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Revision of the genus Ceriantheomorphe (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Ceriantharia) with description of a new species from the Gulf of Mexico and northwestern Atlantic
expand article infoCeline S. S. Lopes, Hellen Ceriello, André C. Morandini§, Sérgio N. Stampar
‡ Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, Brazil
§ Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Open Access

Abstract

The present study presents a revision of the genus Ceriantheomorphe Carlgren, 1931, including redescriptions of the two presently recognized species, Ceriantheomorphe ambonensis (Kwietniewski, 1898) and Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis (Mello-Leitão, 1919), comb. nov., and a description of the new species Ceriantheomorphe adelita sp. nov.

Keywords

Biogeography, cnidarian taxonomy, North America, Pacific Ocean, South America

Introduction

Ceriantharia is a subclass within the cnidarian class Anthozoa, consisting of species commonly known as tube anemones. This taxon has several taxonomic inconsistencies (Stampar et al. 2016) that are understudied, in part because of sampling difficulties (den Hartog 1977; Stampar et al. 2016). Moreover, ecology, behavior and life cycle in most species are poorly known (Nyholm 1943; Stampar et al. 2015, 2016). Also, most systematic studies are solely based on morphological characters of few specimens (Carlgren 1912; Arai 1965; den Hartog 1977), leading to unreliable terminology (Arai 1965), and contributing to taxonomic uncertainty. A combination of these problems occurs in the genus Ceriantheomorphe Carlgren, 1931, which currently includes only two species: Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis sensu Carlgren, 1931, and Ceriantheomorphe ambonensis (Kwietniewski 1898) (Carlgren 1931; den Hartog 1977).

The genus Ceriantheomorphe was described by Carlgren (1931) through the description of C. brasiliensis from southeastern Brazil. In this study, Carlgren also proposed that two species, Cerianthus ambonensis Kwietniewski, 1898 described from Ambon, Indonesia and Cerianthus brasiliensis Mello-Leitão, 1919 described from Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) should be reassigned to the genus Ceriantheomorphe. As well, Carlgren (1931) also pointed out that Cerianthus brasiliensis is likely a synonym of Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis sensu Carlgren 1931.

However, assigning Cerianthus ambonensis as “Ceriantheomorphe ambonensis” would have been premature because the simple description made by Kwietniewski (1898) did not include any mention of deposited type material. Additionally, Carlgren (1931) was not able to observe the holotype of Cerianthus brasiliensis described by Mello-Leitão (1919), so his assignment of the species to Ceriantheomorphe must be viewed as tentative.

More than two decades after the description of Ceriantheomorphe, Carlgren and Hedgpeth (1952) reported C. brasiliensis from the Gulf of Mexico. However, the authors suggested that these specimens could possibly be another species due to the disjunct occurrence in relation to South American specimens (Carlgren and Hedgpeth 1952; den Hartog 1977; Spier et al. 2012).

Despite this taxonomic confusion, Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis had been listed as an endangered species in Brazil for over 10 years (MMA 2004). Furthermore, the tubes built by C. brasiliensis, and Ceriantharia in general, play an important ecological role in providing suitable alternative substrates to many invertebrate groups (e.g., Bryozoa, Crustacea, Anthozoa) (Tiffon 1987; Kim and Huys 2012; Vieira and Stampar 2014). For example, some species, such as the phoronid Phoronis australis Haswell, 1883, are only found in ceriantharian tubes (Stampar et al. 2010). Thus, the survival of P. australis may be related to the management of the cerianthid species that houses them in the southern Atlantic.

This study aims to present a taxonomic review of the genus Ceriantheomorphe including a redescription of the holotype of C. brasiliensis, a redescription of C. ambonensis, and the description of a new species from the North Atlantic.

Material and methods

Specimens

Twenty specimens of Ceriantheomorphe were sampled by SCUBA: sixteen of C. brasiliensis from the South Atlantic, three from the North Atlantic, and one, C. ambonensis, from the Pacific Ocean (Table 1).

List of Ceriantheomorphe specimens in this study. Abbreviations: ES = Espírito Santo State; RJ = Rio de Janeiro State; SP = São Paulo State; SC = Santa Catarina State; UFRJ Biologia = cnidarian collections of the Department of Zoology, Biology Institute, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; MZSP = Zoology Museum, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil; MNHN Montevideo = National Museum of Natural History, Montevideo, Uruguay; USNM = United States National Museum, Washington DC, USA.

Species Country Locality Coordinates Museum code
C. brasiliensis Brazil Guanabara Bay-RJ 22°49'6''S, 43°8'45''W MNRJ 200
Arraial do Cabo-RJ 23°0'4''S, 42°0'29''W MZSP 8470
Araçá Beach-SP 23°48'58''S, 45°24'24''W MZSP 8471
Araçá Beach-SP 23°48'58''S, 45°24'24''W MZSP 8472
Cagarras Islands-RJ 23°1'55''S, 43°11'58''W MZSP 8473
Canasvieiras-SC 27°25'31''S, 48°27'0.2''W MZSP 8475
Camburi Beach-ES 20°16'39''S, 40°16'29''W UFRJ Biologia 0293
Camburi Beach-ES 20°16'39''S, 40°16'29''W UFRJ Biologia 0337
Rio de Janeiro-RJ UFRJ Biologia 2-141
Urca-RJ UFRJ Biologia 2-086
Zimbro Beach-SP 23°49'27''S, 45°25'4''W UFRJ Biologia 2-11
Sabacu Island-RJ 23°0'43''S, 44°22'7''W MNRJ 2766
Uruguay José Ignacio-Maldonado 35°00'S, 54°24'2''W MZSP 8474
La Paloma-Rocha 34°42'3''S, 54°0.5'W UFRJ-Biologia 2-464 A
La Paloma-Rocha 34°42'3''S, 54°0.5'W UFRJ-Biologia 2-464 B
Punta del Diabo 34°04'S, 53°29'W MNHN Montevideo I-1168
C. adelita sp. nov. Mexico Punta de Almagre-Tamaulipas USNM 50016
United States of America Pass A’Loutre-Louisiana USNM 51253
Port Aransas, Corpus Christi-Texas USNM 50015
C. ambonensis Indonesia Jakarta Bay-Jakarta MZSP 8476

Morphological studies

The morphology of all specimens was studied through internal anatomy and cnidome studies, both based on criteria adopted by Carlgren (1931), Arai (1965), den Hartog (1977) and Stampar et al. (2015). All specimens were observed separately. Specimens were longitudinally dissected along the ventral side using surgical scalpels, photographed under an Opticam stereomicroscope, using the OPT HD 3.7 software and a general description of each body region was made. The morphological characters were compared between specimens and descriptions available in the relevant literature (Kwietniewski 1898; Carlgren 1931; Spier et al. 2012).

All protomesenteries/directive mesenteries (P) were measured. Five quartets of mesenteries were measured for each specimen. We also divided the metamesenteries (type M and type m) value and betamesenteries (type B and type b) value to calculate the ratio between these mesentery types. We calculated the proportion occupied by protomesenteries in the gastrovascular cavity using the following equation:

F (length of protomesentery) × 100 / E (length of gastrovascular cavity)

The cnidome study was based on the sampling of 30 cnidae capsules for each cnida type from each body region (superior tip of marginal and labial tentacles, actinopharynx region, column, metamesenteries and betamesenteries). Each cnida was classified according to their shape based on different authors (Mariscal 1974; den Hartog 1977; Stampar et al. 2015) and measured using a Nikon Eclipse E200 microscope and MOTIC IMAGES PLUS 2.0 imaging software.

Systematic results

Phylum Cnidaria Verrill, 1865

Class Anthozoa Ehrenberg, 1834

Subclass Ceriantharia Perrier, 1893

Suborder Spirularia den Hartog, 1977

Family Cerianthidae Milne-Edwards & Haime, 1851

Ceriantheomorphe Carlgren, 1931

Diagnosis

Cerianthidae with fertile mesenteries, except for directives. Two pairs of mesenteries connected to the siphonoglyph. Mesenteries grouped in quartets following M, B, m, b order (after Carlgren 1931; Spier et al. 2012).

Type species

Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis (Mello-Leitão, 1919).

Valid species

Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis (Mello-Leitão, 1919) new comb., Ceriantheomorphe ambonensis (Kwietniewski, 1898), Ceriantheomorphe adelita sp. nov.

Distribution

Southwestern Atlantic (Brazil and Uruguay), Gulf of Mexico (United States of America and Mexico), Central West Pacific (Java Sea, Indonesia).

Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis (Mello-Leitão, 1919), comb. nov.

Fig. 1 A–C

Cerianthus brasiliensis Mello-Leitão, 1919: 38–39.

Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis sensu Carlgren 1931: 2–6; Carlgren 1940: 6, 11–12; Carlgren and Hedgpeth 1952: 148, 169–170; Frey 1970: 309; Molodtsova 2009: 365–367; Stampar et al. 2010: 205–209; Silveira and Morandini 2011: 3; Rodriguez et al. 2011: 52, 54–55; Spier et al. 2012: 1–3; Stampar et al. 2012: 5–6, 9; Stampar et al. 2014a: 2, 5, 8; Stampar et al. 2014b: 344, 347, 351, 353; Stampar and Morandini 2014: 2; Vieira and Stampar 2014: 370; Stampar et al. 2015: 3; González-Muñoz et al. 2016: 5, 9; Stampar et al. 2016: 64, 67, 68.

Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis (not) – Hedgpeth 1954: 286.

Material examined (16 specimens)

Holotype: MNRJ 200 • adult individual (16.5 cm long), Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (22°49'6"S, 43°8'45"W), Mello-Leitão leg. (Fig. 1 A–C). Paratypes: MZSP 8470 • adult individual (9.3 cm long), Arraial do Cabo (near Farol Island, 18 m depth), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (23°0'4"S, 42°0'29"W), S.N. Stampar leg. (20/i/2009); MZSP 8471 • adult individual (24 cm long), Araçá Beach (intertidal), São Sebastião, São Paulo, Brazil (23°48'58"S, 45°24'24"W), J.A. Petersen leg. (03/ii/1965); MZSP 8472 • adult individual (16.5 cm long), same locality data as for preceding; MZSP 8473 • juvenile individual, (8.5 cm long), Cagarras Islands (22 m depth), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (23°1'55"S, 43°11'58"W), S.N. Stampar leg. (15/iv/2009); MZSP 8474 • adult individual (22.2 cm long), José Ignacio (27 km from the coast, 38 m depth), Maldonado, Uruguay (35°00'S, 54°24'2"W), F. Scarabino leg. (18/ix/2005); MZSP 8475 • adult individual (14.4 cm long), Canasvieiras Beach, Florianópolis (4 m depth), Santa Catarina, Brazil, (27°25'31"S, 48°27'0.2"W), S.N. Stampar leg. (21/i/2009) (Fig. 2D); UFRJ Biologia 0293 • adult individual (17 cm long), Camburi Beach, Espírito Santo, Brazil (20°16'39"S, 40°16'29"W), (18/viii/1989) (Fig. 2A); UFRJ Biologia 0337 • adult individual (16.5 cm long), same data as for preceding, (17/iv/1990) (Fig. 2B); UFRJ Biologia 2-141 • adult individual (22 cm long), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, A. Saldanha leg. (1966); UFRJ Biologia 2-086 • damaged adult individual, Urca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, (1959); UFRJ Biologia 2-11 • adult individual (10.9 cm long), Zimbro Beach, São Sebastião (4–6 m depth), São Paulo, Brazil, (23°49'27"S, 45°25'4"W), E.Q. Cez leg. (04/ix/1967); UFRJ Biologia 2-464 A • damaged individual, (34 m depth), La Paloma, Uruguay, (34°42'3''S, 54°0.5'W), Conversut I #4557 exped. (17/ix/77); UFRJ Biologia 2-464 • damaged individual, same data as for preceding specimen; MNRJ 2766 B • adult individual (14.5 cm long), Sabacu Island, Angra dos Reis (6 m depth), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (23°0'43"S, 44°22'7"W), C.C. Ratto leg. (07/xii/1993); MNHN Montevideo I-1168 • adult individual (11 cm long), Rocha (6 km from the coast, in line of Santa Teresa Fortress, 18 m depth), Punta del Diabo, Uruguay (34°04'S, 53°29'W), Navio Hero (3A) exped. (21/vii/1972) (Fig. 2C).

Figure 1. 

Holotype of Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis (MNRJ 200). A Specimen inside the tube B specimen without the tube C dissected specimen. Scale bars: 2 cm.

Figure 2. 

Dissected specimens of Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis from southwestern Atlantic. A Individual UFRJ Biologia 0293 from Camburi (ES) B specimen UFRJ Biologia 0337 from Camburi (ES) C specimen MNHN Montevideo I-1168 from Punta del Este (Uruguay) D individual from Canasvieiras Beach, Santa Catarina.

Diagnosis

Large cerianthid, 8.5–24 cm long and 1.5–13.8 cm wide. 132–392 marginal tentacles arranged in (1)1123.1123 and 108–384 labial tentacles arranged in (1)1122.1122 or (1)1123.1123. Pharynx occupies about 8–27% of total body length. Five pairs of protomesenteries, of which two pairs connected to the siphonoglyph, (directives and P2). Gastrovascular cavity takes up to 33–72% of total body length. All fertile mesenteries, except for directives. Number of mesenteries about 170–642. Directives mesenteries longer than protomesenteries P3, P5 and metamesenteries m, except by m of the 2nd and 3rd cycles. Protomesenteries (P2) longer than all mesenteries, extending up to the aboral pore (Fig. 3). Protomesenteries (P3) shorter than protomesenteries (P4) and longer than protomesenteries (P5) and betamesenteries (B), except by B of the 1st and 2nd cycles. Protomesenteries (P4) longer than directive mesenteries, P5 and metamesenteries (m), except by m of the 2nd and 3rd cycles. Protomesenteries (P5) shorter than all others protomesenteries and metamesenteries M and m. Ratio of 1.2–3.1% between betamesenteries (B × b) and 1.1–3.1% between metamesenteries (M × m). Directive mesenteries, protomesenteries P3, P4 and P5 occupies about 36.6%, 12.2%, 38.8% and 11.1% of total gastrovascular cavity length, respectively, while protomesenteries P2 extend over 80%. Cnidome composed of spirocysts, microbasic b-mastigophores (six types), atrichous (two types), ptychocysts and holotrichous (Fig. 5A–J, Table 2).

Figure 3. 

Mesenteries arrangement of the holotype of Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis (MNRJ 200). MT Marginal tentacles LT Labial tentacles M and m Metamesenteries B and b Betamesenteries.

Measurements of 30 cnida capsules for each cnida type in 6 distinct body regions of Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis (N = 16). Information inside parentheses indicates cnidae length and width, respectively, and information outside parentheses indicates average of cnidae size.

Body part/cnida type Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis
Marginal tentacles
Microbasic b-mastigophore type I 65.56 (50.50–80.63) × 13.13 (7.57–18.69)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type II 38.23 (27.96–48.5) × 4.99 (3.13–6.86)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type III 31.16 (18.36–43.97) × 3.96 (1.97–5.95)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type IV 16.55 (10.61–22.49) × 4.10 (2.2–6.01)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type V 27.87 (18.01–37.73) × 7.02 (1.6–5.42)
Labial tentacles
Microbasic b-mastigophore type I 48.75 (36.89–60.61) × 9.11 (5.41–12.82)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type II 34.93 (25.2–44.66) × 5.12 (3.65–6.6)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type III 28.27 (17.20–39.35) × 4.03 (1.71–6.35)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type IV 24.11 (17.25–30.97) × 2.73 (1.64–3.83)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type V 26.10 (15.03–37.18) × 3.29 (1.79–4.79)
Pharynx
Atrichous type I 38.33 (26.15–50.52) × 5.95 (2.68–9.22)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type I 52.64 (35.56–69.73) × 8.38 (5.43–11.33)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type II 44.39 (32.10–56.68) × 6.09 (3.28–8.91)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type III 34.97 (21.86–48.09) × 3.35 (2.13–4.57)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type V 27.62 (23.37–31.88) × 2.81 (2.19–3.43)
Column
Ptychocyst type I 71.99 (56.21–87.77) × 24.41 (13.75–35.08)
Ptychocyst type II 77.14 (50.15–94.14) × 14.12 (8.86–19.38)
Atrichous type I 48.85 (30.09–67.61) × 11.09 (4.41–17.78)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type I 41.33 (26.47–56.2) × 6.25 (3.96–8.54)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type IV 28.14 (23.83–32.45) × 3.12 (2.48–3.76)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type V 29.95 (22.51–37.4) × 3.03 (2.08–3.98)
Holotrichous 50.95 (30.04–71.86) × 14.88 (7.3–22.46)
Mesenteries M
Microbasic b-mastigophore type I 51.58 (35.0–68.17) × 10.09 (6.41–13.77)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type IV 22.25 (10.93–33.58) × 5.76 (2.25–9.28)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type III 20.03 (13.3–26.77) × 4.90 (2.91–6.9)
Mesenteries b
Microbasic b-mastigophore type I 54.65 (39.57–69.74) × 10.44 (7.16–13.73)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type II 33.69 (24.83–42.56) × 5.01 (3.32–6.7)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type III 19.97 (12.1–27.85) × 4.17 (1.95–6.4)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type IV 19.59 (8.62–30.56) × 4.06 (2.24–5.89)

Distribution

Southwestern Atlantic-Brazil (from the State of Espírito Santo (20.5°S) to Rio Grande do Sul (33.7°S) State) and Uruguay (34°S). This species was only observed in shallow waters (1–40 m depth).

Description of holotype

(MNRJ 200) (Fig. 1A–C). Large ceriantharian, 16.5 cm long and 7.7–10.4 cm wide. 388 marginal tentacles (4.9 cm long in preserved specimen) and 312 labial tentacles (1.7 cm long in preserved specimen), both disposed in four cycles. Marginal tentacles arrangement: (1)1243.1243.1123.1123…, labial tentacles arrangement: (1)1234.1122.1243.1243… Small pharynx, 15% of total body length, well-marked siphonoglyph. Five pairs of protomesenteries, two of which connected to the siphonoglyph. Indistinct hyposulcus and hemisulci. With exception of short directives, all mesenteries are fertile. Long protomesenteries P2 extending up to the aboral pore and longer than metamesenteries all mesenteries. Arrangement of mesenteries is M,B,m,b (Fig. 3). Mesenteric filaments of almost the same length of mesenteries. Craspedonemes only on initial part of gastrovascular cavity. Cnidome composed of spirocysts, microbasic b-mastigophores (two types), atrichous and ptychocyst.

Ceriantheomorphe ambonensis

Fig. 6A–B

Cerianthus ambonensis Kwietniewski, 1898: 426; Pax 1910: 167; McMurrich 1910: 26–28; Carlgren 1912: 44–47.

Cerianthus sulcatus McMurrich, 1910: 28–30.

Ceriantheomorphe ambonensisCarlgren 1931: 1.

Material examined

(MZSP 8476): • young individual (3.8 cm long) from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia, K. Cassiolato leg. (viii/2011) (Fig. 6A–B).

Diagnosis

Small cerianthid, 3.8 cm long and 2.1 cm wide. 48 marginal tentacles and 72 labial tentacles, both disposed in three cycles. Directive marginal and labial tentacles absent. Marginal tentacles arrangement: (0)1123.1121.1213.1213... Labial tentacles arrangement: (0)112.1121.1121.1121… Pharynx occupies about 18% of total body length. Hyposulcus and hemisulci absent. Gastrovascular cavity occupies about 55% of total body length. Three pairs of protomesenteries, all connected to the siphonoglyph (directive mesenteries, P2 and P3). About 96 mesenteries arranged in M,B,m,b (Fig. 7). Directive mesenteries shorter than all other mesenteries. Protomesenteries (P2) longer than all metamesenteries. Ratio of 4% between betamesenteries (B × b) and 2.2–3.5% between metamesenteries (M × m). Directive mesenteries, protomesenteries P2 and P3, occupy 2.3%, 85.7%, 14.2% of total gastrovascular cavity length, respectively. Cnidome (Fig. 8, Table 3) composed of spirocysts, microbasic b-mastigophores (six types), atrichous (one type), ptychocyst and holotrichous.

Measurements of 30 cnida capsules for each cnida type in 6 distinct body regions of Ceriantheomorphe ambonensis (N = 1). Information inside parentheses indicates cnidae length and width, respectively, and information outside parentheses indicates average of cnidae size.

Body part/cnida type Ceriantheomorphe ambonensis
Marginal tentacles
Microbasic b-mastigophore type II 36.02 (23.16–48.89) × 6.18 (4.89–7.47)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type IV 19.54 (14.42–24.66) × 6.18 (4.89–7.47)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type V 18.90 (16.21–21.60) × 2.56 (2.22–2.90)
Labial tentacles
Microbasic b-mastigophore type I 46.84 (42.40–51.28) × 8.05 (6.46–9.65)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type II 30.31 (26.15–34.47) × 4.58 (3.30–5.87)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type III 27.68 (24.16–31.20) × 3.54 (2.83–4.25)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type V 23.52 (18.13–28.92) × 2.82 (2.05–3.59)
Pharynx
Atrichous 40.36 (33.48–47.25) × 5.99 (4.81–7.17)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type I 50.45 (44.63–56.28) × 7.49 (5.92–9.07)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type II 36.49 (32.28–40.70) × 5.17 (3.58–6.76)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type III 29.92 (24.42–35.42) × 3.59 (2.48–4.71)
Column
Ptychocyst 61.96 (53.31–70.62) × 21.63 (17.22–26.05)
Atrichous 48.50 (41.69–55.32) × 11.38 (8.74–14.03)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type I 41.45 (34.51–48.39) × 9.64 (8.74–10.54)
Holotrichous 55.10 (47.45–62.76) × 14.97 (11.27–18.68)
Mesenteries M
Microbasic b-mastigophore type I 49.11 (43.91–54.31) × 9.24 (6.92–11.57)
Microbasic b-mastigophore type IV 19.03 (16.70–21.37) × 4.99 (3.38–6.61)
Mesenteries b
Microbasic b-mastigophore type IV 22.34 (16.34–28.34) × 5.93 (4.10–7.76)

Distribution

Indonesia, shallow waters.

Description of specimen

Small individual, with 3.8 cm long and 2.1 cm wide. 48 marginal tentacles and 72 labial tentacles, both disposed in three cycles. Marginal tentacles arrangement: (0)1123.112…, labial tentacles arrangement: (0)112.112.112… Small pharynx, occupies 18% of total body length. Hyposulcus and hemisulci absent. Well-marked siphonoglyph with three pairs of mesenteries connected to it (one pair of directive mesenteries and two pairs of protomesenteries). Long protomesenteries (P2) extending to the terminal pore and longer than other mesenteries. Directive mesenteries shorter than all mesenteries. Protomesenteries (P3) shorter than metamesenteries (M and m) and longer than betamesenteries (B and b). 96 mesenteries arranged in M,B,m,b (Fig. 6). Mesenteric filaments and craspedonemes present on initial portion of the gastrovascular cavity. Gastrovascular cavity occupies approximately 55% of the entire body length. Directive mesenteries and protomesenteries P3 occupy 2.3% and 14.2% of total gastrovascular cavity length, respectively, while protomesenteries P2 occupies 85.7%. Ratio of 2.2–3.5% between metamesenteries (M × m) and 4% between betamesenteries (B × b). Cnidome (Fig. 7) composed of spirocysts, microbasic b- mastigophores (six types), atrichous (one type), ptychocyst and holotrichous.

Ceriantheomorphe adelita Lopes, Morandini & Stampar, sp. nov.

Fig. 9A–B

Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis Carlgren, 1931 (in part): 2–6; Carlgren and Hedgpeth 1952: 148, 169–170; Hedgpeth 1954: 286–290; Molodtsova 2009: 365–367; Stampar et al. 2010: 205–209; Spier et al. 2012: 1–3.

Material examined (3 specimens)

Holotype: USNM 50015 • adult individual, 19 cm long and 5.4–7.3 cm wide, Port Aransas, 32 km South off Corpus Christi, Texas, United States of America, W. Close leg. 07/ix/1947 (Fig. 9B). Paratypes: USNM 50016 • damaged individual, Tamaulipas, Punta de Almagre to North of Hut’s Bayo, Pelican R/V exped. 17/iii/1949; USNM 51253 • damaged juvenile individual, 5.0–5.9 cm wide from Pass A’Loutre (22 m depth), Louisiana, United States of America, Oh Johnny R/V exped. 25/vi/1969 (Fig. 9A).

Diagnosis

Large cerianthid, 19 cm long and 5.0–7.3 cm wide. 192–352 marginal tentacles (2.4–3.0 cm long in preserved animal) and 144 to 336 labial tentacles (0.5–2.0 cm long in preserved animal), both disposed in four cycles. Marginal tentacles arrangement: (0)1123.1122.1122.1123.1122…, labial tentacles arrangement: (0)1123. 1122… Siphonoglyph well-marked by two protuberant tissues. Three pairs of protomesenteries (directive mesenteries, P2 and P3), all connected to the siphonoglyph. Well distinct hyposulcus and hemisulci absent. Protomesenteries (P3) longer than metamesenteries (m). Ratio from 2.7–5.2% between metamesenteries (M × m) and 3% between betamesenteries (B × b). Directive mesenteries, P2 and P3, extend up to 30.5%, 92.5% and 56.4% of total gastrovascular cavity length, respectively. Cnidome (Fig. 10A–I, Table 4) composed of spirocysts, microbasic b-mastigophores (five types), atrichous (two types) and ptychocyst.

Measurements of 30 cnida capsules for each cnida type in 6 distinct body regions of Ceriantheomorphe adelita sp. nov. (N = 3). Information inside parentheses indicates cnidae length and width, respectively, and information outside parentheses indicates average of cnidae size.

Body part/cnida type Ceriantheomorphe adelita sp. nov.
Marginal tentacles
Microbasic b-mastigophores II 39.19 (34.20–44.18) × 5.04 (4.07–6.01)
Microbasic b-mastigophores V 25.12 (20.16–30.09) × 3.04 (2.09–3.99)
Labial tentacles
Microbasic b-mastigophores I 48.72 (39.22–58.22) × 6.71 (5.24–8.19)
Microbasic b-mastigophores II 36.32 (28.18–44.46) × 4.77 (3.55–6.00)
Pharynx
Atrichous 41.66 (32.23–51.09) × 5.74 (4.13–7.35)
Microbasic b-mastigophores I 51.43 (40.10–62.77) × 7.7 (6.25–9.15)
Microbasic b-mastigophores II 44.2 (35.29–53.11) × 5.13 (3.97–6.29)
Microbasic b-mastigophores III 36.75 (27.57–45.93) × 3.36 (2.53–4.20)
Column
Atrichous 48.12 (38.88–57.37) × 9.28 (7.38–11.19)
Ptychocysts type I 55.42 (50.08–60.77) × 13.92 (9.49–18.35)
Microbasic b-mastigophores I 41.74 (47.80–35.68) × 6,0 (4.16–7.84)
Ptychocysts type II 64.3 (58.8–69.8) × 17.1 (15.0–19.2)
Mesenteries M
Microbasic b-mastigophores IV 18.77 (23.27–14.27) × 4.24 (2.5–5.99)
Mesenteries b
Microbasic b-mastigophores II 38.76 (34.01–43.51) × 4.36 (3.53–5.20)
Microbasic b-mastigophores III 19.94 (15.46–24.42) × 4.79 (3.98–5.60)
Microbasic b-mastigophores IV 23.37 (19.45–27.29) × 3.12 (2.15–4.10)

Etymology

The specific name “adelita” is an allusion to an important group of women that fought during the Mexican Revolution. Occasionally, they adopted the identities of men to join in combat against the enemy.

Distribution

Gulf of Mexico (Northern Mexico) to North Atlantic (North Carolina, United States of America), shallow waters.

Description of holotype

USNM 50015, adult specimen, 19 cm long and 5.4–7.3 cm wide. 352 marginal tentacles (2.7 cm long in preserved animal) and 336 labial tentacles (2.0 cm long in preserved animal), both disposed in four cycles. Marginal tentacles arrangement: (0)1132.1122.1123.1122.1122…, labial tentacles arrangement (0)1122.1122… Directive tentacle absent. Pharynx occupies about 21% of entire body length, siphonoglyph well-marked by two lateral protuberances. Three pairs of mesenteries connected to the siphonoglyph. Gastrovascular cavity taking up to 56% of total body length. Mesenteric filaments of almost the same length of mesenteries; with craspedonemes only in the initial part of the gastrovascular cavity. Distinct hyposulcus and hemisulci absent. Fertile mesenteries, except for the directives. About 236 mesenteries arranged in M,B,m,b (Fig. 11). Directive mesenteries longer than betamesenteries (b and B) and metamesenteries (m). Protomesenteries (P2) extend to aboral pore. Protomesenteries (P3) longer than directive mesenteries, betamesenteries (B and b) and metamesenteries (m). Ratio from 2.7–5.2% between metamesenteries (M × m) and 3% between betamesenteries (B × b). Directive mesenteries and P3 extend up to 30.5%, and 56.4% of total gastrovascular cavity length, respectively, while protomesenteries (P2) occupy 92.5%. Cnidome composed of microbasic b-mastigophores (five types), atrichous (two types) and ptychocyst (Fig. 10A–I, Table 4).

Comparison between congeners

Both Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis and C. adelita sp. nov. have labial and marginal tentacles disposed in four cycles, whereas C. ambonensis has its tentacles arranged in three cycles. All three species have distinct labial and marginal tentacles arrangements (Table 5). Labial and marginal directive tentacles are present in C. brasiliensis and absent in C. ambonensis. Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis has only two pairs of mesenteries connected to the siphonoglyph (Fig. 4), while C. adelita sp. nov. and C. ambonensis have three. In C. brasiliensis, the directive mesenteries are longer than P3 and P5 unlike C. adelita sp. nov. and C. ambonensis. Both C. brasiliensis and C. adelita sp. nov. have directive mesenteries longer than betamesenteries (B and b), while in C. ambonensis the opposite happens (Table 5). Protomesenteries (P3) are longer than metamesenteries (m) in C. adelita sp. nov. unlike C. ambonensis and C. brasiliensis. All three species have distinct proportions between metamesenteries (M × m) and betamesenteries (B × b) disposed along the gastrovascular cavity and a distinct size relation between mesenteries directive and metamesenteries (m) (Table 5).

Figure 4. 

Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis sectioned at actinopharynx region, showing mesenteries connected to the siphonoglyph. S Siphonoglyph area, 1 and 2. Mesenteries connected to the siphonoglyph.

Comparison of morphological characters between species of the genus Ceriantheomorphe.

Characters Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis Ceriantheomorphe adelita sp. nov. Ceriantheomorphe ambonensis
Number of marginal tentacles 132–392 192–352 48**-150*
Number of labial tentacles 108–384 144–336 72**-150*
Tentacular cycles 4 4 3*
Arrangement of marginal tentacles (1)1123... (?)1122... (0)112...**
Arrangement of labial tentacles (1)1122… (?)1122… (0)112…**
Proportion between pharynx in relation to body length 8–27% 21% 18%**
Siphonoglyph Two pairs of mesenteries connected Three pairs of mesenteries connected Three pairs of mesenteries connected**
Proportion of gastrovascular cavity in relation to body length 33–72% 56% 55%**
Ratio between mesenteries 1.2–3.1% (B × b); 1.1–3.1%(m × M) 3% (B × b); 2.7–5.2% (m × M) 4% (B × b); 2.2–3.5% (M × m)**
P1 (directive mesenteries) Longer than P3, P5, betamesenteries (B and b) and metamesenteries (m), except for m of the 2nd and 3rd cycles. Shorter than P2, P4 and metamesenteries (M). Longer than betamesenteries (B and b) and metamesenteries (m). Shorter than P2, P3 and metamesenteries (M). Shorter than mesenteries.**
P2 Longer than mesenteries Longer than mesenteries Longer than mesenteries
P3 Longer than P5, betamesenteries (b) and betamesenteries (B), except for B of the 1st and 2nd cycles. Shorter than directive mesenteries, P2, P4 and metamesenteries (M and m). Longer than directive mesenteries, betamesenteries (B and b) and metamesenteries (m). Shorter than P2 and metamesenteries (M). Longer than directive mesenteries and betamesenteries (B and b). Shorter than P2 and metamesenteries (M and m).
P4 Longer than directive mesenteries, P3, P5, betamesenteries (B and b) and metamesenteries (m), except for m of the 2nd cycle. Shorter P2 and metamesenteries (M). Absent Absent
P5 Longer than betamesenteries (b) and betamesenteries (B), except for B from 1st to 4th cycles. Shorter than directive mesenteries, P2, P3, P4 and metamesenteries (M and m). Absent Absent
Proportion of directive mesenteries in the gastrovascular cavity 36.6% 30.5% 2.3%**
Proportion of protomesenteries P2 in the gastrovascular cavity 88.8% 92.5% 85.7%
Proportion of protomesenteries P3 in the gastrovascular cavity 12.2% 56.4% 14.2%
Proportion of protomesenteries P4 in the gastrovascular cavity 38.8% Absent Absent
Proportion of protomesenteries P5 in the gastrovascular cavity 11.1% Absent Absent

Discussion

Taxonomic studies

As a result of the disjunct distribution of specimens identified as Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis (Mexico+US/Brazil+Uruguay) and the incomplete description of Cerianthus ambonensis made by Kwietniewski (1898) that later was proposed to be reassigned to the genus Ceriantheomorphe (Carlgren 1931), Den Hartog (1977) pointed out the need for a revision of Ceriantharia with special focus in the genus Ceriantheomorphe.

Figure 5. 

Cnidome of Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis. A Microbasic b-mastigophore type I B microba-sic b-mastigophore type II C Microbasic b-mastigophore type III D microbasic b-mastigophore type IV F microbasic b-mastigophore type VI G microbasic b-mastigophore type V H ptychocyst type I I atrichous type I J holotrich K ptychocyst type II. Scale bars: 15 µm.

Figure 6. 

Specimen of Ceriantheomorphe ambonensis (MZSP 8476). A Dissected specimen and B external morphology.

Based on morphological characters and biogeographic perspectives (Table 5), we were able to identify two different morphotypes among specimens assigned as Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis. Specimens from the Gulf of Mexico were recognized as an undescribed species, formally described here as Ceriantheomorphe adelita sp. nov. Some previous studies with C. brasiliensis from the South Atlantic have shown that this species has short-lived planula larvae (unpublished data). This trait could prevent long dispersion due to biogeographic barriers, and thus this species may not be capable of reaching the North Atlantic. This is a different pattern from that reported for Isarachnanthus nocturnus for Isarachnanthus nocturnus, which is able to disperse over long distances due to the presence of long-lived planktonic cerinula larvae (Stampar et al. 2012, 2015). Nonetheless, the maintenance of C. brasiliensis as a single species occurring in both northern and southern hemispheres would require some biogeographic events of which we have no evidence to date. Thus, in addition to the morphology, biogeographical understanding does not support the maintenance of these two populations as a single taxonomic unit.

Figure 7. 

Mesenteries arrangement of Ceriantheomorphe ambonensis. MT Marginal tentacles LT Labial tentacles, M and m. Metamesenteries, B and b. Betamesenteries.

Figure 8. 

Cnidome of Ceriantheomorphe ambonensis. A Microbasic b-mastigophore type I B microbasic b-mastigophore type II C microbasic b-mastigophore type III D microbasic b-mastigophore type IV E microbasic b-mastigophore type V F microbasic b-mastigophore type VI G atrichous H holotrich I ptychocyst. Scale bars: 15 µm.

Carlgren and Hedgpeth (1952) argued that there were no differences between morphological characters in specimens from both areas (North and South Atlantic). We disagree with this assertion as C. adelita sp. nov. has several morphological characters that can distinguish it from other congeners. For instance, (1) marginal tentacles’ arrangement, ratio between metamesenteries (M × m) and betamesenteries (B × b), as well as the proportion occupied by protomesenteries (directive mesenteries, P2 and P3) in the gastrovascular cavity contrast with those observed in other Ceriantheomorphe (Table 5); (2) protomesenteries P3 are found connected to the siphonoglyph while the same is not observed in C. brasiliensis; (3) directive mesenteries are shorter than P3, unlike C. brasiliensis; (4) the number of mesenteries connected to the siphonoglyph is distinct in C. brasiliensis and C. adelita sp. nov.; (5) directive mesenteries are longer than betamesenteries (B and b), the same, however, is not observed in C. ambonensis; (6) directive mesenteries are longer than all metamesenteries (m), distinct from the other two species of the genus; (7) protomesenteries (P3) are longer than all betamesenteries (B), while in C. brasiliensis P3 are shorter than betamesenteries (B) of the 1st and 2nd cycles; (8) P3 are longer than metamesenteries (m), in contrast to those observed in C. ambonensis and C. brasiliensis; (9) protomesenteries (P4 and P5) are present in C. brasiliensis, while absent in the other species.

Figure 9. 

Specimens of Ceriantheomorphe adelita sp. nov. A Damaged specimen USNM 51253 from Louisiana B holotype specimen USNM 50015 from Corpus Christi (USA).

Figure 10. 

Cnidome of Ceriantheomorphe adelita sp. nov. holotype. A Atrichous B ptychocyst type I C holotrich D ptychocyst type II E microbasic b-mastigophore type I F microbasic b-mastigophore type II G microbasic b-mastigophore type III H microbasic b-mastigophore type IV I microbasic b-mastigophore type V. Scale bars: 15 µm.

Some authors have discussed the taxonomic value of mesenteriel organization regarding the assignment and identification of species (Carlgren 1912; Arai 1965; den Hartog 1977). Spier et al. (2012) have reported that C. brasiliensis in southern Brazil has two pairs of mesenteries connected to siphonoglyph. In this study, C. adelita sp. nov. was found to have three pairs. Nevertheless, our results also showed that the two species of Ceriantheomorphe from the Atlantic Ocean have different numbers of mesenteries connected to siphonoglyph, reinforcing the potential taxonomic value of this character.

Our results also demonstrated that the use of ratios (division of the values) between metamesenteries (M × m) and betamesenteries (B × b) for each quartet can be useful to distinguish species of Ceriantheomorphe. In specimens of C. brasiliensis, the ratio between metamesenteries (M × m) and betamesenteries (B × b) ranged from 1.1 to 3.1% and from 1.2 to 3.1%, respectively. In comparison, the ratios observed in C. adelita sp. nov. are from 2.7 to 5.2% between metamesenteries and 3% between betamesenteries, while in C. ambonensis they range from 2.2 to 3.5% between metamesenteries and 4% between betamesenteries.

Similar to the ratio between metamesenteries (M × m) and betamesenteries (B × b), the proportion of protomesenteries found in the gastrovascular cavity was also useful to distinguish Ceriantheomorphe species in our study. While protomesenteries (P3) in C. adelita sp. nov. extend over half of the entire gastrovascular cavity length (56.4%), the ones in C. brasiliensis and C. ambonensis are much shorter (12.2% and 14.2%, respectively). Furthermore, we found differences between species while comparing protomesenteries length (Table 5). In this way, we suggest that mesenteries have a taxonomic value when used comparatively.

Figure 11. 

Mesenteries arrangement of Ceriantheomorphe adelita sp. nov. MT Marginal tentacles LT Labial tentacles M and m Metamesenteries B and b Betamesenteries.

Compilation of morphological data on Ceriantheomorphe ambonensis.

Characters observed Kwietniewski (1898) This study
Specimen size 8.5 cm 3.8 cm
Number of marginal tentacles About 150 24
Number of labial tentacles About 150 36
Arrangement of both tentacles 3 cycles 3 cycles
Pharynx region About 2.5 cm 0.7 cm long and 2.0 cm wide
Hyposulcus and hemisulci No information Absent
Gastrovascular cavity Noinformation 2.1 cm long and 2.0 cm wide
Siphonoglyph No information 0.7 cm long and 0.3 cm wide / 3 pairs of mesenteries connected.
Mesenteries Numerous 96
Arrangement of mesenteries No information M,B,m,b
Cnidome No information Spyrocists, microbasic b-mastigophores (six types), atrichous (one type), ptychocyst and holotrichous.

Geographic distribution of the genus Ceriantheomorphe

Currently, the genus Ceriantheomorphe has a wide geographic distribution; one species is restricted to the warm temperate northwest Atlantic (Gulf of Mexico and United States of America), another to the warm temperate southwestern Atlantic (southeast and South of Brazil and Uruguay) and C. ambonensis is recorded from tropical Central Indo-Pacific, Sunda Shelf (Indonesia) (Spalding et al. 2007). However, there are no records of the genus Ceriantheomorphe from areas between the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans, which suggests that the genus has a disjunctive distribution, since there is no evidence of any connection between the extant populations of the valid species (Fig. 12).

Figure 12. 

Distribution map of the genus Ceriantheomorphe.

Disjunctive distribution patterns are exhibited by some marine invertebrates, even those having a free-swimming phase that would benefit wide dispersal, for instance, the bivalve Macoma balthica Linnaeus, 1758 (Luttikhuizen et al. 2003) and the tunicate Ciona intestinalis Linnaeus, 1767 (Caputi et al. 2007). However, in the current case, in our opinion the disjunctive distribution of the genus Ceriantheomorphe is evidence of the need of further studies on the genus, especially focused on taxonomy in some under-investigated areas of the Indo-Pacific Ocean.

Acknowledgements

This work was partly funded by FAPESP (grants 2015/24408-4, 2015/21007-9, 2016/04962-0 and 2016/50389-0), CNPq (grants 304961/2016-7) and Acordo CAPES/CNPq – PROTAX II (grants 88882.156878/2016-01). We would like to thank Dr. Priscila A. Grohmann from IB-UFRJ and Dr. Debora Pires from MNRJ, Dr. Fabrizio Scarabino from MNHN/CURE-UDELAR and Dr. Marcelo Fukuda from MZSP and Drs. Allen Collins and Stephen Cairns from USNM for providing access to museum specimens. This is a contribution of NP-BioMar-USP.

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