones diferenciables en el ápice; pronoto con disco sin puntuaciones; Brasil, Surinam Cephaloleia deplanata Uhmann (Fig. 115)
Elitros con filas de puntuaciones convergentes y unidas apicalmente; pronoto con disco puntuado; Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Paraguay Cephaloleia marantae Uhmann (Fig. 183)
24(19) Vértice de la cabeza sin sulco medial o carina; Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela Cephaloleia nigrithorax Pic (Fig. 194)
Vértice de la cabeza con sulco medial o carina 25
25(24) Vértice de la cabeza con sulco medial 26
Vértice de la cabeza con carina medial; Brasil Cephaloleia impressa Baly (Fig. 164)
26(24) Elitros con declive iniciándose en la fila de puntuaciones 7; antenómero 1 más largo que 3; Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Paraguay Cephaloleia funesta Baly (Fig. 150)
Elitros sin declive iniciándose en la fila de puntuaciones; antenómero 1 más corto que 3; Brasil Cephaloleia obsoleta Weise (Fig. 198)
27(13) Márgenes laterales del pronoto con un engrosamiento similar a un lente hacia el ángulo anterior; Ecuador, Guayana Francesa, Perú, Surinam Cephaloleia lenticula Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 174)
Márgenes laterales del pronoto sin engrosamiento similar a un lente hacia el ángulo anterior 28
28(27) Angulo anterior del pronoto angulado 29
Angulo anterior del pronoto redondeado 30
29(27) Vértice de la cabeza con sulco medial; antenómero 1 y 3 subiguales en longitud; Brasil, Venezuela Cephaloleia cognata Baly (Fig. 100)
Vértice de la cabeza con carina medial; antenómero 1 y 2 subiguales en longitud; Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, México, Nicaragua, Panamá, Perú, and Venezuela Cephaloleia dilaticollis Baly (Fig. 119)
30(28) Vértice de la cabeza con fovea; Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, Venezuela Cephaloleia affinis Baly (Fig. 67)
Vértice de la cabeza sin fovea 31
31(30) Pronoto con márgenes laterales caniculadas 32
Pronoto con márgenes laterales 48
32(30) Vértice de la cabeza sin sulco o carina 33
Vértice de la cabeza con sulco o carina 39
33(32) Pronoto con impresiones basales mediales transversales 34
Pronoto sin impresiones basales mediales transversales 35
34(33) Elitros con puntuaciones casi obsoletas en el ápice; Brasil, Perú Cephaloleia nigriceps Baly (Fig. 192)
Elitros con puntuaciones diferenciables en el ápice; Ecuador Cephaloleia lojaensis Pic (Fig. 178)
35(33) Puntuaciones en los élitros confluentes; Ecuador, Perú Cephaloleia chimboana Uhmann (Fig. 98)
Puntuaciones en los élitros diferenciables 36
36(35) Puntuaciones elitrales casi obsoletas en el ápice; Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panamá, Perú Cephaloleia erichsonii Baly (Fig. 132)
Puntuaciones elitrales diferenciables en el ápice 37
37(36) Elitros con filas de puntuaciones convergiendo y uniéndose apicálmente; Bolivia Cephaloleia latipennis Pic (Fig. 173)
Elitros con filas de puntuaciones diferenciables apicálmente 38
38(37) Antenómero 1 engrosado y es el más largo; Colombia Cephaloleia polita Weise (Fig. 211)
Antenómero 1 no es el más largo; Brasil, Perú Cephaloleia dimidiaticornis Baly (Fig. 121)
39(32) Vértice de la cabeza con sulco medial 40
Vértice de la cabeza con carina medial 44
40(39) Pronoto con impresiones basales transversales; Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guayana Francesa, Perú Cephaloleia corallina Erichson (Fig. 106)
Pronoto sin impresiones basales transversales 41
41(40) Antenas (excepto el antenómero basal) negras; Brasil, Guayana Francesa, Perú Cephaloleia proxima Baly (Fig. 216)
Color de las antenas diferente 42
42(41) Meso- y metaesternos sin puntuaciones 43
Meso- y metaesternos puntuados lateralmente; Brasil Cephaloleia apicicornis Baly (Fig. 77)
43(42) Vértice de la cabeza cóncavo; antenómero 2 más largo que 4; ángulo anterior del pronoto angulado; Brasil, Ecuador Cephaloleia halli Uhmann (Fig. 156)
Vértice de la cabeza aplanado entre los ojos; antenómeros 2 y 4 subiguales en longitud; ángulo anterior del pronoto redondeado; Ecuador Cephaloleia ochra Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 199)
44(42) Pronoto sin impresiones basales transversales 45
Pronoto con impresiones basales transversales 46
45(44) Antenómero 1 más largo que 2 y 3 combinados; Colombia, Ecuador, Perú Cephaloleia unctula Pic (Fig. 262)
Antenómero 1 subigual en longitud a 2; Brasil Cephaloleia subdepressa Baly (Fig. 244)
46(44) Antenómero 2 más largo que 1; Brasil, Perú Cephaloleia interstitialis Weise (Fig. 168)
Antenómero 1 más largo que 2 47
47(46) Antenómero 1 más largo que 2 y 3 combinados; Brasil, Ecuador Cephaloleia striata Weise (Fig. 242)
Antenómero 1 más corto que 2 y 3 combinados; Brasil Cephaloleia truncatipennis Baly (Fig. 258)
48(31) Pronoto con impresiones basales 49
Pronoto sin impresiones basales 50
49(48) Vértice de la cabeza con carina medial; élitros levemente costados apicalmente; Brasil, Perú Cephaloleia approximata Baly (Fig. 79)
Vértice de la cabeza sin carina medial o sulco; élitros no son levemente costados apicalmente; Brasil Cephaloleia bucki Uhmann (Fig. 91)
50(48) Vértice de la cabeza sin sulco o carina 51
Vértice de la cabeza con sulco o carina 52
51(50) Márgenes laterales del pronoto crenuladas; vértice de la cabeza puntuado; antenómeros 1 y 2 subiguales en longitud; Ecuador Cephaloleia crenulata Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 108)
Márgenes laterales lisas; vértice de la cabeza sin puntuaciones; antenómero 1 2× el largo de 2; Brasil, Colombia Cephaloleia steinhauseni Uhmann (Fig. 238) (en parte)
52(50) Vértice de la cabeza con carina medial; Brasil, Perú, Venezuela Cephaloleia opaca Baly (Fig. 200)
Vértice de la cabeza con sulco medial 53
53(52) Vértice de la cabeza puntuados 54
Vértice de la cabeza no puntuada; Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guayana Francesa, Guatemala, Panamá, Perú, Venezuela Cephaloleia nigricornis (Fabricius) (Fig. 193)
54(53) Puntuaciones elitrales en líneas regulares hacia el ápice; antenómero 3 más largo que 1; Especie más pequeña (5.0 mm); Brasil Cephaloleia castanea Pic (Fig. 94)
Puntuaciones elitrales en líneas que convergen y se unen apicálmente; antenómero 3 más corto que 1; especie más grande (7.6–9.6 mm); Colombia, Costa Rica, Panamá Cephaloleia distincta Baly (Fig. 125)
55(4) Elitros unicoloros 56
Elitros con más de un color 68
56(55) Pronoto negro 57
Pronoto rojizo o amarillento 63
57(56) Márgenes laterales del pronoto caniculadas 58
Márgenes laterales del pronoto con margen evidente 59
58(57) Pronoto sin impresiones basales transversales; antenómero 1 más largo que 2; Bolivia, Brasil, Ecuador, Perú Cephaloleia clarkella Baly (Fig. 99)
Pronoto con impresión basal transversal; antenómero 1 subigual en longitud a 2; Brasil, Perú, Venezuela Cephaloleia luridipennis (Weise) (Fig. 180)
59(57) Vértice de la cabeza con sulco medial 60
Vértice de la cabeza sin sulco medial 61
60(59) Márgenes apicales de los élitros lisas; Bolivia, Brasil, Costa Rica, Panamá, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, Venezuela Cephaloleia pretiosa Baly (Fig. 214)
Márgenes apicales de los élitros finamente aserradas; Guayana Francesa Cephaloleia brevis Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 89)
61(59) Pronoto con impresión basal transversal 62
Pronoto sin impresión basal transversal; Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú Cephaloleia flavipennis Baly (Fig. 142)
62(61) Márgenes laterales del pronoto caniculadas; Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá, Perú, Venezuela Cephaloleia neglecta Weise (Fig. 190)
Margen lateral del pronoto con margen evidente; Colombia, Venezuela Cephaloleia collaris Weise (Fig. 101)
63(56) Márgenes laterales del pronoto finamente aserradas 64
Márgenes laterales del pronoto lisas 65
64(63) Pronoto sin mancha, rojizo; Perú Cephaloleia abdominalis Pic (Fig. 63)
Pronoto con línea medial negra longitudinal; Brasil, Ecuador Cephaloleia susanae Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 247)
65(63) Vértice de la cabeza con fovea; Colombia, Ecuador, Perú Cephaloleia princeps Baly (Fig. 215)
Vértice de la cabeza sin fovea 66
66(63) Vértice de la cabeza con sulco medial 67
Vértice de la cabeza sin sulco medial; Brasil, Colombia Cephaloleia steinhauseni Uhmann (en parte) (Fig. 238)
67(65) Antenómero 2 más largo que 3; Brasil, Perú Cephaloleia amazona Baly (Fig. 69)
Antenómero 3 más largo que 2; Argentina, Brasil Cephaloleia teutonica Uhmann (Fig. 252)
68(55) Dorso negro con mancha rojiza en los húmeros 69
Dorso de color diferente 70
69(68) Antenómero 2 obcónico; pronoto con impresión basal medial; Brasil, Perú Cephaloleia humeralis Weise (Fig. 162)
Antenómero 2 subgloboso; pronoto sin impresión medial basal; Argentina Cephaloleia tucumana Weise (Fig. 259)
70(68) Elitros con parte apical más oscura que la parte basal 71
Elitros con linea(s) transversal o longitudinal o con mancha(s) o banda(s) 82
71(70) Pronoto con línea medial longitudinal; Ecuador Cephaloleia rosenbergi Weise (Fig. 224)
Pronoto sin línea medial longitudinal 72
72(71) Vértice de la cabeza con sulco medial 73
Vértice de la cabeza sin sulco medial 76
73(72) Pronoto con impresión basal transversal 74
Pronoto sin impresión basal transversal 75
74(73) Antenómero 1 más largo que 3; Bolivia, Colombia, Perú, Venezuela Cephaloleia histrio Guérin-Méneville (Fig. 158)
Antenómero 1 subigual en longitud a 3; Colombia, Guayana Francesa Cephaloleia forestieri Pic (Fig. 144)
75(73) Antenómero 2 más largo que 3; puntuaciones en los élitros en filas diferenciables en el ápice; Brasil basalis Pic (Fig. 83)
Antenómero 2 subigual en longitud a 3; puntuaciones elitrales en filas que convergen y se unen apicalmente; Brasil Cephaloleia waterhousei Baly (Fig. 268)
76(72) Pronoto con impresión basal transversal; Bolivia, Brasil, Ecuador, Perú Cephaloleia grayei Baly (Fig. 155)
Pronoto sin impresión basal transversal 77
77(76) Cabeza aplanada entre los ojos 78
Cabeza cóncava entre los ojos 80
78(77) Puntuaciones elitrales en filas que se diferencian a lo largo de la sutura y cerca al ápice; Colombia Cephaloleia apicalis Baly (Fig. 74)
Puntuaciones elitrales en filas obsoletas a lo largo de la sutura y cerca al ápice; Argentina, Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador Cephaloleia fulvipes Baly (Fig. 148)
80(77) Márgenes laterales del pronoto rectas 81
Márgenes laterales del pronoto sinuosas; Brasil Cephaloleia apicenotata Uhmann (Fig. 76)
81(80) Antenómero 2 ovalado; puntuaciones elitrales obsoletas apicalmente; Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Perú, Venezuela Cephaloleia bicolor Uhmann (Fig. 86)
Antenómero 2 alargado; puntuaciones elitrales no son obsoletas apicalmente; Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú (?) Cephaloleia bicoloriceps Pic (Fig. 87)
82(71) Elitros con una o dos bandas transversales 83
Elitros sin bandas transversales 93
83(80) Margenes laterales de los élitros con marcas negras extendiéndose hasta la fila de puntuaciones 6 84
Margen lateral de los élitros no es como descrita anteriormente 86
84(83) Margen lateral del pronoto caniculada; Ecuador Cephaloleia bifasciata Weise (Fig. 88)
Margen lateral del pronoto con margen evidente 85
85(84) Vértice de la cabeza sin sulco medial; Ecuador Cephaloleia hnigrum Pic (Fig. 160)
Vértice de la cabeza con sulco medial; Colombia, Ecuador Cephaloleia recondita Pic (Fig. 222)
86(83) Vértice de la cabeza con fovea medial; Ecuador Cephaloleia angustacollis Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 71)
Vértice de la cabeza sin fovea medial 87
87(86) Vértice de la cabeza sin sulco medial 90
Vértice de la cabeza con sulco medial 88
88(87) Margen lateral del pronoto caniculada 89
Margen lateral del pronoto con margen evidente; Colombia Cephaloleia succincta Guérin-Méneville (Fig. 245)
89(88) Antenómero 2 alargado; margen lateral del pronoto sinuada en la base; especie grande, > 8.0 mm; Ecuador, Perú Cephaloleia alternans Waterhouse (Fig. 68)
Antenómero 2 subgloboso; margen lateral del pronoto recta; especie más pequeña, <4.0 mm; Ecuador Cephaloleia nana Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 189)
90(87) Antenómero 3 triangular 91
Antenómero 3 cilíndrico 92
91(90) Antenómero 1 y 2 subiguales en longitud; márgenes laterales del pronoto aserrados; Colombia, Ecuador, Perú Cephaloleia amba Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 70)
Antenómero 1 dos veces el largo de 2; márgenes laterales del pronoto lisas; Ecuador, Perú Cephaloleia degandei Baly (Fig. 113)
92(90) Pro-, meso-, y metaesternos puntuados laterálmente; antenómero 4–10 decrece en longitud; Ecuador Cephaloleia applicata Pic (Fig. 78)
Pro-, meso-, y metaesternos sin puntuaciones; antenómeros 4–10 subiguales en longitud; Brasil, Ecuador Cephaloleia nubila Weise (Fig. 197)
93(82) Elitros con barras o líneas 94
Elitros con lunares o manchas 113
94(93) Elitros con solo el área sutural oscura 95
Elitros diferentes a lo descrito anteriormente 98
95(94) Pronoto totalmente negro; Ecuador Cephaloleia balyi Duvivier (Fig. 81)
Pronoto amarillo con o sin marcas negras 96
96(95) Pronoto con líneas longitudinales desde la base al ápice; amarillo; Ecuador Cephaloleia marshalli Uhmann (Fig. 185)
Pronoto unicolor 97
97(96) Vértice de la cabeza con sulco medial; margen lateral del pronoto recto; Brasil Cephaloleia fryella Baly (Fig. 146)
Vértice de la cabeza con carina medial; margen lateral del pronoto sinuoso; Brasil Cephaloleia lydiae Uhmann (Fig. 181)
98(94) Elitros predominantemente amarillos con líneas negras 99
Elitros no son predominantemente amarillos ni tienen líneas negras 105
99(98) Elitros con márgenes laterales total o parcialmente oscuros 100
Elitros con márgenes laterales no oscuros 101
100(99) Margen lateral del pronoto recto; especie más pequeña (6.2 mm); Ecuador Cephaloleia felix Waterhouse (Fig. 138)
Margen lateral del pronoto redondeado, sinuoso en la base; especie más grande (9.0 mm); Colombia Cephaloleia whitei Baly (Fig. 270)
101(99) Pronoto sin marcas oscuras 102
Pronoto con marcas oscuras 104
102(101) Vértice de la cabeza sin carina medial; antenómero 3 más corto que 1 103
Vértice de la cabeza con carina medial; antenómero 3 más largo que 1; Brasil Cephaloleia abdita Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 62)
103(102) Antenómero 1–2 pálidos; élitros con puntuaciones en las filas 3–4 confusas en la base; Brasil Cephaloleia trilineata Uhmann (Fig. 255)
Todos los antenómeros oscuros; élitros con filas de puntuaciones 3–4 no confusas en la base; Brasil gemma Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 151)
104(102) Pronoto con línea medial longitudinal; especie más grande (5.9–6.1 mm); Bolivia, Perú Cephaloleia convexifrons Pic (Fig. 105)
Pronoto con mácula triangular detrás de la cabeza; especie más pequeña (<4.0 mm); Perú Cephaloleia chica Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 97)
105(98) Pronoto negro con márgenes pálidas 106
Pronoto diferente 107
106(105) Antenómeros 1 y 2 transversos; Brasil Cephaloleia flavovittata Baly (Fig. 143)
Antenómeros 1 alargado, 2 transverso; Bolivia, Brasil, Ecuador, Guayana Francesa Cephaloleia deyrollei Baly (Fig. 117)
107(105) Pronoto unicolor 108
Pronoto con marcas negras 109
108(107) Vértice de la cabeza con fovea medial; pronoto sin impresión basal transversal; Argentina, Brasil Cephaloleia picta Baly (Fig. 209)
Vértice de la cabeza con sulco medial; pronoto con impresión basal transversal; Argentina, Brasil, Perú, Venezuela Cephaloleia vittipennis Weise (Fig. 267)
109(107) Vértice de la cabeza sin sulco o carina; Colombia, Panamá Cephaloleia variabilis Staines (Fig. 265)
Vértice de la cabeza con sulco o carina 110
110(109) Vértice de la cabeza aplanado entre los ojos; Colombia, Panamá Cephaloleia luctuosa Guérin-Méneville (Fig. 179)
Vértice de la cabeza cóncavo entre los ojos 111
111(110) Sutura entre los esternitos abdominales 1 y 2 obsoletos 112
Sutura entre los esternitos abdominales 1 y 2 completas; Guayana Francesa, “Amazonas” Cephaloleia eximia Baly (Fig. 135)
112(111) Pro-, meso, y metaesternos sin puntuaciones; Brasil, Ecuador, Perú Cephaloleia saundersii Baly (Fig. 231)
Pro, meso-, y metasternos con puntuaciones; Perú Cephaloleia pulchella Baly (Fig. 217)
113(93) Elitros negros con dos manchas humerales amarillentas y dos manchas apicales; Colombia, Ecuador, Perú Cephaloleia tetraspilota Guérin-Méneville (Fig. 251)
Marcas en los élitros diferentes a las descritas anteriormente 114
114(113) Pronoto de diferente color que los élitros 115
Pronoto del mismo color que los élitros 123
115(114) Pronoto con impresiones basales mediales transversales 120
Pronoto sin impresiones basales transversales 116
116(115) Vértice de la cabeza sin puntuaciones; Brasil Cephaloleia maculipennis Baly (Fig. 182)
Vértice de la cabeza puntuado 117
117(116) Márgenes laterales del pronoto redondeadas 118
Márgenes laterales del pronoto rectas 119
118(117) Vértice de la cabeza aplanado entre los ojos; Brasil Cephaloleia emdeni Uhmann (Fig. 131)
Vértice de la cabeza cóncavo entre los ojos; Bolivia, Brasil Cephaloleia parvula Weise (Fig. 207)
119(117) Vértice de la cabeza con un sulco medial débil; “Amazonas” Cephaloleia thiemei Weise (Fig. 253)
Vértice de la cabeza sin sulco medial; Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panamá, Venezuela Cephaloleia trimaculata Baly (Fig. 256)
120(115) Márgenes laterales del pronoto caniculadas 121
Márgenes laterales del pronoto con margenes evidentes 122
121(120) Vértice de la cabeza cóncavo entre los ojos, densamente puntuado; Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, Venezuela Cephaloleia ornata Waterhouse (Fig. 202)
Vértice de la cabeza aplanado entre los ojos, finamente puntuado; Colombia, Venezuela Cephaloleia fasciata Weise (Fig. 137)
122(120) Elitros con mancha medial ovoide en la zona apical ½; del pronoto rojos lateralmente; Perú Cephaloleia uniguttata Pic (Fig. 263)
Elitros con manchas humerales y escutelares negras basalmente y con bandas irregulares transversales desde la sutura hasta las márgenes laterales; pronoto negro; Ecuador Cephaloleia insidiosa Pic (Fig. 165)
123(114) Pronoto con línea negra longitudinal 124
Pronoto sin línea longitudinal negra 127
122(121) Vértice de la cabeza con tubérculo pequeño; Colombia, Ecuador Cephaloleia daguana Uhmann (Fig. 111)
Vértice de la cabeza sin tubérculo pequeño 122
123(122) Vértice de la cabeza sin puntuaciones; márgenes laterales del pronoto caniculadas; Bolivia, Ecuador, Panamá, Perú Cephaloleia laeta Waterhouse (Fig. 171)
Vértice de la cabeza irregularmente puntuada; márgenes laterales del pronoto con margenes evidentes 126
124(123) Vértice de la cabeza con carina medial; pronoto sin impresión oblicua lateralmente alcanzando hasta la margen basal; especie más pequeña (<5.0 mm); Guayana Francesa Cephaloleia horvitzae Staines, sp. n. (Fig. 161)
Vértice de la cabeza sin carina medial; pronoto con una impresión oblícua lateralmente alcanzando la margen basal; especie más grande (>6.0 mm); Brasil, Ecuador, Perú Cephaloleia antennata Waterhouse (Fig. 73)
125(121) Vértice de la cabeza con carina medial 126
Vértice de la cabeza sin carina medial 129
126(125) Pronoto con impresiones 127
Pronoto sin impresiones; Ecuador, Perú Cephaloleia dilectans Pic (Fig. 120)
127(125) Pronoto con impresión oblicua en cada lado; Brasil Cephaloleia ornatula Donckier (Fig. 204)
Pronoto sin impresión oblicua en cada flanco 128
128(127) Márgenes laterales del pronoto rectas, paralelas; escutelo con apariencia coriacea y color café-amarillento; pronoto mucho más angosto que la base de los élitros; Brasil Cephaloleia strandi Uhmann (Fig. 241)
Márgenes laterales del pronoto rectas, divergentes; escutelo puntuado; pronoto casi tan ancho como la base de los élitros; Argentina Cephaloleia maxima Uhmann (Fig. 187)
129(125) Vértice de la cabeza con sulco medial; Argentina, Brasil Cephaloleia linkei Uhmann (Fig. 177)
Vértice de la cabeza sin sulco medial 130
130(129) Margen lateral del pronoto sinuosa en la base, luego redondeada en el ápice; Argentina, Brasil Cephaloleia sagittifera Uhmann (Fig. 228)
Margen lateral del pronoto rectas en la base 131
131(130) Márgenes laterales del pronoto no divergentes, caniculadas; Perú Cephaloleia quinquemaculata Weise (Fig. 221)
Márgenes laterales del pronoto divergentes, no caniculadas; Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú Cephaloleia kolbei Weise (Fig. 170)
Accounts of the known species of Cephaloleia
Description.

Elongate; subdepressed; yellowish; antennomeres 7-11 darker; elytra with black vitta of variable width from humerus along edges of lateral and apical margins, suture dark. Head: vertex finely, densely punctate, very faint medial carina present; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; antennomeres uniform in thickness; 3 longest; 1–2, 4–5 subequal in length; 6–10 subequal in length, each shorter than 5; 11 2× length of 10, pointed at apex; 1–4 punctate with scattered setae; 5–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight then rounding to anterior angle, slightly margined; anterior angle rounded, not produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin curved anteriorly; disc subconvex; surface coarsely, irregularly punctate, impunctate behind head; medial longitudinal sulcus present on disc; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.4 mm; pronotal width 1.9 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, slightly laminate, apex rounded, smooth; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; moderately punctate-striate, row 10 removed from lateral margin; elytral length 4.4 mm; elytral width 2.0 mm. Venter: prosternum smooth medially, densely coarsely punctate laterally; mesosternum punctate; metasternum sparsely punctate medially, densely punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, denser and larger laterally, each puncture with pale seta; suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin emarginate medially in male. Leg: slender; coxa, femur, and tibia punctate. Total length: 6.2 mm.

Figures 62–70.

Habitus. 62 Cephaloleia abdita sp. n. 63 Cephaloleia abdominalis 64 Cephaloleia adusta 65 Cephaloleia aeneipennis 66 Cephaloleia aequilata 67 Cephaloleia affinis 68 Cephaloleia alternans 69 Cephaloleia amazona 70 Cephaloleia amba sp. n. Scale bars equal 3 mm.

Etymology.

Abdita (Latin) meaning forgotten since this species has been overlooked since being collected in 1899. The name is feminine.

Diagnosis.

This species is most similar to Cephaloleia gemma sp. n. and Cephaloleia trilineata. It can be distinguished from Cephaloleia gemma by the yellowish coloration (black in Cephaloleia gemma) and larger size (6.2 mm versus 4.0 mm). It can be distinguished from Cephaloleia trilineata by lacking a small tooth in the sutural angle of the elytra and that elytral puncture rows 3 and 4 are not confused basally.

Distribution.

Brazil (São Paulo).

Type series.

Holotype male: Brézil, et. de São Paulo, Cerqueira Cesar, E. Gounelle, i-99/ F. Monros collection 1959/ Holotype Cephaloleia abdita Staines, des. C. L. Staines 2012 [red label] (USNM).

Cephaloleia abdominalis Pic, 1926c

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_abdominalis

Fig. 63
Cephalolia abdominalis Pic 1926c: 9. Uhmann 1953d: 47 (faunal list).
Cephaloleia abdominalis Pic. Uhmann 1957b: 14 (catalog), 1964a: 402 (catalog); Descarpentries and Villiers 1959a: 139 (types).
Description.

Elongate; subparallel; subdepressed; shining; black; pronotum, scutellum, and abdomen testaceous; elytra with reddish tinge at humeri. Head: vertex sparsely punctate, medial sulcus present; frons not projecting; depressed between eyes. Antenna: longer than head and pronotum combined; antennomere 1 incrassate; 2 ¾ length of 1; 3–4 elongate, 3 as long as 1 and 2 combined, longest; 4 ¾ length of 3; 5–10 transverse, decreasing in length; 11 longer than 10, acutely pointed at apex; 1–3 punctate with scattered setae; 4–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin sinuate then rounding to anterior angle, margined, very finely serrulate; anterior angle rounded, slightly produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc subconvex; surface sparsely, irregularly punctate, punctures more dense laterally and basally; disc nearly impunctate; transverse basal impression present; pronotal length 1.3 mm; pronotal width 2.0 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, moderately margined, finely serrulate below humerus; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, slightly produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; subconvex; moderately punctate-striate, punctures obsolete apically; with medial longitudinal depression on disc; elytral width 4.2 mm; elytral width 2.2 mm. Venter: obscured by card mount. Leg: femur and tibia punctate, each puncture with pale seta. Total length: 7.0 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species falls into a group of bicolored species with pronotum yellowish or reddish which includes Cephaloleia amazona, Cephaloleia princeps, Cephaloleia steinhauseni, Cephaloleia susanae sp. n., and Cephaloleia teutonica. It can be distinguished from all of these species by the sinuate lateral margins of the pronotum, by the finely serrulate lateral margin of the elytra below the humerus, and the immaculate pronotum.

Distribution.

Peru.

Type material examined.

Pérou, Prov. Huallaga, Tocache, 500 m, G A Baer, 10-11-1900 [printed green label)/ abdominalis sp. n. [handwritten label]/ Type [handwritten label]/ coll. Pic [handwritten label]/ Museum Paris, Coll. M. Pic [blue printed label]/ Type [printed red label]/ Cephaleia abdominalis Pic [printed label]/ Holotype [printed red label]/ MNHN EC 2644 [printed label] (MNHN).

Cephaloleia adusta Uhmann, 1930a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_adusta

Fig. 64
Cephalolia adusta Uhmann 1930a: 218. Uhmann 1936b: 585 (key).
Cephaloleia adusta Uhmann. Blackwelder 1946: 718 (catalog); Uhmann 1950a: 274; Papp 1953: 13 (catalog); Uhmann 1957a: 15 (catalog); Gaedike and Döbler 1971: 342 (types); Wilcox 1983: 136 (catalog); Staines 1996: 14 (Central America species), 1997: 413 (Uhmann species list), 2004: 312 (host plants); Staines and Staines 1997: 2 (types); McKenna and Farrell 2005: 119 (phylogeny).
Description.

Elongate; subparallel; subdepressed; yellowish-brown, antennae black, except apical three antennomeres which are brownish; head near eyes black; pronotum with fine narrow black margins; scutellum and elytral suture black, elytral lateral margin dark reddish-brown. Head: vertex with scattered punctures, medial sulcus absent; frons triangular, projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches base of the pronotum; slender; antennomere 1 longest, expanding apically, clavate (especially in male); 2–4 combined as long as 1, subequal in length, laterally compressed, 3–4 projecting on inner margin; 5–10 elongate, subequal in length; 11 long oval; 1–4 punctate with scattered setae; 5–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse, slightly narrower apically than basally; lateral margin straight then rounding to anterior angle; anterior angle rounded, not projecting; posterior angle angulate; anterior margin weakly emarginate behind head; disc flattened; smooth; surface finely, irregularly punctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.4–1.7 mm; pronotal width 1.9–2.1 mm. Scutellum: elongate pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, rounding to apex; apex rounded; sutural angle angulate, without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; finely punctate-striate, rows becoming obsolete after middle, apical punctures confused; elytral length 6.1–6.7 mm; elytral width 2.6–2.8 mm. Venter: inner margin of epipleuron ciliate; pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin truncate, weakly emarginate in male, bisinuate in female. Leg: thickened, flattened; punctate; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 8.6–10.5 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is most similar to Cephaloleia kressi sp. n. It can be distinguished by the following combination of characters: the elytra without a declivity from puncture row 7, the elytral punctation is obsolete after the middle, by the vertex of the head without a medial sulcus, by the angulate sutural angle of the elytra, and by the impunctate pro-, meso-, and metasterna.

Host plant.

Adults have been collected on Heliconia sp. (Heliconiaceae) (Staines 1996).

Distribution.

Costa Rica.

Type material examined.

Paralectotype female: Costa Rica, F. Nevermann [green label]/ Westabhang des Vulkans, Irazu, 1500–2000 m [reversed green label]/ Allotype [red label]/ Cephalolia adusta [female] sp. n. Uhmann 28/ Type No. 54625 USNM [orange label] (USNM).

Specimens examined.

COSTA RICA: Alajuela- Bijagua de Upala, Alberge de Heliconias, 1000–1100 m, 18 June 2000 (USNM); Río San Lorencito, 900 m, R. F. San Ramón, 5 km N de Colonia Palmareña, 13–18 June 1993 (INBIO); San Ramón, Angles, R.B. Alberto Brenes, 1000–1100 m (INBIO); E. B. San Ramón, R. B. San Ramón, 27 km N and 8 km W San Ramón, 8 July 2000 (USNM). Cartago- Las Palmas (USNM); Orosí, 1200 m, 28 August 1931 (DEI, USNM); Ref. Nac. Fauna Silv. Tapantí, 1050 m, August 1991 (INBIO); Quebrada Segunda, Ref. Nac. Fauna Silv. Tapantí, 1250 m, April 1992, August 1992, December 1992, May 1992, March 1993, September 1992, October 1992 (INBIO); Rancho Quemado, Pen. Osa, February 1991, May 1992, June 1992, April 1992 (INBIO); Río Grande de Orosí, 1500–1600 m (INBIO); Valle Orosí, Tapantí, 1500 m, 25 May 1941 (MUCR); Westabnung, Vulka Irazú, 1500–2000 m, 23 February 1925 (DEI, USNM). Guanacaste- Est. Pitilla, 700 m, 9 km S Sta. Cecilia, March 1991 (INBIO); Río San Lorenzo, 1050 m, Tierras Morenas, Z. P. Tenorio, March 1991, August 1992, November 1991, 23 March- 21 April 1992, July 1992, March 1990, January 1992, October 1991, December 1992, April 1991, April 1992, January 1993, June 1991, October 1992, February 1993 (INBIO). Heredia- El Angel Falls, 21 June 1969 (USNM). Puntarenas- Alajuela, Monteverde For. Res., 1600 m, 17–18 August 1976 (CASC); Monteverde (EGRC); Monteverde Reserve, 1500 m, 1 June 1979 (CMNC); Monteverde Cloud For. Res., 18–19 May 1985, 20 May 1985 (EMEC); A. C. A., Central Reserva Bosque Eterno de los Niños, El Camino, 1500–1600 m (INBIO); P. N. Piedras Blancas, Estation Esquinas, 0–100 m (INBIO); A. C. O., Golfito, Pque Nal Corcovado, Est. Sirena, 0–100 m (INBIO); Osa, Sierpe, Rancho Quemado, 200 a 300 m (INBIO); Est. La Casona, Las Torres, Z. P. Arenal Monteverde, 1500–1600 m (INBIO); Perez Zeledón, Santa Elena, 1200 m (INBIO). San José- San José (USNM). Total: 448.

Cephaloleia aeneipennis Baly, 1858

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_aeneipennis

Fig. 65
Cephalolia aeneipennis Baly1858: 59. Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3601 (catalog); Donckier 1899: 547 (catalog); Weise 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 13 (catalog); Bryant 1942: 205 (faunal list); Staines and Staines 1999: 523 (Baly species list).
Cephaloleia aeneipennis Baly. Uhmann 1957b: 15 (catalog).
Description.

Elongate, elytra slightly expanding apically; depressed; black, often with golden, bluish or green sheen; shining; small. Head: vertex with faint medial sulcus, alutaceous; frons impunctate, not projecting; keel present between antennal bases; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: more than ½ body length; slender; antennomere 1 subglobose, shorter than 2; 2–3 elongate, subequal in length; 4–5 subequal in length, elongate, each shorter than 2; 6–10 subequal in length, elongate, each shorter than 5; 11 pointed at apex; 1 impunctate; 2 with scattered punctures; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight for basal 4/5 then rounded to anterior angle, broadly margined; anterior angle rounded with small acute tooth; posterior angle acute; anterior margin weakly emarginate behind head; with sulcus parallel to lateral margin from near posterior angle to near anterior angle; disc convex; surface alutaceous with scattered punctures; basal impression absent; pronotal length 0.9 mm; pronotal width 1.4 mm. Scutellum: triangular; punctate. Elytron: lateral and apical margins smooth; lateral margin straight, margined; apex rounded; sutural angle with small tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; subconvex; shallowly punctate-striate, punctures near suture indistinct; elytral length 3.0 mm; elytral width 1.7 mm. Venter: pro- and mesosterna punctate; metasternum impunctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna irregularly punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin truncate, slightly sinuate on either side in female. Leg: sparsely punctate; femur and tibia with row of setae on inner margin; tibia with tuft of setae at apex. Total length: 4.0–4.5 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is easily distinguished from all other known Cephaloleia by the distinct sulcus parallel to the lateral margins of the pronotum.

Distribution.

Colombia, Venezuela.

Type material examined.

Holotype: Venezuela [handwritten label]/ Baly Coll. [printed label]/ Cephalolia aeneipennis Baly, Venezuela [blue handwritten label] (BMNH).

Specimens examined.

COLOMBIA: no further data (NMW). Total: 1.

Cephaloleia aequilata Uhmann, 1930a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_aequilata

Fig. 66
Cephalolia aequilata Uhmann 1930a: 223. Uhmann 1942: 96 (noted).
Cephaloleia aequilata Uhmann. Blackwelder 1946: 718 (catalog); Uhmann 1950b: 336 (type); Papp 1953: 13 (catalog); Uhmann 1957a: 15 (catalog); Gaedike and Döbler 1971: 342 (types); Wilcox 1983: 136 (catalog); Staines 1996: 15 (Central America species), 1997: 413 (noted), 2011: 48 (faunal list); Staines and Staines 1997: 2 (types); McKenna and Farrell 2005: 119 (phylogeny), 2006: 10949 (phylogeny).
Description.

Small, almost rectangular in outline, depressed; reddish-brown; antennomeres 1–5 reddish, 6–10 black, 11 reddish. Head: vertex finely punctate; eyes dark; frons projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; slender; antennomeres 1–2 elongate, subequal in length; 3 not compressed or widened, subequal in length to 1 or 2; 4–6 subequal in length, each shorter than 3; 7–10 transverse, subequal in length, each shorter than 6; 11 2× length of 10, oval; 1–6 punctate with scattered setae; 7–11 setose. Pronotum: twice as wide as long; lateral margin straight basally, rounding to anterior angle, margined; anterior angle rounded, slightly produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc with surface sparsely, finely, irregularly punctate; irregularly, coarsely punctate laterally; basal impression absent; pronotal length 0.7–0.9 mm; pronotal width 1.4–1.7 mm. Scutellum: elongate pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; weakly expanded at humerus; slightly constricted behind humerus; moderately punctate-striate, rows 6–9 obscure on humerus; elytral length 3.4–4.3 mm; elytral width 2.0 mm. Venter: episternum punctate; epipleuron finely punctate, setose; pro-, meso, and metasterna punctate; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin semicircular, deeply emarginate medially in male, truncate in female. Leg: punctate; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 4.3–5.6 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is one of the reddish-brown to yellow, nearly rectangular species, which includes Cephaloleia cognata and Cephaloleia dilaticollis. It can be easily distinguished from the other two species by the elytral puncture rows 6 to 9 being obsolete on the humerus.

Distribution.

Costa Rica, Guatemala.

Type material examined.

Syntype: Costa Rica, Hamburg Farm, Reventazon [green printed label]/ Ebene Limon, XII.1923, Nevermann [reversed green label]/ type [printed red label]/ Cephalilia aequaliata ♀ Uhmann 28 (DEI, 1).

Specimens examined.

COSTA RICA: Cartago- Turrialba (USNM). Guanacaste- Est. Cacao, 1000–1400 m, Lado suroeste de Volcán Cacao, June 1990 (INBIO); Est. Pitilla, 700 m, 8 km S Sta. Cecilia, 3–18 October 1991, 4–25 November 1991, December 1989, March 1990, January-April 1992 (INBIO); Río San Lorenzo, 1050 m, Tierras Morenas, Z. P. Tenorio, August 1992 (INBIO); Liberia, Mayorga, Estación Cacao, 2 km SW Cerro Cacao, 900–1000 m (INBIO); Río San Lorenzo, Tierras Morenas, 900–100 m (INBIO). Limón- Río Reventazón near Siquirres, 14 March 1991 (EGRC); Talamanca, Amubri, 0–100 m (INBIO). GUATEMALA: Zacapa- 3.5 km SE La Unión, 1500 m, 27 June 1993 (SEMC). Total: 29.

Cephaloleia affinis Baly, 1858

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_affinis

Fig. 67
Cephalolia affinis Baly 1858: 44. Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3601 (catalog); Donckier 1899: 547 (catalog); Weise 1904b: 437 (noted), 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 11 (catalog); Uhmann 1935b: 47 (faunal list), 1936b: 113 (noted), 1942b: 96 (noted).
Cephaloleia affinis Baly Waterhouse 1881: 261 (distribution); Uhmann 1957b: 15 (catalog); Staines and Staines 1999: 523 (Baly species list).
Description.

Elongate; subdepressed; shining; reddish-yellow; eyes and antennomeres 3–11 dark. Head: vertex impunctate, with deep fovea; frons not projecting; slightly depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; slender; antennomere 1 compressed, thick, longer than 2, truncate at apex, with short acute tooth at apex; 2 short, transverse; 3 longer than 1; 4–5 elongate, subequal in length, each shorter than 3; 6–10 subequal in length, each shorter than 4; 11 2× length of 10, acutely pointed at apex; 1–2 punctate with scattered setae; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight in female, diverging in male, then rounding to anterior angle, canaliculate; anterior angle rounded, slightly produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc subconvex; surface densely punctate, punctures coarser basally; transverse basal impression present medially; pronotal length 2.1–2.4 mm; pronotal width 2.7–2.9 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, slightly margined; apex obtusely rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; moderately punctate-striate, punctures somewhat confused basally; elytral length 6.9–7.2 mm; elytral width 3.6–4.0 mm. Venter: prosternum impunctate; meso- and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin sinuate in male, obtusely rounded in female. Leg: femur and tibia punctate; tibia expanding apically, with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 9.0–10.1 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is one of the immaculate reddish-brown species. It can be easily be distinguished form all other species with this color pattern by the deep medial fovea on the vertex of the head.

Host plant.

According to label data adults have have been collected on Ischnosiphon sp. or Monotagna sp. (Marantaceae) and Heliconia stricta Huber (Heliconiaceae).

Distribution.

Bolivia, Brazil (Amazonas, Pará, São Paulo), Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela.

Type material examined.

Syntype female: Brazil [handwritten label]/ Baly coll. [printed label]/ Cephalolia affinis Baly, Brazil [handwritten blue label] (BMNH, 1).

Specimens examined.

?- Upper Amazon (BMNH). Bolivia: La Paz- 9.4 km E. Chulumani, Apa, Apa Ecol. Reserve, 2100–2400 m, 18 January 2001 (SEMC). Brazil: Pará- (BMNH). São Paulo- August-September 1879 (USNM). Colombia: Valle- 18 km N Cali, 22 January 1982 (USNM). Ecuador: Los Ríos- Río Palenque, 47 km S Sto. Domingo, 220 m, 26 August 1997 (CDFA). Napo- Limoncocha, 300 m, 31 March 1974 (EGRC, USNM); Limoncocha Reserve, 10 August 1997 (CDFA); Sacha Lodge, 13–23 April 1994 (SEMC); Shushufindi, 215 m, 12 August 1997 (CDFA, USNM). Orellana- Estacion Cientifica Yasuni, 16 August 1997 (CDFA); 11 km W Plano, 500 m, 20 August 1997 (CDFA); Yasuni, 10–13 August 1998 (USNM). Sucua- Santa Cecilia NP, 25–31 March 1969 (USNM). French guiana: Roura, 8.4 km SSE, 200 m, 28 May 1997 (SEMC); Roura, 18.4 km SSE, 240 m, 29 May 1997 (SEMC); Saul, 7 km N Les Eaux Claires, 31 May 1997 (SEMC). Guyana: region 8, Iwokrama Forest, Kabocalli Field Station, 60 m, 21 May 2001, 5 June 2001 (SEMC). Peru: Loreto- Reserva Alpahuayo Mishana, 27 May 2005 (USNM). Pasco- Villa Rica Rd., 1150 m, 15 October 1999 (SEMC, USNM). Madre de Dios- CICRA Field Station, 272 m, 12 June 2011 (SEMC). Ucayali- Tingo Maria, February 1950 (USNM); Tingo Maria-Pucalpa Rd., Puenta Chino Rd. Km 205, 1300 m, 14 October 1999 (USNM). Suriname: Akintosoela, CELOS Camp, 39 km SE Suriname River bridge, road to Redi Doti, 29 June- 3 July 1999 (SEMC). Venezuela: Zuila- Kasmera, Río Yasa, Sierra de Perija, 350 m, 19 September 1961 (USNM). Total: 72.

Cephaloleia alternans Waterhouse, 1881

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_alternans

Fig. 68
Cephaloleia alternans Waterhouse 1881: 261. Dohrn 1885: 145 (morphology); Uhmann 1957b: 15 (catalog); McKenna and Farrell 2005: 119 (phylogeny), 2006: 10949 (phylogeny).
Cephalolia alternans Waterhouse. Donckier 1899: 547 (catalog); Weise 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 11 (catalog); Uhmann 1932c: 261 (museum list).
Description.

Elongate; subdepressed; shining; yellow; head with vertex black; antennomeres 1–6 fuscous-yellow, 7–11 clear yellow; pronotum yellow with black trapezoidal macula on middle of anterior margin; scutellum yellow; elytra yellow with transverse black band near base and another on apical ⅓. Head: vertex finely, sparsely punctate, medial sulcus absent; eyes slightly convex; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: longer than head and pronotum combined; slender; antennomere 1 clavate, thick; 2–4 elongate, 2 shorter than 1, 3 longer than 1; 4 subequal in length to 2; 5–6 subequal in length, each shorter than 4; 7–10 transverse, subequal in length, each shorter than 6; 11 longer than 10, rounded at apex; 1–4 punctate with scattered setae; 5–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin sinuate at base, then straight and divergent and rounding to anterior angle, slightly canaliculate; anterior angle obtuse, not produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head: disc flattened; surface with disc impunctate, punctate laterally; medial transverse impression present on basal margin; pronotal length 1.7–2.1 mm; pronotal width 2.1–2.4 mm. Scutellum: elongate triangular; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, slightly laminate; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; weakly punctate-striate, punctures confused apically; elytral length 6.5–6.8 mm; elytral width 2.6–3.0 mm. Venter: pro- and mesosterna impunctate; metasternum impunctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete. Leg: punctate; tibia with seta in each puncture, fringe of setae at apex. Total length: 8.8–9.2 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is one of the yellowish species with black transverse bands on the elytra and pale elytral margins. It can be distinguished from all other species with this color pattern by the following combination of characters: the vertex of the head lacking a medial carina, sulcus or fovea, by the lateral margin of the pronotum being canaliculate, by antennomere 2 being elongate rather than subglobose, and by lacking a declivity on the elytra.

Host plant.

Accodring to label data adults have been collected on Calathea lanata Peterson (Marantaceae).

Distribution.

Ecuador, Peru.

Type material examined.

Holotype: Type H. T. [White disk with red border]/ Ecuador, Sarayacu [handwritten label]/ Buckley [handwritten label]/ Cephalolia aternans Waterh., C. Waterh. (Type) [handwritten label] (BMNH).

Specimens examined.

Ecuador: ?: 1880 (USNM). Morona Santiago- Macas (USNM). Orellana- 1 km S Onkone Gare Camp, Reserva Etnica Waorani, 216.3 m, 4 February 1996 (USNM). Pastaza- Kapawi, 300 m, 6 March–20 June 1996 (SEMC). Peru: Loreto- Madreselva Biol. Stn., 24 June 2005 (USNM). Total: 7.

Cephaloleia amazona Baly, 1869

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_amazona

Fig. 69
Cephalolia amazona Baly 1869: 369. Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3601 (catalog); Donckier 1899: 547 (catalog); Weise 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 11 (catalog).
Cephaloleia amazona Baly. Uhmann 1942b: 96 (pygidium), 1957b: 15 (catalog); Staines and Staines 1999: 523 (Baly species list).
Description.

Elongate; subparallel; subdepressed; elytra black, abdomen yellowish, head, antennae, pronotum, and scutellum reddish-yellow. Head: vertex sparsely punctate, medial sulcus present; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: less than ½ body length; antennomere 1 thickened, longer than 2; 2 longer than 3; 3–5 subequal in length; 6–10 transverse, shorter than preceding; 11 pointed at apex; 1–2 punctate with scattered setae; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight, slightly diverging for basal ⅔ then rounding to anterior angle, canaliculate; anterior angle rectangular; posterior angle acute; anterior margin rounded anteriorly; disc subconvex, concave laterally; surface with sparse, rounded punctures; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.4–1.6 mm; pronotal width 1.7–2.1 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; finely punctate-striate, punctures more impressed laterally; surface finely irregularly wrinkled; elytral length 4.4–4.7 mm; elytral width 2.3–2.7 mm. Venter: pro-, meso- and metasterna impunctate; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; apical abdominal sternite subangulate-emarginate in male, bisinuate in female. Leg: punctate; femur with fringe of setae on inner margin; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 5.6–6.8 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species falls into a group of bicolored species with a reddish pronotum which includes Cephaloleia abdominalis, Cephaloleia princeps, Cephaloleia steinhauseni, Cephaloleia susanae sp. n., and Cephaloleia teutonica. It can be distinguished from these species by the vertex of the head lacking a medial fovea but having a medial sulcus and by the pronotum with straight lateral margins which are not serrulate.

Host plant.

According to label data adults have been collected on Heliconia velutina L. Anderson (Heliconiaceae).

Distribution.

Brazil (Minas Gerais, Santa Catharina), Peru.

Type material examined.

Syntype: Upper Amazons [handwritten label]/ Baly Coll. [printed label]/ Cephalolia amazona Baly, Upper Amazons [blue handwritten label] (BMNH, 1).

Specimens examined.

?- no label data (USNM). Brazil: Minas Gerais- Vila Monte Verde, 6 December 1974 (USNM). Santa Catharina- Theresopolis, 1887 (USNM). Peru: Loreto- Madreselva Biol. Stn., 27 May 2005 (USNM); Reserva Alpahuayo Mishana, 27 May 2005 (USNM); 1.5 km N Teniente Lopez, 210–240 m, 20 July 1993 (SEMC). Total: 8.

Description.

Obovate; subconvex; head, scutellum, and pronotum (except lateral margin) black; elytra pale yellow with black irregular transverse band from puncture row 1 to 10 across humerus, apical ½ (except lateral and apical margins) black; venter brownish. Head: vertex finely punctate, each puncture with white seta, medial sulcus faint; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches beyond humerus; slender; antennomeres 1 and 2 transverse, short; 3–4 subequal in length, each 2× length of 2; 5–10 subequal in length, each ¾ length of 3; 11 2× length of 10, pointed at apex; 1–2 punctate with scattered setae, 3–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight then rounding to anterior angle, serrulate; anterior angle obtusely rounded, not produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc subvoncex; surface irregularly punctate, punctures more dense basally and laterally; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.1 mm; pronotal width 1.7–2.0 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; alutaceous. Elytron: lateral margin straight for basal ⅔ then rounded to apex, smooth; apical margin rounded, smooth; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; moderately punctate-striate, row 10 removed from lateral margin; elytral length 3.7–4.3 mm; elytral width 2.4–2.6 mm. Venter: prosternum slightly rugose medially, punctate laterally; meso- and metasterna slightly punctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; last sternite with apical margin broadly emarginate medially in male. Leg: femur and tibia punctate, each puncture with seta; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 4.9–5.6 mm.

Etymology.

From ambon (Greek) meaning edge for the pale flange of the pronotum and elytra. The name is a noun in apposition.

Diagnosis.

This species belongs to the group of species with a mostly dark pronotum which yellowish elytra with black transverse bands. It is most similar to Cephaloleia degandei and can be distinguished by the serrulate lateral margin of the pronotum and by antennomeres 1 and 2 being subequal in length.

Host plant.

Accodring to label data adults have been collected on Costus sp. (Costaceae).

Distribution.

Colombia, Ecuador, Peru.

Type material.

Holotype male: Colombia, Amazonas Pr., Mico (“Monkey”) Island, R. Amazonas, ca. 3°56'S, 70°8'W/ 3-VII-1978/ Costus/ Holotype Cephaloleia amba Staines, des. C. L. Staines 2012 [red label] (USNM). Paratypes (6) (each with Paratype Cephaloleia amba Staines, des. C. L. Staines 2012 [red label]): with same label data as holotype (USNM); Ecuador, Napo prov., 2 km S Puerto Misahauli, 01°02'46"S, 77°39'23"W, 450 m, second growth, 8.xii.2009, COST. Costus sp., L. Sekerka and L. Stajerova lgt. [green printed label] (LSC); Ecuador, Napo prov., Rio Puno, 13.xii.2009, 8 km SE of Misahuali, 400 m, 01°05'55"S, 77°38'30"W, Costus sp., tall, white flowers, L. Sekerka and L. Stajerova lgt [green printed label] (BMNH, LSC); Ecuador, Sucumbios pr., Lumbaqui, Cost. Costus sp., D. Windsor lgt., 5.ii.2007 (DWC); Peru, Madre de Dios, Rio Tambopata Reserve, 30 air km SW of Puerto Maldenado, 290 m, November 1–26 1982, Edward S. Ross (CASC).

Cephaloleia amblys Staines, 1996

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_amblys

Image not available
Cephaloleia amblys Staines 1996: 15.
Description.

Elongate; subparallel; subconvex; brownish; head and pronotum darker; venter with pro-, meso-, and metasterna pale medially, dark laterally. Head: vertex punctate, medial sulcus absent; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; slender; antennomere 1 elongate, longer than 2 or 3; 2–3 elongate, subequal in length, each shorter than 1; 4–10 transverse, subequal in length, each shorter than 3; 11 rounded at apex, subequal in length to 1; 1–4 punctate with scattered setae; 5–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin canaliculate, straight and divergent for basal ½ then rounding to anterior angle; anterior angle rounded, not produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin curved behind head; disc subconvex; surface sparsely punctate, more dense laterally, apical margin impunctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 0.7 mm; pronotal width 1.1 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; weakly punctate-striate, humerus virtually impunctate; puncture rows converge and unite at apex; elytral length 2.4 mm; elytral width 1.3 mm. Venter: prosternum impunctate; meso- and metasterna punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete. Leg: robust; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 3.4 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is most similar to Cephaloleia facetus. It can be distinguished by the pronotum being darker in color than the elytra and with antennomere 1 being longer than 2.

Distribution.

Panama.

Type material.

Holotype: Panama: Canal Zone, Madden Forest, mi 5.0, 9°07'N, 79°38'W/ 19-vii-1971, H. A. Hespenheide/ Cephaloleia tenella Baly CWT iii73/ Holotype Cephaloleia amblys Staines, Des. C. L. Staines 1994 [red label] (CHAH, not seen).

Comments.

Repeated requests for the loan of this specimen went unanswered. Image not included in the monograph.

Description.

Elongate; subdepressed; pale yellow; antennomeres 1-9 slightly darker; eyes black; pronotum with black demilune-shape behind head; elytra with wide black transverse band behind middle, dark macula laterally on humerus, and elongate dark macula covering puncture rows 9 and 10 from humerus to just before middle. Head: vertex finely punctate, oval basal fovea present medially, medial sulcus present; triangular projection present between antennal bases; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; antennomeres 1–4 elongate; 2 ¾ length of 1; 3 longer than 1; 4 subequal in length to 2; 5–10 subequal in length and width, each widened apically, each shorter than 4; 11 2× length of 10, rounded at apex; 1–4 punctate with scattered setae; 5–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight then rounding to anterior angle, canaliculate; anterior angle rounded, not projecting; posterior angle acute; anterior margin straight; longitudinal sulcus present medially; disc flattened, virtually impunctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.9–2.0 mm; pronotal width 1.9–2.0 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, narrowly margined; apex rounded; small tooth present in sutural angle; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; moderately punctate-striate, punctures confused apically; elytral length 6.4 mm; elytral width 2.4–2.7 mm. Venter: prosternum impunctate medially, punctate laterally; meso- and metasterna impunctate; abdominal sterna impunctate; suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 obsolete; sterna 2–4 each with shallowly curved transverse plica medially; sternite 5 with scattered setae apically, apical margin rounded in female, emarginate medially in male. Leg: slender; impunctate; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 9.1–10.3 mm.

Figures 71–79.

Habitus. 71 Cephaloleia angustacollis sp. n. 72 Cephaloleia antennalis 73 Cephaloleia antennata 74 Cephaloleia apicalis 75 Cephaloleia apicata 76 Cephaloleia apicenotata 77 Cephaloleia apicicornis 78 Cephaloleia applicata 79 Cephaloleia approximata. Scale bars equal 3 mm.

Etymology.

A combination of angustus (Latin) meaning narrow and collis (Latin) meaning neck for the narrow pronotum in this species. The name is feminine.

Diagnosis.

This is one of the mostly yellowish species with black pronotal markings, black transverse elytra bands and pale lateral margins of the elytra. It can be distinguished from all other species with this color pattern by the medial fovea on the vertex of the head.

Host plant.

Accodring to label data adults have been collected on Calathea sp. (Marantaceae).

Distribution.

Ecuador.

Type material.

Holotype male: Holotype Ecuador, Napo, Mishualli nr. Tena, 3-8 October 1999, Steven R. Keller/ Cephaloleia angustacollis Staines, des. C. L. Staines 2012 [red label] (BYUC). Paratypes (5) (each with Paratype Cephaloleia angustacollis Staines, des. C. L. Staines 2012 [red label]): Ecuador, Sucumbios, Shushufindi, 215 m, 00°0.96'S, 76°38.95'W, VIII-11-1997, Fred G. Andrews (AJGC, USNM); Ecuador, Orellana DF, EC Yasuni, Rio Tiputini, 00°40'16"S, 76°24'02"W, 26.ii-4.iii.2007, MAR. Calathea sp., D. Windsor lgt. [green printed label] (LSC); Ecuador, Napo, Yasuni, 215 m, 0°40.55S, 76°38.8W, 13–18 August 1997, D. M. Windsor (DWC).

Cephaloleia antennalis Donckier, 1899

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_antennalis

Fig. 72
Cephaloleia antennata Baly 1885: 11 (homonym of Cephaloleia antennata Waterhouse, 1881). Staines and Staines 1999: 523 (Baly species list).
Cephalolia antennalis Donckier 1899: 547 (replacement name for Cephaloleia antennata Baly). Weise 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 10 (catalog).
Cephaloleia antennalis Donckier. Blackwelder 1946: 718 (catalog); Papp 1953: 13 (catalog); Uhmann 1957a: 15 (catalog); Wilcox 1983: 136 (catalog); Staines 1996: 16 (Central America species); McKenna and Farrell 2005: 119 (phylogeny), 2006: 10949 (phylogeny).
Description.

Elongate; subdepressed; shining; reddish-brown; antennomeres 1–4 yellow, 5–11 darker; eyes darker. Head: vertex sparsely punctate, medial sulcus present; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; slender; antennomeres 1–4 laterally compressed, with inner anterior angle produced into acute tooth in male, elongate in female; 1 large, clavate; 2–4 subequal in length, each shorter than 1; 5–10 transverse, decreasing in length, each shorter than 4; 11 pointed at apex, subequal to 1; 1–2 punctate with scattered setae; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight for basal ¾ then convergent, margined; anterior angle produced, obtuse; posterior angle angulate; anterior margin emarginate behind head; surface finely, sparsely punctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.3–1.8 mm; pronotal width 2.0–2.6 mm. Scutellum: triangular; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; weakly punctate-striate; elytral length 5.1–6.4 mm; elytral width 2.7–3.3 mm. Venter: pro-, meso- and metasterna punctate; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin truncate in female, emarginate medially in male. Leg: femur and tibia punctate, each puncture with pale seta; femur robust; tibia expanded to apex, with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 6.9–8.4 mm.

Diagnosis.

This is one of the reddish-brown immaculate species. It can be distinguished from the other reddish-brown species by the suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 being complete and by antennomere 1 being as long as 2 to 4 combined.

Distribution.

Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama.

Type material examined.

Holotype male: Type H. T. [white disk with red border]/ Panama, Volcan de Chiriquí, Champion/ B. C. A., Col. VI, 2. Cephaloleia antennata, Baly/ Cephaloleia/ Cephalolia antennata Baly, Nicaragua [blue handwritten label] (BMNH).

Specimens examined.

COSTA RICA: Alajuela- Res. For. San Ramón, 900 m, 12 March 1990 (INBIO). Cartago- Quebrada Segunda, Ref. Nac. Fauna Silv. Tapantí, 1250 m, April 1992 (INBIO); Turrialba (USNM). Guanacaste- Río San Lorenzo, 1050 m, Tierras Morenas, Z.P. Tenorio, 28 March–21 April 1992, July 1991, 10–20 February 1992, October 1992 (INBIO). Heredia- La Selva, 18 May 1993 (SEMC). Limón- Sector Cerro Cocorí, Fca. de E. Rojas, 150 m, 28 May–17 June 1992 (INBIO); Esta. Cuatro Esquinas, 0 m, P. N. Tortuguero, 27 March–29 April 1992 (INBIO); Hamburg Farm, Reventazón, Ebene Limón, 27 April 1934, 23 February 1934 (USNM). Puntarenas- Est. Biol. Las Alturas, 1500 m, Coto Brus, 23 March- 2 May 1992 (INBIO); Golfito, 10–200 m, 28 May 1993 (SEMC); Golfito, 3 July 1985 (EMEC); Rancho Quemado, 200 m, Peninsula de Osa, April 1992, 21 March–7 April 1992 (INBIO); Est. Sirena, P.N. Corcovado, September 1991, November 1989, February 1990, 21 March- 21 April 1992, 28 May–17 June 1992 (INBIO). GUATEMALA: Verapaz- Chacoj (USNM). Total: 46.

Cephaloleia antennata Waterhouse, 1881

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_antennata

Fig. 73
Cephaloleia antennata Waterhouse 1881: 262. Uhmann 1957b: 15 (catalog).
Cephalolia antennata Waterhouse. Donckier 1899: 548 (catalog); Weise 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 11 (catalog).
Description.

Elongate; subparallel; convex; reddish-yellow; antennomeres 1–7, medial line of pronotum, scutellum, and elytral suture and humeri darker, head with blackish band on vertex, antennomeres 8–11 yellow; venter reddish-yellow medially, black laterally; legs yellow with femorotibial joint darkened. Head: eye large, prominent; vertex sparsely, irregularly punctate, medial sulcus absent; frons not projecting; depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; slender; antennomere 1 incrassate, robust; 2 transverse, less than ½ length of 1; 3 subequal in length to 1, cylindrical; 4–10 decreasing in length, each shorter than 3; 11 2× length of 10, broadly rounded at apex; 1–8 punctate; 9–11 setose. Pronotum: slightly longer than wide; lateral margin straight, rounding to anterior angle, narrowly margined; anterior angle obtusely rounded; posterior angle acute; anterior margin straight; disc subconvex; surface densely, strongly punctate; with oblique impression on each side reaching basal margin medially; pronotal length 1.4–1.7 mm; pronotal width 1.5–1.7 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin smooth, narrowly margined, slightly expanded apically; apex rounded, smooth; sutural angle without tooth; humerus slightly angulate, produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; strongly closely punctate-striate; elytral length 4.9–5.1 mm; elytral width 2.1–2.3 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete. Leg: punctate, each puncture with pale seta; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 6.5–7.1 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is most similar to Cephaloleia horvitzae sp. n. It can be distinguished by the vertex of the head without a medial carina, by the pronotum having an oblique impression laterally, and by the larger size.

Distribution.

Brazil (Amazonas), Ecuador, Peru.

Type material examined.

Holotype: Type H. T. [white disk with red border]/ Ecuador, Sarayacu [handwritten label]/ Buckley [handwritten label]/ Cephaloleia antennata Waterh., C. H. Waterh. (Type) [handwritten label] (BMNH).

Specimens examined.

Brazil: Amazonas- St Paulo d’Olivenca, March 1883 (USNM). Ecuador: no further data (USNM). Napo- Limoncocha, 3 June 1977 (USNM); Shushufindi, 1200 m, 9 August 1998 (AJGC). Peru: Amazonas- May-July 1884 (USNM). Total: 5.

Cephaloleia apicalis Baly, 1858

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_apicalis

Fig. 74
Cephalolia apicalis Baly 1858: 41. Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3601 (catalog); Donckier 1899: 548 (catalog); Weise 1910: 84 (noted), 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 11 (catalog); Uhmann 1936b: 111 (noted), 1936f: 482 (key).
Cephaloleia apicalis Baly. Uhmann 1957b: 15 (catalog); Staines and Staines 1999: 523 (Baly species list).
Description.

Elongate; subdepressed; shining; reddish-yellow, antennae (except basal antennomere), eyes, and apical ⅓ of elytra darker. Head: vertex sparsely punctate near eyes, medial sulcus absent; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: as long as head and pronotum combined; robust; antennomeres 1–5 laterally subcompressed in male, 2–3 subequal in length, triangular; female with 1 incrassate, 2½ x length of 2; 3 ¾ length of 1; 4–5 subequal in length, each shorter than 3; 6–10 subequal in length, transverse; each shorter than 5; 11 2× length of 10, rounded at apex; 1–3 punctate with scattered setae; 4–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight then rounding to anterior angle, canaliculate; anterior angle obtuse, produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc subconvex; surface finely, sparsely punctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.9–2.2 mm; pronotal width 2.3–2.6 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, narrowly margined, smooth; apical margin rounded, smooth; sutural angle emarginate; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; constricted behind humerus; subconvex, somewhat flattened on disc; moderately punctate-striate; elytral length 6.0–6.2 mm; elytral width 2.8–3.1 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; pygidium obtuse; last sternite with apical margin sinuate in male, truncate in female. Leg: punctate; femur robust; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 7.8–9.0 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species belongs to a group of species with an immaculate pronotum and the apical portion of the elytra darkened. It is most similar to Cephaloleia fulvipes. It can be distinguished by the elytral punctures along the suture being distinct near the apex.

Distribution.

Colombia.

Type material examined.

Syntypes: Columbia [misspelling, handwritten label]/ Baly coll. [printed label]/ Cephalolia apicalis Baly, Columbia [misspelling, blue handwritten label] (BMNH, 2).

Specimens examined.

Colombia: no further data (USNM). ?: Nova Granada (USNM). Antioquia- Puerto Berrío, 8 August 1939 (USNM). Sartander- Puerto Barrie, 8 August 1938 (USNM). Total: 15.

Cephaloleia apicata Uhmann, 1930a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_apicata

Fig. 75
Cephalolia apicata Uhmann 1930a: 228. Uhmann 1942: 98 (noted).
Cephaloleia apicata Uhmann. Blackwelder 1946: 718 (catalog); Uhmann 1950b: 336 (type), 1957a: 15 (catalog), 1964a: 402 (catalog); Papp 1953: 14 (catalog); Gaedike and Döbler 1971: 342 (types); Wilcox 1983: 136 (catalog); Staines 1996: 16 (Central America species), 1997: 413 (Uhmann species list), 2004: 312 (host plants); Staines and Staines 1997: 3 (types); McKenna and Farrell 2005: 119 (phylogeny), 2006: 10949 (phylogeny).
Description.

Elongate; subdepressed; subparallel; hirsute; head and most of elytra black; antennomeres 1–8 black, 9–11 may be yellow, black or with the apex of 11 yellow; pronotum (some specimens with broad black medial longitudinal vitta) and lateral margin of elytra yellow; venter with pro-, meso-, and metasterna yellow medially, black laterally, abdominal sterna black medially, yellow laterally; leg with femur yellow, tibia and tarsi black. Head: almost as wide as apex of pronotum; vertex finely punctate, medial sulcus present; frons not projecting; depressed between eyes. Antenna: ½ body length; robust; antennomere 1 elongate; 2 ½ length of 1; 3 as long as 1–2 combined; 4–10 each shorter than 1, subequal in length, conical; 11 1½ length of 10, oval; 1–2 punctate with scattered setae; 3–11 densely setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin almost straight, weakly convergent apically then rounding to anterior angle, margined; anterior angle pointed; posterior angle rectangular; anterior margin weakly emarginate behind head; surface sparsely punctate; wide V-shaped depression present basally; pronotal length 1.0–1.4 mm; pronotal width 1.6–1.9 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, slightly produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; moderately punctate-striate; scutellar row very long; interspace 7 with additional puncture row; elytral length 5.9–7.3 mm; elytral width 2.3–2.8 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally, each puncture with pale seta; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin straight in male, strongly curved in female. Leg: slender; punctate; femur and tibia with seta in each puncture; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin and tuft of setae at apex. Total length: 7.4–10.0 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is bicolored with the pronotum immaculate and lighter than the elytra. It is most similar to Cephaloleia disjuncta but can easily be distinguished by the additional row of punctures on the elytra and the coloration.

Host plant.

Heliconia sp. (Heliconiaceae) (Uhmann 1930a).

Distribution.

Costa Rica, Panama.

Type material examined.

Lectotype: Costa Rica, F. Nevermann, 20-VI-26 [green label]/ La Palma, 1050 m, Hondura [reversed green label]/ an Blättern v. Heliconica sp. [handwritten label]/ Holotype [red label]/ Cephalolia apicata sp. n. [male]/ Cotype No. 54632 USNM [orange label] (USNM).

Specimens examined.

COSTA RICA: Alajuela- E. B. San Ramón, R. B. San Ramón, 27 km N and 8 km W San Ramón, 8 July 2000 (SEMC, USNM); Río San Lorencito, 5 km N Colonia Palmareña, 900–1000 m (INBIO). Cartago- 1 km S. Cariblanco, 30 May 1992 (CDFA); Quebrada Segunda Ref. Nac. Fauna Silv. Tapantí, 1250 m, April 1992 (INBIO); Ref. Nac. Fauna Silv. Tapantí, 1250 m, August 1991 (INBIO); Turrialba, Santa Teresita, Monumento Nacional Guayabo, 1100–1200 m (INBIO). Heredia- Est. Sn Rafael Vara Blanca, P.N., Braulio Carillo, 1800–2000 m, April 1990, August 1991 (INBIO). Puntarenas- Alajuela-Monteverde For. Res., 1600 m, 17–18 August 1976 (CASC); Est. Leonel Hernandez, 1600 m, Res. Biol. Monteverde, January 1991 (INBIO); Est. G. Brenes, R. B. Monteverde, 1200–1300 m (INBIO); Est La Casona, Las Torres, 1500–1600 m (INBIO). San José- Est. Zurquí, 500 m, antes de Túnel, 1600 m, March 1991 (INBIO); 12 mi. N. San Isidro del General, 26 June 1969 (USNM). PANAMA: Bocas del Toro- 2.3 rd mi N from Continental Divide, 27 May 1993 (EGRC). Total: 24.

Cephaloleia apicenotata Uhmann, 1938a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_apicenotata

Fig. 76
Cephalolia apicenotata Uhmann 1938a: 411.
Cephaloleia apicenotata Uhmann. Uhmann 1950a: 274 (sculpture), 1957b: 15 (catalog); Gaedike and Döbler 1971: 342 (types); Staines 1997b: 413 (Uhmann species list).
Description.

Elongate; subdepressed; subparallel; shining; yellowish-brown; antennae, u-shaped marking on apical ⅓ of elytra, and last sternite with apical margin black. Head: vertex finely punctate, medial sulcus absent; frons not projecting; depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; slender; antennomeres 1 and 2 thick, cylindrical; 1 and 3 subequal in length; 2 ½ length of 1; 3–10 elongate; 4–10 decreasing in length, each shorter than 3; 11 slightly longer than 10, acutely pointed at apex; 1–2 punctate with scattered setae; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin sinuate then rounding to anterior angle, distinctly margined; anterior angle rounded, not produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin straight; disc subconvex; surface irregularly, sparsely punctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.3–1.6 mm; pronotal width 1.6–1.9 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, with broad margin; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; finely punctate-striate; elytral length 4.7–4.9 mm; elytral width 2.1–2.4 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin subrounded, weakly emarginate in female, rounded in male. Leg: slender; punctate; femur and tibia with pale seta in each puncture; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 6.2–6.6 mm.

Diagnosis.

This is a bicolored species with the apical section of the elytra darker. It is most similar to Cephaloleia bicolor and Cephaloleia bicoloriceps. It can be easily distinguished by the sinuate lateral margin of the pronotum.

Distribution.

Brazil (Bahia), Ecuador.

Type material examined.

Lectotype: Brazil, Bahia [printed label]/ coll. Fry [printed label]/ Cephalolia apicenotata Uh., Det. E. Uhmann [handwritten label] (BMNH).

Specimens examined.

?- 3162 (USNM). Brazil: Bahia- no further data (DEI, USNM); St. Antonia de Barra, 1889 (USNM). Ecuador: Orellana- 1 km S Onkone Gare Camp, Reserva Etnica Waorani, 216.3 m, 21 January 2006 (USNM); Estación Cientifica Yasuni, 15–16 August 1997 (USNM). Total: 16.

Cephaloleia apicicornis Baly, 1869

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_apicicornis

Fig. 77
Cephalolia apicicornis Baly 1869: 372. Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3601 (catalog); Donckier 1899: 548 (catalog); Weise 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 11 (catalog); Uhmann 1932a: 36 (museum list).
Cephaloleia apicicornis Baly. Uhmann 1957b: 15 (catalog); Staines and Staines 1999: 523 (Baly species list).
Description.

Elongate; subdepressed; subparallel; yellowish; antennomeres 1–8 brownish, 9–11 darker; eyes dark. Head: vertex finely, irregularly punctate; with deep medial sulcus; frons not projecting; depressed between eyes. Antenna: ½ body length; slender; cylindrical; antennomere 1 robust, 1½ x length of 2; 2–4 subequal in length; 5–10 subequal in length, each shorter than 4; 11 rounded at apex, 2× length of 10; 1–4 punctate with scattered setae; 5–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight then rounding to anterior angle, canaliculate; anterior angle rounded, slightly produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc subconvex; surface with deep, round punctures, more dense laterally; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.1–1.3 mm; pronotal width 1.5–1.7 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, slightly laminate; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; constricted behind humerus; disc flattened; moderately punctate-striate, punctures less impressed apically; interspaces convex; elytral length 3.8–4.2; elytral width 2.1–2.4 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; last sternite with apical margin concave-emarginate in male, bisinuate in female. Leg: slender; sparsely punctate; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 5.5–5.8 mm.

Diagnosis.

This is a unicolorous yellowish species. It is most similar to Cephaloleia corallina, Cephaloleia halli, Cephaloleia ochra sp. n., and Cephaloleia proxima. It can be distinguished from these species by the pronotum without a transverse basal impression, by the pale non-black antennae, and by the meso- and metasterna being impunctate.

Distribution.

Brazil (Bahia, Rio de Janeiro).

Type material examined.

Syntype: Rio Janeiro [handwritten label]/ Cephalolia apicicornis Baly, Rio Jan. [blue handwritten label] (BMNH, 1).

Specimens examined.

Brazil: Bahia- Belmente, 10 February 1914 (USNM). Rio de Janeiro- Nova Friburgo (BMNH, USNM). Total: 3.

Cephaloleia applicata Pic, 1923

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_applicata

Fig. 78
Cephalolia applicata Pic 1923: 9. Uhmann 1938a: 407 (noted).
Cephaloleia applicata Pic. Uhmann 1957b: 15 (catalog), 1964a: 402 (catalog); Descarpentries and Villiers 1959a: 139 (types).
Description.

Elongate; subdepressed; subparallel; yellowish-brown; head black; antennomeres 1–7 black, 8–11 yellowish; pronotum with black triangular macula just behind head; elytra with basal and apical ⅓ black; tarsi black, tibiae black with pale apex, femora with black base and apex; venter with pro-, meso-, and metasterna yellowish-brown medially, dark laterally, abdomen diffuse black with yellow laterally. Head: vertex with V-shaped sulcus, sparsely and irregularly punctate; keel present between antennal bases; frons punctate, not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; slender; male with antennomere 1 thickened apically with a tuft of setae at apex, 2 with a rounded apical angle, 3 expanded triangular, apex obliquely truncate; female with antennomere 1 slender with tuft of setae at apex, 3 having a pointed inner apical angle; 4–10 cylindrical, decreasing in length; 11 2× length of 10, bluntly rounded at apex; 1–2 punctate; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight for basal ¾ then rounding to anterior angle, canaliculate; anterior angle rounded, not produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin straight; disc subconvex; surface sparsely, irregularly punctate laterally and basally; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.4–1.7 mm; pronotal width 1.6–2.0 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; punctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, margined; apex rounded, apical margin slightly laminate; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, slightly produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; shallowly punctate-striate; elytral length 5.8–6.2 mm; elytral width 2.3–2.6 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally, each puncture with pale seta; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin emarginate medially in male, weakly rounded medially in female. Leg: slender; punctate; femur and tibia with seta in each puncture; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 7.8–8.2 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia nubila. It can be distinguished by the pro-, meso-, and metasterna being punctate laterally and by antennomeres 4 to 10 decreasing in length.

Distribution.

Ecuador.

Type material.

Type: Ecuador, Cachabé, MNHN, not examined.

Specimens examined.

Ecuador: no further data (BMHN). Esmeraldas- 31.7 km NW Lita, 620 m, 23 August 1997 (USNM). Imbabura- Cachabé (MNHN). Total: 7.

Cephaloleia approximata Baly, 1869

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_approximata

Fig. 79
Cephalolia approximata Baly 1869: 367. Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3601 (catalog); Donckier 1899: 548 (catalog); Weise 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 11 (catalog), 1921b: 174 (noted).
Cephaloleia approximata Baly. Uhmann 1957b: 15 (catalog); Staines and Staines 1999: 523 (Baly species list).
Description.

Elongate; subdepressed; shining; reddish-brown; eyes and antennomeres 6–11 darker; legs yellowish. Head: vertex punctate, medial carina present; frons impunctate, not projecting; depressed between eyes. Antenna: longer than head and pronotum combined; robust; antennomere 1 large, slightly incrassate; 2 elongate, shorter than 1, subequal in length to 3; 3–10 decreasing in length; 11 bluntly pointed at apex; 1–2 punctate; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight and diverging for basal ¾ then rounding to anterior angle, slightly laminate; anterior angle with rounded tooth, projecting; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc subconvex; surface sparsely, coarsely punctate, less punctate on disc; slight transverse basal impression present medially; pronotal length 1.4–1.7 mm; pronotal width 2.0–2.4 mm. Scutellum: triangular; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin slightly expanding apically, smooth, margined; apex rounded, apical margin smooth; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; shallowly punctate-striate, punctures confused apically; striae on apical half slightly sulcate; elytral length 5.4–5.9 mm; elytral width 2.9–3.0 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 complete; female with apical margin of last sternite bisinuate. Leg: slender; punctate; femur and tibia with seta in each puncture; tibia with fringe of setae at apex. Total length: 7.2–7.6 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is most similar to Cephaloleia bucki. It can be distinguished by the medial carina on the vertex of the head and by the elytra being slightly costate apically.

Distribution.

Brazil, Peru.

Type material examined.

Holotype: Upper Amazons [handwritten label]/ Baly Coll. [printed label]/ Cephalolia approximata Baly, Upper Amazons [blue handwritten label] (BMNH).

Cephaloleia atriceps Pic, 1926b

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_atriceps

Fig. 80
Cephaloleia atriceps Pic 1926b: 238. Uhmann 1930a: 227 (faunal list), 1930b: 137 (comparative note).
Cephalolia atriceps Pic. Blackwelder 1946: 718 (catalog); Papp 1953: 14 (catalog); Uhmann 1957a: 16 (catalog), 1964a: 402 (catalog); Descarpentries and Villiers 1959a: 139 (types); Wilcox 1983: 136 (catalog); Staines 1996: 17 (Central America species), 2011: 48 (faunal list).
Description.

Elongate; subdepressed; subparallel; black; pronotum, prosternum, and claws red. Head: vertex densely punctate, medial sulcus absent; keel present between antennal bases; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches beyond humerus; slender; antennomeres similar to each other; antennomere 1 transverse, slightly longer than 2; 2 transverse; 3 longer than 1; 4–10 transverse, decreasing in length, each shorter than 3; 11 2× length of 10, rounded at apex; 1–3 punctate with scattered setae; 4–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin sinuate then rounding to anterior angle, canaliculate; anterior angle rounded, slightly produced; posterior angle acute; apical margin straight; disc subconvex; disc with scattered, oval punctures, large medial area impunctate; basal impression present medially; pronotal length 0.9 mm; pronotal width 1.0 mm. Scutellum: triangular; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin almost straight, margined, finely toothed; apex rounded; sutural angle with tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; puncture rows converging and uniting apically, except rows 1 and 10; rows 2–5 weakly punctate beyond middle; nearly impunctate at humerus; elytral length 2.7–3.1 mm; elytral width 1.4 mm. Venter: epipleuron wide, impunctate; prosternum punctate; meso- and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna 1–3 punctate laterally; 4–5 setose; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin broadly emarginate medially in male, truncate in female; pygidium keeled. Leg: slender; femur punctate each puncture with pale seta; tibia with row of setae on inner margin and fringe of setae at apex, punctate. Total length: 4.0–4.4 mm.

Figures 80–88.

Habitus. 80 Cephaloleia atriceps 81 Cephaloleia balyi 82 Cephaloleia barroi 83 Cephaloleia basalis 84 Cephaloleia bella 85 Cephaloleia belti 86 Cephaloleia bicolor 87 Cephaloleia bicoloripes 88 Cephaloleia bifasciata. Scale bars equal 3 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is most similar to Cephaloleia ruficollis and Cephaloleia schmidti. It can be distinguished by the unicolorous elytra and by the vertex of the head not being depressed between the eyes.

Distribution.

Costa Rica, Mexico.

Type material examined.

Holotype: Turrialba, Costa Rica [handwritten label]/ type [yellow label]/ TYPE [red label]/ Museum Paris, Coll. M. Pic [blue printed label]/ atriceps sp. n. [handwritten label] (MNHN).

Specimens examined.

COSTA RICA: no further data (MUCR). Alajuela- Fca. San Gabriel, 2 km SO de Dos Ríos, 600 m, 18 August 1991, 28 May 1991, May 1990 (INBIO); Peñas Blancas, August 1987, 7 July 1987 (USNM); 20 km S Upala, 4 September 1990, 19 February 1991, 13–18 March 1989, 22 July 1991, 11–21 September 1991, 1–9 May 1991 (BYUC). Cartago- Ref. Nac. Fauna Silv. Tapantí, 1150 m, January 1992 (INBIO); Turrialba (MNHN). Guanacaste- Est. Cacao, 1000–1400 m, Lado SO Vol. Cacao, P.N. Guan., 21–29 May 1992, July 1992 (INBIO); Est. Pitilla, 700 m, 9 km S Sta. Cecilia, P. N. Guanacaste, November 1989 (INBIO); Río San Lorenzo, 1050, Tierras Morenas, Z. P. Tenorio, July 1992 (INBIO); Finca YAFA, 200–300 m (INBIO); A. C. A. La Cruz, La Garita, Est Los Almendros, 200–300 m (INBIO); 3 km SE Río Naranjo, 5–9 July 1993, 13–18 March 1993, 8–15 June 1992, 17–19 July 1993, 1–15 June 1993 (BYUC). Heredia- 11 km SE La Virgen, 450–550 m, 12 April 2003 (USNM). Limón- Amubri (Talamanca), 26 July 1975 (BYUC); 8 km SW Guacimo, 17 May 1992 (AJGC); Hamburg Farm, Reventazón, Ebene Limón, 28 July 1932, 2 July 1929, 27 July 1930, 4 January 1925 (USNM), 1 June 1929, 27 July 1930 (DEI); Est. Jalova, 0 m, P. N. Tortuguero, July 1990 (INBIO); Salvadora Farm, Parismina, 30 May 1932 (USNM); A. C. Llanuras del Tortuguero, Pococí, Río Sardinas, Barra del Colorado (INBIO). Puntarenas- Monte Verde, 6 January 1974 (TAMU), 20–24 June 1986 (BYUC); Reserva de Monteverde, 27–29 May 1979 (CNC); Finca Las Cruces, 6 km. S. San Vito de Java, 4200 ft., 28 September- 2 October 1986 (FSCA); Buenos Aires, Sector Altamira, Biolley, 1700–1800 m (INBIO); Estació Pittier, 4.2 km SW Cerro Gemelo, 1600–1700 m (INBIO); Sendero a Cerro Pittier, 1 km N de la Estación, 1900–2000 m (INBIO). San José- Pan American Hwy, km 117, 19 km N San Isidro, 20–25 June 1997 (SEMC). MEXICO: Chiapas- Amatenango del Valle, 2134 m, 20 August 1972 (CASC); Palenque, 10 September 1974 (BYUC). Nayarit- 25 mi N. Tepic, 24 April 1961 (CNC). San Luis Potosí- Tamazunchale, 4 January 1941 (CASC), 20 July 1956 (AMNH). Total: 61.

Cephaloleia balyi Duvivier, 1890

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_balyi

Fig. 81
Cephalolia balyi Duvivier 1890: xxxviii. Donckier 1899: 548 (catalog); Weise 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 12 (catalog).
Cephaloleia balyi Duvivier. Uhmann 1957b: 16 (catalog), 1959c: 621 (noted), 1964a: 402 (catalog).
Description.

Oval; subdepressed; shining; testaceous; legs yellow, darker at tibio-femoral joint; antennomeres 1–2 black, 3–11 brown; head, meso-, and metasterna black; pronotum brownish-black; scutellum testaceous; elytra yellowish with black vitta from scutellum extending down suture ⅔ length of elytra; venter testaceous, abdominal sternite 1 darker. Head: vertex strongly, densely punctate, without medial sulcus; projection present between antennal bases; frons not projecting; depressed between eyes. Antenna: slightly longer than head and pronotum combined; slender; antennomeres 1–2 robust, cylindrical; 3–4 cylindrical, subequal in length, each shorter than 2; 5–10 transverse, decreasing in length, each shorter than 4; 11 longer than 10, acutely pointed at apex; 1–2 strongly punctate with scattered setae; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight then rounding to anterior angle, slightly canaliculate; anterior angle obtuse, slightly produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc subconvex; with smooth longitudinal band medially; surface irregularly punctate, less punctate laterally; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.2–1.4 mm; pronotal width 1.5–1.7 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, slightly laminate; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; shallowly punctate-striate; elytral length 3.7–4.1 mm; elytral width 2.1–2.5 mm. Venter: pro- and mesosterna densely punctate; metasternum impunctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; apical margin of last sternite emarginate medially in male, rounded in female. Leg: short; robust; punctate, each puncture with pale seta; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 5.3–5.6 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia deficiens, Cephaloleia discoidalis, Cephaloleia dorsalis, Cephaloleia linkei, and Cephaloleia suturalis. It can be distinguished by the dark pronotum and by antennomeres 1 and 2 being robust.

Distribution.

Ecuador.

Type material.

Type: America Meridional, ISNB, not seen.

Specimens examined.

Ecuador: Bolivar- Guaranda-Caluma Hwy., Río Pita, 1289 m, 1 November 2008 (USNM). Pichincha- Chimba, 1891 (USNM). Total: 4.

Cephaloleia barroi Uhmann, 1959a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_barroi

Fig. 82
Cephaloleia barroi Uhmann 1959a: 617. Uhmann 1964a: 402 (catalog); Sanderson 1967: 137 (noted); Gaedike and Döbler 1971: 343 (types); Staines 1996: 17 (Central America species), 1997: 413 (Uhmann species list), 1999: 242 (mimicry), 2008: 1 (key), 2009a: 21 (noted); Piña et al. 2004: 106 (faunal list).
Description.

Oval; convex; bright metallic blue; antennae and legs yellow; venter black. Head: vertex densely punctate, medial sulcus absent; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to hind margin of pronotum; slender; antennomeres similar in appearance; 1–2 subequal in length, transverse; 3 elongate, as long as 1–2 combined; 4–10 transverse, subequal in length, each shorter than 3; 11 pointed at apex, as long as 3; 1–4 punctate with scattered setae; 5–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin almost straight on basal ⅓, then rounding to anterior angle, strongly margined; anterior angle projecting, narrow; posterior angle angulate; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc convex; surface finely and moderately punctate; weak impression present on each side; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.0 mm; pronotal width 1.8 mm. Scutellum: triangular; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin smooth, finely margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; convex; with fine, dense punctures; scutellar row long; puncture rows converge and unite on apex; interspaces convex; elytral length 3.7 mm; elytral width 2.5 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna punctate; abdominal sterna finely punctate, each puncture with short setae; last sternite with apical margin rounded, weakly emarginate on each side in female; pygidium broadly rounded, finely punctate; last sternite with apical margin shallowly emarginate in male, weakly rounded in female. Leg: slender; protibia with longitudinal groove beneath; tarsi and apex of tibia bright brown; femur robust, punctate; tibia incised at apex, with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 4.8 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia sandersoni. It can be distinguished by the densely punctate vertex of the head, by the evenly arcuate lateral margins of the pronotum, and by antennomere 1 being clavate and twice the length of 2.

Distribution.

Cuba.

Type material.

Holotype female: Cuba, Lomas de Trinidad [green label]/ Santa Clara, 12.VIII.1939 [green label]/ 7–6/ Holotypus [red label]/ Cephaloleia barroi Uh., Uhmann det 58 (DEI).

Specimens examined.

CUBA: Lomas de Trinidad, Santa Clara, 12 August 1939 (USNM). Total: 2.

Cephaloleia basalis Pic, 1926e

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_basalis

Fig. 83
Cephalolia basalis Pic 1926e: 359.
Cephaloleia basalis Pic. Uhmann 1957b: 16 (catalog); Descarpentries and Villiers 1959a: 139 (types).
Description.

Oblong; shining; flattened; testaceous; elytra black with base reddish; antennae black with antennomeres 1–2 reddish; legs yellowish. Head: vertex sparsely punctate, medial sulcus present; eye slightly convex; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: longer than head and pronotum combined; slender; antennomere 1 incrassate; 2–4 elongate; 2 ½ length 1; 3 longer than 2; 3–4 subequal in length; 5–10 transverse, decreasing in length, each shorter than 4; 11 missing; 1–2 punctate, with scattered setae; 3–10 setose. Pronotum: subquadrate; lateral margin straight then rounding to anterior angle, canaliculate; anterior angle rounded, slightly produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; basal margin biangulate; disc flattened; surface strongly, sparsely punctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.2 mm; pronotal width 1.4 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, moderately margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; subconvex; strongly punctate-striate; elytral length 3.6 mm; elytral width 2.0 mm. Venter: obscured by card. Leg: slender; punctate. Total length: 5.0 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is most similar to Cephaloleia waterhousei. It can be distinguished by the elytral puncture rows being distinct to apex and by antennomere 2 being longer than 3.

Distribution.

Brazil (Espírito Santo).

Type material examined.

Holotype: Brazil [printed label]/basalis n. sp [handwritten label]/ Museum Paris Coll. M. Pic [blue printed label]/ Type [red printed label]/ Cephaloleia basalis Pic [printed label]/ Holotype [red printed label]/ MNHN EC 2645 [printed label] (MNHN).

Cephaloleia bella Baly, 1885

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_bella

Fig. 84
Cephaloleia bella Baly 1885: 20. Blackwelder 1946: 718 (catalog); Papp 1953: 14 (catalog); Uhmann 1957a: 16 (catalog), 1959a: 621 (noted), 1964a: 402 (catalog); Gaedike and Döbler 1971: 343 (types); Wilcox 1983: 136 (catalog); Staines 1996: 18 (Central America species), 1999: 241 (mimicry), 2004: 312 (host plants), 2010: 27 (types), 2011: 48 (faunal list); Staines and Staines 1997: 4 (types), 1999: 523 (Baly species list); McKenna and Farrell 2005: 119 (phylogeny), 2006: 10949 (phylogeny); García–Robledo et al. 2013a: 3 (biology).
Cephalolia bella Baly. Donckier 1899: 548 (catalog); Weise 1905a: 132 (noted), 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 10 (catalog), 1921a: 263 (noted); Uhmann 1930a: 233 (key), 1936b: 483 (key).
Description.

Elongate; flattened; subparallel; head (except yellow frons), antennae, and scutellum black; pronotum yellow with black medial macula on anterior and basal margins; elytra black with yellow vitta which begins at interspace 4 and extends to interspace 7 from humerus and extends to near apical margin, lateral margin black; venter with prosternum yellow with black macula beyond coxae; mesosternum yellow medially, black laterally; metasternum black; abdominal sterna yellowish-orange with black vitta on lateral margin; leg with femur yellow with black ring at apex; tibia and tarsi black. Head: vertex punctate, with V-shaped sulcus between eyes; eyes slightly protruding, finely faceted; frons punctate, not projecting; depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; slender; antennomere 1 elongate, robust, compressed; 2 transverse, ⅓ length of 1; 3–4 elongate, projection on inner angle, 3 1½ x length of 2; 4 shorter than 3; 5–10 transverse, subequal in length, each shorter than 4; 11 2× length of 10, pointed at apex; 1–3 punctate with scattered setae; 4–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight then rounding to anterior angle, margined; anterior angle rounded, slightly produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin straight; disc flattened; surface impunctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.4–1.7 mm; pronotal width 1.7–1.9 mm. Scutellum: broadly triangular; alutaceous. Elytron: lateral margin straight, narrowly margined, smooth; apex rounded; sutural angle with minute tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; declivity beginning just behind humerus at puncture row 7 edged with faint carina; moderately punctate-striate; punctures in vitta larger than those on rest of elytron; elytral length 5.6–6.0 mm; elytral width 2.6–2.8 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally, each puncture with pale seta; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin emarginate medially in male, truncate in female. Leg: sparsely punctate; femur robust; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 7.6–8.1 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia championi, Cephaloleia luctuosa, and Cephaloleia vicina. It can be distinguished by the head being depressed between the eyes, by the impunctate pronotum, by antennomeres 3 and 4 being triangular, and by the larger punctures in the elytral vitta.

Comments.

Preliminary analysis of the CO1 gene indicates that cryptic species may be present under the current application of this species name. Further work is needed to resolve this question.

Host plant.

Adults have been collected on Heliconia imbricata (Kuntze) Baker (Heliconiaceae) (Staines 1996).

Distribution.

Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Panama.

Type material examined.

Syntypes: Bugaba, 800–1500 ft., Champion/ Cephaloleia bella Baly (USNM, 4; AMNH, 4; ANSP, 2).

Specimens examined.

COSTA RICA: Cartago- Quebrada Segunda, Ref. Nac. Fauna Silv., Tapantí, 1250 m, April 1992, January 1992 (INBIO); Río Grande de Orosí, Puente Río Dos Amigos, 1550–1600 m (INBIO). Guanacaste- Est. Pitilla, 700 m, 9 km S Sta. Cecilia, P. N. Guanacaste, July 1991 (INBIO). Heredia- Finca La Selva nr. Puerto Viejo, 22 June 1969, 24 July 1969 (USNM), 20–23 June 2001 (USNM); Hamburg Farm, Reventazón, 16 January 1936 (USNM). Limón- Bataan, 16 June 1951 (USNM); Est. Hitoy-Cerere, 100 m, November 1991, 12 April 1992, 30 July 1992, June 1991, 27 June- 22 July (INBIO); Finca Hamburgo, 31 January 1931, 1 February 1932, 31 March 1931 (MUCR); Puerto Vargas, 7 December 1963 (MUCR); Valle La Estrella, R. B. Hitoy Cerere, 100–200 m (INBIO); Pococí Colorado, Sec Cerro Cocorí, 30 km N Cariari, 100–200 m (INBIO); Amubri, Sendero Soki, 0–100 m (INBIO). Puntarenas- Barranca site, 10 km N Puntarenas, 11 September 1969 (USNM); Corcovado, 13 December 1984 (INBIO); Est. Sirena, Corcovado NP, October 1989, November 1989, December 1989, January 1990, February 1990, March 1990, April 1990, October 1990, December 1990, June 1991, August 1991, September 1991, November 1991, January 1992, March 1992, 21 March- 21 April 1992, April 1992, June 1992, May 1992, November 1992, (INBIO), August 1993 (MUCR); Golfo Dulce, Río Salendato, 21 August 1936 (USNM); Puerto Cortes, 19 July 1972 (FSCA); Osa Peninsula, 0.8 mi SW Rincón, 25 July 1968 (CMNC); Osa Peninsula, 3.5 mi. S. Rincón, 1 March 1969 (USNM); Osa Peninsula, 5.0 mi SW Rincón, 31 August 1968 (INBIO, USNM); Peninsula de Osa, 31 July 1968 (MUCR); 2 mi. S. Palmar Sur, 19 August 1969 (USNM); 5.4 mi S Palmar Sur, 11 August 1969 (USNM); Rancho Quemado, Pen. Osa, February 1991, April 1991, July 1991, September 1992, November 1992 (INBIO); Río Piedras, sea level, 15 August 1969 (USNM); from Villa Neilly to Río Claro, 21 July 1972 (FSCA); Sierpe, 2.5 mi SW Rincón (INBIO). San José- Finca La Caja, La Uruea, 1200 m, 14 July 1931 (MUCR). MEXICO: Oaxaca- 16 mi. N of Jachitanm 6 July 1955 (SEMC). Veracruz- 8 km. ne. Sontecomapan, 20 July 1980 (TAMU). PANAMA: Chiriquí- Bugaba, 800–1500 ft. (DEI). Colón- Frijoles (USNM); Paraiso, 25 January 1911, 15 March 1911, 26 March 1911 (USNM); Porto Bello, 7 March 1911, 16 February 1911, 26 February 1911 (USNM). Panamá- Alajuelo, 2 March 1911, 5 April 1911, 15 April 1911, 18 April 1911 (USNM). Total: 536.

Cephaloleia belti Baly, 1885

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_belti

Fig. 85
Cephaloleia belti Baly 1885: 22. Maulik 1932: 97 (host plant), 1937: 132 (host plants); Blackwelder 1946: 718 (catalog); Papp 1953: 14 (catalog); Uhmann 1957a: 16 (catalog); Wilcox 1983: 136 (catalog); Maes and Staines 1991: 36 (faunal list); Staines 1996: 19 (Central America species), 1996(1997): 14 (Nicaragua species), 1999: 241 (mimicry), 2004: 312 (host plants), 2011: 48 (faunal list); Maes 1999: 1016 (faunal list); Staines and Staines 1999: 523 (Baly species list); McKenna and Farrell 2005: 119 (phylogeny); Meskins et al. 2008: 163 (host plants), 2011: 483 (food web); Descampe et al. 2008: 227 (host plants); García–Robledo et al. 2010: 51 (larva, biology); 2013a: 3 (biology), 2013b: 193 (biology); García–Robledo and Horvitz 2011: 978 (biology), 2012: 40 (biology); Lawrence et al. 2011: 13 (nomenclature); Barrett and Heil 2012: 283 (noted); Schmitt and Frank 2013: 58 (biology); Sekerka et al. 2013: 304 (noted).
Cephalolia belti Baly. Donckier 1899: 548 (catalog); Weise 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 10 (catalog); Uhmann 1930a: 223 (faunal list), 1936a: 111 (noted), 1936b: 485 (key).
Cephaloleia consanguinea sensu Strong 1977a: 160 (misidentification). Strong 1977b: 573 (host plants), 1981: 185 (host plants), 1982a: 218 (host plants), 1982b: 1041 (host plants); Morrison and Strong 1981: 56 (host plants); Auerbach and Strong 1981: 64 (host plants); McCoy 1984: 10 (biology), 1985: 326 (biology); Grégoire 1988: 254 (noted); Jolivet 1997: 146 (noted); Jolivet and Verma 2002: 63 (noted); Staines 2004: 312 (identification).
Description.

Elongate; flattened; subparallel; head (except yellow frons), antennae, and scutellum black; pronotum yellowish with medial black vitta, vitta may be obsolete medially; elytra from suture to puncture row 2 black, then through puncture row 5 yellow, then black through puncture row 9, puncture row 10 to margin yellow, sutural vitta narrows and fades toward apex, fails to reach apex; venter with pro-, meso-, and metasterna yellow medially, black laterally, abdominal sternite 1 yellow medially, black laterally, sterna 2 and 3 black laterally, each has black vitta along apex, rest yellow, sterna 4 and 5 all black; leg femora yellow each dark apex, tibiae and tarsi dark. Head: vertex sparsely punctate, medial carina present; frons not projecting; eyes protuberant, finely faceted; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; slender; antennomere 1 elongate, as long as 2–4 combined, robust, tuft of setae at apex; 2–3 compressed laterally; 2 transverse; 3 triangular, longer than 2; 4–6 transverse, subequal in length to 3; 7–10 transverse, subequal in length, each shorter than 6; 11 2× length of 10, pointed at apex; 1–3 punctate with scattered setae; 4–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight then rounding to anterior angle, narrowly margined; anterior angle rounded; posterior angle acute; anterior margin straight; disc flattened; surface with scattered large punctures laterally, disc impunctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.1–1.2 mm; pronotal width 1.3–1.5 mm. Scutellum: sharply triangular; micropunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, margined; apex rounded; sutural angle with small tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; weakly punctate-striate; elytral length 4.8–4.9 mm; elytral width 1.9–2.0 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally, each puncture with pale seta; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin u-shaped in male, slightly acuminate in female. Leg: punctate; femur robust; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 6.4–6.56 mm; females are larger than males.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia consanguinea, Cephaloleia erugatus, Cephaloleia semivittata, Cephaloleia triangularis, Cephaloleia trivittata, and Cephaloleia vittata. It can be distinguished by the elytral puncture rows being distinct apically, by antennomere 1 being as long as 2 to 4 combined, and by the sutural angle with a small tooth.

Host plant.

Calathea insignis Hort. and Bull. (Marantaceae) (Uhmann 1930a); Heliconia imbricata (Kuntze) Baker (Maulik 1932); Heliconia latispatha Bentham (Strong 1977b), Heliconia pogonantha Cuford., Heliconia mariae Hook., Heliconia tortuosa Griggs (Strong 1982a) (Heliconiaceae); Calathea latifolia Klotzsch, Cephaloleia lutea Schult., Heliconia catheta R. R. Smith, Heliconia irrasa R. R. Smith (Meskins et al. 2008); Heliconia vaginalis Benth., Heliconia wagneriana Peterson (Descampe et al. 2008); Heliconia mathiasiae G. S. Daniels and F. G. Stiles, Cephaloleia cleistantha Standl., Cephaloleia crotalifera S. Watson, Cephaloleia marantifolia Standl., Cephaloleia similis H. Kenn., Canna tuerckheimii Kraenzl. (Cannaceae) (García–Robledo et al. 2013a); Costus barbatus Suess. (Costaceae), Goeppertia lasiophylla (H. Kenn.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, Heliconia denielsiana Kress, Heliconia densiflora B. Verl., Heliconia longiflora R. R. Sm., Heliconia rostrata Ruiz. & Pav., Heliconia stricta Huber (Heliconiaceae), Musa paradisiaca L. (Museceae) (Schmitt and Frank 2013); Heliconia psittacorum Sw., Heliconia sarapiquensis G. S. Daniels and F. G. Stiles, Calathea sp., Musa velutina H. Wendl. and Drude (Musaceae), Ischnosiphon inflatus L. Andersson, Pleiostachya pruinosa (W. Bull. ex. Regel) K. Schum. (Marantaceae).

Immatures.

Color when live (Figs 27–30) is yellowish-brown with outer margins translucent; center portion reddish with some yellowish areas especially near head. Color when dead is pale-brown centrally, margins paler becoming almost transparent at edge; venter paler than dorsum. Dorsum carries a longitudinal medial setose ridge extending from anterior to posterior margin. Pronotum with central area raised, micropunctate, with dark setae on either side of medial longitudinal ridge and on basal slope; lateral areas rugose; two diagonal carinae on central raised area extending to anterior margin. Mesonotum with central raised portion with shallow v-shaped carina; laterally with sharply curved carina which extends to lateral margin. Metanotum with central portion irregularly plicate; with transverse carina extending across entire width. Abdominal tergites 1–6 slightly narrowed medially, wider at sides; with transverse carina medially of each side; spiracle near basal margin on each side just off central elevation; spiracles appear as macula with dark margin. Abdominal tergites 7–10 with surface plicate; with three carinae along margin on each side. Venter with surface of expansions punctate, rugose-striate. Head surface rugose-punctate; labrum with surface alutaceous, without setae; clypeus with fringe of long setae at apex, with four setae on apical ½, surface alutaceous; mandibles tridentate; maxillary palps with 2 palpomeres and 12 short, robust setae at apex; maxilla robust, clavate, with fringe of long setae at apex; labium densely setose. Antenna with antennomere 1 short, robust; 2 wider than 1, transverse; 3 elongate, cylindrical, subequal in length to 1 and 2 combined, with fringe of short setae at apex. Pro- and mesosterna wider than long; slightly depressed medially; surface rugose-striate. Metasternum longer than others; depressed medially; with suture along apical margin. Abdominal sternites 1–7 wider than long; decreasing in width; with three sulci on apical ½; laterally with curved sulcus dividing the sternite into thirds; sternite 8 similar to preceding but without any sulci; sterna 9–10 fused, rounded at apex. Leg: femur wider and shorter than tibiotarsus; tibiotarsus subconical, with a strong claw and eight setae at apex. Total length: 6.7 mm; width 4.3 mm. (García–Robledo et al. 2010).

Biology.

From Strong 1977a, 1977b, 1981, 1982a, 1982b; Morrison and Strong 1981; Auerbach and Strong 1981, and García–Robledo et al. 2010. Eggs are about 2 mm long and are laid singly or in clusters of two or more on host plant petioles or rolled leaves and are covered with frass. Eggs hatch in 6.5 to 7.5 days. The larvae have two instars, the first lasting 10 to 14 days and the second, 32 to 46 days. The pupal stage lasts from 15 to 17 days. Adults live about 117 days.

Distribution.

Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama

Type material examined.

Lectotype: Type H. T. [white disk with red border]/ Chontales, Nicaragua. Janson [handwritten]/ B. C. A., Col. VI, 2. Cephaloleia belti, Baly [printed label]/ Cephaloleia belti Baly, Nicaragua [blue handwritten label]/ Lectotype Cephaloleia belti Baly Des. C. L. Staines 1993 [red label] (BMNH).

Specimens examined.

COSTA RICA: Alajuela- Bijagua, Alberge de Heliconicas, 1000–1100 m, 18 June 2000 (USNM); Caño Negro, 20 m, R.N.V.S., Caño Negro, 4–15 December 1992 (INBIO); Garita, 8 January 1995 (USNM); Río Frío, E. La Selva, Sarapiquí, June 1972, 16 July 1972 (FSCA); Río San Lorencito, 900 m, R. F. San Ramón, 5 km N de Colonia Palmareña, 13–18 June 1993 (INBIO); E. B. San Ramón, R. B. San Ramón, 27 km N and 8 km W. San Ramón, 810 m, 7 July 2000 (SEMC, USNM); Upala, 1 November 1989 (MUCR); 20 km S Upala, 16–25 September 1990, 1–5 October 1990, 13 December 1990- 9 January 1991, 10–21 May 1991, 1–11 June 1991, 21 June 1991, 1–15 July 1991, 21–31 August 1991, (BYUC); San Ramón, Angles, Reserva Biol. Alberto Brenes, 1000–1100 m (INBIO); San Ramón, Estación Eladios, 700–800 m (INBIO); Upala, Sector San Ramón de Dos Ríos, 1.5 km NW Hacienda Nueva Zelandia, 600–700 m (INBIO). Cartago- Aquiares nr. Santa Cruz, 9 km NE Turrialba, 1500 m, 16 May 1985 (EMEC); CATIE, 3 km SE Turrialba, 600 m, 16 May 1985 (EMEC); El Guarco, San Isidro, 4 km S del Cañon, 2200–2300 m (INBIO); La Palma, 30 April 1928 (USNM); Quebrada Segunda, 1200–1300 m (INBIO); Rancho Naturalista, 2 km NE Tula, 2500 ft., 15–16 June 1995 (BYUC); Río Grande de Orosí, desde La Catarata, 1500–1600 m (INBIO); 19.3 km NE San José, 17 May 1993 (SEMC); Turrialba, no further data (DEI), 13–17 March 1965 (USNM), 650 m., 4–13 August 1970 (USNM), 17 May 1979 (CMNC); 40 km NE Turrialba, 18 May 1979 (CMNC); Turrialba, Santa Teresita, Monumento Nacional Guayabo, 1100–1200 m (INBIO); IICA at Turrialba, 13 March 1965 (BYUC). Guanacaste- Est. Cacao, 1000–1400 m, Lado SO Vol. Cacao, P.N., 21–29 May 1992 (INBIO); Est. Pitilla, 700 m, 9 km S Sta. Cecilia, 1989, January 1989, 27 January- 4 February 1989, March 1989, November 1989, December 1989, March 1990, November 1990, March 1991, April 1991, May 1991, July 1991, September 1991, 4–14 November 1991, 2–19 March 1992, 31 March- 29 April 1992, May 1992, 24 August- 11 September 1992, 12 September 1992 (INBIO); Liberia, Mayorga, Estación Cacao, 2 km SW Cerro Cacao, 900–1000 m (INBIO); 3 km SE Río Naranjo, 16–29 February 1992, 15–20 October 1992, 12 June 1993 (BYUC); Río San Lorenzo, 1050 m, Tierras Morenas, R. F. Cord. Guanacaste, March 1990, April 1991, June 1991, October 1991, November 1991, January 1992, 23 March- 21 April 1992, July 1992, August 1992 (INBIO); Río Higuerón, 6 mi SE, 6 mi W Cañas, 8 February 1969 (USNM); Tilarán, 7 July 1972, 30 July 1972 (FSCA); 3 mi. W. Tilarán, 1969 (USNM). Heredia- El Angel falls, Vara Blanca area, 21 June 1969 (USNM); Los Arbolitos, 0–100 m (INBIO); Chilamate, 75 m, June-July 1989 (MUCR); Est. El Ceibo, Braulio Carillo, N.P., 400–500 m, March 1990 (INBIO); Est. Magasasay, P. N. Braulio Carillo, 200 m, January 1991 (INBIO); Est. Hitoy Cerere, 100 m, R. Cerere, Res. Biol. Hitoy Cerere, 7–26 January 1992, 19–29 April 1992, (INBIO); Est. Biol. La Selva, 150 m, 6 March 1965 (BYUC), 17 July 1973 (EMEC), 22 January 1989, April-May 1993 (MUCR), 23–30 June 2001 (USNM), 7 April 2003 (USNM), 14 June 2003 (USNM), 12 March 2005 (USNM), 13 March 2005 (USNM); 9 km E. Puerto Viejo, 14–15 July 1986 (SEMC, USNM); Finca La Selva nr. Puerto Viejo, 21–22 June 1969, 24 July 1969, 2–7 August 1969, 19 March 1973, 28 July 1989 (USNM); La Selva Biol. Sta., 2 km. S. Pt. Viejo, 3–5 June 1984 (EGRC); La Selva Biol. Sta., 3 km S Pto. Viejo, 20 July 1992; 12 km. S. Puerto Viejo, 500 ft., 23–26 September 1986 (FSCA); Rara Avis Biological Station, 5–22 November 2011 (USNM); Sendero Antigua, Est. Carillo, 8 January 1993 (INBIO); 11 km SE La Virgen, 450–550 m, 9 April 2003 (USNM); P. N. Tortuguero, Estación Sierpe, 0–100 m (INBIO); R. V. S. Barra del Colorado, Cerro Tortuguero, 0–100 m (INBIO); R. V. S. Barra del Colorado, Estación Sardinas, 0–100 m (INBIO); R. V. S. Barra del Colorado, A. C. Llanuras del Tortuguero, 0–100 m (INBIO); 11 km NE Vara Blanca, 1450–1550 m, 20 March 2005 (USNM). Limón- 4 km NE Bribri, November 1991 (USNM); Cerro Tortuguero, 0–120 m, P. N. Tortuguero, April 1989, October 1989, December 1989, January 1990, February 1990, 20 September- 7 October 1990, September 1991, June 1992, March 1993 (INBIO); Est. Cuatro Esquinas, 0 m, P. N. Tortuguero, April 1989, October 1989, November 1989, 20 September- 7 September 1990, October 1990, November 1990, December 1990, 23 April- 13 May 1991, June 1991, August 1991, November 1991, 27 March- 9 May 1992, December 1992, January 1993 (INBIO); Guacimo, 22 February 1988 (TAMU); 7 mi N Guacimo, 22 February- 3 March 1988 (BYUC); Guápiles, 30 October 1992 (MUCR); Hamburg Farm, Reventazón, 22 May 1931, 16 January 1936 (USNM), 1 January 1932, 28 January 1933, 27 January 1925 (DEI), 31 January 1931 (MUCR); Est. Hitoy Cerere, 100 m, R. Cerere, Res. Biol. Hitoy Cerere, 7–26 January 1992 (INBIO); Limón, 5 February 1989 (USNM); Puerto Vargas, 7 December 1968 (MUCR); Río Sardinas, 10 m, R.N.F.S. Barra del Colorado, September 1992, 10–14 October 1992, 11 December 1992 (INBIO); Salvadora Farm, Parismina Fluss, 19–31 December 1930 (DEI, USNM); Sector Cerro Cocorí, Fca. de E. Rojas, 150 m, May 1991, August 1991, October 1991, November 1991, January 1992, 31 January- 26 February 1992, 26 March- 24 April 1992, 28 May- 17 June 1992, 26 June- 16 July 1992, 12–31 August 1992, 10–30 September 1992, October 1992, 9–30 November 1992, January 1993, February 1993, March 1993, April 1993, May 1993 (INBIO). Puntarenas- Atam del Mogo, 50–100 m, 3 August 1993 (MUCR); Estación Biológica Las Alturas, 1400–1500 m (INBIO); Barranca nr. Puntarenas, 6 July 1972 (FSCA); Barranca site, 10 km N. Puntarenas, 17 June 1969, 11 September 1969 (USNM); 5 km S. Buenos Aires, 15 August 1969 (USNM); 25 km S. Buenos Aires, 10 August 1969 (USNM); Est. Carara, 200 m, Res. Biol. Carara, February 1990 (INBIO); Golfito, 30 October 1950 (CASC), 19 July 1972, 22 July 1981 (FSCA); Est. La Casona, 1520 m, Res. Biol. Monteverde, April 1992, September 1992 (INBIO); Est. Leonel Hernandes, 1600 m, Res. Biol. Monteverde, June 1991 (INBIO); P. N. Manuel Antonio, 80 m, Quepos, July 1991, September 1991, October 1991 August 1992, October 1992 (INBIO); Monteverde, Cordillera de Tilarán, 10 March 1991, 14 March 1991 (EGRC); Monteverde Cloud For. Res., 18–19 May 1985 (EMEC); Monteverde Reserve, 3 June 1992 (CDFA); Monteverde (EGRC), 12–24 May 1989 (SEMC); Est. Queb., Bonita, 50 m, Res. Biol. Carara, 17 March- 30 April, April 1992, May 1992, July 1992, August 1992, September 1992, 6–27 November 1992, January 1993, February 1993, March 1993, (INBIO); Rancho Quemado, 200 m, Peninsula de Osa, April 1989, October 1989, February 1991, July 1991, October 1991, November 1991, 21 March- 7 April 1992, April 1992, May 1992, 1–31 August 1992, December 1992 (INBIO); 20 km NE Puntarenas, 17 March 1965 (BYUC); Río San Lorenzo, 1050 m, Tierras Morenas, Z. P. Tenorio, 21 March- 7 April 1992 October 1992, December 1992, January 1993, February 1993 (INBIO); San Luis, 1040 m, R.B. Monteverde, 24 August- 15 September 1992, October 1992 (INBIO); San Vito Las Cruces, 20 November 1988 (INBIO); Est. Sirena, 0–100 m, P. N. Corcovado, October 1989, December 1989, January 1990, March 1990, April 1990, June 1990, September 1990, October 1990, March- June 1991, July 1991, August 1991, September 1991, November 1991, 21 March- 21 April 1992, April 1992 (INBIO); Sirena Corcovado, August 1993 (MUCR); Fca. Cafrosa, Est. Las Mellizas, P. N. Amistad, 1300 m, October 1989, November 1989, December 1989 (INBIO); Fca. Las Cruces, San Vito de Java, 27 June 1969, 11–18 August 1969 (USNM), 20 July 1972 (FSCA); F. Las Cruces, 6 mi. S. San Vito, 1200–1400 m, 21–25 August 76 (CASC); Puerto Cortes, 19 July 1972 (FSCA); 22 mi SW San Vito, 11 August 1969 (USNM); San Vito-Villa Neilly area, 13 August 1969 (USNM); Osa Peninsula, 3.5 mi. S. Rincón, 28 February- 12 March 1969 (CASC); Río Claro, sea level, 19 August 1969 (USNM); Rincón, 27 July 1972 (FSCA); 5 km S. Rincón, 20 March 1973 (SEMC); Osa Peninsula, 2.5 mi SW Rincón, 1–7 March 1967 (USNM); R. F. Golfito Dulce, 3 km SW Rincón, 10 m, October- December 1990, March- May 1991 (USNM); Río Piedras, sea level, 15 August 1969 (USNM); Sirena, Corcovado N. P., December 1989 (INBIO); 2 mi. S. Palmar Sur, 19 August 1969 (USNM); 3 mi. S. Palmar Sur, 11 August 1969 (USNM); 5 mi. S. Palmar Sur, 15 August 1969 (USNM); 1.5 mi. S. Palmar Sur, 11 August 1969 (USNM); 18 mi. S. Palmar Sur, 11 August 1969 (USNM); Jardin Botanico Las Cruces, San Vito, 1200–1300 m (INBIO); Corinto, Macacona, Esparza, 300–400 m (INBIO); A. C. L. A. P., Garabito, Reserva Biol Carara, Est Quebrada Bonita, 0–100 m (INBIO); A. C. P. C., Garabito, Tarcoles, Estación Quebrada Bonita, 100–200 m (INBIO); P. N. Piedras Blancas, Estación Esquinas, Peninsula de Osa, 0–100 m (INBIO); Río Bonito, 1.4 km O Cerro Gamba, 200–300 m (INBIO); Pque Nal Corcovado, Est Sirena, Osa Peninsula, 0–100 m (INBIO); Cerro La Torre, Fca La Purruja, Rila Matahambre, 100–200 m (INBIO); Golfito, Jiménez, Albergue Cerro de Oro, 100–200 m (INBIO); A. C. O. Golfito, Reserva Ftal Golfito Dulce, Est Agujas, 200–300 m (INBIO); Cerro Anguciana, Llano Bonito, Piedras Blancas, en Osa, 800–900 m (INBIO); Osa, Sierpe, 0.2 km NW Estación Esquinas, 0–100 m (INBIO); Guerra, Peninsula de Osa, 0–100 m (INBIO); Dos Brazos del Río Rincón, 0–100 m (INBIO); Est San Miguel, 3 km NW Cabo Blanco, 100–200 m (INBIO); Guacimal, Finca Buen Amigo Monteverde, 4 km S de la Reserva, 1000–1100 (INBIO). San José- San Isidro, 9 mi S, 31 December 1988 (BYUC); 12 mi. N San Isidro del General, 26 June 1969 (USNM); 7 mi. S. San Isidro del General, 26 June 1969 (USNM); San José (USNM); Pque Nal Braulio Carrillo, 1600–1700 m (INBIO); Perez Zeledón, Santa Elena Las Nubes, 1200–1300 m (INBIO); R. B. Carara, 2 km N Bijagual, 200–300 m (INBIO); Est. Bijagual, 600 m N Bijagualito, 400–500 m (INBIO); Estación Bijagual, 1.5 km N Bijagual, 400–500 m (INBIO). GUATEMALA: Santa Roca- Escuintla, Finca Caobamal, 17 km W Taxisco, 150 m, 23 June 1993 (CMNC). Honduras: Yoro- PN PicoPijo, 13 May 2002 (USNM). MEXICO: Veracruz- Peñuela, 11 July 1941 (FMNH). NICARAGUA: Granda- Res. Nac. Volcán Mombacho, 1150 m, 2-VI-2002 (SEMC, USNM). Jinotega- Peñas Blancas, 1300 m, 25 July 1997 (USNM). Malagualpa- 6 km N Malagualpa, 1350 m, 19 May 2002 (SEMC, USNM). Río San Juan- 16 km ESE El Castillo, Refugio Bartola, 23 April–10 May 1999 (USNM); San Juan del Norte, 26–29 September 2005 (BYUC). PANAMA: Chiriquí- Galera de Chorcha, 3 July 1976 (EGRC). Panamá- Ancón, 19–21 August 1970 (USNM). Total: 2143.

Cephaloleia bicolor Uhmann, 1930c

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_bicolor

Fig. 86
Cephalolia bicolor Uhmann 1930c: 34. Uhmann 1936b: 116 (noted).
Cephaloleia bicolor Uhmann. Uhmann 1957b: 16 (catalog); Gaedike and Döbler 1971: 343 (types); Staines 1997b: 413 (Uhmann species list).
Description.

Elongate; subdepressed; shining; black; palps and basal half of elytra and epipleuron yellowish-brown; male with venter black; female with prosternum and base of abdomen reddish-yellow; antennae dark. Head: vertex finely, densely punctate, faint medial carina present; frons not projecting; slightly depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; slender; antennomeres oblong; 1 elongate; 2 shorter, oval; 3 longer than 2, elongate; 4–5 subequal in length, each shorter than 3; 6–10 each longer than 5; 11 longer than 10, pointed at apex; 1–2 punctate with scattered setae; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight then rounding to anterior angle, slightly canaliculate; anterior angle rounded, produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin straight; disc subconvex; surface punctate except medial longitudinal line on disc; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.0–1.3 mm; pronotal width 1.3–1.5 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, finely margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; moderately punctate-striate, punctures becoming obsolete apically; elytral length 4.2–4.6 mm; elytral width 1.9–2.1 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin sinuate medially in male; truncate in female. Leg: slender; punctate, each puncture with pale seta; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 5.5–6.0 mm.

Diagnosis.

This is a bicolored species with the apical section of the elytra darker. It is most similar to Cephaloleia apicenotata and Cephaloleia bicoloriceps. It can be distinguished by the straight lateral margin of the pronotum, by antennomere 2 being oval, and by the elytral punctures becoming obsolete apically.

Distribution.

Bolivia, Brazil (Matto Grosso), Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela.

Type material examined.

Holotype: Colombia [handwritten label]/ Holotypus [red printed label]/ Cephalolia bicolor Uh., Det. E. Uhamnn (DEI).

Specimens examined.

Bolivia: Cochabamba- February 1951, November 1953 (USNM). Brazil: no further data (AMNH). Colombia: no further data (NHMW). Ecuador: Sucumbios- 2 km E Lumbaqui, 7 August 1998 (AJGC); 9 km SE Lumbaqui, 650 m, 7–8 August 1998 (AJGC). Peru: Junin- San Martin, 1600 ft., 5 December 1946 (AMNH). Venezuela: Aragua- PN H. Pittier, Rancho Grande, Portochuela, 1120 m, 12 July 1998 (USNM); E-Merida, La Macuy, May 1984 (USNM); Rancho Grande, Maracay, January 1954 (USNM). Total: 11.

Cephaloleia bicoloriceps Pic, 1926c

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_bicoloriceps

Fig. 87
Cephalolia bicoloriceps Pic 1926c: 13.
Cephaloleia bicoloriceps Pic. Uhmann 1957b: 16 (catalog); Descarpentries and Villiers 1959a: 139 (types).
Description.

Oblong-elongate; subdepressed; shining; head, antennae, pronotum (except lateral margins), scutellum, apical ½ of elytra, venter, and femora black; tibiae and tarsi paler; basal ½ elytra yellowish, some specimens have a black sutural vitta which narrows apically to the darker apical ½; elytra with lateral and apical (almost to sutural angle) margins pale. Head: vertex moderately punctate, medial sulcus absent; eye convex; frons not projecting; depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches beyond humerus; slender; antennomere 1 elongate, not incrassate; 2 ½ length 1; 3–4 elongate, each subequal in length to 1; 5–10 transverse, decreasing in length, each shorter than 4; 11 longer than 10, pointed at apex; 1–6 punctate with scattered setae; 7–11 setose. Pronotum: quadrate; lateral margin straight for basal ½ then slightly rounding to anterior angle, canaliculate; anterior angle angulate, slightly produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin straight; disc subconvex, with medial longitudinal impression, narrowing basally; surface sparsely, strongly punctate; pronotal length 1.2–1.4 mm; pronotal width 1.4–1.6 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; punctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, margined; apex rounded; sutural angle with small tooth; humerus rounded, slightly produced; constricted behind humerus; finely punctate-striate; elytral length 3.9–4.2 mm; elytral width 2.0–2.2 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin emarginate medially in male, rounded, entire in female. Leg: slender; punctate; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 5.4–5.7 mm.

Diagnosis.

This is a bicolored species with the apical section of the elytra darker. It is most similar to Cephaloleia apicenotata and Cephaloleia bicolor. It can be distinguished by the straight lateral margins of the pronotum, by antennomere 2 being elongate, and by the elytral punctures being distinct apically.

Distribution.

Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador.

Type material examined.

Holotype: P [unreadable], Bonvonn [handwrtten green label]/ fulvieps ex. coll. Donckier [handwritten label]/ Cephaloleia fulvipes [handwritten label]/ bicoloriceps sp. n. [handwritten label]/ Type [handwritten label]/ Museum Paris Coll. M. Pic [blue printed label]/ Type [red printed label]/ Holotype [red printed label]/ MNHN EC 2650 [printed label] (MNHN).

Specimens examined.

No label data (USNM). BOLIVIA: La Paz- Nor Yungas, Chica Parque, near Coroico, 30 November 2011 (BYUC). Brazil: no further data (MNHN, USNM); Juanfue (USNM). Colombia: no further data (USNM). Ecuador: Napo- Jatun Sacha, June 1986 (USNM); Misahualli, nr. Tena, 6–19 October 2001 (BYUC), 27 April–2 May 2003 (BYUC). Orellana- Yasuni Res. Stn., 4–9 May (BYUC); Estación Cientifica Yasuni, 215 m, 5–10 September 1999 (EGRC). Total: 11.

Cephaloleia bifasciata Weise, 1905b

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_bifasciata

Fig. 88
Cephalolia bifasciata Weise 1905b: 56. Weise 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 11 (catalog); Uhmann 1936b: 114 (noted).
Cephaloleia bifasciata Weise. Uhmann 1957b: 16 (catalog); Descarpentries and Villiers 1959a: 139 (types); McKenna and Farrell 2006: 10949 (phylogeny).
Description.

Elongate; subparallel; subdepressed; yellowish; head, antennae, and pronotum (except paler lateral and basal margins) black; elytra yellowish with lateral and apical margins black and black transverse band beyond middle; scutellum, venter, and legs yellowish. Head: vertex sparsely, finely punctate, medial sulcus absent; frons not projecting; slightly depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; slender; antennomere 1 incrassate, 2× length of 2; 2 subglobose; 3–4 elongate, subequal in length, each slightly longer than 2; 5–10 subequal in length, each shorter than 3; 11 2× length 10, pointed at apex; 1–2 punctate with scattered setae; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: subquadrate; lateral margin straight then rounding to anterior angle, canaliculate; anterior angle slightly angulate, not produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin straight; disc subconvex; surface finely punctate laterally, nearly impunctate on disc; transverse basal impression present medially; pronotal length 1.3–1.7 mm; pronotal width 1.5–1.9 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, narrowly margined; apex rounded; sutural angle with small tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; moderately punctate-striate, rows confused basally, scutellar row long; declivity beginning just behind humerus at puncture row 7 edged with faint carina; elytral length 5.3–5.7 mm; elytral width 2.0–2.2 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; last sternite with apical margin rounded in male, truncate in female. Leg: slender; punctate; tibia with seta in each puncture and fringe of setae at apex. Total length: 6.8–7.2 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia hnigrum and Cephaloleia recondita. It can be distingusihed by the lateral margin of the elytra having black markings extending to puncture row 6.

Distribution.

Ecuador.

Type material examined.

Syntype: Ecuador, Donckier [green printed label]/ I. Weise det. [printed label]/ Type [printed salmon-colored label]/ Cephalolia bifasciata m [handwritten label] (ZMHB, 1).

Specimens examined.

Ecuador: no further data (MNHN). Esmeraldas- 31.7 km NW Lita, 620 m, 23 August 1997 (CDFA, USNM); Canton San Lorenzo, Chuchubi, 2 December 2008 (BYUC). Pinchincha- Chimba, July 1897 (USNM). Total: 9.

Description.

Small; stubby; subdepressed; head black, antennomeres 1–2 reddish-brown, 3–10 black, 11 black basally, pale apically, pronotum black with pale lateral margins, scutellum elytra, and venter castaneous, legs yellowish-brown. Head: vertex moderately punctate; medial sulcus absent; keel present between antennal bases; frons punctate, not projecting; slightly depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; slender; antennomere 1 elongate, cylindrical; 2–3 elongate, cylindrical, subequal in length, each ¾ length of 1; 4–5 cylindrical, subequal in length, longest; 6–10 transverse; 11 2× length of 10, pointed at apex; 1–3 punctate with scattered setae; 4–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight slightly converging basally then rounding to anterior angle, margined; anterior angle rounded, not produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin straight; disc subconvex; surface irregularly punctate medially, denser and larger punctures laterally and basally; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.0 mm; pronotal width 1.6 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, margined; apex rounded, finely serrate; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; constricted behind humerus; moderately punctate-striate, row 10 removed from lateral margin along constriction, rows converge and unite apically; elytral length 3.0 mm; elytral width 1.8 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; apical margin of last sternite emarginate medially in male. Leg: slender; punctate, each puncture with pale seta; tibia with fringe of setae on inner apical margin. Total length: 4.0 mm.

Figures 89–97.

Habitus. 89 Cephaloleia brevis sp. n. 90 Cephaloleia brunnea 91 Cephaloleia bucki 92 Cephaloleia caeruleata 93 Cephaloleia calathae sp. n. 94 Cephaloleia castanea 95 Cephaloleia championi 96 Cephaloleia chevrolatii 97 Cephaloleia chica sp. n. Scale bars equal 3 mm.

Etymology.

Brevis (Latin) meaning short or narrow for the short, stubby appearance of this species.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia pretiosa. It can be easily be distinguished by the serrulate apical margin of the elytra.

Distribution.

French Guiana.

Type material.

Holotype male: French Guiana, Saul, 7 km N, 0.5 km ESE, Les Eaux Claires, Mt. Le Fumée, 3°39'46"N, 53°13'19"W, 300 m, 4–8 Jun 1997, J. Ashe, R. Brooks, FG1AB97 164, ex. flight intercept trap/ Holotype Cephaloleia brevis Staines, des. C. L. Staines 2012 (red label) (SEMC).

Cephaloleia brunnea Staines, 1996

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_brunnea

Fig. 90
Cephaloleia brunnea Staines 1996: 21. Staines 2008: 2 (key), 2009a: 21 (noted).
Description.

Elongate; subconvex; small; brown; pronotum and head slightly darker than elytra; elytra with suture darker; venter dark brown; leg with tarsi and apex of tibia paler than rest. Head: vertex densely punctate, medial sulcus absent; frons not projecting; depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; slender; antennomere 1 elongate, subequal in length to 3; 2 transverse, shorter than 1 or 3; 4–10 transverse, subequal in length, each shorter than 3; 11 rounded at apex, subequal in length to 1 and 3; 1–2 punctate with scattered setae; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight for basal ¾ then rounding to anterior angle, canaliculate; anterior angle obtuse, slightly produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc slightly convex; surface deeply punctate; punctures more dense laterally; basal impression absent; pronotal length 0.7–0.9 mm; pronotal width 1.0–1.1 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; punctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; moderately punctate-striate, rows converge and unite apically; elytral length 3.0–3.1 mm; elytral width 1.3–1.4 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna sparsely punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; last sternite with apical margin broadly emarginate medially in male, truncate in female. Leg: slender; punctate, each puncture with pale seta; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 4.0–4.1 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia rubra. It can be distinguished by the densely punctate pronotum and by antennomere 1 being subequal in length to 3.

Distribution.

Trinidad.

Type material examined.

Holotype: Morne Bleu, 2700', Trinidad, W. I., Aug. 6, 1969, H. and A. Howden/ Holotype Cephaloleia brunnea Staines, Des. C. L. Staines 1994 [red label] (CMNC).

Specimens examined.

TRINIDAD: Curepe, St. George Par., 28–30 November 1977 (CNC); Morne Bleu, 2700', 15 August 1969 (CMNC); N. range, Arima-Blanchisseuse rd., mi. 10, 11 May 1985 (EGRC); St. Augustine, Mt. St. Benedict Abby, 9 July 1994 (EGRC). Total: 9.

Cephaloleia bucki Uhmann, 1957b

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_bucki

Fig. 91
Cephaloleia bucki Uhmann 1957b: 36. Buck 1958: 146 (host plant); Uhmann 1964a: 403 (catalog); Gaedike and Döbler 1971: 345 (types); Staines 1997b: 413 (Uhmann species list); Staines and Staines 1997: 4 (types).
Description.

Elongate; subdepressed; shining; brownish-yellow; head black; pronotum black with brownish-yellow lateral margin; antennomeres 8–11 darker. Head: vertex finely punctate, medial sulcus absent; eye convex; frons not projecting; slightly depressed between eyes. Antenna: as long as head and pronotum combined; robust, cylindrical; antennomere 1 subequal to 3; 2 shorter than 1; 4–5 subequal in length, slightly longer than wide, each shorter than 3; 6–10 subequal in length, each shorter than 5; 11 2× length of 10, acutely pointed at apex; 1–2 punctate with scattered setae; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin sinuate basally then straight and rounding to anterior angle, slightly canaliculate; anterior angle rounded, not produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin curved anteriorly; disc subconvex, nearly impunctate; surface sparsely, irregularly punctate, punctures larger and denser basally; transverse basal impression present medially; pronotal length 1.0–1.1 mm; pronotal width 1.3–1.4 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; subconvex; finely punctate-striate; elytral length 2.9–3.0 mm; elytral width 1.3–1.4 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna punctate; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; male with apical margin of sternite 5 broadly rounded, female strongly truncate, convex medially. Leg: slender; punctate; femur and tibia with pale seta in each puncture; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 3.9–4.0 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is most similar to Cephaloleia approximata. It can be distinguished by the vertex of the head without a medial carina or sulcus and by the elytra not being slightly costate apically.

Host plant.

Carex sp. (Cyperaceae) (Buck 1958).

Distribution.

Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul).

Type material examined.

Holotype: Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, Villa Oliva, 4.XI.1952/28.I.1954, Buck [printed label]/ Holotypus [red printed label]/ Cephaloleia bucki Uh., Det. E. Uhmann (DEI).

Specimens examined.

Brazil: Río Grande do Sul- Dios Immaos, 25 May 1940 (USNM); Porto Alegre (USNM); Villa Oliva, 4 November 1952 (DEI). Total: 3.

Cephaloleia caeruleata Baly, 1875a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_caeruleata

Fig. 92
Cephalolia coeruleata Baly 1875a: 75. Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3601 (lapsus calami, catalog); Donckier 1899: 548 (catalog).
Cephaloleia caeruleata Baly. Weise 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 13 (catalog); Uhmann 1957b: 16 (catalog); Staines and Staines 1999: 523 (Baly species list).
Description.

Elongate; subdepressed; slightly shining; dorsum metallic-blue, antennae black. Head: vertex coarsely punctate; carina present between antennal bases; frons not projecting; slightly depressed between eyes. Antenna: ½ length of body; scarcely thickened apically; slender; antennomere 1 slightly thickened; 2 ¾ length 1; 3 nearly 1½ length of 2; 4–6 decreasing in length, each shorter than 2; 7–10 transverse, subequal in length, each shorter than 6; 11 2× length 10, acutely pointed at apex; 1–5 punctate, glabrous; 6–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight, slightly sinuate then rounded and convergent to anterior angle, canaliculate; anterior and posterior angles acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc subconvex; surface coarsely punctate laterally, disc and anterior margin behind head nearly impunctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.2 mm; pronotal width 2.0 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; as wide as long; sharply pointed at apex; with two fovea apically; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, narrowly margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus with ill-defined protuberance; slightly constricted behind humerus; disc subconvex; slightly flattened along suture; moderately punctate-striate, punctures larger laterally; elytral length 4.4 mm; elytral width 2.3 mm. Venter: prosternum impunctate medially, rugose laterally; meso- and metasterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin bisinuate. Leg: slender; punctate; femur and tibia with pale seta in each puncture; femur robust; tibia with fringe of setae at apex. Total length: 6.1 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia dilatata and Cephaloleia diplothemium. It can be distinguished by the cylindrical antennomere 1 which is shorter than 3, by the elytral punctures being larger laterally, and by the prosternum being rugose laterally.

Distribution.

Brazil (Río de Janiero, Santa Catharina), Ecuador.

Type material examined.

Holotype: Brazil, New Friburg [printed label]/ Baly Coll. [printed label]/ Cephalolia caeruleata Baly, Brazil [handwritten blue label] (BMNH).

Specimens examined.

Brazil: Río de Janiero- no further data; 26 February 1952 (USNM). Santa Catharina- Nova Teutonia, February 1977, March 1977 (EGRC). Ecuador: ?- San Gabriel, 750 m, 12 October 1970 (USNM). Total: 3.

Description.

Elongate; subparallel; subdepressed; reddish-brown, venter and legs paler; antennae (except basal 2 antennomeres) and eyes black. Head: vertex finely punctate; faint medial sulcus present; small projection present between antennal bases; not depressed between eyes; frons punctate, each puncture with pale seta, not projecting. Antenna: reaches to humerus; antennomere 1 incrassate, 3× length of 2; 2–5 cylindrical, subequal in length; 6–10 transverse, subequal in length; 11 slightly longer than 10, pointed at apex; 1–2 punctate with scattered setae; 3–11 setose; male with antennomeres 1–3 with triangular projection in inner apical margin. Pronotum: subquadrate; lateral margin sinuate basally, then rounding to anterior angle, canaliculate; anterior angle bluntly pointed; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc depressed; surface irregularly, sparsely punctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.4–1.7 mm; pronotal width 1.9–2.2 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, margined; apical margin rounded, narrowly margined; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, slightly produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; shallowly punctate-striate, punctures larger on disc, rows confused apically; elytral length 4.9–5.3 mm; elytral width 2.3–2.5 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, sparsely punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; apical margin of last sternite weakly emarginate medially in male, sinuate in female. Leg: robust; femur punctate; tibia with fringe of setae on inner apical margin. Total length: 7.0–8.4 mm.

Etymology.

Named for the genus of the host plant. The name is feminine.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia conforma and Cephaloleia erichsonii. It can be distinguished by the elytra lacking a sulcus on the humeral callus, by antennomere 1 being incrassate and 3 times the length of 3, and by the elytral punctures on the disc being larger than those laterally.

Host plant.

Adults have been collected off Calathea crotalifera S. Watson, Cephaloleia guzmanioides LB Sm and Idrobo (Marantaceae).

Distribution.

Costa Rica.

Type material.

Holotype male: Costa Rica, Puntarenas, Coto Brus, Las Cruces Biol. Station, 1200 m, CG-MAY-11–63B, 10 March 2012, C. García-Robledo, ex. Calathea crotalifera/ Holotype Cephaloleia calathae García-Robledo & Staines, des. 2012 [red label] (USNM). Paratypes (6 males, 6 females) (each with Paratype Cephaloleia calathae García-Robledo & Staines, des. 2012 [red label]): same data as holotype except GC-MAY-11-53, GC-MAY-11-63, GC-MAY-11-63A, GC-MAY-11-63C, GC-MAY-11-63D, GC-MAY-11-63E, GC-MAY-11-63F, GC-MAY-11-672E; same data as holotype except 6 March 2012, GC-MAY-11-83, GC-MAY-11-83A, GC-MAY-11-83B, GC-MAY-11-83C (USNM, IEXA).

Cephaloleia castanea Pic, 1929a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_castanea

Fig. 94
Cephalolia castanea Pic 1929a: 139.
Cephaloleia castanea Pic. Uhmann 1957b: 16 (catalog); Descarpentries and Villiers 1959a: 139 (types).
Description.

Elongate; subdepressed; shining; reddish-yellow; antennae black; legs yellowish. Head: vertex moderately, irregularly punctate, faint medial sulcus present; frons not projecting; depressed between eyes. Antenna: as long as head and pronotum combined; slender; antennomere 1 short, transverse; 2–4 elongate; 2 thick, subequal to 1; 3 slightly longer than 2; 4 ¾ length 3; 5–10 subequal in length, each ¾ length of 4; 11 2× length 10, pointed at apex; 1–3 punctate with scattered setae; 4–11 setose. Pronotum: quadrate; lateral margin straight and slightly divergent for basal ¾ then rounding to anterior angle, slightly canaliculate; anterior angle broadly rounded, not produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin curved anteriorly; disc subconvex; surface strongly, irregularly punctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.1 mm; pronotal width 1.4 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; alutaceous. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, narrowly margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; moderately punctate-striate; elytral length 3.7 mm; elytral width 1.6 mm. Venter: obscured by card. Leg: slender; femur and tibia punctate; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 5.0 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia nigricornis and Cephaloleia opaca. It can be distinguished by the punctate vertex of the head with a medial sulcus and by antennomere 3 being longer than 1.

Distribution.

Brazil (Río de Janiero).

Type material examined.

Holotype: Rio, Fry [handwritten label]/ Cephalolia [handwritten label]/ castanea sp. n. [handwritten label]/ Type [handwritten label]/ Museum Paris Coll. M. Pic [blue printed label]/ Type [red printed label]/ Holotype [red printed label]/ MNHN EC 2646 [printed label] (MNHN).

Cephaloleia championi Baly, 1885

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_championi

Fig. 95
Cephaloleia championi Baly 1885: 9. Blackwelder 1946: 718 (catalog); Papp 1953: 14 (catalog); Uhmann 1957a: 16 (catalog); Wilcox 1983: 136 (catalog); Staines 1996: 21 (Central America species), 1999: 241 (mimicry), 2004: 312 (host plants), 2011: 48 (faunal list); Staines and Staines 1997: 5 (types), 1999: 523 (Baly species list); McKenna and Farrell 2005: 119 (phylogeny), 2006: 10949 (phylogeny); Schmitt and Frank 2013: 58 (biology).
Cephalolia championi Baly. Donckier 1899: 548 (catalog); Weise 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 10 (catalog); Uhmann 1936b: 483 (key).
Description.

Elongate; flattened; subparallel; reddish-yellow with head (except yellow frons), antennae (except antennomeres 10–11), all margins of pronotum, and sutural and lateral vittae of elytra black; elytra with lateral margin black; venter with prosternum black, mesosternum yellow medially, black laterally, metasternum black, abdominal sterna yellow with black margin; leg with femur yellow with base and apex dark. Head: vertex striate-punctate, faint medial carina present; frons slightly projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; robust; antennomere 1 elongate, robust; 2–4 compressed, triangular, subequal in length, each shorter than 1; 5–10 transverse, subequal in length, each shorter than 4; 11 pointed at apex, 2× length of 10; 1–2 punctate with scattered setae; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin converging to anterior angle; anterior angle acute; posterior angle rounded; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc flattened; surface punctate; widest at base; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.7–1.9 mm; pronotal width 2.0–2.6 mm. Scutellum: acutely triangular; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, margined, smooth; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; declivity beginning just behind humerus at puncture row 7 edged with faint carina; punctures shallow; punctures larger and deeper on disc; elytral length 5.7–7.3 mm; elytral width 2.7–3.3 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin emarginate medially in male, rounded in female. Leg: slender; femur robust; tibia dentate at apex, with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 8.0–9.6 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia bella, Cephaloleia luctuosa, and Cephaloleia vicina. It can be distinguished by the vertex of the head not being depressed between the eyes, by the suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 being complete, by the impunctate pronotum, and by antennomeres 3 and 4 being triangular.

Host plant.

Adults have been collected in Heliconia sp. (Heliconiaceae) leaf rolls (Staines 1996); Calathea lutea Schult. (Marantaceae), Heliconia imbricata Baker (Heliconiaceae) (Schmitt and Frank 2013).

Distribution.

Costa Rica, Panama.

Type material examined.

Syntypes: Bugaba, 800–1500 ft., Champion [printed label]/ Paratipo [red label]/ F. Monros Collection 1959 [printed label]/ Cephaloleia championi Baly, J. S. Baly det. [pink label] (USNM, 1; AMNH, 1).

Specimens examined.

COSTA RICA: Alajuela- A. C. A., San Ramón, Reserva Biol Alberto Brenes, 1000–1100 m (INBIO); R. San Lorencito, 900 m, R. F. San Ramón, 5 km N de Colonia Palmareña, 13–18 June 1993, December 1992 (INBIO); Res. For. San Ramón, 8 March 1990 (INBIO, MUCR). Cartago- Quebrada Segunda, P. N. Tapantí, 1250 m, March 1992, April 1992, May 1992, August 1992, September 1992, October 1992, December 1992, March 1993 (INBIO). Guanacaste- Río San Lorenzo, 1050 m, Tierras Morenas, Z. P. Tenorio, April 1992, October 1992 (INBIO). Heredia- Barva Volcán o, 6 November 2011 (USNM); 6 km ENE Vara Blanca, 2050 m, March 2002 (USNM); 9 km NE Vara Blanca, 1450–1550 m, 13 March 2005 (USNM); Rara Avis Biological Station, 6 November 2001 (USNM). Puntarenas- Est. Sirena, 0–100 m, P. N. Corcovado, January 1990, April 1990, January 1992 (INBIO), August 1993 (MUCR); Osa Peninsula, 2.5 mi. SW. Rincón, 6 August 1968 (CMNC); Osa Peninsula, 3.5 mi. S. Rincón, 1 March 1969 (USNM); Monteverde Reserve, 17 February 1990 (MUCR); 3 June 1992 (CDFA); 1.5 mi. S. Palmar Sur, 11 August 1969 (USNM); Peninsula de Osa, 9 July 1968 (MUCR); Puntarenas Res. For., Monteverde, 17 February 1990 (USNM); Rancho Quemado, Pen. Osa, February 1991, April 1991, September 1992 (INBIO); 3.5 mi. S. Rincón, Osa Peninsula, 28 February–12 March 1969 (CASC); San Luis, 1040 m, R. B. Monteverde, October 1992 (INBIO); Sirena, Corcovado Nat. Pk., 23 March 1981 (USNM); A. C. O. Golfito, F. Las Cruces, Fca Ilama, 1400–1500 m (INBIO); Estación Esquinas, P. N. Piedras Blancas, 0–100 m (INBIO); Est Río Bonito, Send. Río Bonito, 1.4 km O Cerro Gamba, 200–300 m (INBIO); A. C. O., Golfito, Pque Nal Corcovado, Estación Agujas, 600–700 m (INBIO); Osa, Sierpe, 0.2 km NW Estación Esquinas, 0–100 m (INBIO); Estero Guerra, Peninsula Osa, 0–100 m (INBIO); Guacimal, Finca Buen Amigo, Monteverde, 4 km S de la Reserva, 1000–1100 m (INBIO); A. C. A., Central Reserva Bosque Eterno de los Niños, 1500–1600 m (INBIO); Est La Casona, Las Torres, 1500–1600 m (INBIO). San José- C. Nara, NE Quepos, 16 July 1975 (BYUC); Estación Bijagual, 1.5 km N Bijagual, 400–500 m (INBIO). PANAMA: Bocas del Toro- 6 km N Punta Peña, 27 May 1993 (CDFA); Reserva La Fortuna, 26 May 1993 (EGRC). Chiriquí- Bugaba, 800–1500 ft. (AMNH, DEI); Fortuna, 17 May 1978, 19 May 1978 (EGRC); Reserva Fortuna, Continental Divide Trail, 25 May 1993, 26 May 1993 (CDFA); Reserva Fortuna, Fortuna Dam, 29 May 1993 (CDFA); Reserva La Fortuna, Hydrographic sta. trail, 26 May 1993 (EGRC). Total: 254.

Cephaloleia chevrolatii Baly, 1858

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_chevrolatii

Fig. 96
Cephalolia chevrolati Baly 1858: 61. Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3601 (catalog); Weise 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 12 (catalog).
Cephaloleia chevrolatii Baly. Baly 1885: 18 (distribution); Blackwelder 1946: 718 (catalog); Papp 1953: 15 (catalog); Uhmann 1957a: 16 (catalog); Wilcox 1983: 136 (catalog); Staines 1996: 22 (Central America species); Staines and Staines 1999: 523 (Baly species list).
Description.

Elongate; small; subparallel; subdepressed; head, antennae, and scutellum black; pronotum red with anterior margin black; elytra dark with pale margins and indistinct reddish macula at humerus; venter with prosternum reddish laterally, meso- and metasterna black, abdominal sterna black; leg yellow with black markings. Head: vertex densely punctate, medial sulcus absent; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: ½ body length; slender; antennomere 1 transverse; 2 transverse, longer than 1; 3 elongate, longer than 1 or 2; 4–10 transverse, each subequal in length to 2; 11 pointed at apex, subequal in length to 3; 1–3 punctate with scattered setae; 4–11 setose. Pronotum: quadrate, widest before middle; lateral margin straight then rounding to anterior angle, canaliculate; anterior angle rounded, obtuse, produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc subconvex; surface deeply but sparsely punctate, disc impunctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 0.7–0.9 mm; pronotal width 1.0 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; subconvex, slightly flattened on disc; finely punctate-striate, lateral striae deeply impressed; elytral length 2.4–2.7 mm; elytral width 1.2–1.3 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna punctate; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin broadly emarginate and sinuate medially in male, rounded, entire in female. Leg: slender; punctate; femur robust; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 3.4–3.5 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia elegantula and Cephaloleia partita. It can be distinguished by antennomere 1 being transverse.

Distribution.

Mexico.

Type material examined.

Holotype: Type H. T. [white disk with red border]/ Type [green disk]/ Cephaloleia chevrolatii Baly [folded]/ 67–56 [reversed] (BMNH).

Specimens examined.

MEXICO: no further data (DEI). Total: 1.

Description.

Small; elongate; subdepressed; head, scutellum, and antennae (except basal 2 antennomeres paler) black; pronotum yellow with black triangular macula behind head; elytra black with lateral and apical margins yellow and yellow vitta from basal margin to apical ⅓ on puncture rows 2–5; venter and legs dark yellowish. Head: vertex punctate, medial sulcus absent; eye large; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; slender; antennomere 1 incrassate, elongate; 2–10 subequal in length, each ¾ length of 1; 11 3× length of 10, pointed at apex; 1–2 punctate with scattered setae; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: subquadrate; lateral margin straight then rounding to anterior angle, canaliculate; anterior angle rounded, not produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin straight; disc subconvex; surface coarsely, irregularly punctate; transverse basal impression present; pronotal length 0.7 mm; pronotal width 1.0 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, margined; apex weakly rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; moderately punctate-striate; elytral length 2.9; elytral width 1.1 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with white seta; suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; last sternite with apical margin shallowly emarginate. Leg: slender; femur and tibia punctate, each puncture with seta; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 3.9 mm.

Etymology.

From chico (Spanish) meaning little or little one for the small size of this species. The name is feminine.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia convexifrons. It can be distinguished by the small body size and the triangular macula on the anterior margin of the pronotum behind the head.

Distribution.

Peru.

Type material.

Holotype: Peru, Dept. Loreto, Explorama Lodge, 80 km NE Iquitos on Amazon River, VI-24/VII-20 1990, Menke and Awertschenko/ collected in malaise trap/ Holotype Cephaloleia chica Staines, des. C. L. Staines 2012 [red label] (USNM).

Cephaloleia chimboana Uhmann, 1938a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_chimboana

Fig. 98
Cephalolia chimboana Uhmann 1938a: 408.
Cephaloleia chimboana Uhmann. Uhmann 1957b: 16 (catalog); Gaedike and Döbler 1971: 345 (types); Staines 1997b: 413 (Uhmann species list).
Description.

Elongate; subparallel; subdepressed; pale yellowish brown, the apical four or five antennomeres darkened, apex of antennomere 11 pale, elytral punctures dark. Head: vertex very finely punctate, impunctate between the eyes, medial sulcus absent; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: as long as head and pronotum combined; slender; antennomere 1 elongate; 2 elongate, a little shorter than 1; 3 subequal in length to 1; 4–5 elongate, subequal in length, each nearly as long as 3; 6–10 slightly transverse, slightly different in shape from each other, subequal in length, each shorter than 5; 11 elongate, 2× length of 10, bluntly rounded at the apex; 1–4 impunctate; 5–11 with setae. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight and divergent for basal ⅔ then rounded and convergent, canaliculate; anterior angle broadly rounded; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc flattened; surface with scattered, very shallow punctures, disc nearly impunctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.2–1.4 mm; pronotal width 1.7–1.9 mm. Scutellum: rounded-pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus slightly prominent; slightly constricted behind humerus; finely punctate-striate, punctures mostly confluent, rows dark, clearly visible for entire length; elytral length 4.3–4.7 mm; elytral width 2.1–2.4 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin deeply and broadly emarginate in male; last sternite with apical margin rounded in female. Leg: slender; punctate; femur robust; femur and tibia with pale seta in each puncture; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 6.3–6.8 mm.

Figures 98–106.

Habitus. 98 Cephaloleia chimboana 99 Cephaloleia clarkella 100 Cephaloleia cognata 101 Cephaloleia collaris 102 Cephaloleia conforma sp. n. 103 Cephaloleia congener 104 Cephaloleia consanguinea 105 Cephaloleia convexifrons 106 Cephaloleia corallina. Scale bars equal 3 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia lojaensis and Cephaloleia nigriceps. It can be distinguished by the tranverse basal impression on the pronotum and by the confluent elytral punctures.

Distribution.

Ecuador, Peru.

Type material examined.

Holotype: Ecuador, Chimbo, Rosenberg [printed label]/ Holotypus [red printed label]/ Cephalolia chimboana Uh., Det. E. Uhmann (BMNH).

Specimens examined.

Ecuador: Imbabura- Cachabé, November 1896 (BMNH, USNM). Pichincha- Chimbo (DEI). Peru: Madre de Dios- Tambopata Wildlife Res., 30 km SW Pto. Maldanado, 26 November 1982 (USNM). Total: 6.

Cephaloleia clarkella Baly, 1858

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_clarkella

Fig. 99
Cephalolia clarkella Baly 1858: 49. Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3601 (catalog); Donckier 1899: 548 (catalog); Weise 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 12 (catalog); Uhmann 1953d: 46 (faunal list).
Cephaloleia clarkella Baly. Uhmann 1957b: 16 (catalog), 1964b: 16 (faunal list); Balazuc 1988: 397 (pathogens); Staines and Staines 1999: 523 (Baly species list).
Description.

Elongate; subdepressed; shining; head, antennae, pronotum, and legs black, scutellum and elytra yellowish, venter yellowish. Head: vertex densely punctate, medial carina present; frons not projecting; slightly depressed between eyes. Antenna: ½ body length; slender; antennomere 1 incrassate, elongate; 2–3 elongate, subequal in length, shorter than 1; 4 ¾ length of 3, elongate; 5 shorter than 4; 6–10 transverse, subequal in length, each shorter than 5; 11 2× length of 10, acutely pointed at apex; 1–2 punctate with scattered setae; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin sinuate at base then rounding to anterior angle, canaliculate; anterior angle rounded, produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc moderately convex; surface sparsely punctate, punctures more dense laterally and basally; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.3–1.7 mm; pronotal width 2.0–2.2 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; sparsely punctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; constricted behind humerus; slightly convex, slightly flattened along suture; punctate-striate, punctures more impressed basally and laterally; elytral length 5.3–5.8 mm; elytral width 2.9–3.2 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin sinuate medially in male, entire in female. Leg: slender; punctate; femur and tibia with pale seta in each puncture; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 7.1–7.5 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia luridipennis. It can be distinguished by the pronotum lacking a transverse basal impression and by antennomere 1 being longer than 2.

Distribution.

Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru.

Type material examined.

Syntype: Peru [handwritten label]/ Baly coll. [printed label]/ Cephalolia clarkella Baly, Peru [blue handwritten label] (BMNH, 1).

Specimens examined.

Brazil: Amazonas- Pontehoa (?) (USNM). Ecuador: Orellana- 1 km S Onkone Gare Camp, Reserva Etnica Waorani, 216.3 m, 9 February 1995, 1 July 1995 (USNM); Tiputini Biodiversity Station, nr. Yasuni National Park, 220–250 m, 6 February 1999 (USNM). Peru: no further data (USNM). Total: 5.

Cephaloleia cognata Baly, 1869

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_cognata

Fig. 100
Cephalolia cognata Baly 1869: 372. Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3601 (catalog); Donckier 1899: 548 (catalog); Weise 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 11 (catalog).
Cephaloleia cognata Baly. Uhmann 1957b: 17 (catalog), 1964a: 403 (catalog), 1965: 113 (museum list); Staines and Staines 1999: 523 (Baly species list).
Description.

Elongate; subdepressed; pale yellow, antennae (except antennomeres 1–2 which are reddish) black; eyes dark. Head: vertex sparsely punctate, with medial sulcus; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: ½ body length; slender; antennomere 1 elongate, subequal in length to 2 and 3 combined; 2 transverse, ⅓ length of 1; 3 transverse, ½ length of 2; 4–10 transverse, subequal in length, each longer than 2; 11 2× length of 10, rounded at apex; 1–4 punctate with scattered setae; 5–11 setose. Pronotum: subquadrate; lateral margin straight then rounding to anterior angle, slightly canaliculate; anterior angle angulate, produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc subconvex, flattened laterally; surface sparsely punctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.3–1.5 mm; pronotal width 2.3–2.7 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, slightly laminate; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; constricted behind humerus; disc flattened; punctate-striate, punctures smaller and less impressed apically; interspace behind humerus costate for ½ length; elytral length 4.2–4.4 mm; elytral width 2.7–3.1 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin bisinuate in female, emarginate medially in male. Leg: slender; punctate; femur robust; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 5.6–6.8 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia aequilata and Cephaloleia dilaticollis. It can be distinguished by the elytra with a costate interspace behind the humerus.

Host plant.

Accodring to data adults have been collected from Calathea lutea Schult. (Marantaceae).

Distribution.

Brazil (Bahia), Peru, Venezuela.

Type material.

Type: Brazil, Bahia, BMNH, not seen.

Specimens examined.

No label data (USNM). Brazil: Bahia- no further data (BMNH). Peru: Madre de Dios- CICRA Field Station, 272 m, 13 June 2011 (SEMC). Venezuela: Merida- 6 km E. Las Cruces, 13 July 1986 (BYUC). Total: 6.

Cephaloleia collaris Weise, 1910

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_collaris

Fig. 101
Cephaloleia collaris Weise 1910: 90. Weise 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 12 (catalog).
Cephaloleia collaris Weise. Uhmann 1957b: 17 (catalog).
Description.

Subparallel; slender; subconvex; shining; black; elytra and scutellum yellowish-brown; venter and legs yellowish-brown. Head: vertex irregularly punctate, medial sulcus present; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; slender; antennomere 1 cylindrical, thick, longest, 2× length of 2; 2 transverse; 3 cylindrical, elongate, shorter than 1; 4–5 cylindrical, elongate, shorter than 3; 6–10 subequal in length, transverse, subequal in length to 2; 11 2× length of 10, pointed at apex; 1–2 punctate with scattered setae; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight then rounding to anterior angle, narrowly margined; anterior angle weakly rounded, slightly produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc subconvex; surface densely punctate basally and laterally; transverse basal impression present medially; pronotal length 1.3–1.5 mm; pronotal width 1.8–2.0 mm. Scutellum: elongate pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, narrowly margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; moderately punctate-striate, scutellar row long, punctures confused basally and apically; elytral length 6.0–6.5 mm; elytral width 2.3–2.5 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, sparsely punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with white seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially. Leg: slender; sparsely punctate; femur and tibia with pale seta in each puncture; tibia with tuft of setae at apex. Total length: 7.9–8.3 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia flavipennis and Cephaloleia neglecta. It can be distinguished by the basal impression on the pronotum and by the margined lateral margin of the pronotum.

Distribution.

Colombia, Venezuela.

Type material examined.

Syntypes: Colombia, in der Terra templads Historaques, 6000 ft., Thieme [Green printed label]/ J. Weise det. [printed label]/ Type [printed salomon-colored label]/ Cephalolia collaris m [handwritten label] (ZMHB, 2).

Specimens examined.

Venezuela: Aragua- PN H. Pittier, Rancho Grande, Portochioula, 1120 m, 12 July 1998 (USNM); Nov Grande, 10 February 1877 (USNM). Total: 1.

Description.

Elongate; subparallel; subdepressed; reddish-brown; antennae (except basal 2 antennomeres) and eyes black; venter and legs paler. Head: vertex finely, irregularly punctate; medial sulcus present; not depressed between eyes; frons punctate, not projecting. Antenna: reaches to humerus; antennomere 1 subincrassate, 2× length of 2; 2–4 cylindrical, 3 slightly longer than 2, 4 subequal in length to 2; 5–10 transverse, subequal in length; 11 2× length of 10, rounded at apex; 1–2 punctate with scattered setae; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight, divergent for basal ¾ then rounding to anterior angle, canaliculate; anterior angle rounded; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc depressed; surface sparsely, irregularly punctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.3–1.4 mm; pronotal width 1.7–1.8 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, margined; apical margin smooth, narrowly margined; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, slightly produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; moderately punctate-striate, punctures obovate, scutellar row long, rows confused at apex; elytral length 4.0–4.2 mm; elytral width 2.3–2.4 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally; prosternum with pale seta in each puncture; abdominal sterna finely punctate, each puncture with pale seta; sutural between sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; apical margin of last sternite emarginate medially in male, sinuate in female. Leg: robust; punctate; tibia with fringe of setae on inner apical margin. Total length: 6.2–6.6 mm.

Etymology.

From conformis (Latin) meaning like or resembling, since the species resembles Cephaloleia congener and Cephaloleia sallei. The name is a noun in apposition.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia calathae and Cephaloleia erichsonii. It can be distinguished by the elytra lacking a sulcus on the humeral callus, by antennomere 1 being clavate and twice the length of 3, and by the elytral punctures not being larger on the disc.

Host plant.

Adults have been collected off Calathea sp., Cephaloleia guzamanioides LB Sm and Idrobo (Marantaceae).

Distribution.

Costa Rica.

Type material.

Holotype male: Costa Rica, Puntarenas, Coto Brus, Las Cruces Biol. Station, 1200 m, GC-MAY-11-72A, 10 March 2012, C. García-Robledo, ex. Calathea guazmanioides/ Holotype Cephaloleia conforma García-Robledo & Staines, des. 2012 [red label] (USNM). Paratypes (6 males, 3 females) (each with Paratype Cephaloleia conforma García-Robledo & Staines, des. 2012 [red label]): same label data as holotype except GC-MAY-11-72, GC-MAY-11-72B, GC-MAY-11-72C, GC-MAY-11-72D, GC-MAY-11-43, GC-MAY-11-43A, GC-MAY-11-43B; same label data as holotype except GC-MAY-11-26, ex Zingiber spectabile; same label data as holotype except no GG number, ex. Calathea sp. (USNM, IEXA).

Cephaloleia congener Baly, 1885

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_congener

Fig. 103
Cephaloleia congener Baly 1885: 12. Blackwelder 1946: 718 (catalog); Papp 1953: 15 (catalog); Uhmann 1957a: 17 (catalog); Wilcox 1983: 136 (catalog); Staines 1996: 22 (Central America species), 2004: 312 (host plants), 2011: 48 (faunal list); Maes 1999: 1016 (faunal list); Staines and Staines 1999: 523 (Baly species list); McKenna and Farrell 2005: 119 (phylogeny), 2006: 10949 (phylogeny); García–Robledo et al. 2013a: 3 (biology), 2013b: 193 (biology).
Cephalolia congener Baly. Donckier 1899: 548 (catalog); Weise 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 11 (catalog).
Description.

Oblong-ovate; shining; subconvex; light reddish-brown, antennae (except basal antennomere), and eyes darker. Head: small; vertex and front finely punctate, medial sulcus absent; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: less than ½ body length; slender; antennomere 1 elongate, subequal in length to 3; 2 transverse in female, triangular in male, ½ length of 1; 3 triangular in male, elongate in female; 4–10 elongate, decreasing in length, each shorter than 3; 11 2× length of 10, pointed at apex; 1–2 punctate with scattered setae; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight, diverging from base to middle, then rounding to anterior angle, margined; anterior angle obtuse, slightly produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc subconvex; surface finely punctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.3–1.4 mm; pronotal width 2.0–2.4 mm. Scutellum: scarcely longer than wide; pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin sinuate before middle, smooth; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded; slightly constricted behind humerus; convex; finely punctate-striate; declivity beginning just behind humerus at puncture row 7 edged with faint carina; elytral length 5.0–5.4 mm; elytral width 2.7–3.1 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin emarginate medially in male, truncate in female. Leg: slender; femur robust; tibia expanded to apex, with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 6.6–7.4 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia immaculata. It can be distinguished by the finely punctate pronotum, by the suture between abdominal sterna 1 and 2 being complete, and by antennomere 1 being subequal in length to 3.

Host plant.

Adults have been collected from Heliconia latispatha Bentham and Heliconia tortuosa Griggs (Heliconiaceae) (Staines 1996); Heliconia imbricata Baker, Heliconia irrasa R. R. Sm., Heliconia mathiasiae G. S. Daniels and F. G. Stiles, Heliconia psittacorum Sw., Heliconia pogonantha Cufod., Heliconia sarapiquensis G. S. Daniels and F. G. Stiles, Heliconia wagneriana Peterson, Calathea crotalifera S. Watson, Cephaloleia inocephala Juntze, Ischnosiphon inflatus L. Andersson (Marantaceae), Musa velutina H. Wendl. and Drude (Musaceae) (García–Robledo et al. 2013a).

Distribution.

Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama.

Type material examined.

Holotype: Type H. T. [white disk with red border]/ Panama, Bugaba, Champion [printed label]/ B. C. A., Col., VI, 2. Cephaloleia congener Baly [printed label]/ Cephaloleia congener Baly, Panama [blue handwritten label] (BMNH).

Specimens examined.

COSTA RICA: Alajuela- Est. Biol. Alberto Brenes, 20 June–06 July 1999 (BYUC); Caño Negro, 20 m, R.N.V.S. Caño Negro, 4–17 December 1992 (INBIO); Río San Lorencito, 900 m, Res. For. San Ramón, 5 km N Col. Palmarena, March 1990, 13–18 June 1993 (INBIO); N slope Volcán de Rincón, 2 km W Dos Ríos, 22 May 1985 (EMEC); Upala, Dos Ríos, 31 March 1988 (MUCR); 20 km S Upala, 16–25 September 1990, 1–25 September 1991 (BYUC); A. C. G., Upala, Aguas Claras, Pque Nal Rincón de la Vieja, 600–700 m (INBIO). Cartago- Aquiares nr. Santa Cruz, 9 km NW Turrialba, 1500 m, 16 May 1985 (EMEC); CATIE, 3 km SE Turrialba, 600 m, 15 May 1985, 29 May 1985 (EMEC); Quebrada Segunda, P. N. Tapantí, 1250 m, April 1992, August 1992 (INBIO); Ref. Nac. Fauna Silv. Tapantí, 1250 m, August 1991 (INBIO); Turrialba (USNM), April (DEI), 4–13 August 1970, 30 May 1973 (USNM), 26–29 June 1986, 20 August 1989 (BYUC); nr. Tuis, 16–22 July 1993 (BYUC). Guanacaste- Estac. Pitilla, 700 m, 9 km S Santa Cecilia, 1988, January 1989, 27 January-4 February 1989, 21 March–21 April 1989, September 1989, December 1989, February 1990, March 1990, July 1991, August 1991, 18 April–9 May 1993 (INBIO); Hda. Sta. Maria, 2 February 1993 (INBIO); Río San Lorenzo, 1050 m, R. F. Cord, March 1990, April 1991, November 1991, 10–20 February 1992, April 1992, July 1992 (INBIO); 3 km SE Río Naranjo, 14–20 August 1993 (BYUC). Heredia- Est. El Ceibo, Braulio Carillo N.P., 400–600 m, November 1989, March 1990, April 1990 (INBIO); Chilamate, Thomas Ray Property, 7 January 1990 (UMMZ); Finca Naranjo Valencia, 2 km sur Pueblo Nuevo, Sarapiquí, 90 m, 9–30 September 1992 (INBIO); 1 km S. Pt. Viejo, 4–5 June 1984 (EGRC); Est San Rafael Vara Blanca, P.N. Braulio Carillo, 1800–2000 m, April 1990 (INBIO); Est. Biol. La Selva, 21 January 1989 (MUCR), 14–15 August 1991 (BYUC), 15 April 2003, 2 March 2005 (USNM); Fca. La Selva nr. Puerto Villa, 5 August 1969 (USNM), 19 July 1985 (UMMZ), 7 September 1988 (UMMZ), 30 March 1990 (INBIO); El Plastico Station, 4 July 2011 (USNM); 11 km SE La Virgen, 450–500 m, 12 April 2003 (USNM); Rara Avis Biological Station, 5 July 2011, 8 November 2011, 13 November 2011 (USNM). Limón- Amubri, 70 m, Talamanca, 1–22 July 1992 (INBIO); Cerro Tortuguero, P. N. Tortuguero, April 1989, August 1992, December 1992 (INBIO); CATIE, Turrialba, 600 m, S. Espavals, 10 September 1998 (BYUC); Cuatro Esquinas, P. N. Tortuguero, April 1989, October 1989, November 1989, December 1989, 20 September–7 October 1990, September 1990, 27 March–29 April 1992, November 1992 (INBIO); 7 mi N Guacimo, 22 February–3 March 1988 (BYUC); 7 km W. Guápiles at Río Toro Amarillo, 22 August 1984 (UMMZ); Hamburg Farm, Reventazón, Ebene Limón, 24 January 1931, 1 February 1932, 15 January 1936 (USNM), 1 February 1932 (DEI); Est. Hitoy Cerere, 100 m, R. Cerere Res. Biol. Hitoy Cerere, 4–20 December 1991, 19–29 April 1992, 30 June–20 July 1992, 15-27 February 1993 (INBIO); Manzanillo, 0-100 m, RFNS Gandoca y Manzanillo, 22 October–11 November 1992 (INBIO); Río Sardinas, 10 m R.N.F.S. Barra del Colorado, September 1992 (INBIO); Salvadora Farm, Parismina, 5 September 1930 (USNM); Sector Cerro Cocorí, Fca. de E. Rojas, 150 m, 31 January–21 February 1992, 26 March–24 April 1992, April 1992, October 1992, 9–30 November 1992, January 1993, February 1993, March 1993, April 1993 (INBIO); Valle La Estrella (INBIO); Pococí, Colorado, Sector Cerro Cocorí, 100–200 m (INBIO). Puntarenas- Alajuela Peñas Blancas, 800 m, 19 May 1989 (SEMC); Est. Biol. Las Alturas, 2 km NE Alturas, 1520 m, 10 July 1999 (CMNC); Barranca site, 10 km N. Puntar., 17 June 1969 (USNM); Estación Boscosa, Peninsula de Osa, 15 September 1991 (INBIO); Est Biol. Las Alturas, 1500 m, Coto Brus., October 1991, 23 March–2 May 1992, August 1992, 3–4 September 1992, November 1992 (INBIO), 23–26 May 1992 (AJGC); Fca. Cafrosa, Est Las Mellizas, P.N. Amistad, November 1989, May 1990 (INBIO); Fca. Las Cruces, San Vito de Java, 27 June 1969 (USNM); Monteverde Cloud For. Res., 27–31 May 1984 (EGRC); Monteverde Cloud For. Res., 1500 m, 20 May 1985 (EMEC); Est. Queb. Bonita, 50 m, Res. Biol. Carara, 17 March–30 April, April 1992 (INBIO), 11 August 1991 (BYUC); Peninsula de Osa, 22 July 1960 (MUCR); Rancho Quemado, Pen Osa, April 1991, July 1991, October 1991, 21 March–7 April 1992, April 1992, May 1992, October 1992, December 1992 (INBIO); 3.5 mi. S. Rincón, Osa Peninsula, 28 February–12 March 1969 (CASC); San Vito-Villa Nielly area, 13 August 1969 (USNM); San Vito, Est. Biol. Las Alturas, May 1992 (BYUC); Est Sirena, Corcovado NP, December 1989, October 1989, November 1989, January 1990, February 1990, March 1990, April 1990, May 1990, June 1990, September 1990, October 1990, June 1991, September 1991, January 1992, April 1992 (INBIO); Wilson Botanical Garden (Las Cruces Biol. Stn.) nr. San Vito, 1200 m, 26 May 1993 (SEMC). San José- San Isidro, 9 mi S, 31 December 1988 (BYUC); Est. Boscoas, 0–100 m (INBIO); km 117 Pan American Hwy, 19 km N San Isidro, 20–25 June 1997 (SEMC). GUATEMALA: no further data (USNM). NICARAGUA: no further data (USNM). PANAMA: no further data (USNM). Chiriquí- 10 mi W. Boquete, 14 March 1960 (BYUC); 11.2 km E Chiriquí, 30 May 1993 (AJGC); Fortuna, 17 May 1978 (USNM); Reserva Fortuna, Fortuna Dam, 29 May 1993 (CDFA); 27.7 km NE Volcán Hartmann’s Finca, 1450 m, 18 June 1996 (USNM); Las Laguna, El. 1360 m., 4 km W. Hato del Volcán, 24 May 1973 (EGRC). Coclé- Cerro Gaital, 4000', 1 May 1993 (AJGC). Colón- Reserva Sobrina, Pipeline Road, 23 May 1993, 6 May 1993 (AJGC); Porto Bello, 18 February 1911, 19 February 1911, 27 February 1911, 6 March 1911 (USNM). Darien- Estación Ambiental Cana, 525–750 m, 3–10 June 1996 (USNM). Panamá- Cerro Campana, 3000 ft., 1 August 1979 (CMNC); Old Gamboa road, 4 June 1993 (AJGC). Total: 449.

Cephaloleia consanguinea Baly, 1885

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_consanguinea

Fig. 104
Cephaloleia consanguinea Baly 1885: 23. Blackwelder 1946: 718 (catalog); Papp 1953: 15 (catalog); Uhmann 1957a: 17 (catalog); Wilcox 1983: 136 (catalog); Seifert 1982: 11; Staines 1996: 23 (Central America species), 1999: 241 (mimicry), 2010: 29 (types), 2011: 48 (faunal list); Staines and Staines 1997: 6 (types), 1999: 523 (Baly species list); Flowers and Hanson 2003: 50 (distribution); Jolivet 1989: 301 (noted), 2003: 313 (noted); McKenna and Farrell 2005: 119 (phylogeny); Naczi and Staines 2011: 2 (faunal list).
Cephalolia consanguinea Baly. Donckier 1899: 548 (catalog); Weise 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 11 (catalog); Uhmann 1930a: 233 (faunal list), 1936b: 484 (key), 1942: 93 (noted).
Description.

Elongate; flattened; head (except yellow frons), antennae, and scutellum black; pronotum yellow with medial black macula narrowing toward base, macula extremely variable in shape; elytra black with medial yellow vitta on each elytron, vitta begins at humerus and goes to apical 1/5, from puncture row 6 to puncture row 7 or 8 (variable in width), narrower at base, widens slightly, does not follow puncture rows entire length; venter yellow medially, black laterally; leg tibia black; femur yellow basally, black apically. Head: vertex strongly, densely punctate, Y-shaped medial sulcus present; frons with some large punctures, not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; slender; antennomere 1 elongate, robust, longest, flattened laterally, fringe of setae at apex; 2 elongate, ¼ length of 1; 3 triangular, 1½ length of 2; 4–6 elongate, each shorter than 3; 7–10 transverse, each shorter than 6; 11 2× length of 10, bluntly pointed; 1–4 punctate with scattered setae; 5–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight then rounding to anterior angle, margined; anterior angle acute, slightly produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc flattened; surface with scattered large punctures laterally and basally; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.1–1.3 mm; pronotal width 1.5–1.6 mm. Scutellum: triangular; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, slightly produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; moderately punctate-striate; elytral length 4.1–5.1 mm; elytral width 1.9–2.1 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin truncate medially in male; weakly rounded medially in female. Leg: slender; impunctate; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 5.7–7.0 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia belti, Cephaloleia erugatus, Cephaloleia semivittata, Cephaloleia triangularis, Cephaloleia trivittata, Cephaloleia variabilis, and Cephaloleia vittata. It can be distinguished by the elytral punctures being distinct apically and by antennomere 1 being as long as 2 and 3 combined.

Host plant.

Heliconia imbricata (Strong 1977a), Heliconia latispatha Bentham (Strong 1977b), Heliconia pogonantha Cuford., Heliconia mariae Hook., Heliconia tortuosa Griggs (Strong 1982a); Heliconia bourgaeana Peterson, Heliconia collinsiana Griggs, Heliconia wagneriana Peterson (Naczi and Staines 2011); Heliconia longa H. J. P. Winkl., Heliconia nutans Woodson, Heliconia stilesii W. J. Kress, Heliconia wilsonii G. S. Daniels and F. G. Stiles (Heliconiaceae), Calathea crotalifera S. Watson, Cephaloleia guzmanioides L. B. Sm. and Idrobo (Marantaceae), Musa ornata Roxb., Musa velutina H. Wendl. and Drude (Musaceae).

Distribution.

Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama.

Type material examined.

Lectotype: Cubilguitz, Vera Paz. Champion [printed label]/ B. C. A., Col., VI, 2. Cephaloleia consanguinea Baly label]/ Lectotype Cephaloleia consanguinea Baly Des. C. L. Staines 1993 [red label] (BMNH).

Specimens examined.

Belize: Toledo- ca 9 mi NNE Medina Bank, N side Bladen Branch, 6 January 2006, 4 January 2007 (USNM); Belize Foundation for Research and Environmental Education property, 4 January 2007 (USNM). COSTA RICA: Cartago- Ref. Fauna Silv. Tapantí, 1650 m, Repressa Río Gde. de Orosí, August 1991 (INBIO); Quebrada Segunda, Ref. Nac. Fauna Tapantí, 1250 m, April 1992, August 1992 (INBIO); El Guarco, San Isidro, 4 km S Cañón, 2200–2300 m (INBIO); Chirripo, Turrialba, 1100–1200 m (INBIO). Guanacaste- R. Sn. Lorenzo, 1050 m, Tierras Morenas, R. F. Cord., October 1991, January 1992, April 1992 (INBIO). Heredia- El Angel falls, Vara Blanca area, 21 June 1969 (USNM); Fca. La Selva nr. Puerto Viejo, Sarapiquí Dist., 21 June 1969, 22 June 1969, 24 July 1969 (USNM); Piedras Negras (USNM). Limón- Amubri, 70 m, Talamanca, 16–31 August 1992, 12–30 September 1992, 12–29 November 1992, 5–26 January 1993 (INBIO); 4 km NE Bribri, December 1989, March 1990 (MUCR); 5 mi S Cahuita, 23–26 December 1988 (BYUC); Est. Hitoy Cerere, 100 m, R. Cerere, Res. Biol. Hitoy Cerere, September 1990, May 1991, July 1991, 4–20 December 1991, 5–19 March 1992, 19–29 April 1992, 27 June–22 July 1992, November 1992, 15–27 February 1993 (INBIO); Limón, 5 February 1989 (MUCR); Manzanillo, 0–100 m RNFS Gandoca y Manzanillo, 7–19 August 1992, 9 September–13 October 1992, 22 October–11 November 1992, 4–12 December 1992, 6–27 January 1993 (INBIO); Valle de la Estrella Valle de Posas, nr. Pandora, 17 February 1984, 17–20 February 1984 (CMNC); A. C. Llanuras del Tortuguero, Pococí, 0–100 m (INBIO). Puntarenas- Barranca site, 10 km N. Puntarenas, 17 June 1969, September 11 1969 (USNM); Coto Brus, Las Alturas, 6 March 2012 (USNM); Coto Brus, Las Cruces Biological Station, 5 March 2012, 6 March 2012, 8 March 2012, 10 March 2012 (USNM); 10.9 mi. E. Esparta, 17 June 1969 (USNM); Monteverde Reserve, 3 June 1992 (CDFA); Osa Peninsula, 0–5 m., December 1983 (CMNC); Río Piedras, sea level, 15 August 1969 (USNM); Est. Sirena, P. N. Corcovado, 0–100 m, October 1989 (INBIO); Estación Biológica Las Alturas, 1400–1500 m (INBIO); Est. La Casona, Las Torres, 1500–1600 m (INBIO). GUATEMALA: Alta Verapaz- Cahabón; Chiacam, Sabo (AMNH, USNM). San Antonio- Irebal sierra Espíritu Sto. Amates, 10 August 1990 (EGRC). PANAMA: Canal Zone- 22 August 1970 (USNM). Colon- vic. Fort Sherman, 15–16 February 1999 (USNM). Panamá- Alajuelo, 18 April 1911 (USNM); Las Cumbres, 8 January 1959 (FMNH); Ft. Kobbe, 13 October 1969 (CMNC). Total: 383.

Cephaloleia convexifrons Pic, 1923

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_convexifrons

Fig. 105
Cephalolia convexifrons Pic 1923: 9.
Cephaloleia convexifrons Pic. Uhmann 1957b: 17 (catalog), 1964a: 403 (catalog); Descarpentries and Villiers 1959a: 139 (types).
Description.

Elongate; subconvex; antennae, head, and scutellum black; pronotum yellowish with broad medial longitudinal vitta from base to apex; elytra yellowish with broad black sutural vitta which narrows to apex and narrow black vitta from humerus to near apex; legs yellowish with darker joints and tarsi. Head: small; vertex densely punctate, medial sulcus absent; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; slender; cylindrical; antennomere 1 short; 2 2× length of 1; 3 subequal in length to 2; 4–10 subequal in length, each shorter than 3; 11 2× length of 10, longest, acutely pointed at apex; 1–2 punctate; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: slightly transverse; lateral margin straight, slightly divergent for basal 4/5 then rounding to anterior angle, narrowly margined; anterior angle rounded, not produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc subconvex; surface irregularly punctate; transverse basal impression present medially; pronotal length 0.8–1.0 mm; pronotal width 1.7–1.9 mm. Scutellum: broadly pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, slightly narrowing apically, smooth, margined; apex rounded; minute tooth present in sutural angle; humerus rounded, slightly produced; shallowly punctate-striate; pygidium exposed, punctate; elytral length 4.3–4.7 mm; elytral width 2.0–2.1 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna punctate; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; last sternite with apical margin broadly emarginate medially in male, sinuate in female. Leg: slender; punctate; femur and tibia with pale seta in each puncture; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 5.9–6.1 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia chica sp. n. It can be distinguished by the larger size and by the medial longitudinal vitta on the pronotum.

Distribution.

Bolivia, Peru.

Type material examined.

Holotype: Bolivie, Cochabamba, Germain [green printed label]/ Cephalolia convexifrons m [handwritten label]/ convexifrons Pic (1923) [handwritten label]/ type [white printed label with red border]/ Museum Paris Coll. \M. Pic [blue printed label]/ Holotype [red printed label]/ MNHN EC 2652 [printed label] (MNHN).

Specimens examined.

No label data (USNM). Bolivia: Cochambamba- November 1953 (USNM). Peru: Huanuco- Tingo Maria region, 15–24 June 1937 (SEMC); Quiapicanchia- Cuzco, Quincemil, 11 June 1976 (USNM). Madre de Dios- Tambopata Wildlife Res., 30 km SW Pto Maldonado, 290 m, 15–30 November 1982 (USNM). Total: 5.

Cephaloleia corallina Erichson, 1847

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_corallina

Fig. 106
Cephaloleia corallina Erichson 1847: 151. Baly 1858: 42 (redescription); Waterhouse 1881: 261 (distribution); Uhmann 1957b: 17 (catalog), 1959b: 8 (scutellum), 1964a: 403 (catalog); Staines and Staines 1999: 523 (noted).
Cephalolia corallina Erichson. Guérin–Méneville 1855: 601 (faunal list); Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3601 (catalog); Donckier 1899: 548 (catalog); Weise 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 10 (catalog); Uhmann 1936b: 109 (noted), 1936f: 481 (key), 1953d: 47 (faunal list); Soukup 1942: 317 (museum list).
Description.

Elongate; subdepressed; bright shining red; antennomeres 1-6 red, 7-11 black. Head: vertex smooth, faint medial sulcus present; sparsely, irregularly punctate around eye; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; robust; antennomere 1 compressed, subclavate, obliquely truncate at apex, longer than 2; 2–3 in male triangularly expanded, elongate in female; 3 longer than 2; 4–10 transverse, each shorter than 2, decreasing in length; 11 2× length of 10, bluntly rounded at apex; 1–6 punctate with scattered setae; 7–11 setose. Pronotum: subquadrate; lateral margin straight then rounding to anterior angle, canaliculate; anterior angle obtuse, produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head, slightly curved; disc subconvex; surface distinctly but sparsely punctate; transverse medial basal impression present; pronotal length 2.0–2.2 mm; pronotal width 2.9–3.2 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, narrowly margined; apex obtusely rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; constricted behind humerus; moderately convex, scarcely flattened at suture; short longitudinal sulcus present at base near humerus; moderately punctate-striate, punctures large, ovate; pygidium obtusely rounded; elytral length 6.7–7.0 mm; elytral width 3.6–4.0 mm. Venter: prosternum impunctate; meso- and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; last sternite with apical margin rounded, sinuate at apex in male, rounded, entire in female. Leg: slender; sparsely punctate; femur robust; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 9.0–9.6 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia apicicornis, Cephaloleia halli, Cephaloleia ochra sp. n., and Cephaloleia proxima. It can be distinguished by having a transverse basal impression on the pronotum.

Host plant.

Accodring to data adults have been collected feeding on Calathea inocephala (Kuntze) H. Kennedy, Cephaloleia lutea Schult. (Marantaceae), and Heliconia stricta Huber (Heliconiaceae).

Distribution.

Bolivia, Brazil (Amazonas, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rondonia), Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru.

Type material.

Type: Peru, female, ZMHB, not seen.

Specimens examined.

BOLIVIA: Cochabamba- no further data (USNM); Chyan Villa Gnal(?) Rombain, January 1952, November 1953 (USNM). Santa Cruz- Buena Vista, 10 March 1951 (USNM). Brazil: no further data (AMNH). Amazonas- Manaus, October 1946 (AMNH). Bahia- São Paulo d’Olivenca (USNM). Minas Gerais- Santa Cruz de Sarra, 17 July 1985 (USNM), 21 July 1985 (USNM), 3 June 1985 (USNM); Santa Rosa, Nova Grenda, August 1878 (USNM). Pará- Val de Cans, Belem, 20–21 November 1968 (AMNH). Rondonia- 62 km SW Ariquames, Fzda Rancho Grande, 15–22 May 1991 (BYUC), 2 November 1989 (USNM), 15–22 March 1991 (USNM), 7 November 1989 (USNM), 6–15 December 1990 (EGRC, USNM), 12–22 November 1991 (CDFA), 6 October 1993 (BYUC). COLOMBIA: Antioquia- Río Berrío, 8 August 1938 (USNM). ECUADOR: Esmeraldas- 31.7 km NW Lita, 620 m, 23 August 1997 (CDFA). Los Ríos- Río Palenque, 47 km S Sto. Domingo, 220 m, 26 August 1997 (CDFA, USNM). Napo- Oriente, June 1986 (USNM). Orellana- Estación Cientifica Yasuni, 215 m, 5–10 September 1999 (EGRC). Pichincha- Chimba, 1000 ft., August 1897 (USNM). Sucumbios- Limoncocha Reserve, 215 m, 10 August 1997 (CDFA); Sushufindi, 215 m, 12 August 1997, 11 August 1997 (CDFA, USNM). French Guiana: Saul, 7 km N. Les Eaux Claires, 31 May 1997 (SEMC); Matcury, 42.5 km SSW on Hwy N2, 26 May 1997 (SEMC). PERU: Arequipa- Chancha (USNM). Ayaucho- La Mar, Santa Rosa, 640 m, 19–25 September 1976 (USNM). Huanuco- Chinchao Carpish, 25oo m, 8 September 1947, 15 September 1947 (AMNH); Leonpampa region, December 1937 (SEMC); Munson Valley, Tingo Maria, 2 November 1954 (CASC); Tingo Maria, 2200 ft., 28 December 1946, 21 October 1946 (AMNH), 670 m, 1–10 May 1937 (SEMC). Loreto- Madreselva Biol. Stn., 24 June 2005 (USNM). Madre de Dios- CICRA Field Station, 272 m, 9 June 2011, 11 June 2011, 12 June 2011, 14 June 2011 (SEMC); Rio Tambopata Reserve, 30 km (air) SW Puerto Maldonaro, 29–30 April 1988 (CASC). Total: 128.

Cephaloleia coroicoana Uhmann, 1930c

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_coroicoana

Fig. 107
Cephalolia coroicoana Uhmann 1930c: 37.
Cephaloleia coroicoana Uhmann. Uhmann 1957b: 17 (catalog); Staines 1997b: 413 (Uhmann species list).
Description.

Elongate-ovate; subdepressed; shining; black; pronotum and elytra with lateral margins dull black; legs and epipleuron dark pitchy-black. Head: vertex distinctly, finely punctate, with narrow medial carina; frons not projecting; depressed between eyes. Antenna: as long as head and pronotum combined; slender; antennomeres 1–10 cylindrical, elongate; 1 not longer than 2; 2 and 3 subequal in length; 4–10 shorter than 3, elongate; 11 2× length of 10, acutely pointed at apex; 1–2 punctate with scattered setae; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight then rounding to anterior angle, narrowly margined; anterior angle broadly rounded, projecting; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc subconvex; surface sparsely punctate, larger punctures present medially; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.0–1.2 mm; pronotal width 1.0–1.3 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, broadly margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; moderately punctate-striate, punctures may be confused; elytral length 3.4–3.6 mm; elytral width 1.8–2.0 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna punctate; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete. Leg: slender; punctate; femur and tibia with pale seta in each puncture; femur with fringe of setae on inner margin; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 4.9–5.0 mm.

Figures 107–115.

Habitus. 107 Cephaloleia coroicoana 108 Cephaloleia crenulata sp. n. 109 Cephaloleia cyanea 110 Cephaloleia cylindrica 111 Cephaloleia daguana 112 Cephaloleia deficiens 113 Cephaloleia degandei 114 Cephaloleia delectabilis 115 Cephaloleia deplanata. Scale bars equal 3 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia deplanata, Cephaloleia fiebrigi, Cephaloleia marantae, and Cephaloleia rufipes. It can be distinguished by the pronotum without a basal impression.

Distribution.

Bolivia (Bahia), Brazil, Venezuela.

Type material examined.

Holotype: Bolivia, Coroico [handwritten label]/ Holotypus [printed red label]/ Cephalolia coroicana Uh., Det. E. Uhmann (NHMW).

Specimens examined.

No locality label (USNM). BRAZIL: Bahia- San Antonio de Bara, 1890 (USNM). Venezuela: Aragua- Rancho Grande Biological Station, 1300 m, 12–14 May 1998 (SEMC). Total: 3.

Description.

Small; stubby; subdepressed; yellowish-brown, antennomere 1 yellowish-brown, 2–10 darker, 11 dark basally, paler apically. Head: vertex strongly punctate, medial sulcus absent; frons punctate, not produced; keel absent between antennal bases; depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; slender; antennomeres 1–2 cylindrical, elongate, subequal in length; 3 cylindrical, elongate, 2× length of 2; 4–5 cylindrical, elongate, decreasing in length; 6–10 transverse, subequal in length, each ¾ length of 5; 11 2× length of 10, pointed at apex; 1–2 punctate with scattered setae; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin arcuate from base to anterior angle, finely crenulate, margined; anterior angle obtuse, slightly projecting; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc subconvex; surface with disc irregularly sparsely punctate, densely coarsely punctate laterally; basal impression absent; pronotal length 0.9 mm; pronotal width 1.6 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, nearly smooth, finely margined; apex rounded, smooth; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; constricted behind humerus; moderately irregularly punctate-striate, row 10 removed from lateral margin; elytral length 2.9 mm; elytral width 1.7 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; apical margin of last sternite concave in female. Leg: slender; punctate, each puncture with pale seta; tibia with fringe of setae on inner apical margin. Total length: 3.9 mm.

Etymology.

From crenulatum (Latin) meaning minutely emarginate for the finely emarginate lateral margin of the pronotum. The name is feminine.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to the pale form of Cephaloleia steinhauseni. It can be distinguished by the crenulate lateral margin of the pronotum, by the punctate vertex of the head, and by antennomere 1 and 2 being subequal in length.

Distribution.

Ecuador.

Type material.

Holotype female: Ecuador: Napo, Yasuni Biological Research Station, 220 m, 0°40'12"S, 76°23'24"W, 18–28 May 1996, P. Hibbs, ECU2H96 005B, ex. malaise trap/ Holotype Cephaloleia crenulata Staines, des. C. L. Staines 2012 (red label) (SEMC).

Cephaloleia cyanea Staines, 1996

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_cyanea

Fig. 109
Cephaloleia cyanea Staines 1996: 25. McKenna and Farrell 2006: 10949 (phylogeny).
Description.

Oval; subconvex; head, pronotum, and scutellum black; elytra dark metallic blue; legs reddish. Head: vertex shallowly, sparsely punctate, without sulcus; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; slender; antennomere 1 subglobose; 2 cylindrical, elongate, longer than 1; 3 elongate, longer than 1–2 combined; 4–10 elongate, decreasing in length, each shorter than 3; 11 pointed at apex, subequal in length to 4; 1–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight for basal ½ then rounding to anterior angle, canaliculate; anterior angle produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc subconvex; with slight depression in posterior angle; surface impunctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 0.6–0.9 mm; pronotal width 1.0–1.3 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal, impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, dentate, especially on apical ½, margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, slightly produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; punctures shallow; rows converge and unite near apex; punctures are larger and more impressed on elytral disc, rest almost obsolete; elytral length 2.6–3.3 mm; elytral width 1.4–1.7 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna smooth medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially, punctate laterally. Leg: slender; punctate; femur and tibia with row of setae on inner margin; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 3.4–4.1 mm.

Diagnosis.

This is a distinctive species which can be distinguished by the metallic blue color, by the smooth lateral margins of the pronotum, and by the serrulate lateral margins of the elytra.

Host plant.

Adults have been collected on Chusquea sp. (Poaceae) (Staines 1996).

Distribution.

Colombia, Costa Rica, Venezuela.

Type material examined.

Holotype: Venezuela: Aragua, Rancho Grande, 8 May 1973, 1100 m., Ginter Ekis/ Holotype Cephaloleia cyanea Staines, Des. C. L. Staines 1994 [red label] (USNM).

Specimens examined.

COLOMBIA: Boyaca- 11 km NW Arcabuco, 13 July 1982 (USNM). COSTA RICA: Puntarenas- Monteverde Reserve, 1500 m, 19 August 1987 (CMNC), 1400m 27 February 1980 (CMNC). VENEZUELA: Distrito Federal- Caracas, 1921 (USNM). Total: 10.

Cephaloleia cylindrica Staines, 1996

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_cylindrica

Fig. 110
Cephaloleia cylindrica Staines 1996: 25.
Description.

Elongate; narrow; convex reddish-brown; antennae, eyes, and legs black. Head: vertex smooth, medial sulcus absent; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches past humerus; slender; antennomeres 1–2 subglobular, short; 3–4 elongate, subequal in length, each 1½x length of 1 and 2 combined; longest; 5–10 elongate, each shorter than 4; 11 subequal to 10, pointed at apex; 1–4 punctate with scattered setae; 5–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin bisinuate, margined; anterior angle pointed, slightly produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc subconvex; surface impunctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.1 mm; pronotal width 1.1–1.3 mm. Scutellum: triangular; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; shallowly punctate-striate, punctures large; elytral length 3.3–3.6 mm; elytral width 1.7 mm. Venter: pro- and metasterna impunctate; mesosternum impunctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete. Leg: slender; femur punctate at base; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 4.7–5.3 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia puncticollis and Cephaloleia sallei. It can be distinguished by antennomeres 1 and 2 being subglobose.

Distribution.

Costa Rica, Panama.

Type material examined.

Holotype: X X Plantation, Rep Panama, Feb. 11, 1930 [blue-green label]/ Blackwelder Collection [blue-green label]/ Holotype Cephaloleia cylindrica Staines, Des. C. L. Staines 1994 [red label] (USNM).

Specimens examined.

COSTA RICA: Puntarenas- Est. Sirena, 0–100 m, May 1992 (INBIO). PANAMA: 11 February 1930 (USNM). Total: 2.

Cephaloleia daguana Uhmann, 1930e

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_daguana

Fig. 111
Cephalolia daguana Uhmann 1930e: 149. Uhmann 1936b: 110 (noted), 1936f: 482 (key), 1938a: 407 (distribution).
Cephaloleia daguana Uhmann. Uhmann 1950a: 274 (sculpture), 1957b: 17 (catalog), 1964a: 403 (catalog); Gaedike and Döbler 1971: 346 (types); Staines 1997b: 413 (Uhmann species list).
Cephalolia palmarum Pic 1923: 9 (type: Ecuador, MNHN, NHRS, not seen).
Cephaloleia palmarum Pic. Uhmann 1957b: 23 (catalog), 1961b: 23 (synonymy), 1964a: 404 (catalog); Descarpentries and Villiers 1959a: 139 (types).
Cephaloleia daguana palmarum Pic. Uhmann 1964a: 404 (transfer).
Description.

Slightly elongate; subdepressed; shining; yellowish-brown; head, antennae, and broad medial pronotal vitta black; elytra with black vitta from base along suture extending to beyond middle, reaches to puncture row 7 just below humeri and black apical macula; venter bright yellowish-brown. Head: vertex smooth, with small tubercle and faint medial carina; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: as long as head and pronotum combined; slender; male with antennomere 1 elongate, 2× as long as wide, with triangular projection; 2 ½ length 1, weakly triangular; 3 and 4 as long as 2, strongly triangular; 11 elongate-oval; female with 1 elongate, 2 conical; 3–4 concial, shorter than 2; 5–10 subequal in length, each shorter than 4; 11 2× length of 10, rounded at apex; 1–3 punctate with scattered setae; 4–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight then rounding to anterior angle, narrowly margined; anterior angle broadly rounded, produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; basal margin narrowly margined; disc subconvex, surface distinctly punctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 2.0–2.2 mm; pronotal width 2.4–2.6 mm. Scutellum: elongate pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, narrowly margined; apex nearly truncate; sutural angle with small tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; strongly punctate-striate, punctures confused apically; elytral length 7.2–7.4 mm; elytral width 3.2–3.4 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin weakly rounded in male, bisinuate in female. Leg: robust; thick; punctate; femur and tibia with pale seta in each puncture; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 9.9–10.2 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia laeta. It can be distinguished by the small tubercle on the vertex of the head.

Distribution.

Colombia, Ecuador.

Type material examined.

Paralectotype: Colombia, Río Dagua, Felsche [printed label]/ Paratypus [red printed label]/ Cephalolia daguana Uh., E. Uhmann det. (DEI).

Specimens examined.

Colombia: no further data (DEI). ECUADOR: Imbabura- Cachabé, November 1896 (USNM); Cachabé to Paramba, February 1897 (USNM). Loja- no further data (USNM). Pichincha- Estación Orongo, Palmitopomba, 23 July 2001 (USNM). Total: 30.

Cephaloleia deficiens Uhmann, 1930a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_deficiens

Fig. 112
Cephaloleia deficiens Uhmann 1930a: 226. Blackwelder 1946: 719 (catalog); Papp 1953: 15 (catalog); Uhmann 1957a: 17 (catalog); Gaedike and Döbler 1971: 346 (types); Wilcox 1983: 136 (catalog); Staines 1996: 26 (Central America species), 1997: 413 (Uhmann species list), 2011: 49 (faunal list); Staines and Staines 1997: 7 (types); McKenna and Farrell 2005: 119 (phylogeny), 2006: 10949 (phylogeny).
Description.

Small, ovate-elongate; subconvex; yellowish-brown; antennae, head, and mouthparts black; black vitta present on pronotum and elytra; elytra with black orbicular macula present on suture around scutellum, narrowing and disappearing before middle; venter with pro-, meso-, and metasterna yellow medially, dark laterally, abdomen reddish-brown; leg yellowish, femur dark at apex. Head: vertex densely punctate, golden seta in each puncture, medial sulcus present; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: ½ body length; slender; antennomere 1 elongate, slightly clavate; 2 elongate, shorter than 1 or 3; 3 elongate, longer than 1, slightly shorter than 11; 4–10 elongate, subequal in length, each shorter than 3; 11 2× length of 10, acutely pointed at apex; 1–5 punctate with scattered setae, 6–11 setose. Pronotum: narrow, transverse, widest at base; lateral margin straight, margined; anterior angle rounded, with small tooth; posterior angle angulate; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc subconvex; surface coarsely, irregularly punctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 0.9–1.2 mm; pronotal width 1.0–1.4 mm. Scutellum: impunctate; pentagonal. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; shallowly punctate-striate, punctures larger on disc; humerus nearly impunctate; elytral length 3.1–3.5 mm; elytral width 1.7–1.9 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially. Leg: slender; punctate; femur and tibia with short seta in each puncture; tibia with fringe of setae on inner apex, apex dentate. Total length: 4.3–4.7 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia balyi, Cephaloleia discoidalis, Cephaloleia dorsalis, Cephaloleia linkei, and Cephaloleia suturalis. It can be distinguished by the yellowish pronotum with a dark longitudinal vitta and by antennomere 1 being clavate and shorter than 3.

Host plant.

According to label data, adults have been collected on Costus bracteatus Gleason, Cephaloleia malortieanus H. Wendl. (Marantaceae).

Distribution.

Costa Rica.

Type material examined.

Syntype- Costa Rica, F. Nevermann, 16.VIII.25 [green label]/ Hamburg Farm, Reventazon, Ebene Limon [reversed green label]/ Holotype [red label]/ Cephalolia deficiens sp. n./ Cotype No. 54635 USNM [orange label] (USNM, 1).

Specimens examined.

COSTA RICA: Alajuela- Upala, Sector San Ramón, 1.5 km NW Hacienda Nueva Zelandia (INBIO). Cartago- Quebrada Segunda, P. N. Tapantí, 1200–1300 m (INBIO); Turrialba (USNM). Guanacaste- Estación Pitilla, 9 km S Santa Cecilia, 600–700 m (INBIO); La Cruz, 9 km S Santa Cecilia, 600–700 m (INBIO). Heredia- La Selva nr. Pto. Viejo, 50 m, 19 February 1980 (CMNC); Rara Avis Biological Station, 5 July 2011, 6 July 2011 (USNM). Limón- Hamburg Farm, Reventazón, Ebene Limón, 16 August 1925 (DEI); Sardinas, Barra del Colorado, 4 km NW Cerro Cocorí, 0–100 m (INBIO); A. C. Llanuras del Tortuguero, 0–100 m (INBIO); Pococí, Colorado, Sector Cerro Cocorí, 30 km N Cariari, 100–200 m (INBIO); Sito Tibieblas, 2 km NE Tigra, 1400–1500 m (INBIO). Total: 13.

Cephaloleia degandei Baly, 1858

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_degandei

Fig. 113
Cephalolia degandei Baly 1858: 57. Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3601 (catalog); Donckier 1899: 548 (catalog); Weise 1910: 89 (noted), 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 11 (catalog); Uhmann 1936b: 115 (noted), 1942b: 98 (noted), 1953d: 47 (faunal list).
Cephaloleia degandei Baly. Waterhouse 1881: 261 (distribution); Uhmann 1957b: 17 (catalog); Balazuc 1988: 397 (pathogens); Staines and Staines 1999: 523 (Baly species list).
Description.

Narrowly elongate; subparallel; subdepressed; dorsum black, venter pale yellow; vertex of head black, frons yellowish; antennomeres 1–3 yellowish, 4–6 black, 7–11 whitish; lateral margins of pronotum, scutellum, and base of elytra with broad yellowish band, middle and apex of elytra with broad yellowish band; legs pale yellow. Head: vertex finely punctate, medial sulcus present; frons concave, not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: reaches to humerus; slender; antennomere 1 incrassate, 2× length 2; 2 slightly elongate; 3 slightly longer than 2; 4–6 elongate, subequal in length, each ¾ length of 3; 7–10 subequal in length, each shorter than 6; 11 2× length 10, rounded at apex; 1–6 punctate with scattered setae; 7–11 setose. Pronotum: quadrate; lateral margin slightly sinuate then rounding to anterior angle, canaliculate; anterior angle rounded; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc subconvex; surface deeply, irregularly punctate, punctures more dense laterally, punctures moderate to large; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.7–1.9 mm; pronotal width 2.2–2.4 mm. Scutellum: elongate pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, narrowly margined; apex slightly rounded, sutural angle emarginate, without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; subconvex, disc flattened; shallowly punctate-striate, punctures in irregular rows; elytral length 6.4–6.8 mm; elytral width 3.0–3.2 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna impunctate; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin concave-emarginate in male, broadly emarginate in female. Leg: slender; impunctate; femur robust; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 8.8–9.2 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia amba sp. n. It can be distinguished by the smooth lateral margins of the pronotum and by antennomere 1 being twice the length of 2.

Distribution.

Ecuador, Peru.

Type material examined.

Syntype: Peru [handwritten label]/ Baly coll. [printed label]/ Cephalolia degandei Baly, Peru [blue handwritten label] (BMNH, 1).

Specimens examined.

No label data (USNM). Ecuador: 1880 (USNM). Napo- Puyo, 960 m, 1–8 October 1970 (USNM); Limonocha, 300 m, 31 March 1974 (EGRC); Río Napo, Sacha Lodge, 3–13 June 1994 (BYUC); Shushufindi, 215 m, 11 August 1997 (CDFA, USNM). Peru: Loreto- Yurimaguas, June-August 1885 (USNM). Total: 22.

Cephaloleia delectabilis Staines, 1996

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_delectabilis

Fig. 114
Cephaloleia delectabilis Staines 1996: 26.
Description.

Elongate; subparallel; moderately convex; reddish-brown; antennal antennomeres 3–11 black; eyes dark. Head: vertex finely punctate, with two curved sulci, separated by wide carina; frons not projecting; not depressed between eyes. Antenna: as long as head and pronotum combined; robust; antennomeres 1–2 elongate, subequal in length; 3–10 transverse, subequal in length, each shorter than 2; 11 rounded at apex, subequal in length to 1 or 2; 1–5 punctate with scattered setae; 6–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin straight, slightly convergent from base to apex, margined; anterior angle rounded, not produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin curved posteriorly; disc subconvex; surface sparsely, irregularly punctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 0.9 mm; pronotal width 1.0 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, margined; apex rounded; small tooth present in sutural angle; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; moderately punctate-striate, punctures shallow, large; puncture rows converge and unite at apex; elytral length 2.9 mm; elytral width 1.4 mm. Venter: pro- and mesosterna impunctate medially, rugose laterally; metasternum impunctate medially, punctate laterally; abdominal sterna sparsely punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially. Leg: slender; femur and tibia punctate; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 3.7 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia nigricornis. It can be distinguished by the elytral puncture rows being distinct apically and by antennomere 1 being subequal in length to 2.

Distribution.

Mexico.

Type material examined.

Holotype: Mexico, Chiapas, Pq. Laguna Belgica, 16kmNW Ocozocoautla, 14.VI.1989, H. Howden/ flight intercept trap/ Holotype Cephaloleia delectabilis Staines, Des. C. L. Staines 1994 [red label] (CMNC).

Cephaloleia deplanata Uhmann, 1927

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_deplanata

Fig. 115
Cephalolia deplanata Uhmann 1927: 51. Uhmann 1930d: 150 (noted).
Cephaloleia deplanata Uhmann. Uhmann 1948a: 220 (noted), 1957b: 17 (catalog); Gaedike and Döbler 1971: 347 (types); Staines 1997b: 413 (Uhmann species list).
Description.

Elongate; subdepressed; shining; pitchy-black except lateral margin of pronotum and elytra; elytra with metallic sheen; antennae and venter brownish. Head: vertex punctate, medial carina present; frons not projecting; depressed between eyes. Antenna: as long as head and pronotum combined; slender; antennomere 1 elongate; 2 shorter than 1; 3 subequal in length to 1; 4–10 elongate, nearly as long as 3; 11 2× length of 10, pointed at apex; 1–2 punctate with scattered setae; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: transverse; lateral margin arcuate, narrowly margined; anterior angle rounded, produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc subdepressed; surface with large rounded punctures present laterally, disc nearly impunctate; transverse basal impression present medially; pronotal length 0.9–1.2 mm; pronotal width 1.3–1.7 mm. Scutellum: pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin weakly rounded, smooth, narrowly margined; apex obliquely rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; constricted behind humerus; weakly punctate-striate, punctures weaker apically; pygidium visible, triangular in female, angulate in male; elytral length 3.1–3.5 mm; elytral width 1.6–1.9 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna sparsely punctate; abdominal sterna sparsely punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; last sternite with apical margin strongly sinuate in male, emarginate medially in female. Leg: slender; punctate; femur and tibia with pale seta in each puncture; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 4.0–5.0 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia coroicoana, Cephaloleia fiebrigi, Cephaloleia marantae, and Cephaloleia rufipes. It can be distinguished by the basal impression on the pronotum, by the elytral punctures being distinct basally and apically, and by the puncture rows not converging and uniting apically.

Host plant.

According to label data, adults have been collected feeding on Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae).

Distribution.

Brazil (Bahia, Rondonia), Suriname, Venezuela.

Type material examined.

Holotype male: Suriname, ♂, Haag/ Holotypus [red label]/ Cephalolia deplanata Uh., Det. E. Uhmann (DEI).

Specimens examined.

Brazil: Bahia- no further data (USNM); Opalma, 27 June 1967 (USNM); Sta. Amaro, 16 December 1996 (USNM). Rondonia- 62 km SW Ariquames, Fzda Rancho Grande, 15 November 1994 (BYUC). Venezuela: Aragua- Rancho Grande Biological Station, 1100 m, 4 June 1996 (SEMC). Total: 30.

Cephaloleia depressa Baly, 1858

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_depressa

Fig. 116
Cephalolia depressa Baly 1858: 60. Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3601 (catalog); Donckier 1899: 548 (catalog); Weise 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 11 (catalog).
Cephaloleia depressa Baly. Maulik 1924: 246 (noted); Uhmann 1948a: 220 (noted), 1957b: 17 (catalog); Mariau 1999: 233 (noted), 2001: 132 (noted); Staines and Staines 1999: 523 (Baly species list).
Description.

Small; elongate; flattened; black, lateral margins of pronotum paler; venter black; tarsi piceous. Head: vertex punctate, with medial carina; frons not projecting; depressed between eyes. Antenna: ½ body length; slender; antennomere 1 slightly incrassate, elongate, longer than 2, subequal in length to 3; 2 elongate, cylindrical; 3 elongate, slender; 4–10 elongate, slightly decreasing in length, each shorter than 3; 11 2× length of 10, pointed at apex; 1–2 punctate; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: quadrate; lateral margin arcuate, canaliculate, serrulate; anterior angle pointed; posterior angle acute; anterior margin emarginate behind head; disc slightly convex; surface densely coarsely punctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 0.6–0.9 mm; pronotal width 1.1–1.5 mm. Scutellum: broadly triangular; alutaceous. Elytron: lateral and apical margins smooth; lateral margin straight, margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; punctures moderately impressed; pygidium coarsely punctate, obtusely rounded at apex; elytral length 2.4–2.8 mm; elytral width 1.1–1.5 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna sparsely punctate; abdominal sterna sparsely punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 obsolete medially; last sternite with apical margin deeply sinuate in male, emarginate medially in female. Leg: slender; punctate; femur and tibia with pale seta in each puncture; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex. Total length: 3.5–3.9 mm.

Figures 116–124.

Habitus. 116 Cephaloleia depressa 117 Cephaloleia deyrollei 118 Cephaloleia dilatata 119 Cephaloleia dilaticollis 120 Cephaloleia dilectans 121 Cephaloleia dimidiaticornis 122 Cephaloleia diplothemium 123 Cephaloleia discoidalis 124 Cephaloleia disjuncta. Scale bars equal 3 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia donckieri, Cephaloleia elaeidis, Cephaloleia tarsata, and Cephaloleia zikani. It can be distinguished by the vertex of the head without a medial fovea, by the serrulate lateral margins of the pronotum, by the smooth apical margins of the elytra, and by antennomere 2 being obconic.

Host plant.

Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae) (Mariau 2001).

Distribution.

Brazil (Bahia, Matto Grosso, Pará), Ecuador.

Type material examined.

Holotype male: Santarem, Upper Amazons [handwritten label]/ Bates [handwritten label]/ Cephalolia depressa Baly, Santarem [blue handwritten label] (BMNH).

Specimens examined.

No label data (USNM). Brazil: ?- Taperina (USNM). Bahia- Opalma, 17 June 1967 (USNM). Matto Grosso- 1886 (USNM). Ecuador: Orellana- 1 km S Onkone Gare Camp, Reserva Etnica Waorani, 216.3 m, 23 June 1996, 2 October 1996, 4 October 1995 (USNM). Total: 10.

Cephaloleia deyrollei Baly, 1858

http://species-id.net/wiki/Cephaloleia_deyrollei

Fig. 117
Cephalolia deyrollei Baly 1858: 53. Gemminger and Harold 1876: 3601 (catalog); Donckier 1899: 548 (catalog); Weise 1910: 89 (noted), 1911a: 7 (catalog), 1911b: 12 (catalog).
Cephaloleia deyrollei Baly. Lüderwaldt 1910: 61 (host plant); Uhmann 1957b: 17 (catalog), 1964b: 4 (faunal list); Buck 1958: 146 (museum list); Staines and Staines 1999: 523 (Baly species list); Staines 2004a: 312 (host plant).
Description.

Elongate; moderately convex; black, eyes dark, antennomeres all black or 1–4 yellowish, 5–11 dark, elytra with yellowish vitta from humeri to just beyond middle, lateral margin yellowish; venter black, abdominal sterna yellowish laterally; legs yellowish. Head: vertex punctate, medial sulcus absent; small tubercle present on front; frons not projecting; depressed between eyes. Antenna: ½ body length; slender; antennomere 1 elongate, 2× length of 2; 2 transverse, shortest; 3 cylindrical, subequal in length to 1; 4–5 subequal in length, each shorter than 3; 6–10 transverse, subequal in length, each shorter than 5; 11 2× length 10, rounded at apex; 1–2 punctate with scattered setae; 3–11 setose. Pronotum: subquadrate; lateral margin straight then rounding to anterior angle, canaliculate; anterior angle rounded, slightly produced; posterior angle acute; anterior margin straight; disc subconvex; surface deeply, sparsely punctate; basal impression absent; pronotal length 1.2–1.4 mm; pronotal width 1.3–1.5 mm. Scutellum: broadly pentagonal; impunctate. Elytron: lateral margin straight, smooth, slightly margined; apex rounded; sutural angle without tooth; humerus rounded, not produced; slightly constricted behind humerus; distinctly punctate-striate; interspaces slightly raised; elytral length 4.2–5.3 mm; elytral width 1.8–2.2 mm. Venter: pro-, meso-, and metasterna punctate; abdominal sterna punctate, each puncture with pale seta; suture between sterna 1 and 2 complete; last sternite with apical margin broadly, weakly emarginate medially in male, rounded, entire in female. Leg: slender; impunctate; tibia with fringe of setae on inner margin of apex Total length: 5.8–7.0 mm.

Diagnosis.

This species is similar to Cephaloleia flavovittata. It can be distinguished by antennomere 1 being elongate.

Host plant.

Marantha sp. (Marantaceae) (Lüderwaldt 1910).

Distribution.

Bolivia, Brazil (Bahia, Corcovado, Paraná, Río de Janiero, Santa Catharina, São Paulo), Ecuador, French Guiana.