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A species-level taxonomic review and host associations of Glyptapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) with an emphasis on 136 new reared species from Costa Rica and Ecuador
expand article infoDiana Carolina Arias-Penna, James B. Whitfield, Daniel H. Janzen§, Winifred Hallwachs§, Lee A. Dyer|, M. Alex Smith, Paul D.N. Hebert, José L. Fernández-Triana#
‡ University of Illinois, Urbana, United States of America
§ University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, United States of America
| University of Nevada, Reno, United States of America
¶ University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada
# Canadian National Collection of Insects, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Canada
Open Access

Abstract

The descriptive taxonomic study reported here is focused on Glyptapanteles, a species-rich genus of hymenopteran parasitoid wasps. The species were found within the framework of two independent long-term Neotropical caterpillar rearing projects: northwestern Costa Rica (Área de Conservación Guanacaste, ACG) and eastern Andes, Ecuador (centered on Yanayacu Biological Station, YBS). One hundred thirty-six new species of Glyptapanteles Ashmead are described and all of them are authored by Arias-Penna. None of them was recorded in both countries; thus, 78 are from Costa Rica and the remaining 58 from Ecuador. Before this revision, the number of Neotropical described Glyptapanteles did not reach double digits. Reasonable boundaries among species were generated by integrating three datasets: Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene sequencing data, natural history (host records), and external morphological characters. Each species description is accompanied by images and known geographical distribution. Characteristics such as shape, ornamentation, and location of spun Glyptapanteles cocoons were imaged as well. Host-parasitoid associations and food plants are also here published for the first time. A total of 88 species within 84 genera in 15 Lepidoptera families was encountered as hosts in the field. With respect to food plants, these wild-caught parasitized caterpillars were reared on leaves of 147 species within 118 genera in 60 families. The majority of Glyptapanteles species appeared to be relatively specialized on one family of Lepidoptera or even on some much lower level of taxonomic refinement. Those herbivores in turn are highly food-plant specialized, and once caterpillars were collected, early instars (1–3) yielded more parasitoids than later instars. Glyptapanteles jimmilleri Arias-Penna, sp. nov. is the first egg-larval parasitoid recorded within the genus, though there may be many more since such natural history requires a more focused collection of eggs. The rate of hyperparasitoidism within the genus was approximately 4% and was represented by Mesochorus spp. (Ichneumonidae). A single case of multiparasitoidism was reported, Copidosoma floridanum Ashmead (Encyrtidae) and Glyptapanteles ilarisaaksjarvi Arias-Penna, sp. nov. both parasitoid species emerged from the caterpillar of Noctuidae: Condica cupienta (Cramer). Bodyguard behavior was observed in two Glyptapanteles species: G. howelldalyi Arias-Penna, sp. nov. and G. paulhansoni Arias-Penna, sp. nov. A dichotomous key for all the new species is provided. The numerous species described here, and an equal number already reared but not formally described, signal a far greater Glyptapanteles species richness in the Neotropics than suggested by the few described previously.

Keywords

Central America, diversity, mtDNA, natural history, parasitoid wasps, South America

Introduction

Bees, wasps, and ants are the most widely recognized insects among the Hymenoptera, one of the four largest (megadiverse) insect orders. In terms of species richness, parasitoid wasps numerically dominate the order (Quicke 1997). Within hymenopteran parasitoids, Microgastrinae is among the most commonly collected groups and one of the two most species-rich subfamilies of Braconidae (the other being Braconinae; Jones et al. 2009, Rodriguez et al. 2012, Quicke 2015). The subfamily, worldwide, contains 81 extant genera comprising nearly 2,600 to 2,700 described species (Fernández-Triana and Ward 2018, Fernández-Triana and Boudreault 2018, Whitfield et al. 2018). Although some major geographical areas have not yet been heavily explored, recent extrapolations based on both field studies and known faunas estimate Microgastrinae species richness worldwide to be 17,000 to 46,000+ species (Rodriguez et al. 2012). All known microgastrines are obligate endoparasitoids of larval Lepidoptera (henceforth, caterpillars) (Quicke 2015), and practically every Lepidoptera higher taxon is used as a host, making the subfamily the single most important group of Hymenoptera parasitoids specialized on attacking caterpillars. Around 100 species of Microgastrinae have been used in biological control of Lepidoptera pests (Whitfield 1995).

During the 21st Century, significant progress has been made with the taxonomy and biology of the subfamily, mainly in the Neotropics. Over the last decade, some Microgastrinae genera have been targets of taxonomic revisions, descriptions of new genera, and new species descriptions. Taxonomic revisions have included Apanteles sensu stricto Förster (Fernández-Triana et al. 2014a), Distatrix Mason (Grinter et al. 2009), Exoryza Mason (Fernández-Triana et al. 2016a), Hypomicrogaster Ashmead (Valerio and Whitfield 2015), Iconella Mason (Fernández-Triana et al. 2013), Microplitis Förster and Snellenius Westwood (Fernández-Triana et al. 2015), Parapanteles Ashmead (Valerio et al. 2009), Prasmodon Nixon (Fernández-Triana et al. 2014b), Promicrogaster (Fernández-Triana et al. 2016b), Sendaphne Nixon (Fernández-Triana et al. 2014d), Venanus Mason (Whitfield et al. 2011, Fernández-Triana et al. 2014c), and Wilkinsonellus Mason (Arias-Penna et al. 2013). Descriptions of new genera have included Mariapanteles Whitfield & Fernández-Triana (Whitfield et al. 2012) and Janhalacaste Fernández-Triana (Fernández-Triana and Boudreault 2018). Descriptions of new species have included Austrocotesia Austin & Dangerfield (Valerio and Whitfield 2005), Glyptapanteles Ashmead (Whitfield et al. 2002a), Janhalacaste Fernández-Triana (Fernández-Triana and Boudreault 2018), and Prasmodon Nixon (Valerio et al. 2005). Notwithstanding these efforts, the extreme species richness harbored in the Neotropics means that both taxonomic and biological records are still highly incomplete (Whitfield et al. 2002a and the two inventories referenced here).

Glyptapanteles are small parasitoid wasps that occur in all faunal regions, and recent field sampling from Neotropical countries suggests that the genus is among the three most diverse within Microgastrinae (the other two being Apanteles Förster and Diolcogaster Ashmead; Whitfield et al. 2018). Worldwide Glyptapanteles species descriptions correspond to specimens scattered around the world but have not been part of place-based revisions [e.g., Australia (Austin and Dangerfield 1992), Ecuador (Whitfield et al. 2002a), China (Chen and Song 2004), Greece (Papp 2007), Croatia, Bosnia and Macedonia (Papp 2009), India (Gupta and Pereira 2012, Gupta and Fernández-Triana 2014, Gupta et al. 2016b)]. In tropical and subtropical regions, Glyptapanteles is one of the omnipresent genera (Whitfield 1995). Approximately 1,000 or more species have been estimated for the tropics (Mason 1981). In the Palearctic, the genus is abundant mainly in cool, humid and, warm ecosystems and few species have been reported from dry ecosystems (Mason 1981). In the Neotropics, Glyptapanteles is especially species-rich in lowland regions (Whitfield et al. 2009).

Currently, more than 122 species are described worldwide (Yu et al. 2016, Gupta et al. 2016b), of which six, prior to this revision, are reported from the Neotropics: G. agrotivorus Whitfield, G. bourquini (Blanchard), G. ecuadorius Whitfield, G. herbertii (Ashmead), G. militaris (Walsh), and G. muesebecki (Blanchard). They are primarily agricultural species (some of them probably not native), that attack mainly noctuids. Whitfield et al. (2002a) offer a key, species notes, and a plate of cocoon photos, which should help discriminate these six species. This small number has made it possible to describe an enormous number of Neotropical Glyptapanteles without fear of creating synonyms. Before this study, a comprehensive revision for a portion of the Neotropics had not been attempted. It is clear that hundreds if not thousands of species of Glyptapanteles remain undescribed.

Some character-states and distribution data that might be able to help with the identification of these six Neotropical species are specified below. Glyptapanteles agrotivorus has the petiole on T1 distally with lateral margins curved (convex); the tegula is dark brown; the cocoons are white, loosely spun in a cluster with much loose silk (Whitfield et al. 2002a); and it is so far known to be distributed in Ecuador (Chimborazo province: San Pedro de Riobamba, San Antonio at 2,770 m, Whitfield et al. 2002a). Glyptapanteles bourquini has the fore wing with outer side of junction of r and 2RS veins forming a distinct stub, the r vein is much longer than the 2Rs vein; the petiole on T1 is somewhat sculptured and rounded distally; the median area on T2 often is not well demarcated from the third medioapically; the cocoon mass is typically tightly spun together, occasionally looser, cocoons woolly, the coloration varies from yellowish brown to orangish or pinkish (Whitfield et al. 2002a); and it is distributed in Argentina (Buenos Aires province: Alberdi [Juan Bautista], Blanchard 1936; and La Pampa province: departments of Capital, Maracó and Trenel, Baudino 2005); Ecuador (Chimborazo province: San Pedro de Riobamba, San Antonio at 2,770 m); Chile and Uruguay (Whitfield et al. 2002a). Probably it is found throughout South America (Whitfield et al. 2002a). Glyptapanteles ecuadorius has the petiole on T1 smooth and relatively polished throughout; the median area on T2 is approximately twice as broad distally as long medially, often the central part is raised slightly, so that it may superficially appear less broad; the cocoons of this species are unknown; and it is distributed in Ecuador (Chimborazo province: San Pedro de Riobamba, Bilbao at 2,000 m; Whitfield et al. 2002a). Glyptapanteles herbertii has the petiole on T1 usually more evenly narrowing from base to apex and with some distinct, but often very fine punctation in distal half, not highly polished apically; the cocoon mass coloration is yellowish brown, elongate, and with cocoons arranged and stacked like two rows of cordwood; and its distribution appears to be circum-Caribbean (Belize, Colombia, Cuba, Florida, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Venezuela), but is also found as far south in South America as Peru and Argentina (Whitfield et al. 2002a). Glyptapanteles militaris has the hind coxa predominantly, typically entirely bright yellowish in color, as is the tegula; the cocoons are loosely spun together or near the host caterpillar’s body, and the coloration is white to light yellowish beige; and it is widely distributed throughout North America, but in the neotropics it is at least found in the Caribbean Region (Whitfield et al. 2002a). Glyptapanteles muesebecki has the petiole on T1 as least 1.5× as long as anteriorly broad, and evenly narrowing posteriorly, with lateral margins relatively straight; the tegula is pale yellowish brown; the cocoons are yellowish brown, spun in a loose mass; and it is distributed in Argentina and Paraguay (Whitfield et al. 2002a).

Biology

Like other microgastrines, adult Glyptapanteles are free-living wasps that feed primarily on nectar, pollen, or secretions from scales and aphids (Landis et al. 2000), while larvae develop inside caterpillars. The female wasp penetrates the host cuticle with her ovipositor and oviposits eggs, which float freely in the hemolymph. Independent of the number of eggs deposited, in solitary parasitoid species only one larva completes development, whereas, in gregarious parasitoid species, more than one offspring successfully completes development (Hanson and Gauld 2006). All Glyptapanteles are endoparasitoid koinobionts, meaning that their hosts continue to develop after being attacked. Inside the host, the egg absorbs proteins through a specialized extra-embryonic membrane before hatching (Jervis et al. 2001, 2008). The wasp larvae develop by consuming only the hemolymph and fat body of the host (Shaw and Huddleston 1991). The host eventually dies, although usually not until the parasitoid larva or larvae have emerged through the host cuticle. At the end its second larval instar, each parasitoid larva emerges by burrowing through its host’s cuticle (Godfray 1994). Outside the host, the parasitoids molt to their third and final larval instar, then spin individual cocoons and pupate in the cocoon, on the outer surface of the host or nearby (Fig. 4; Calkins and Sutter 1976).

This ancient physiological interaction of microgastrine endoparasitoids with their hosts is in part mediated by a fascinating mutualistic association with polydnaviruses (PDVs), an alliance that arose 73±11 mya (Whitfield 2002, though an older origin, ~100 mya, is proposed by Murphy et al. 2008). These double-stranded DNA viruses are integrated into the genome (proviral DNA) of both male and female wasps. However, the largest fragment is excised from the female wasp genome only during her later pupal and adult stages. Thus, PDVs are only “free-living” during reproduction in wasp ovarian calyx tissue or after injection into host hemocoel’s (D’Amico and Slavicek 2012). Once in the larval host, PDVs, in concert with other injected material such as toxins and ovarian fluids, play a crucial role in the survival of the developing egg (Lapointe et al. 2007) by suppressing or misdirecting host immune systems and arresting host development.

Biologically, prior to the two inventories referenced here, Glyptapanteles was still poorly known in the Neotropics. Those host records were mainly restricted to Noctuidae, Geometridae, Pieridae, Notodontidae, and Megalopygidae. Noctuid hosts included Agrotis deprivata Walker feeding on Brassica oleracea [wild cabbage, Brassicaceae], Medicago sativa [Alfalfa, Fabaceae], Vicia villosa [hairy vetch, Fabaceae], and Zea mays [corn, Poaceae]; A. gypaetina Guenée and A. ipsilon (Hufnagel) feeding on Brassica oleracea, Daucus carota [wild carrot, Apiaceae], Helianthus annuus [sunflower, Asteraceae], Lactuca sativa [lettuce, Asteraceae], Medicago sativa, and Trifolium repens [white clover, Fabaceae]; Peridroma saucia (Hübner) feeding on Trifolium repens and Medicago sativa; Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) feeding on Zea mays (Corn, Poaceae); and Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner), Mythimna unipuncta (Haworth), Peridroma margaritasa (Haworth), Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), and Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) for which the food plants were not reported (Blanchard 1936, Whitfield et al. 2002a, Baudino 2005). Geometridae hosts included Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) feeding on Psidium guajava [guava, Myrtaceae] and Eucalyptus grandisand [eucalyptus, Myrtaceae] (Grosman et al. 2008); Cyclomia mopsaria Guenée, Glena sp., and Physocleora sp. feeding on Erythroxylum microphyllum (Erythroxylaceae) (Marconato et al. 2008). Pieridae host was Dismorphia crisia lubina (Blater) feeding on Inga mortoniana (Fabacae, Koptur 1989). Notodontidae host includes Nystalea nyseus (Cramer) (Whitfield et al. 2002a). One host genus from Megalopygidae has been reported (Plodia Guenée, sp.?) feeding on Inga densiflora (Koptur 1989). Six additional lepidopteran host families also have been reported: Apatelodidae, Erebidae, Limacodidae, Nymphalidae, Pyralidae, and Saturniidae, although no species names were referenced (Whitfield et al. 2009).

History of Glyptapanteles classification

Glyptapanteles was described in 1904 (Ashmead 1904), but its legitimacy as a distinct genus has only been accepted since 1981. Ashmead segregated it from Apanteles and erected the genus based on two females and one male collected from Manila, Philippines (Ashmead 1904). The description of Glyptapanteles coincided with an epoch of proliferation of descriptions of new genera within Microgastrinae in an attempt to subdivide the gigantic genus Apanteles. The advent of these newly described taxa only increased taxonomic confusion within the subfamily, due in large part to the fact that the worldwide fauna was both taxonomically not well-studied and the species descriptions were inadequate to enable taxonomists to categorize morphospecies among the plethora of new species encountered. Consequently, contemporary colleagues found it difficult to interpret those classifications and opted to ignore them.

In an attempt to stop this rapid increase in the production of generic names while also stabilizing the nomenclature, Muesebeck (1920, 1922) proposed a conservative approach and synonymized many genera, subsuming Glyptapanteles again into Apanteles (Whitfield et al. 2002b). Later, Nixon (1965, 1973) offered a reclassification of Microgastrinae, recognizing only one tribe (Microgasterini) with 19 genera, and Glyptapanteles was not considered to be a valid genus. Nixon kept a broad definition of Apanteles, dividing it into 44 species groups and suggesting that the genus ultimately should be split into more genera. Sixteen years later, Mason (1981) succeeded in subdividing the gigantic genus Apanteles and proposed a radical generic classification of the subfamily based on re-grouping of existing species groups, in which Glyptapanteles, one of the larger segregates of the Apanteles, was recognized as a valid genus in the tribe Cotesiini (Nixon’s Microgasterini therefore, was discarded). Mason divided Microgastrinae into five tribes (Apantelini, Cotesiini, Forniciini, Microgastrini, and Microplitini) based mainly on the association between female genitalic structures and host use. In his system, females that attack Microlepidoptera larvae possess long ovipositors, presumably an adaptation for reaching the small and cryptic Microlepidoptera caterpillars that feed in semi-concealed situations such as leaf rolls or silk webs. In contrast, females with short ovipositors attack Macrolepidoptera larvae, which are large caterpillars and live fully exposed on vegetation throughout their larval stages (Shaw and Huddleston 1991). In his reclassification, Mason assigned Glyptapanteles to the “Macrolepidoptera-attacking” Microgastrinae. However, host data now known for many genera have not substantiated Mason’s hypothesized associations, at least at the generic level; as a result, the tribal classification for the subfamily has been largely abandoned and the current classification is now based on genera and not tribes (Valerio et al. 2009, Whitfield et al. 2018).

Issues concerning Glyptapanteles taxonomy have partly contributed to the poor documentation of its natural history. Characteristics such as high incidence of morphological convergence and lack of obvious discrete morphological variation (character reduction) within both the genus and subfamily, together hinder or virtually preclude straightforward morphological identification of specimens (Shaw and Huddleston 1991). Other factors that possibly have contributed to the poor taxonomic state and its avoidance by taxonomists include its previously mentioned astonishing diversity, total lack of striking coloration (e.g., mainly black or dark brown), and the minute body size of its specimens (2–3 mm long). Taxonomic groups with small body sizes tend to be described much later than taxa with large body sizes (Jones et al. 2009). The poor understanding of Glyptapanteles diversity in the tropics could also be a consequence of other factors such as specialized ecological niches, relatively small population sizes, and the concealed parasitoid life history (Stireman et al. 2009).

Demarcation of Glyptapanteles

As currently delineated, Glyptapanteles is the result of the fusion of several Apanteles species groups. Mason (1981) transferred seven Apanteles species groups from Nixon’s classification (1965, 1973) to the newly established Glyptapanteles. Those species groups were: the octonarius group, siderion group, vitripennis group, and the four monotypics demeter group, fraternus group, pallipes group, and triangulator group. The first thing that stands out in this classification is the pattern of reliance on the external morphological characters used. Those species groups were characterized not by any exclusive feature, but by the combination of features. Thus, the high level of homoplasy makes Glyptapanteles a genus with boundaries poorly defined and taxonomically difficult among Microgastrinae. Additionally, these species groups were based mainly on the north-western European fauna instead of the Neotropical fauna. The traits-per-group proposed by Nixon are listed below.

The octonarius group was distinguished mainly by the weak and even curvature at the junction of the r and 2RS veins on fore wing (e.g., G. ronaldzunigai, Figs 193L, 194K), whereas the remaining groups have that junction distinctly angled (e.g., G. diegocamposi, Fig. 70K), it is distributed worldwide (Nixon 1973), and the vast majority of species reassigned by Mason to Glyptapanteles belong mainly to here. In the siderion group, the petiole shows a wide base and a very narrow apex, the propodeum is short and has a well-defined median longitudinal carina, the phragma of the scutellum is hidden, the inner side of the distal margin of the hind tibia has a dense silky fringe of setae that is entirely differentiated from the normal tibial setae, and it is distributed in Java and the Philippines (Nixon 1965). In the vitripennis group, the phragma of the scutellum is always visible, the metanotum is always without a lateral, forward-pointing projection, proximally the median area on T2 is extensively polished, otherwise usually with at least some minute striae or punctation laterally, the inner spur of the hind tibia is longer than the outer spur, reaching to middle of hind basitarsus, and it is distributed worldwide (Nixon 1965, 1973). Specimens belonging to the demeter group have a very short and thick antenna, only the proximal and the distal antennal flagellomeres are longer than wide, the phragma of the scutellum is concealed, the propodeum is coarsely rugose, and it is distributed in New Zealand (Nixon 1965). In the fraternus group, the median area on T2 is polished, the inner spur of the hind tibia is slightly longer than the outer one, not reaching beyond middle of hind basitarsus, and it is distributed widely in the northwest of Europe (Nixon 1973). In the pallipes group, the propodeum is rugose all over and possesses a strong median longitudinal carina, the pronotum lacks a dorsal furrow, the petiole is twice as long as wide, the phragma of the scutellum is widely visible, and it is distributed in the northwest of Europe and widely in North America (Nixon 1965, 1973). In the triangulator group, the median area on T2 can be polished or with minute punctation, the edges on the median area lose definition distally, but have weak longitudinal sculpture, the petiole has parallel sides, but is distally rounded, the phragma of scutellum is narrowly visible, the propodeum is strongly shining, almost unsculptured, except toward distal corners, both spurs of the hind tibia are short and subequal in length, the outer side of hind tibia has dense strong spines, and it is distributed in France, Germany, and England (Nixon 1973). As mentioned previously, it became clear that the overlap of external morphological characters among species group makes the identification of the Glyptapanteles species more doubtful and problematic.

Glyptapanteles and its resemblance to five genera within the Microgastrinae subfamily

Complications in the definition of Glyptapanteles also arise because a suite of external morphological characters that had been used for distinguishing them from the rest of Microgastrinae was later found to be shared with other genera. Currently, five genera within the subfamily have often been confused with Glyptapanteles; these are Cotesia Cameron, Distatrix Mason, Lathrapanteles Williams, Protapanteles Ashmead, and Sathon Mason. All five genera share: the hypopygium is evenly sclerotized from side to side and the fore wing with second r-m vein absent, so that the small areolet (second submarginal cell) is open distally (Mason 1981, Whitfield 1997). The less than fully diagnostic characters that complicate the separation of Glyptapanteles with those five genera are outlined here below.

Glyptapanteles and Cotesia. In Cotesia the petiole is virtually never narrower at its apex, the usual shape is a little longer than wide and broadened distally, but occasionally it can be wider than long or somewhat barrel-shaped (Mason 1981) or unusual narrowing at midlength (Gupta et al. 2016a); frequently the petiole on T1 is smooth proximally, but distally always with sculpture; the shape of the median area on T2 is variable, usually subrectangular, but it can be truncated trapezoidal or semicircular; and the propodeum is rugose, usually with a median longitudinal carina that may be partially obscured by rugosity and with an incomplete transverse carina laterally separating the rugose declivity from a smoother proximal area (Mason 1981). Cotesia tends to be a more dominant faunal component in temperate regions worldwide (Whitfield et al. 2009), but in the tropics, Cotesia is displaced ecologically by Glyptapanteles (Mason 1981). Some Neotropical Glyptapanteles collected at high elevations (> 1,000 m) seem to share morphological similarities present in Holarctic Cotesia [e.g., propodeum rugose (as in G. erictepei, Figs 80G, 81F; G. felipesotoi, Figs 82F, 83C) and petiole barrel-shape (as in G. marcpolleti, Fig. 151G, H)]. Some Glyptapanteles in the Australasian region exhibit coarsely rugose tergites, and sometimes they are confused with Cotesia. However, both genera can be separated by the shape of petiole on T1 and the median area on T2 (Austin and Dangerfield 1992).

Glyptapanteles and Distatrix. Distatrix is an unusual genus, with coloration partly xanthic (brownish yellow), large eyes (sometimes only in one sex), pedunculate cocoons, and is relatively rare in collections (Whitfield and Scaccia 1996, Whitfield et al. 2009). Distatrix possesses the following characteristics: the propodeum is smooth and weakly curved, sometimes with enlarged spiracles; the pronotum only with the ventral furrow; the inner spur on the hind tibia is much longer than half length of the hind basitarsus; the females of some species have an enlarged seta on the fore telotarsus (fifth tarsomere, as Protapanteles); the vannal lobe on the hind wing with the margin straight or concave; the petiole parallel-sided and rounded distally or weakly narrow distally, the petiole can be smooth or with weak sculpture; and the median area on T2 smooth with lateral grooves poorly defined distally. Glyptapanteles differs from Distatrix in having the petiole more strongly narrowed distally, the margins of the median area on T2 are better defined, and the ovipositor sheath exhibits normal setae distally (Whitfield et al. 2009). Again, these characteristics are also found in some Neotropical Glyptapanteles.

Glyptapanteles and Lathrapanteles. Lathrapanteles was separated from Sathon by Williams (1985), who placed four species of Sathon in this new genus: three from the Northeastern United States and one from South America. He was aware that Lathrapanteles was not a natural group and he realized the difficulties of separating both genera by one or a few external morphological characters. Some of the characteristics that define the genus, but are also shared with Glyptapanteles are: the pronotum with both dorsal and ventral furrows (e.g., G. andysuarezi, Fig. 19A, E), the metanotum reduced and without sublateral setose lobes, the phragma of the scutellum exposed (e.g., G. ianyarrowi, Fig. 107B, C), the propodeum weakly or strongly convex with median longitudinal carina or groove, the petiole evenly narrowed to apex or parallel-sided for the proximal 0.75 or slightly barrel-shaped, and the edges of the median area on T2 defined by grooves or obscured by rugosity (e.g., G. linghsiuae, Fig. 141D, G) (Williams 1985).

Glyptapanteles and Protapanteles. Protapanteles shares with Glyptapanteles a weakly sculptured propodeum and relatively trapezoidal median area on T2 (Whitfield et al. 2009). However, the most frequent characteristic used to distinguish the two genera is the petiole shape: parallel-sided (3/4 proximal or more) and then strongly narrowing at the apex, or sides gradually converging distally for Glyptapanteles, while for Protapanteles the petiole is parallel-sided throughout except for a strongly rounded apex (Mason 1981). Additional traits ostensibly exclusive to Protapanteles are: the pronotum with two distinctive furrows, one dorsal and other ventral; in females, the fore telotarsus usually with a conspicuous lateroventral curved seta and a weak distal excavation; the larval mandible with a row of 12 or fewer large teeth concentrated distally on the blade; and its distribution which is almost completely confined to the Holarctic Region (Mason 1981). However, Neotropical Glyptapanteles here described exhibit petioles with an extensive array of shapes ranging from barrel-shaped with apex rounded/truncate (e.g., G. phildevriesi, Fig. 187G, H; G. rafamanitioi, Fig. 190H, I) to petioles with broad base to a very narrow apex (e.g., G. pamitchellae, Fig. 178G, H; G. scottshawi, Fig. 199G, H). Some Glyptapanteles species also have a pronotum with both dorsal and ventral furrows (e.g., G. andywarreni, Fig. 20A, C, I; G. markshawi, Fig. 154A, E), and in some females a fore telotarsus with a curved seta can be found (e.g., G. boharti, Fig. 37A, E), although sometimes it is difficult to see the seta due to the small body size of some specimens. Recently, an earlier perspective has been resurrected that Glyptapanteles and Sathon should be part of an expanded Protapanteles (van Achterberg 2003, Fernández-Triana 2010). The three genera, Glyptapanteles, Protapanteles and Sathon, share the following traits: median area on T2 clearly delimited by a pair of submedial grooves, females with hypopygium evenly sclerotized and ovipositor sheath usually short (van Achterberg 2003), the anterior furrow of metanotum is glabrous and flattened (without sublateral lobe), and the phragma of scutellum exposed (Mason 1981). On the other hand, Protapanteles is in many respects intermediate morphologically between Cotesia and Glyptapanteles. It shares a quadrate petiole with Cotesia, and a weakly sculptured propodeum and more trapezoidal median area on T2 with Glyptapanteles (Whitfield et al. 2009).

Glyptapanteles and Sathon. As currently defined, Sathon resembles Glyptapanteles in nearly all features except ovipositor length: short for Glyptapanteles and long for Sathon. However, Neotropical Glyptapanteles exhibit ovipositors with a broad length spectrum, ranging from short (e.g., G. sydneycameronae, Fig. 212A, J, and G. victoriapookae, Fig. 219A, J) to long (e.g., G. alejandrovalerioi, Fig. 5A, G and G. alvarowillei, Fig. 10A, G, I). Additionally, Mason (1981) proposed Sathon as a new genus based upon the distinctive large external genitalia in males; yet again some Neotropical Glyptapanteles males also bear prominent genitalia (e.g., G. andybennetti, Fig. 15A, F, K and G. andydeansi, Fig. 17A, E, J). It has been suggested that Sathon probably should be subsumed within Glyptapanteles in the near future (Whitfield et al. 2009).

The two basic philosophical approaches to classification have always generated substantial controversy in taxonomy. The question is whether to divide (“split”) or to merge (“lump”) specific taxa. On the one hand, there are those who prefer a large number of small taxa, stressing diagnostic differences but on the other, there are those who support that it is better to recognize a relatively small number of taxa, emphasizing broader relationships. As it has been pointed out, the subfamily Microgastrinae has experienced taxonomic chaos during its history due to varied decisions taken in the past. Several genera within Microgastrinae are confused with Glyptapanteles, so it would be a premature decision to deal with potential synonyms here. A reclassification now would seem untimely and thus, a generic reclassification of Glyptapanteles must wait until more data have been accumulated. Currently, Hybrid Anchored Enrichment and Ultraconserved Elements are being used in order to revise the phylogeny of Microgastrinae. Those two approaches may hopefully provide a better understanding and more justified arguments to the synonymy of some genera in Microgastrinae.

The main objective of this paper is to describe for the first time a large array of Neotropical Glyptapanteles species based on the extensive material that is available from two large-scale rearing projects, one in Costa Rica and the other in Ecuador. This taxonomic revision incorporates morphology, DNA sequences (COI gene), and an extensive base of natural history knowledge. Additionally, a morphological image library and a dichotomous key are provided to facilitate species identification. This is not meant to be a full revision of the genus but instead is intended as a significant starting point for understanding their Neotropical biodiversity and as a guide for future research.

Materials and methods

Sampling

A robust intraspecific analysis benefits from a large quantity of specimens collected across its distributional range. The primary taxon sampling of Glyptapanteles for this study derives from two independent long-term rearing projects: the Caterpillar and Parasitoid Inventory of the Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica (http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr, http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu) and the project Caterpillars and Parasitoids of the Eastern Andes (CAPEA) in Ecuador (www.caterpillars.org). These two Neotropical countries have high species richness and what appears to be endemism in the face of their neighboring countries being poorly studied for their Microgastrinae biodiversity.

The ACG project began in 1978; initially, samples were collected exclusively in dry forest on the small area of Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP). By the end of the 1980’s the sampling was expanded eastward and upward into the rain forest and cloud forest. Currently, the sampling covers a wide altitudinal range from 90 m to 2,000 m (Janzen et al. 2009, Janzen and Hallwachs 2016b). In 2003, the project incorporated DNA barcoding, a microgenomic identification system, by which species can be identified and usually discriminated through the analysis of a small segment of the genome: the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI). The CAPEA project was more recently started in 2001 and participants have collected and reared caterpillars at Yanayacu (black river in the Kichwa language), a biological station in the Quijos Valley, Napo Province, in the Andes of northeastern Ecuador (Miller and Dyer 2009). A variety of ecosystems have been sampled such as paramo, montane wet forest, cloud forest, and mid-elevation rain forest ranging from 3,800 m down to 100 m (Dyer et al. 2012).

In both projects, caterpillars were collected directly in the field and subsequently reared in “laboratory” conditions (partly enclosed rearing barn). Voucher specimens of the food plants also were collected for taxonomic identification. Plant vouchers for the CAPEA project were deposited at the Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales (Quito, Ecuador). Rearing took place individually for each host caterpillar in clear plastic bags, bottles, jars, or plastic cups in an open-air shelter with ambient temperature, humidity, and natural day length. Larvae were fed with fresh excised foliage of the food-plant species on which the caterpillar was collected and placed in containers as needed. Larvae were inspected daily to record stage of development, parasitoid emergence, or simply to remove frass. Each caterpillar of ACG was tagged with a voucher code which refers to the event-based record of finding the caterpillar and rearing it: yy-SRNP-xxxxxxx e.g., 90-SRNP-1146. The prefix refers to the last two digits of the year that caterpillar was discovered in the field. The acronym SRNP stands for Santa Rosa National Park, and the suffix is a unique number assigned within the year. When a solitary parasitoid emerged from its host, the same caterpillar voucher code was assigned at that time, but also a unique DNA wasp voucher code later was assigned for any further study of that specimen: DHJPARxxxxxxx (e.g., DHJPAR0001443, DHJ = Daniel Hunt Janzen and PAR = parasitoid) (Janzen et al. 2009, Janzen and Hallwachs 2016a, Janzen and Hallwachs 2016b). In gregarious samples only one wasp was selected to DNA barcoded and received a unique DHJPARxxxxxx code; however, the yy-SRNP-xxxxx code is retained by the unique one as well as all specimens reared from the same caterpillar sample. In the CAPEA project, the voucher code for each caterpillar collected was labeled as ECxxxx. EC stands for Ecuador and the suffix is a unique number assigned to each sample according to a list of consecutive numbers. The DNA wasp voucher code for each parasitoid wasp was presented as YY-Axxxxxxx (YY = Yanayacu, A = first author code).

The caterpillars collected in the field had already been parasitized (or not). Thus, parasitoid identification was based on adult wasps just after their emergence (Dyer et al. 2007) in the rearing containers, or by later study by taxonomists using all information available. In contrast, caterpillar identifications were done at the time of caterpillar collection based on larval morphology (using photographs and previous rearings), since the caterpillar host is destroyed when the parasitoid emerges. Alternatively, lepidopteran identifications were based on adult morphology when a presumably conspecific sample contained more than one caterpillar, including at least one survivor. After emerging, all parasitoid wasps were preserved in 95% to 100% ethanol, facilitating their future use in molecular systematic work. All the Microgastrinae samples were initially sent to the James B. Whitfield lab, [Systematics of Parasitic Hymenoptera at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), Illinois, USA] and later to the Canadian National Collection (CNC) of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada or the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Colección Entomológica, Quito, Ecuador. Adults collected using Malaise traps were available (for Costa Rica) supplementing the reared material. Information and pictures about herbivore hosts (Lepidoptera) and food plants were provided by DH Janzen and LA Dyer and are accessible in searchable databases (http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu/ and http://caterpillars.unr.edu/lsacat/ecuador/).

Insect collection

In gregarious samples (some with more than 100 individuals) between six (three females and three males) to ten (five females and five males) specimens were selected for point mounting, while the remainder were kept in ethanol (100%) and refrigerated at -20 °C. Specimens selected to be point-mounted were previously treated with hexamethyldisilazane, [(CH3)3Si]2NH –HMDS, to permit easy manipulation and avoid specimen fragmentation during handling (Heraty and Hawks 1998). Specimens were placed into a small vial (2 ml) permitting the evaporation of ethanol and then were completely soaked in HMDS. A small amount of reagent was used, not only due to the small size of the specimens, but also to avoid gas buildup in the vial. Containers were capped and left in a fume hood for 1 hour at room temperature. After this time, the excess HMDS was eliminated by transferring the specimens into a small Petri dish and permit to air dry for 30 minutes. Additionally, Petri dishes were covered with glass microscope slides to prevent loss of specimens. The impact of this treatment on DNA is unknown, but in the study, a specimen or a leg from a specimen was taken from an ethanol-preserved specimen for DNA barcoding, before being treated as above. If further DNA analysis is to be performed, the ethanol-preserved specimens will be used.

Wing slides

Wing slides were prepared for each species, and where feasible, for each sex. The right set of wings (fore and hind) was selected and placed between two glass microscope slides. Wings were detached from the body with the help of a #2 insect pin and thin forceps. Both wings were placed on the middle section of one of the two slides and soaked with ethanol, facilitating the spread of the wings on the slide. Wings were straightened out with the tip of a thin forceps through gentle movements to avoid tearing the wings. Afterward, excess ethanol was allowed to evaporate for a few seconds and only then was the second slide put on the top. For fastening the two slides together, cellophane tape was wrapped at both ends of the slide. Labels (identification and codes for sampling) were affixed to the right edge of the slide.

Morphological image library

High-resolution images were obtained by two sources: scanning electron microscope (SEM) and digital photography. Each species description has images of full habitus, head, mesosoma, and metasoma in both lateral and dorsal views. In some cases, both male and female of each species were photographed. The species plates are presented in alphabetical order.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All specimens used for SEM had their wings removed. No pre-cleaning procedure was done before SEM. The entire wasp was either directly affixed to or point-mounted on a metal stub with carbon adhesive tabs. Stub-mounted specimens were sputter coated using a Desk-1 TSC (Denton vacuum LLC, Moorestown, NJ, USA) with a gold-palladium alloy from at least three different angles while rotating the stub to ensure complete coverage. Then, images were taken with a Philips XL30 ESEM-FEG (FEI Company, Hillsboro, OR, USA) at the Imaging Technology Group (ITG) at Beckman Institute, UIUC. Each image was subsequently cropped and incorporated into the plates using Adobe Photoshop® CS v5 and saved as .jpg files.

Digital imaging. Digital photos were taken with a Leica® DFC425 digital microscope camera affixed to a Leica M205 stereomicroscope (Wetzlar®, Germany) with white LED (light-emitting diode) ring lights and dome. Specimens for imaging were held in place under the Leica by gray play dough mounted on a gray background. The LAS (Leica Application Suite) Multifocus module integrated within the Leica microscope was used to create a series of partially focused images. The acquisition of a composite focused image from Z-stack images at different focus positions was obtained with Zerene Stacker™ version 1.04 (http://zerenesystems.com/cms/stacker). The final image was post-processed with Adobe Photoshop CS v5 and saved as .jpg files.

Barcode of Life Data library [mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene]

All COI sequences of Costa Rican Glyptapanteles were generated at the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario (BIO, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada), by methods described in other ACG inventory barcode inventory and taxonomic papers by Smith et al. (2007, 2008) and Fernández-Triana et al. (2014a), and deposited in the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD, http://www.boldsystems.org; Ratnasingham and Hebert 2007). In contrast, the Ecuadorian sequences were generated in the facilities at UIUC, and then deposited in BOLD for analysis (https://doi.org/10.5883/DS-ASGLYP). At UIUC, an entire wasp (head and wings were the only body parts discarded) was selected for maceration in samples with multiple specimens (gregarious) while one hind leg of the pair was plucked in samples with a unique specimen (solitary), preserving the body for taxonomic work. In both situations, specimens were ground in a mini-pestle. Genomic DNA extractions were carried out using DNeasy tissue extraction kits (QIAGEN, Valencia, CA, USA). COI Primers used are listed in Table 1.

Table 1.

Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) primers used in this study.

Gene Primer name Sequence Annealing T °C Fragment length Reference
COI
Forward LepF 5’-TAT CAA CCA ATC ATA AAG ATA TTGG-3’ 52 °C 648 bp Hajibabaei et al. 2006
Reverse LepR 5’-TAA ACT TCT GGA TGT CCA AAA AAT CA-3’
Forward LCO1490 5’-GGT CAA CAA ATC ATA AAG ATA TTG G-3’ 53 °C 658 bp Folmer et al. 1994
Reverse Ben3r 5’-GCW ACW ACR TAA TAK GTA TCA TG-3’

At UIUC, Polymerase chain reactions (PCR) for all primer pairs were carried out in 25 µl reaction volumes consisting of molecular biology grade H2O=15.38 μl; 10Ex Taq buffer=2.5 μl; forward primer (10 μM)=1 μl; reverse primer (10 μM)=1μl; dNTPs mixture (10 mM)=2 μl; Takara Ex Taq DNA (5 U/µl)=0.125 μl and DNA template=3 μl. All amplifications were carried out using a Thermal Cycler (PCR Machine) C1000 Touch™ (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA, USA). The thermocycling program consisted of an initial denaturation step of 94 °C for 2 minutes, followed by 34 cycles [30 seconds at 94°, 25 seconds at 45 °C or 53 °C and 1 minute at 72 °C], and a final extension step of 72 °C for 4 minutes. A negative control was included in each round of amplifications that contained dH2O instead of DNA template. All PCR products were visualized on 1.5% agarose gels (Fisher Scientific, Pittsburgh, PA, USA), stained with red dye (Phenix Research, Candler, NC, USA) and visualized using UV light to measure PCR success. Amplicons were purified with QIAquick PCR purification kits (QIAGEN, Valencia, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Sequences were generated via Sanger cycle-sequencing using amplification primers (forward and reverse directions) and visualized on ABI 3730 Capillary Electrophoresis Genetic Analyzer (Applied BioSystems) at the W.M. Keck Center for Comparative and Functional Genomics, UIUC. The bioinformatics software Geneious ProTM 5.3.4 (Biomatters Ltd., Newark, NJ, USA) was used to visualize chromatograms, edit sequences, and assemble both forward and reverse sequences in contigs. Additionally, all the sequences were translated to amino acids (invertebrate mitochondrial or standard genetic code) to assist in manual adjustments and proof-reading.

Species boundaries

Three different datasets (COI sequences, natural history (host records), and external morphological characters) were integrated in order to generate realistic discrimination of species. While provisional species hypotheses were associated with an approximate 2% sequence divergence (Jones et al. 2011, Smith et al. 2013, Ratnasingham and Hebert 2013), we do not consider this a strict rule or criterion. For example, if we observed clear and consistent morphological differences and/or obvious biological differences between specimens with high sequence similarity we “split” these genetically distinct units into two names based on the weight of evidence. Using the same weight of evidence criteria, we split morphologically similar individuals if they were characterized by both genetic and biological differences.

A tree of COI DNA sequences was constructed in MEGA6 (Tamura et al. 2013) using the Maximum Likelihood (ML) method based on the General Time Reversible model (+G, parameter = 0.3431) (Nei and Kumar 2000). Samples selected for this representative tree were the holotypes for each species except for 5 cases (indicated with an * on the tree) where the holotype was not successfully sequenced (G. boharti, G. alvarowillei, and G. alejandrovalerioi) or having sequence but with insufficient overlap to permit tree construction (G. mikeschauffi and G. sondrawardae). In these cases, we substituted other high-quality sequences from the same species. All COI sequences and their specimen information are available on BOLD: https://doi.org/10.5883/DS-ASGLYP

Species descriptions and taxonomic terminology

Descriptions are based on adult female/male holotypes. When additional specimens were available, notable intraspecific variation was reported. Base on a dataset of 126 characters and 484 character-states, a uniform format for species descriptions was generated with LucID 3.5 software (www.lucidcentral.com) using the Lucid3 Builder tool. The species descriptions are presented in alphabetical order.

Each examined sample that included type material has information about the country, province, region, sector, site, type of forest, elevation, latitude, longitude, collection date, collector, instar of caterpillar collected, date of formation of wasp cocoon (often), and emergence date of the adult parasitoid. The codes for sampling and DNA are also provided. For Costa Rican those codes are yy-SRNP-xxxxxx and DHJPARxxxxxx and for Ecuador EC-xxx and YY-Axxxx. Geographical coordinates are given in decimal degrees (DD). Latitude is expressed before longitude. Positive latitudes are north of the equator, negative latitudes are south of the equator. Positive longitudes are east of the prime meridian, negative longitudes are west of the prime meridian. The conversion of degree minutes seconds to decimal were obtained using the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) converter (http://transition.fcc.gov/mb/audio/bickel/DDDMMSS-decimal.html).

The total number of specimens examined as well as numbers of females and males are specified for each sample. At the beginning of each sample examined a series of numbers are presented [e.g., 8 (3♀, 3♂) (2♀, 0♂)]. The first number (8) indicates the total of specimens found in the sample followed by the number of female(s) and male(s) that were point-mounted (first parenthesis), and then by the quantity of females and males left in ethanol (second parentheses).

In the section of etymology, each species is named in honor of a person who has, during the past 55 years, helped Daniel H. Janzen, Winifred Hallwachs, and Lee A. Dyer, as well as many others identify and understand tropical fauna and flora. Those people constitute a diverse and far-flung team, without which this paper and many others like it would not exist. Mentors, colleagues, friends, and relatives of the first author are also included. Each person is mentioned after the word Etymology in each species account with a brief description of their interests.

Character sampling. Only characters derived from the external morphology were used. Most of the species descriptions are based on females; males were used only when females were absent.

Measurements. All specimens were examined using a Leica M125 stereomicroscope (Wetzlar, Germany). Holotype measurements were taken using a micrometer mounted in the microscope. Body length, antenna length, and fore wing length were taken in 2.0×, while remaining measurements in 10.0×. Body length was measured from the anterior margin of the head to the posterior margin of metasoma, excluding ovipositor and ovipositor sheath; and fore wing length from first axillary sclerite to the edge of the wing. All measurements are expressed in mm.

Taxonomic characters. All samples were identified to genus at UIUC using a key to New World genera of Microgastrinae (Whitfield 1997). Types for the previously described Neotropical species were examined: Blanchard collection, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Natural History Museum, London, UK (NHMUK); and United States National Museum USNM (now National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC). Additional material examined: portions of Blanchard’s material, extensive reared material in USNM; Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, IL, USA; and Whitfield’s personal reared collection, Urbana, IL, USA. All illustrated and discussed in Whitfield et al. 2002a. Terminology for surface sculpturing follows Harris (1979), for wing venation follows Sharkey and Wharton (1997) and for morphology follows Mason (1981), Austin and Dangerfield (1992), Sharkey and Wharton (1997) and Whitfield (1997).

The antenna is described as it is resting above the body. The body coloration is defined as pale and dark. However, in the section’s coloration in adult wasps and species descriptions, the body coloration is treated in more detail. On the metasoma, the metasomal tergum 1 (T1) and the metasomal tergum 2 (T2) are divide into one mediotergite (medial chitinous portion) and two lateral tergites (two membranous lateral areas or laterotergites). Here, petiole (pe, Fig. 3C) on T1 and median area (ma, Fig. 3C) on T2 are the terms preferred over mediotergite on T1 and mediotergite on T2 respectively. Also, the sublateral area (sa, Fig. 3C) on T1 is the preferred terminology for the lateral tergite on T1. On T2, the terms adjacent area (ada, colored area next to the median area) and lateral end (le) are used to highlight the different colors of these two areas (Fig. 3C). Additionally, some morphological terms are used for the first time and refer to structures mainly in the scutellum and the metanotum. For the scutellum these are: axillary trough of scutellum (ATS) and medioposterior band of scutellum (BS). For the metanotum the terms are: anterior furrow of metanotum (AFM), the posterior furrow of metanotum (PFM), an axillary trough of metanotum (ATM), medioposterior band of metanotum (BM), and medioanterior pit of metanotum (MPM) (Fig. 2F). These external morphological terms, as well as others used in the descriptions, are illustrated in the Figures 2, 3.

The following acronyms are used to denote the depositories:

CNC Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

PUCE Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Colección Entomológica, Quito, Ecuador.

Morphological terms and their abbreviations used in the text and figures are:

ada adjacent area,

AFM anterior furrow of metanotum,

ATM axillary trough of metanotum,

ATS axillary trough of scutellum,

BM medioposterior band of metanotum,

BS medioposterior band of scutellum,

cl clypeus,

CR Costa Rica,

e eye,

EC Ecuador,

er epicnemial ridge,

f female,

fa face,

fc fore coxa,

fr frons,

G gregarious,

ge gena,

gusaneros parataxonomists or paraecologists who find and rear the caterpillars (Janzen and Hallwachs 2011),

hc hind coxa,

l lunule of scutellum,

la labrum,

le lateral end,

lp labial palp,

m male,

ma median area,

mc middle coxa,

md mandible,

me mesopleuron,

mls malar suture,

mp maxillary palp,

ms mesoscutum,

mtn metanotum,

MT Malaise trap,

MPM medioanterior pit of metanotum,

mtp metapleuron,

n nucha,

o ocellus,

OOL ocular ocellar line (the shortest distance between lateral ocellus and adjacent compound eye margin),

pe petiole,

pd pedicel,

pg precoxal groove,

ph phragma of scutellum;

pn pronotum (1, dorsal furrow; 2, central area; 3 ventral furrow),

POL posterior ocellar line (the shortest distance between the lateral ocelli),

pp propodeum,

ppl propleuron,

PFM posterior furrow of metanotum;

S metasomal sternum:

S4 sternum 4 or antepenultimate sternum,

S5 sternum 5 or penultimate sternum,

S6 sternum 6 or hypopygium,

sa sublateral area,

sc scape,

scl scutellum,

so solitary,

T metasomal tergum:

T1 tergum 1,

T2 tergum 2 and so on,

te temple,

v vertex,

YPT yellow-pan trap.

Results

Species

This Glyptapanteles species revision resulted in the recognition and description of 136 new species, none of them are shared between the two countries. Thus, 78 are from Costa Rica and the remaining 58 from Ecuador. The Costa Rican species are alejandrovalerioi, alexborisenkoi, alvarowillei, andybennetti, andydeansi, annettewalkerae, barneyburksi, billbrowni, bobhanneri, bobkulai, bobwhartoni, boharti, brianestjaquesae, carlhuffakeri, carlossarmientoi, carlrettenmeyeri, charlesmicheneri, charlesporteri, chrisdarlingi, chrisgrinteri, christerhanssoni, corriemoreauae, daveroubiki, daveschindeli, davesmithi, davidwahli, donquickei, eowilsoni, garygibsoni, gavinbroadi, gerarddelvarei, henrytownesi, howelldalyi, hugokonsi, iangauldi, ianyarrowi, ilarisaaksjarvi, jacklonginoi, jamesrobertsoni, jeremydewaardi, jesusugaldei, jjrodriguezae, johnburnsi, johnheratyi, johnlasallei, johnnoyesi, lubomasneri, malloryvanwyngaardenae, marjorietownesae, markshawi, meganmiltonae, mehrdadhajibabaei, mikegatesi, mikeschauffi, mikesharkeyi, nataliaivanovae, nealweberi, ninazitaniae, pamitchellae, paulhansoni, paulheberti, paulhurdi, philwardi, robbinthorpi, ronaldzunigai, roysnellingi, scottmilleri, scottshawi, shelbystedenfeldae, sondrawardae, stephaniecluttsae, stephaniekirkae, sujeevanratnasinghami, sureshnaiki, sydneycameronae, tanyadapkeyae, victoriapookae, and wonyoungchoi. The Ecuadorian species are alexwildi, andrewdebeveci, andysuarezi, andywarreni, ankitaguptae, betogarciai, carinachicaizae, celsoazevedoi, claudiamartinezae, diegocamposi, dorislagosae, edgardpalacioi, edwinnarvaezi, erictepei, felipesotoi, ferfernandezi, genorodriguezae, grantgentryi, gunnarbrehmi, haroldgreeneyi, helmuthaguirrei, henryhespenheidei, jaquioconnorae, jerrypowelli, jimmilleri, johnstiremani, josesimbanai, juanvargasi, jumamuturii, keithwillmotti, kevinjohnsoni, kyleparksi, linghsiuae, luchosalagajei, malleyneae, mamiae, marcelotavaresi, marcepsteini, marcpolleti, marshawheelerae, mayberenbaumae, michelleduennesae, mikepoguei, montywoodi, pachopinasi, petermarzi, phildevriesi, rafamanitioi, suniae, suzannegreenae, taniaariasae, thibautdelsinnei, thomaspapei, toluagunbiadeae, tomwallai, wilmersimbanai, yalizhangae, and yanayacuensis. Before this study, only six species had been described for the Neotropics. A total of 16,663 specimens was examined, of which 13,542 are preserved in 100% ethanol and 3,121 point-mounted.

The samples reviewed from Costa Rica are the result of 30 years of continuous collecting, from 1982 to 2012, and are accompanied by more than 100 undescribed sympatric species. In contrast, material examined from Ecuador covers a period of only five years (the oldest samples were caught in 2005 while the most recent in 2010). It is important to note that both inventories of the caterpillars and their food plants and parasitoids are still running and will continue for a number of years, which means even more species in this genus could be added to those described here and the 100+ undescribed species already collected. Indeed, material recently collected (2010–2019) for both projects, including reared specimens and Malaise-trapped specimens, was also available at the time of this revision, but it was not possible to include them. It is expected that those remaining species will be described in the near future.

Identifying Glyptapanteles species using DNA barcoding (Fig. 1)

Within Glyptapanteles COI, intraspecific variation is much less than interspecific variation (on average 0.09% vs. 10.1 % when estimated using the BOLD distance summary tool on sequences longer than 400 bp (i.e., overlapping)).

Figure 1. 

A tree of COI gene sequences from the new 136 species of Glyptapanteles is described here. The tree with the highest log likelihood (-12901.1226) is shown. Initial tree(s) for the heuristic search were obtained by applying the Neighbor-Joining method to a matrix of pairwise distances estimated using the Maximum Composite Likelihood (MCL) approach. A discrete Gamma distribution was used to model evolutionary rate differences among sites (5 categories (+G, parameter = 0.3431)). The rate variation model allowed for some sites to be evolutionarily invariable ([+I], 0.0000% sites). The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths measured by the number of substitutions per site. The analysis involved nucleotide sequences from 136 specimens using a total of 926 positions in the final dataset. Samples selected for this representative tree were the holotypes for each species except for five cases (indicated with an * on the tree) where the holotype was not successfully sequenced (G. boharti, G. alvarowillei, and G. alejandrovalerioi) or having sequence but with insufficient overlap to permit tree construction (G. mikeschauffi and G sondrawardae). In these cases, we substituted other high-quality sequences from the same species.

Distribution

Glyptapanteles has a wide range of ecological distribution. These wasps can be found from 90 m to 2,800 m elevation. Elevation was not reported for only one species, G. toluagunbiadeae. Forty percent of the species (55 of 136 spp.) were reported above 1,500 m. All the species from Ecuador are found at or above an elevation of 1,000 m whereas Costa Rican species are found from 90 m to 1,460 m because that is the range available for sampling; there is no doubt that their distributions range down to sea level, and they will be found up to the highest available point (2,000 m in ACG).

Body length

Most Neotropical Glyptapanteles (89%) are between 2 and 3.4 mm in length, whereas a low percentage is below (5%) or above (6%) that range. The seven species with body length less than 2 mm are G. daveroubiki (1.67), G. carlossarmientoi and G. philwardi (each with 1.81), G. ronaldzunigai (1.86), G. carlrettenmeyeri and G. wonyoungchoi (each with 1.91), and G. chrisgrinteri (1.96). The eight species more than 3.5 mm are: G. charlesporteri (3.53), G. pachopinasi (3.58), G. sureshnaiki (3.63), G. ferfernandezi (3.68), G. ninazitaniae (3.78), G. alvarowillei (3.81), G. andydeansi (3.85), and G. malleyneae (3.88).

Coloration in adult wasps

In most species here described, the body coloration is generally dark, ranging from dark brown to black. Pale coloration (light or dark yellow) is mostly limited to legs, first segments of the metasoma, and, rarely, the antenna and the mesosoma. In species with a yellow metasoma, that pale coloration is limited exclusively to the first terga and first sterna when the specimen is seen in lateral view. However, twelve species displayed an uncommon pattern: the yellow coloration extends beyond including all the terga and all the sterna. Thus, in lateral view the metasoma appears to be completely yellow in females: G. andybennetti (Fig. 14A), G. andydeansi (Fig. 16A), G. annettewalkerae (Fig. 23A, K), G. billbrowni (Fig. 29A), G. bobhanneri (Fig. 31A), G. brianestjaquesae (Fig. 39A), G. claudiamartinezae (Fig. 58A, J), G. gavinbroadi (Fig. 88A), G. mayberenbaumae (Fig. 157A, J), G. paulhurdi (Fig. 184A, J), G. suzannegreenae (Fig. 211A, K), and G. sydneycameronae (Fig. 212A, J).

The six Neotropical Glyptapanteles species described previously to this study show bodies exclusively tinted with dark colors. Here, G. stephaniecluttsae (Figs 204205) is the first Neotropical species with extensive yellow coloration on the mesosoma although all the mesoscutum, small portions on the scutellum, and the metanotum are dark brown. The head in this species is black. A closer look at the metasoma shows that in lateral view, the predominant coloration is pale (yellow) though dark brown areas are present and limited by a small area in the dorsal part of the T4 and beyond. It must be noted, however, that in dorsal view the dark areas are more extensive than pale areas. Thus, the T3 and the remaining terga are completely brown. The yellow coloration is limited to 3/4 proximally of the petiole and sublateral areas on T1, the median area but not in the male (Fig. 205D), and the lateral ends on T2 (Fig. 204H, I). This Costa Rican gregarious species was collected at 730 m in rain forest. Pale coloration or “xanthic coloration” along with enlarged compound eyes are features generally associated with species that are nocturnally active (Whitfield and Scaccia 1996).

Taking advantage of the large number of new species here described, the variation in the body coloration has been stressed in detail. These minute wasps are not wholly black as might be thought initially. The color variation in those species is focused on the antenna (five types), the propleuron (two types), the petiole (three types), the median area on T2 (three types), and the legs (13 types). In the legs, the greatest color variation occurs in the hind ones and includes mainly the segments of the coxa, the femora, and the tibia. It is worth mentioning that coloration was not taken into consideration in the key for species separation.

Antennal coloration. At least five types of antennal coloration were observed: all the antennal flagellomeres have the same color in both sides, only the dorsal part of all the antennal flagellomeres or only the dorsal part of the first proximal flagellomeres or only the last distal antennal flagellomeres are light-colored with the remaining areas dark-colored, and the antenna tricolored.

All the antennal flagellomeres have the same color throughout. This is the most common color pattern. The antenna is completely dark brown throughout and occurs on most Glyptapanteles species (83 spp.). However, there are two variations: all the flagellomeres are stained darker with a black tint, this shade is present in only three species (G. michelleduennesae, G. montywoodi, and G. petermarzi) or all the flagellomeres can be completely yellow-brown, which was recorded in only one species (G. johnburnsi).

The dorsal part of all the antennal flagellomeres is lighter than the ventral part. In this category, the dorsal coloration of the antenna (resting above the body) can be yellow-brown (only in G. donquickei) or light brown (as in G. alejandrovalerioi, G. eowilsoni, G. marcelotavaresi, G. paulhansoni, G. phildevriesi, and G. sydneycameronae). In both cases, the ventral coloration is (dark) brown.

Only the dorsal part of the most proximal flagellomeres is lighter than the ventral part. In 27 species, the coloration of the dorsal part of the most proximal flagellomeres is light brown. The species that repeat this pattern are G. daveschindeli, G. garygibsoni, G. gavinbroadi, G. hugokonsi, G. ilarisaaksjarvi, G. johnlasallei, G. keithwillmotti, G. kyleparksi, G. luchosalagajei, G. markshawi, G. meganmiltonae, G. mehrdadhajibabaei, G. mikeschauffi, G. nataliaivanovae, G. robbinthorpi, G. roysnellingi, G. scottmilleri, G. shelbystedenfeldae, G. sondrawardae, G. sujeevanratnasinghami, G. suniae, G. tanyadapkeyae, G. thibautdelsinnei, G. thomaspapei, G. toluagunbiadeae, G. yalizhangae, and G. yanayacuensis.

In other species, the dorsal coloration of the most proximal flagellomeres is yellow-brown and it was recorded in ten species: G. charlesmicheneri, G. christerhanssoni, G. davidwahli, G. howelldalyi, G. jamesrobertsoni, G. jeremydewaardi, G. jesusugaldei, G. jjrodriguezae, G. malloryvanwyngaardenae, and G. marjorietownesae. In one species, G. davesmithi, the first five proximal flagellomeres are dorsally yellow. In all instances, the ventral coloration of those proximal flagellomeres is dark brown. However, there is a slight modification to this pattern: in G. scottshawi, the first seven-eight proximal antennal flagellomeres are yellow on both sides. On all the examples cited, the remaining flagellomeres are brown or dark brown.

The last distal antennal flagellomeres are lighter than the remaining flagellomeres. Only four species fit in this category. The last distal antennal flagellomeres can be completely yellow (G. ninazitaniae and G. sureshnaiki only in females), yellow-brown (G. bobwhartoni) or light brown (G. mikegatesi). In all these species, the remaining flagellomeres are brown or dark brown.

Antenna tricolored. Only one species, G. wonyoungchoi, has the antenna with three colors: the first four proximal antennal flagellomeres are completely yellow, the following five to seven are totally yellow-brown, and the remaining flagellomeres are brown on both sides.

Propleuron coloration. With respect to propleuron two types of coloration were observed: propleuron matches the mesosoma coloration and propleuron coloration differs partially or completely from mesosoma coloration.

Propleuron matches the mesosoma coloration. In the vast majority of the species (102 spp.) the propleuron is dark as the mesosoma. Only in one species, G. stephaniecluttsae, the propleuron is as pale (yellow) as mesosoma.

Propleuron coloration differs partially or completely from mesosoma coloration. In five species the propleuron coloration (entirely yellow or entirely light brown) deviates from mesosoma coloration (brown or brown-black): G. alexwildi (Fig. 9H), G. barneyburksi (Fig. 25A), G. bobhanneri (Fig. 31A), G. jaquioconnorae (Fig. 115I), and G. mikesharkeyi (Fig. 168A). In 28 species, the propleuron has some pale areas (yellow-brown or light brown) that contrasts with the dark color of the mesosoma: G. andrewdebeveci (Fig. 12J), G. annettewalkerae (Fig. 23J), G. brianestjaquesae (Fig. 39A), G. charlesporteri (Fig. 50A), G. daveschindeli (Fig. 64A), G. grantgentryi (Fig. 94I), G. gunnarbrehmi (Fig. 95J), G. haroldgreeneyi, G. helmuthaguirrei (Fig. 97I), G. jesusugaldei, G. josesimbanai, G. mayberenbaumae, G. meganmiltonae (Fig. 158A), G. nataliaivanovae (Fig. 171I), G. nealweberi (Fig. 173G), G. ninazitaniae (Fig. 175I), G. pamitchellae (Fig. 178I), G. paulheberti, G. paulhurdi (Fig. 184A), G. scottmilleri, G. scottshawi (Fig. 199I), G. shelbystedenfeldae, G. sondrawardae (Fig. 203I), G. stephaniekirkae (Fig. 206C), G. sujeevanratnasinghami (Fig. 208I), G. sureshnaiki (Fig. 210I), G. sydneycameronae (Fig. 212I), and G. yanayacuensis (Fig. 223I).

Petiole coloration. Three types of coloration were observed: petiole entirely dark, petiole entirely pale, and petiole with two colors.

Petiole entirely dark. This is the category that contains the largest number of species. In 107 species the petiole is dark brown or brown-black (same coloration as metasoma) and the contours of the petiole can or can not be darkened.

Petiole entirely pale. This is an unusual case. Only in G. stephaniecluttsae, the petiole is yellow with contours yellow-brown.

Petiole with two colors. In two species, the pale coloration dominates over the dark one. Glyptapanteles alexwildi (Fig. 9H) has the petiole yellow-brown with the entire inner edge dark brown. Glyptapanteles suzannegreenae (Fig. 211H) has it dark yellow; however, the lateral parts on the distal half have light yellow-brown tints. In both species the petiole contours are darkened. In some species, the pale coloration on the petiole covers more area than the dark one. Thus, in six species 3/4 of the proximal part is pale and the distal 1/4 is dark. The pale coloration varies from yellow, yellow-brown, brown-orange, and reddish brown while the dark coloration is dark brown or brown-black. Those species are: G. charlesmicheneri, G. corriemoreauae, G. davidwahli, G. ilarisaaksjarvi (Fig. 109D), G. malloryvanwyngaardenae (Fig. 146F), and G. pamitchellae (Fig. 178G). In one species, G. eowilsoni, proximal 2/3 is reddish brown and the distal 1/3 is black. In some species the dark coloration on the petiole dominates the pale coloration. Thus, in three species 3/4 of the distal part is dark and the proximal 1/4 is pale. The pale coloration changes from yellow-brown and reddish and the dark coloration from dark brown and black. These species are G. mehrdadhajibabaei, G. scottshawi (Fig. 199G), and G. sondrawardae (Fig. 203G). In seven species the dark and the pale colorations cover the petiole in equal proportions. The pale coloration is variegated, and can be yellow, brown-orange, brown-red, reddish or light brown. The dark coloration can be brown or dark brown. Those species are: G. daveschindeli, G. jamesrobertsoni, G. jesusugaldei, G. jumamuturii, G. kyleparksi, G. mayberenbaumae, and G. tanyadapkeyae (Fig. 214G).

In seven species the petiole is mostly dark but with a central pale area. The pale coloration can be yellow, yellow-brown or light brown, and the dark coloration fluctuates between brown and brown-black. These species are G. donquickei, G. gerarddelvarei, G. henrytownesi, G. howelldalyi, G. jeremydewaardi, G. johnheratyi, and G. robbinthorpi.

Petiole with three colors. In two species the petiole coloration intensifies from proximal to distal, in both species their contours are darkened. In Glyptapanteles marjorietownesae proximally the petiole is yellow, medially reddish/yellow-brown and distally brown and in G. markshawi the petiole proximally is yellow-brown, medially light brown and distally dark brown.

Coloration in the median area on T2. In most of the species here described (109 spp.) the median area (chitinous portion) is dark (dark brown or brown-black) and next to it there is an obviously defined colored area (membranous portion), the adjacent area (ada, Fig. 3C), which is also dark, and the lateral ends pale.

In twelve species the median area is dark and the lateral ends are pale; this means the adjacent area is missing on T2: G. alexborisenkoi (Fig. 8G), G. bobhanneri, G. brianestjaquesae, G. carlhuffakeri (Fig. 42G), G. christerhanssoni, G. daveroubiki, G. daveschindeli, G. gavinbroadi, G. howelldalyi, G. marjorietownesae, G. mikeschauffi (Fig. 166F), and G. paulhurdi (Fig. 184H).

In twelve species both the median area and lateral ends are dark (the adjacent area is absent): G. alejandrovalerioi, G. ankitaguptae (Fig. 22H), G. carlossarmientoi, G. celsoazevedoi (Fig. 47H), G. haroldgreeneyi (Fig. 96H), G. jerrypowelli (Fig. 118H), G. johnburnsi, G. johnnoyesi (Fig. 131F), G. marcelotavaresi (Fig. 149G), G. marcepsteini (Fig. 150H), G. marcpolleti (Fig. 151G), and G. toluagunbiadeae (Fig. 217G).

Four species show unusual color patterns. First, both the median area and the lateral ends are pale, and the adjacent area is dark: G. stephaniecluttsae (Fig. 204H) and G. stephaniekirkae (Fig. 206G). Second, the median area as well as the lateral ends are pale, the adjacent area is missing, G. wonyoungchoi (Fig. 221G). Third, the median area has two colors (proximal 1/3 yellow, distal 2/3 brown), the lateral ends are yellow, and the adjacent area is absent in G. suzannegreenae (Fig. 211H).

Coxal coloration. Taking into account the coloration of all the coxae compared with the body coloration, six types were recorded: the body and all the coxae yellow; the body dark and all the coxae yellow; the body dark, the fore and the middle coxae yellow, and the hind coxae with two colors; the body and the hind coxae dark, and the fore and the middle coxae yellow; the body, the middle and the hind coxae dark, and the fore coxae yellow; and the body and all the coxae dark.

The body and all the coxae yellow (Figs 204A, 205A). This is an unusual pattern of coloration, only was reported in one species, G. stephaniecluttsae.

The body dark and all the coxae yellow. Only four species have the hind coxae completely yellow [G. alexwildi (Fig. 9K), G. andrewdebeveci (Fig. 12K), G. mayberenbaumae (Fig. 157J), and G. yanayacuensis (Fig. 223J)].

The body dark, the fore and the middle coxae yellow, and the hind coxae with two colors. It is worth mentioning that of the three pairs of coxae are the hind ones which can exhibit at the same time two colors which vary in quantity and location. In this category, the fore and the middle coxae always are completely yellow, thus the differences are based on hind coxae coloration. This is the largest size category with a total of 51 species. First, it will start with the species whose hind coxae coloration is mostly yellow with a little of brown or brown-black and it will end with the species showing the opposite pattern, brown or black coloration dominates over the yellow coloration.

In one species (G. meganmiltonae, Fig. 158A) the hind coxae are yellow, but proximally with an irregular area brown, although in the male they are completely light brown (Fig. 159A); in one species (G. ankitaguptae, Fig. 22K) the yellow hind coxae have a tiny black spot both in proximal and distal edges; and in one species (G. marcelotavaresi, Fig. 149J) has the hind coxae both proximally and distally with an irregular narrow brown area, thus the yellow coloration is in the middle part.

Another dark mark detected in the yellow hind coxae is a dorsal elongated brown-black spot on the proximal part, this pattern was observed in three species (G. ninazitaniae, Fig. 175J; G. sureshnaiki, Fig. 210J; and G. taniaariasae, Fig. 213A), and in one species (G. mikesharkeyi, Fig. 168J) the size of the spot was smaller.

In three species, the dark coloration is located in the same place, covering the proximal third of the hind coxae, the remaining area is yellow. Glyptapanteles nataliaivanovae female exhibits unevenly dark brown blotches (Fig. 171J); however, in the male those marks are more extensive, covering until the proximal half (Fig. 172I); in G. stephaniekirkae (Fig. 206J) both sexes have the brown-black coloration uniform, but in male the area is more extensive covering until the proximal half (Fig. 207A); and in G. thibautdelsinnei male (Fig. 215K) the brown-black coloration also is homogeneous; however, its expansion is unknown in the female.

In four species the dark coloration on hind coxae is more extensive, covering the half or more than half the length of the hind coxae. Glyptapanteles carlossarmientoi female (Fig. 44A) has the proximal half light brown (distal half yellow), but in the male (Fig. 45A) the hind coxae are completely light brown; in both sexes of G. nealweberi (Figs 173H, 174J) the proximal half is brown-black and distal half is yellow; and in two species (G. pamitchellae, Fig. 178A and G. charlesmicheneri, Fig. 48A) the brown-black coloration covers the proximal 3/4 and only the distal 1/4 is yellow.

In three species (G. charlesporteri both sexes, Fig. 50A; G. scottshawi only female, Fig. 199A; and G. sydneycameronae only female, Fig. 212J) the distal third has a yellow area which is more extensive ventrally, reaching almost the distal half. Thus, brown-black is the dominant color on hind coxae.

In 25 species the hind coxae are brown or brown-black but distally have a yellow area which is distinctively tiny: G. annettewalkerae, G. betogarciai, G. billbrowni, G. bobkulai, G. bobwhartoni, G. boharti, G. brianestjaquesae, G. carlhuffakeri, G. claudiamartinezae, G. davesmithi (male with fore and middle coxae yellow-brown instead of light yellow), G. diegocamposi, G. edwinnarvaezi, G. felipesotoi, G. ferfernandezi, G. genorodriguezae, G. haroldgreeneyi, G. helmuthaguirrei, G. henryhespenheidei, G. jaquioconnorae (dorso-distally takes on a somewhat lighter color, yellow-brown), G. keithwillmotti, G. kevinjohnsoni, G. kyleparksi, G. linghsiuae G. marcepsteini, and G. wonyoungchoi. However, in four species (G. bobhanneri, G. erictepei, G. grantgentryi, and G. gunnarbrehmi) the distal tiny area is lighter (yellow-brown) than the remaining brown-black area.

In one species (G. sujeevanratnasinghami) the yellow-brown coloration covers the distal half of the hind coxae, the proximal half is brown-black; in two species (G. edgardpalacioi and G. johnstiremani) the distal third is yellow-brown (proximal 2/3 is brown-black), and in two species (G. andydeansi and G. jeremydewaardi) the yellow-brown coloration is restricted to ventro-distal part and covers a small area, the remaining area is brown-black.

The body and the hind coxae dark, and the fore and the middle coxae pale. In total, 29 species exhibits hind coxae completely dark, that coloration coincides with the dark body coloration; the fore and the middle coxae are completely yellow. Those species are: G. alexborisenkoi, G. alvarowillei, G. carinachicaizae, G. dorislagosae, G. jerrypowelli, G. jesusugaldei, G. jimmilleri, G. josesimbanai, G. juanvargasi, G. jumamuturii, G. luchosalagajei, G. malleyneae, G. mamiae, G. markshawi, G. marshawheelerae, G. michelleduennesae, G. mikegatesi, G. mikepoguei, G. montywoodi, G. pachopinasi, G. paulheberti, G. paulhurdi, G. petermarzi, G. phildevriesi, G. rafamanitioi, G. shelbystedenfeldae, G. sondrawardae, G. suniae, and G. suzannegreenae. However, in three species the hind coxae are lighter (yellow-brown/light brown) than body coloration (G. andybennetti, Figs 14A, 15A; G. barneyburksi, Figs 25A, 26A; and G. lubomasneri, Figs 142A, 143A).

The body, the middle and the hind coxae dark, and the fore coxae yellow. In four species (G. carlrettenmeyeri, Fig. 46A; G. daveschindeli, Fig. 64A; G. johnheratyi, Fig. 127A; and G. toluagunbiadeae, Fig. 217A) the coloration of the coxae changes from light to dark. Thus, the fore coxae are yellow, the middle coxae yellow-brown, and the hind coxae brown-black. In all of them, the body coloration corresponds with the hind coxae coloration, brown-black.

The body and all the coxae dark. In 24 species the dark coloration (dark brown or brown-black) of all the coxae matches with the dark body coloration. Those species are: G. alejandrovalerioi, G. andysuarezi, G. andywarreni, G. celsoazevedoi, G. daveroubiki, G. davidwahli, G. garygibsoni, G. gavinbroadi, G. gerarddelvarei, G. henrytownesi, G. jjrodriguezae, G. johnburnsi, G. johnnoyesi, G. malloryvanwyngaardenae, G. marcpolleti, G. paulhansoni, G. ronaldzunigai, G. roysnellingi, G. scottmilleri, G. tanyadapkeyae, G. thomaspapei, G. tomwallai, G. wilmersimbanai, and G. yalizhangae. However, in five species all the coxae exhibit a coloration lighter than body: G. chrisgrinteri, G. eowilsoni, G. howelldalyi, G. hugokonsi, and G. marjorietownesae. However, in five species all the coxae are lighter than body coloration: G. chrisgrinteri, G. eowilsoni, G. howelldalyi, G. hugokonsi, and G. marjorietownesae.

When comparing the coxae coloration, some species exhibit the fore and middle coxae slightly light or lighter (yellow-brown or light brown) than hind coxae (brown-black). In all of them, the hind coxae coloration matches the body coloration. The 15 species with this pattern are G. chrisdarlingi, G. christerhanssoni, G. corriemoreauae, G. donquickei, G. iangauldi, G. ianyarrowi, G. ilarisaaksjarvi, G. jacklonginoi, G. jamesrobertsoni, G. johnlasallei, G. mehrdadhajibabaei, G. mikeschauffi, G. philwardi, G. robbinthorpi, and G. victoriapookae.

Femoral coloration. Five types of femoral coloration were recorded: all the femora pale; the fore femora with two colorations, and the middle and the hind ones dark; the fore and the middle femora with two colorations, and the hind ones dark; the fore and the middle femora pale, and the hind ones dark; and the fore and the middle femora pale, and the hind ones with two colorations.

All the femora pale. In nine species, the femora in all the three pairs of legs are completely pale: G. alexborisenkoi, G. ankitaguptae, G. boharti, G. charlesporteri, G. gavinbroadi, G. haroldgreeneyi, G. mayberenbaumae, G. paulheberti, and G. stephaniecluttsae. A variation was also registered in species with all the femora yellow. A narrow dorsal dark strip from top to bottom can be present in all of them (G. celsoazevedoi, G. johnstiremani, G. marcepsteini, and G. petermarzi) or only in the fore and the middle femora (G. phildevriesi) or only in the middle and the hind femora (G. luchosalagajei and G. mamiae) or only in the hind femora (G. andybennetti and G. johnnoyesi).

The fore femora with two colorations, and the middle and the hind ones dark. Only one species fits in this category, G. johnburnsi.

The fore and the middle femora with two colorations, and the hind ones dark. Two species registered this pattern: G. alejandrovalerioi and G. shelbystedenfeldae.

The fore and the middle femora pale, and the hind ones dark. Only G. mikegatesi is in this category.

The fore and the middle femora pale, and the hind ones with two colorations. The vast majority of species (114 spp.) are in this type of coloration. The variation in the dark coloration on hind femora mainly concerns quantity. The dark coloration can cover most of the apex, a tiny dot at the tip, the half of the length of the femora, or most to the entire structure.

Tibial coloration. Two types of tibial coloration were observed: all the tibiae pale, and the fore and the middle tibiae pale, and the hind tibiae with two colorations.

All the tibiae pale. Six species matches this pattern: G. mayberenbaumae, G. mikesharkeyi, G. nealweberi, G. ninazitaniae, G. stephaniekirkae, and G. sureshnaiki. Additionally, in two species, G. ankitaguptae and G. johnstiremani, all the pale tibiae have a narrow dorsal brown strip from top to bottom.

The fore and the middle tibiae pale, and the hind tibiae with two colorations. The largest variation in the tibiae coloration is focused mainly on the hind tibiae. Most of the species here described (128 spp.) are included in this category. The variation in the dark coloration on hind tibiae includes the location (distally or at both ends) and quantity (mostly to entirely). In two species, G. marcelotavaresi and G. marcpolleti, the fore and middle tibiae are pale, but additionally, they have a narrow dorsal dark strip from top to bottom.

More details in the body parts which coloration varies are specified in the species description under the coloration section.

Morphological image library

One problem that many taxonomists face during the identification of a specific taxon is the absence of drawings, images, or visual aids. Here, a detailed compilation of body part images was undertaken instead of a minimalist descriptive prose approach. It is expected that this high-resolution material will be of great help for future species identification and also serve as a source that facilitates the search of new morphological characters.

Approximately 2,300 original figures populate the morphological image library, which was used to create 222 plates. All of the 136 species described in this work were photographed, of which 84 species have plates for both sexes; for 39 species, only females were considered for the plates even though males were unknown for only ten species. In contrast, females of 13 species were unknown so digital images were taken from males in those cases. Most of the species (90%) were described based on females. A small fraction (10%, 13 spp.) of holotypes correspond to males, due to females not having been caught: G. alexwildi, G. ankitaguptae, G. celsoazevedoi, G. dorislagosae, G. josesimbanai, G. juanvargasi, G. malleyneae, G. marcpolleti, G. montywoodi, G. pachopinasi, G. shelbystedenfeldae, G. tanyadapkeyae, and G. thomaspapei.

Figure 2. 

Head and mesosoma structures Glyptapanteles spp., females A–C Head A Frontal view, G. felipesotoi sp. nov. B Dorsal view, G. alvarowillei sp. nov. C Lateroventral view, G. barneyburksi sp. nov. D, E Mesosoma D Lateral view, G. andybennetti sp. nov. E Dorsal view, G. ianyarrowi sp. nov. F Scutellum, metanotum, propodeum, dorsal view, G. ianyarrowi sp. nov. Abbreviations: cl = clypeus, e = eye, er = epicnemial ridge, fa = face, fc = fore coxa, fr = frons, ge = gena, hc = hind coxa, l = lunule, la = labrum, lp = labial palp, md = mandible, mc = middle coxa, me = mesopleuron, mls = malar suture, mp = maxillary palp, ms = mesoscutum, mtn = metanotum (AFM = anterior furrow of metanotum; ATM = axillary trough of metanotum; BM = medioposterior band of metanotum; MPM = medioanterior pit of metanotum, PFM = Posterior furrow of metanotum), mtp = metapleuron, n = nucha, o = ocellus, OOL = ocular ocelar line (the shortest distance between lateral ocellus and adjacent compound eye margin), POL = posterior ocelar line (the shortest distance between the lateral ocelli), pd = pedicel, pg = precoxal groove, pn = pronotum (1, dorsal rim; 2, central area; 3 ventral rim), pp = propodeum, ppl = propleuron, sc = scape, scl = scutellum (ATS = axillary trough of scutellum; BS = medioposterior band of scutellum, PH = phragma of scutellum), t = temple, v = vertex.

Figure 3. 

Metasoma and wings Glyptapanteles spp. A, B Metasoma A Lateral view, G. barneyburksi sp. nov., female B Dorsal view, G. jeremydewaardi sp. nov., female C T1–3, dorsal view, G. sujeevanratnasinghami sp. nov. D, E Wings, G. mehrdadhajibabaei sp. nov., male E Fore F Hind. Abbreviations: S4 = sternum 4 or antepenultimate sternum, S5 = sternum 5 or penultimate sternum, S6 = sternum 6 or hypopygium, T1 = tergum 1 (pe, petiole; sa, sublateral area), T2 = tergum 2 (ada, adjacent area; le, lateral end; ma, median area).

Malaise-trapped specimens

In this revision, the specimens collected by Malaise traps came only from Costa Rica (material from Ecuador was also available but was not included in this revision) and constitute 27% (21 spp.) of the ACG species described here from that country (out of 78 spp.). Twelve species, of those 21 caught by Malaise traps, were also obtained from reared material. Thus, it was possible to assign two species as solitary (G. nealweberi and G. sujeevanratnasinghami) and the other ten species as gregarious (G. andybennetti, G. charlesporteri, G. daveschindeli, G. eowilsoni, G. henrytownesi, G. hugokonsi, G. ilarisaaksjarvi [also collected with YPT], G. jamesrobertsoni, G. jesusugaldei, and G. philwardi). Lifestyle, herbivore hosts, and host food plants for nine species continue to be unknown: G. mikesharkeyi, G. nataliaivanovae, G. ninazitaniae, G. pamitchellae, G. scottshawi, G. shelbystedenfeldae, G. sondrawardae, G. stephaniekirkae, and G. sureshnaiki. It is worth emphasizing that the project to date has reared more than 650,000 wild-caught caterpillars and 1,182 Glyptapanteles-attacked caterpillars, yet those nine species have not yet been reared. This gap between sampling methods emphasizes the importance of using diverse methods to assess biodiversity in a specific place. In addition, abundance of those species caught by Malaise traps and yet not recovered from wild caterpillars suggests that probably they are locally common: G. mikesharkeyi (133 specimens), G. pamitchellae (95), G. scottshawi (126), G. sondrawardae (148), G. stephaniekirkae (84), G. sureshnaiki (59), and to a lesser extent G. nataliaivanovae (11), G. ninazitaniae (5), and G. shelbystedenfeldae (13). It is unknown as to whether those species are solitary or gregarious, but that is irrelevant to their abundance in a Malaise trap. Since tens of thousands of exposed caterpillars living on herbs, small trees and bushes, and a very large number of leaf-rolling microlepidoptera have been well-sampled in both projects, the absence of these species in reared material suggests that these species may selectively parasitize either very cryptic caterpillars (leaf rolls, grass moths) or caterpillars that feed higher up in the canopy.

Considering the whole body of examined specimens, females were more abundant (12,609) than males (4,054). Female-biased sex ratios are common under the conditions of local mate competition (LMC, Hamilton 1967). LMC predicts that in environments consisting of several isolated patches where the number of mated females is small, it is advantageous for inseminated females to lay female-biased clutches. This is achievable because in Hymenoptera the act of fertilization is under the voluntary control of the egg-laying female. Adult females can alter progeny sex ratios by producing unfertilized male eggs and fertilized female eggs. Other factors such as host size, host quality, and superparasitism (Tagawa 2000) also play an important role when controlling the progeny of sex ratios, but their significance needs to be assessed in Neotropical Glyptapanteles.

A close look at Malaise-trapped specimens shows that the vast majority of samples exhibit the opposite pattern, with males exceeding females: G. nataliaivanovae (1♀, 10♂), G. pamitchellae (29♀, 66♂), G. scottshawi (17♀, 109♂), G. shelbystedenfeldae (1♀, 11♂), G. sondrawardae (8♀, 140♂), G. stephaniekirkae (10♀, 74♂), and G. sureshnaiki (13♀, 46♂). Males seem to be common near the forest floor where Malaise traps usually are set up while females are comparatively rare at the same place. It is also perhaps males are the dispersing-sex, moving around to look for females. As a result, males are easier to capture.

Reared specimens (Table 2)

A total of 127 species is described here from the reared material, and nine species were collected only by Malaise traps. From the reared specimens, 92 Glyptapanteles species seem completely gregarious while 26 seem exclusively solitary (Table 2). It is worth noting that nine species reared showed both solitary and gregarious lifestyles: G. alexborisenkoi (with one sample gregarious of three specimens, and only one solitary), G. bobkulai (seven samples solitary, only one gregarious of two specimens), G. boharti (ten samples gregarious with two, three, five or ten specimens, and only one solitary), G. bobwhartoni (ten samples gregarious with no more than five specimens per sample, only one solitary), G. carlhuffakeri (16 samples gregarious with maximum of six or eleven specimens in few vials, and only one solitary), G. haroldgreeneyi (eleven samples gregarious with maximum three specimens, only one solitary), G. jimmilleri (five samples gregarious with two to four, seven specimens, only one solitary), G. mamiae (eight samples gregarious some with only two specimens, and only one solitary) and G. meganmiltonae ten samples gregarious, some of them with two, five, nine, maximum 13 specimens, and only one solitary). The presence of two specimens in a sample automatically qualifies it as “gregarious” (as obviously a misnomer, but as used traditionally in Hymenoptera natural history). The occurrence of a single solitary sample in a species which a majority of samples are gregarious can be explained by human error from transferring specimens from rearing containers to vials with ethanol or during handling of the material in the laboratory, or that simply one wasp larva survived the arduous trip from egg to emerging adult. Loss of specimens during these procedures is feasible due to the small size of the adult parasitoids. Almost all of the species mentioned above have gregarious samples with the minimum number of siblings (one) that categorizes a sample as gregarious, a fact that supports the idea of a technical artifact rather than a real biological phenomenon. However, it has been reported in other Microgastrinae genera that females of some species laid one to three eggs per host, but usually, only one offspring survived to adulthood. One example comes from Microplitis demolitor Wilkinson that parasitizes the caterpillar Heliothis virescens (F.) (Noctuidae) (Strand et al. 1988).

Table 2.

Number of Glyptapanteles species described here, specifying its lifestyle. Abbreviations: G = gregarious; MT = Malaise trap, So = solitary.

MT So G
MT 9 2 10
So 24 9
G 82

In the majority of gregarious species, the number of wasps emerging from one host caterpillar does not exceed one hundred individuals. Only seven species overstep this amount. Such is the case of G. howelldalyi (from 100 to 161 adults), G. donquickei (106), G. andydeansi (from 108 to 190), G. iangauldi (from 114 to 196), G. andybennetti (138), G. billbrowni (185), and G. sydneycameronae (212). It is assumed that offspring is the result of a single ovipositing female, but need not be. The hosts of these species belong to the Lepidoptera families Sphingidae, Noctuidae, and Apatelodidae (Table 4) with body sizes relatively large.

Lepidoptera hosts (Tables 3, 4)

Fifteen lepidopteran families were reported as hosts of Glyptapanteles of which five families are reported for the first time as hosts from Neotropical Glyptapanteles: Crambidae, Depressariidae, Euteliidae, Hesperiidae, and Sphingidae (Table 3). However, in the older literature, almost any record of Elachistidae would be reported as Depressariidae today. A total of 88 species within 84 genera was identified as hosts. Glyptapanteles attacks mainly members of the family Noctuidae, followed by Erebidae, and then distantly by Geometridae (Table 3). In contrast, Apanteles, another of the “super genera” within Microgastrinae, parasitizes (in the same region) principally species of Hesperiidae, Elachistidae, and Crambidae (Fernández-Triana et al. 2014a). As for the very species-rich microgastrine genus, Cotesia, the most frequent hosts are Nymphalidae, Saturniidae, and Hesperiidae (O’Connor 2011). None of these host families used by Apanteles and Cotesia is the core target of Glyptapanteles. Putative Glyptapanteles species waiting for description and which belong to both projects have emerged from different Lepidoptera families from those reported here. This is the case for hosts from Bombycidae, Dalceridae, Gelechiidae, Nolidae, Riodinidae, and Tortricidae (Janzen and Dyer pers. obs.), demonstrating a wider breadth of host range within Glyptapanteles.

Table 3.

Lepidoptera families reported as hosts of Glyptapanteles, numbers of newly described Glyptapanteles species parasitizing each family of Lepidoptera, and numbers of plant families that are consumed by the caterpillars that Glyptapanteles use as hosts. Key: * = newly reported lepidopteran family hosts. N.B. Pyralidae and Crambidae are generally confused with each other in the literature; Euteliidae has generally been reported as a member of Noctuidae, as is the case with Erebidae.

Apatelodidae *Crambridae *Depressariidae Erebidae *Euteliidae Geometridae *Hesperiidae Noctuidae Notodontidae Nymphalidae Pantheidae Pieridae Pyralidae Saturniidae *Sphingidae
Number of Glyptapanteles spp. 8 2 1 26 1 19 1 30 11 15 1 2 7 4 4
Number of plant families 15 3 1 21 1 16 2 20 10 7 1 1 5 6 2

As mentioned before, 127 Glyptapanteles species out of 136 were obtained from reared material of which 74 species (58%) were recovered multiple times. Thus, the remaining 53 species had a unique rearing occurrence. In total, 45 Glyptapanteles species have registered only family or subfamily hosts determinations. Two species, G. josesimbanai and G. marshawheelerae, lack of any level of information about lepidopteran host affiliations (Table 4).

Table 4.

List of new Glyptapanteles species successfully reared from caterpillars and the food plant species used by those caterpillars.

Glyptapanteles species Lepidoptera host species Lepidopteran host family/subfamily Food plant species Food plant family/subfamily
G. agrotivorus Whitfield Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) Noctuidae: Noctuinae Brassica oleracea Brassicaceae
G. alejandrovalerioi sp. nov. Periphoba arcaei (Druce) Saturniidae: Hemileucinae Hymenaea courbaril Fabaceae
Combretum farinosum Combretaceae
G. alexborisenkoi sp. nov. Cynea sp. Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae Renealmia alpinia Zingiberaceae
Saliana placens (Butler) Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae Costus scaber Costaceae
G. alexwildi sp. nov. Undetermined Noctuidae Diplazium costale var. robustum Dryopteridaceae
G. alvarowillei sp. nov. Pachydota drucei Rothschild Erebidae: Arctiinae Ocotea whitei Lauraceae
G. andrewdebeveci sp. nov. Undetermined Noctuidae Diplazium costale var. robustum Dryopteridaceae
Undetermined Pyralidae Diplazium costale var. robustum Dryopteridaceae
G. andybennetti sp. nov. Unzela japix (Cramer) Sphingidae: Macroglossinae Davilla kunthii Dilleniaceae
Davilla nitida Dilleniaceae
Sphingidae: Macroglossinae Doliocarpus multiflorus Dilleniaceae
Sphingidae: Macroglossinae Tetracera volubilis Dilleniaceae
G. andydeansi sp. nov. Enyo ocypete (Linnaeus) Sphingidae: Macroglossinae Doliocarpus multiflorus Dilleniaceae
Pachygonidia drucei (Rothschild & Jordan) Sphingidae: Macroglossinae Doliocarpus multiflorus Dilleniaceae
Aleuron carinata (Walker) Sphingidae: Macroglossinae Doliocarpus multiflorus Dilleniaceae
G. andysuarezi sp. nov. Bertholdia partita Rawlins Erebidae: Arctiinae Renealmia fragilis Zingiberaceae
G. andywarreni sp. nov. Undetermined Noctuidae Evodianthus funifer Cyclanthaceae
G. ankitaguptae sp. nov. Undetermined Geometridae Undetermined Pteridophyta
G. annettewalkerae sp. nov. Syllepte nitidalis Dognin Crambidae: Spilomelinae Malvaviscus arboreus Malvaceae
Trichaea pilicornis Herrich-Schäffer Crambidae: Spilomelinae Psychotria panamensis Rubiaceae
G. barneyburksi sp. nov. Smicropus intercepta Walker Geometridae: Sterrhinae Tetrapterys discolor Malpighiaceae
Mascagnia sinemariensis Malpighiaceae
G. betogarciai sp. nov. Undetermined Geometridae Undetermined Pteridophyta
G. billbrowni sp. nov. Xylophanes porcus (Hübner) Sphingidae: Macroglossinae Psychotria berteriana Rubiaceae
Hamelia patens Rubiaceae
G. bobhanneri sp. nov. Scotura leucophleps Warren Notodontidae: Dioptinae Rinorea deflexiflora Violaceae
Rinorea sylvatica Violaceae
G. bobkulai sp. nov. Eois sp. Geometridae: Larentiinae Piper augustum Piperaceae
Piper glabrescens Piperaceae
Hagnagora mortipax Butler Geometridae: Larentiinae Clethra mexicana Clethraceae
Semaeopus illimitata Warren Geometridae: Sterrhinae Abuta panamensis Menispermaceae
Undetermined Geometridae Trema micrantha Cannabaceae
G. bobwhartoni sp. nov. Ochrodota marina Schaus Erebidae: Arctiinae Ocotea leucoxylon Lauraceae
Symphlebia tessellata (Schaus) Erebidae: Arctiinae Pouteria viridis Sapotaceae
Periga cluacina Druce Saturniidae: Hemileucinae Carapa guianensis Meliaceae
G. boharti sp. nov. Anomis luridula Guenée Noctuidae: Catocalinae Hampea appendiculata Malvaceae
G. bourquini (Blanchard) Agrotis deprivata Walker Noctuidae: Noctuinae Brassica oleracea Brassicaceae
Medicago sativa Fabaceae
Vicia villosa Fabaceae
Zea mays Poaceae
Triticum sp. Poaceae
Agrotis gypaetina Guenée Noctuidae: Noctuinae Brassica oleracea Brassicaceae
Medicago sativa Fabaceae
G. bourquini (Blanchard) Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) Noctuidae: Noctuinae Daucus carota Apiaceae
Helianthus annuus Asteraceae
Lactuca sativa Asteraceae
Medicago sativa Fabaceae
Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) Noctuidae: Heliothinae Trifolium repens Fabaceae
Mythimna unipunctata (Haworth) Noctuidae: Noctuinae
Peridroma margaritasa (Haworth) Noctuidae: Noctuinae
Peridroma saucia (Hübner) Noctuidae: Noctuinae Trifolium repens Fabaceae
Medicago sativa Fabaceae
G. brianestjaquesae sp. nov. Drugera morona Druce Notodontidae: Heterocampinae Ossaea micrantha Melastomataceae
Conostegia xalapensis Melastomataceae
Rhuda difficilis Schaus Notodontidae: Heterocampinae Conostegia micrantha Melastomataceae
G. carinachicaizae sp. nov. Undetermined Noctuidae Chusquea scandens Poaceae
G. carlhuffakeri sp. nov. Leucotmemis nexa (Herrich-Schäffer) Erebidae: Arctiinae Serjania atrolineata Sapindaceae
G. carlossarmientoi sp. nov. Anicla ignicans (Guenée) Noctuidae: Noctuinae Cynodon nlemfuensis (introduced) Poaceae
G. carlrettenmeyeri sp. nov. Isogona natatrix Guenée Noctuidae: Catocalinae Celtis iguanaea Ulmaceae
G. celsoazevedoi sp. nov. Undetermined Geometridae Chusquea scandens Poaceae
G. charlesmicheneri sp. nov. Phyprosopus parthenope Schaus Noctuidae: Catocalinae Celtis iguanaea Ulmaceae
G. charlesporteri sp. nov. Apatelodes sp. Apatelodidae Philodendron rhodoaxis Araceae
Tarchon felderi Druce Apatelodidae Chamaedorea tepejilote Araceae
Acalypha diversifolia Euphorbiaceae
Heliconia irrasa Heliconiaceae
Pavonia schiedeana Malvaceae
Psychotria berteriana Rubiaceae
Lycianthes pauciflora Solanaceae
G. chrisdarlingi sp. nov. Concana sp. Noctuidae: Bagisarinae Bunchosia cornifolia Malpighiaceae
G. chrisgrinteri sp. nov. Lesmone aemylia (Druce) Noctuidae: Catocalinae Mimosa dormiens Fabaceae
G. christerhanssoni sp. nov. Lepidodes gallopavo Druce Noctuidae: Catocalinae Bunchosia polystachia Malpighiaceae
G. claudiamartinezae sp. nov. Undetermined Geometridae Iiex aff. yurumanguinis Aquifoliaceae
Undetermined Celastraceae
G. corriemoreauae sp. nov. Euphyia crispa Druce Geometridae: Larentiinae Pleuropetalum sprucei Amaranthaceae
G. daveroubiki sp. nov. Undetermined Noctuidae Undetermined Undetermined
G. daveschindeli sp. nov. Oxydia sp. Geometridae: Ennominae Undetermined Undetermined
Oxydia apidania Cramer Geometridae: Ennominae Inga punctata Fabaceae
Oxydia vesulia (Cramer) Geometridae: Ennominae Spondias purpurea (introduced) Anacardiaceae
G. davesmithi sp. nov. Antiblemma sp. Erebidae: Eulepidotinae Henriettea tuberculosa Melastomataceae
Antiblemma leucocyma Hampson Erebidae: Eulepidotinae Conostegia xalapensis Melastomataceae
Miconia brenesii Melastomataceae
Ossaea brenesii Melastomataceae
G. davidwahli sp. nov. Parachabora abydas (Herrich-Schäffer) Noctuidae: Catocalinae Tephrosia multifolia Fabaceae
G. diegocamposi sp. nov. Undetermined Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae Cestrum sp. Solanaceae
Cestrum megalophyllum Solanaceae
G. donquickei sp. nov. Condica cupienta (Cramer) Noctuidae: Amphipyrinae Neurolaena lobata Asteraceae
Pluchea carolinensis Asteraceae
Condica funerea (Schaus) Noctuidae: Amphipyrinae Neurolaena lobata Asteraceae
G. dorislagosae sp. nov. Nebulosa yanayacu Miller Notodontidae: Dioptinae Tibouchina lepidota Melastomataceae
G. edgardpalacioi sp. nov. Undetermined Saturniidae Psammisia sp. Ericaceae
G. edwinnarvaezi sp. nov. Undetermined Apatelodidae Columnea sp. Gesneriaceae
Columnea ericae Gesneriaceae
Undetermined Apatelodidae Alloplectus tetragonoides Gesneriaceae
Undetermined Noctuidae Salvia tortuosa Lamiaceae
Undetermined Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae Cestrum megalophyllum Solanaceae
G. ecuadorius Whitfield Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) Noctuidae: Heliothinae Zea mays Poaceae
G. eowilsoni sp. nov. Calledema plusia Felder Notodontidae: Nystaleinae Hirtella americana Chrysobalanaceae
Hirtella guatemalensis Chrysobalanaceae
Hirtella racemosa Chrysobalanaceae
Hirtella triandra Chrysobalanaceae
Licania arborea Chrysobalanaceae
G. erictepei sp. nov. Actinote stratonice Latreille Nymphalidae: Acraeinae Erato polymnioides Asteraceae
G. felipesotoi sp. nov. Memphis nr. lorna (Druce) Nymphalidae: Charaxinae Nectandra sp. Lauraceae
G. ferfernandezi sp. nov. Memphis nr. lorna (Druce) Nymphalidae: Charaxinae Nectandra sp. Lauraceae
G. garygibsoni sp. nov. Nystalea collaris Schaus Notodontidae: Nystaleinae Psidium guineense Myrtaceae
Eugenia salamensis Myrtaceae
Nystalea guzmani Schaus Notodontidae: Nystaleinae Calyptranthes chytraculia Myrtaceae
G. gavinbroadi sp. nov. Pararcte schneideriana Stoll Noctuidae: Catocalinae Cecropia peltata Urticaceae
G. genorodriguezae sp. nov. Memphis nr. lorna (Druce) Nymphalidae: Charaxinae Nectandra sp. Lauraceae
G. gerarddelvarei sp. nov. Macrocneme cabimensis Dyar Erebidae: Arctiinae Fischeria panamensis Apocynaceae
Mandevilla hirsuta Apocynaceae
G. grantgentryi sp. nov. Undetermined Notodontidae Myriocarpa sp. Urticaceae
G. gunnarbrehmi sp. nov. Pantherodes colubraria viperaria Thierry-Mieg Geometridae: Ennominae Boehmeria caudata Urticaceae
Undetermined Undetermined Myriocarpa sp. Urticaceae
G. haroldgreeneyi sp. nov. Actinote stratonice Latreille Nymphalidae: Acraeinae Erato polymnioides Asteraceae
Munnozia hastifolia Asteraceae
G. helmuthaguirrei sp. nov. Undetermined Pieridae Inga sp. Fabaceae
G. henryhespenheidei sp. nov. Undetermined Pieridae Inga sp. Fabaceae
G. henrytownesi sp. nov. Heterochroma sarepta (Druce) Noctuidae: Amphipyrinae Smilax mollis Smilacaceae
Smilax spinosa Smilacaceae
G. herbertii (Ashmead) Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner) Noctuidae: Eulepidotinae
Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) Noctuidae: Plusiinae
Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) Noctuidae: Plusiinae
Nystalea nyseus Cramer Notodontidae: Nystaleinae Psidium guajava Myrtaceae
G. howelldalyi sp. nov. Dyops chromatophila Walker Noctuidae: Catocalinae Cecropia peltata Urticaceae
Coussapoa nymphaeifolia Urticaceae
G. hugokonsi sp. nov. Olceclostera amoria Druce Apatelodidae Amphilophium paniculatum Bignoniaceae
Pleonotoma variabilis Bignoniaceae
Gmelina arborea (introduced) Verbenaceae
G. iangauldi sp. nov. Zanola verago Cramer Apatelodidae Iresine diffusa Amaranthaceae
Philodendron sp. Araceae
Inga oerstediana Fabaceae
Inga samanensis Fabaceae
Hamelia patens Rubiaceae
Psychotria berteriana Rubiaceae
G. iangauldi sp. nov. Zanola verago Cramer Apatelodidae Spermacoce ocymifolia Rubiaceae
Solanum circinatum Solanaceae
G. ianyarrowi sp. nov. Episcepsis hypoleuca (Hampson) Erebidae: Arctiinae Ochroma pyramidale Malvaceae
Eucereon aurantiaca Draudt Erebidae: Arctiinae Ficus citrifolia Moraceae
Ficus colubrinae Moraceae
Hyaleucerea morosa Schaus Erebidae: Arctiinae Pourouma bicolor Urticaceae
Napata flaviceps Hampson Erebidae: Arctiinae Cespedesia spathulata Ochnaceae
G. ilarisaaksjarvi sp. nov. Undetermined Noctuidae Stachytarpheta jamaicensis Verbenaceae
Condica cupienta (Cramer) Noctuidae: Amphipyrinae Mikania cordifolia Asteraceae
Mikania micrantha Asteraceae
Condica sutor (Guenée) Noctuidae: Amphipyrinae Eryngium foetidum Apiaceae
Elephantopus mollis Asteraceae
Lepidaploa cinera Asteraceae
Agrapha oxygramma (Geyer) Noctuidae: Plusiinae Baccharis trinervis Asteraceae
Argyrogramma basigera (Walker) Noctuidae: Plusiinae Hydrocotyle umbellate Araliaceae
Argyrogramma verruca (Fabricius) Noctuidae: Plusiinae Echinodorus subalatus Alismataceae
Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) Noctuidae: Plusiinae Milleria quinqueflora Asteraceae
G. jacklonginoi sp. nov. Gonodonta pulverea Schaus Erebidae: Calpinae Undetermined Undetermined
G. jamesrobertsoni sp. nov. Antiblemma sp. Erebidae: Eulepidotinae Psychotria chagrensis Rubiaceae
Psychotria graciliflora Rubiaceae
Psychotria panamensis Rubiaceae
G. jaquioconnorae sp. nov. Undetermined Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae Undetermined Solanaceae
G. jeremydewaardi sp. nov. Antiblemma sp. Erebidae: Eulepidotinae Psychotria horizontalis Rubiaceae
G. jerrypowelli sp. nov. Undetermined Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae Schoenobiblus cf. peruvianus Thymeliaceae
G. jesusugaldei sp. nov. Antiblemma sp. Erebidae: Eulepidotinae Psychotria microdon Rubiaceae
Psychotria nervosa Rubiaceae
G. jimmilleri sp. nov. Undetermined Notodontidae Passiflora sp. Passifloraceae
Passiflora ligularis Passifloraceae
Josia ligata Walker Notodontidae: Dioptinae Passiflora sp. Passifloraceae
Lyces sp. Notodontidae: Dioptinae Passiflora sp. Passifloraceae
Lyces fornax Druce Notodontidae: Dioptinae Passiflora ligularis Passifloraceae
G. jjrodriguezae sp. nov. Nagara vitrea (Guenée) Noctuidae: Stictopterinae Clusia cylindrical Clusiaceae
Garcinia intermedia Clusiaceae
G. johnburnsi sp. nov. Eunica sp. Nymphalidae: Biblidinae Mabea occidentalis Euphorbiaceae
Eunica caresa Hewitson Nymphalidae: Biblidinae Mabea occidentalis Euphorbiaceae
Eunica malvina Bates Nymphalidae: Biblidinae Mabea occidentalis Euphorbiaceae
G. johnheratyi sp. nov. Scaptius vinasia (Schaus) Erebidae: Arctiinae Eugenia basilaris Myrtaceae
G. johnlasallei sp. nov. Sericochroa sp. Notodontidae: Heterocampinae Vochysia ferruginea Vochysiaceae
Vochysia guatemalensis Vochysiaceae
G. johnnoyesi sp. nov. Deinopa biligula Guenée Erebidae: Calpinae Pterocarpus hayesii Fabaceae
Deinopa signiplena Walker Erebidae: Calpinae Swartzia costaricensis Fabaceae
G. johnstiremani sp. nov. Undetermined Undetermined Undetermined Urticaceae
Undetermined Pyralidae Undetermined Apiaceae
Urtica sp. Urticaceae
G. josesimbanai sp. nov. Undetermined Undetermined Rubus sp. Rosaceae
G. juanvargasi sp. nov. Undetermined Pyralidae Boehmeria sp. Urticaceae
G. jumamuturii sp. nov. Undetermined Pyralidae Oreopanax sp. Araliaceae
G. keithwillmotti sp. nov. Undetermined Noctuidae Dendrophorbium lloense Asteraceae
Salvia tortuosa Lamiaceae
G. kevinjohnsoni sp. nov. Undetermined Erebidae: Arctiinae Rubus sp. Rosaceae
G. kyleparksi sp. nov. Undetermined Nymphalidae Undetermined Undetermined
G. linghsiuae sp. nov. Hypanartia sp. Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae Boehmeria sp. Urticaceae
G. lubomasneri sp. nov. Ithomia hippocrenis Bates Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae Witheringia solanacea Solanaceae
Mechanitis isthmia Bates Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae Solanum hayesii Solanaceae
G. luchosalagajei sp. nov. Undetermined Nymphalidae Myriocarpa sp. Urticaceae
Boehmeria caudate Urticaceae
Hypanartia sp. Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae Myriocarpa sp. Urticaceae
Undetermined Urticaceae
Undetermined Saturniidae Boehmeria caudate Urticaceae
Pseudautomeris yourii Lemaire Saturniidae: Hemileucinae Undetermined Melastomataceae
G. malleyneae sp. nov. Undetermined Pyralidae Undetermined Melastomataceae
G. malloryvanwyngaardenae sp. nov. Rifargia elgiva Schaus Notodontidae: Heterocampinae Styrax argenteus Styracaceae
G. mamiae sp. nov. Undetermined Erebidae: Arctiinae Miconia sp. Melastomataceae
Chusquea scandens Poaceae
G. marcelotavaresi sp. nov. Undetermined Erebidae: Arctiinae Monnina subspeciosa Polygalaceae
G. marcepsteini sp. nov. Undetermined Pyralidae Diplazium costale var. robustum Dryopteridaceae
G. marcpolleti sp. nov. Undetermined Apatelodidae Miconia sp. Melastomataceae
G. marjorietownesae sp. nov. Azeta ceramina Hübner Noctuidae: Catocalinae Undetermined Undetermined
Acosmium panamense Fabaceae
G. markshawi sp. nov. Ethmia scythropa Walsingham Depressaridae: Ethmiinae Bourreria costaricensis Boraginaceae
Bourreria oxyphylla Boraginaceae
G. marshawheelerae sp. nov. Undetermined Undetermined Vismia sp. Clusiaceae
G. mayberenbaumae sp. nov. Undetermined Noctuidae Burmeistera borgensis Campanulaceae
G. meganmiltonae sp. nov. Herpetogramma sp. Crambidae: Spilomelinae Achyranthes aspera Amaranthaceae
Achyranthes indica Amaranthaceae
Alternanthera pubiflora Amaranthaceae
G. mehrdadhajibabaei sp. nov. Carathis septentrionalis Becker Erebidae: Arctiinae Nectandra martinicensis Lauraceae
G. michelleduennesae sp. nov. Undetermined Pantheidae Rubus sp. Rosaceae
G. mikegatesi sp. nov. Pero sp. Geometridae: Ennominae Undetermined Undetermined
Cyathula achyranthoides Amaranthaceae
G. mikepoguei sp. nov. Undetermined Erebidae: Arctiinae Saurauia sp. Actinidiaceae
G. mikeschauffi sp. nov. Bertholdia albipuncta Schaus Erebidae: Arctiinae Drymonia macrophylla Gesneriaceae
Bertholdia specularis (Herrich-Schäffer) Erebidae: Arctiinae Sabicea villosa Rubiaceae
G. mikesharkeyi sp. nov. Undetermined Undetermined Undetermined Undetermined
G. militaris (Walsh) Mythimna unipunctata (Haworth) Noctuidae: Noctuinae Zea mays Poaceae
Noctuidae Poa sp. Poaceae
G. montywoodi sp. nov. Undetermined Erebidae: Arctiinae Chusquea scandens Poaceae
G. muesebecki (Blanchard) Mythimna unipunctata (Haworth) Noctuidae: Noctuinae
G. nataliaivanovae sp. nov. Undetermined Undetermined Undetermined Undetermined
G. nealweberi sp. nov. Rejectaria sp. Erebidae: Herminiinae Alsophila firma Cyatheaceae
Cyathea multiflora Cyatheaceae
Cyathea trichiata Cyatheaceae
Serpocaulon maritimum Polypodiaceae
Scopifera antelia Druce Erebidae: Herminiinae Cyathea multiflora Cyatheaceae
Cyathea trichiata Cyatheaceae
G. ninazitaniae sp. nov. Undetermined Undetermined Undetermined Undetermined
G. pachopinasi sp. nov. Undetermined Noctuidae Acalypha sp. Euphorbiaceae
G. pamitchellae sp. nov. Undetermined Undetermined Undetermined Undetermined
G. paulhansoni sp. nov. Yidalpta auragalis Guenée Noctuidae: Catocalinae Securidaca diversifolia Polygalaceae
Securidaca sylvestris Polygalaceae
G. paulheberti sp. nov. Disphragis proba Schaus Notodontidae: Heterocampinae Nectandra salicifolia Lauraceae
Ocotea leucoxylon Lauraceae
G. paulhurdi sp. nov. Rosema attenuata (Dognin) Notodontidae: Phalerinae Inga oerstediana Fabaceae
G. petermarzi sp. nov. Undetermined Geometridae Undetermined Undetermined
G. phildevriesi sp. nov. Daedalma dinias Hewitson Nymphalidae: Satyrinae Chusquea scandens Poaceae
G. philwardi sp. nov. Undetermined Geometridae Pisonia aculeata Nyctaginaceae
G. rafamanitioi sp. nov. Undetermined Noctuidae Chusquea scandens Poaceae
G. robbinthorpi sp. nov. Letis mycerina (Cramer) Erebidae: Erebiinae Inga oerstediana Fabaceae
Inga punctata Fabaceae
G. ronaldzunigai sp. nov. Macaria nundinata Guenée Geometridae: Ennominae Dalea carthagenensis Fabaceae
G. roysnellingi sp. nov. Undetermined Geometridae Bunchosia polystachia Malpighiaceae
G. scottmilleri sp. nov. Metalectra sp. Noctuidae: Boletobiinae Epiphytic microplants Epiphytic microplants
G. scottshawi sp. nov. Undetermined Undetermined Undetermined Undetermined
G. shelbystedenfeldae sp. nov. Undetermined Undetermined Undetermined Undetermined
G. sondrawardae sp. nov. Undetermined Undetermined Undetermined Undetermined
G. stephaniecluttsae sp. nov. Bertholdia albipuncta Schaus Erebidae: Arctiinae Guazuma ulmifolia Malvaceae
G. stephaniekirkae sp. nov. Undetermined Undetermined Undetermined Undetermined
G. sujeevanratnasinghami sp. nov. Psaliodes sp. Geometridae: Larentiinae Cyathea multiflora Cyatheaceae
G. suniae sp. nov. Undetermined Erebidae: Arctiinae Undetermined Undetermined
G. sureshnaiki sp. nov. Undetermined Undetermined Undetermined Undetermined
G. suzannegreenae sp. nov. Undetermined Pyralidae Miconia sp. Melastomataceae
G. sydneycameronae sp. nov. Aleuron carinate (Walker) Sphingidae: Macroglossinae Doliocarpus multiflorus Dilleniaceae
Enyo ocypete (Linnaeus) Sphingidae: Macroglossinae Doliocarpus multiflorus Dilleniaceae
Pachygonidia drucei (Rothschild & Jordan) Sphingidae: Macroglossinae Doliocarpus multiflorus Dilleniaceae
G. taniaariasae sp. nov. Pantherodes unciaria Guenée Geometridae: Ennominae Boehmeria bullata Urticaceae
G. tanyadapkeyae sp. nov. Pero chapela Poole Geometridae: Ennominae Anemopaegma orbiculatum Bignoniaceae
G. thibautdelsinnei sp. nov. Undetermined Geometridae Chusquea scandens Poaceae
G. thomaspapei sp. nov. Undetermined Noctuidae Munnozia pinnatipartita Asteraceae
G. toluagunbiadeae sp. nov. Undetermined Noctuidae Miconia sp. Melastomataceae
G. tomwallai sp. nov. Undetermined Apatelodidae Dendrophorbium lloense Asteraceae
Undetermined Erebidae: Arctiinae Baccharis latifolia Asteraceae
G. victoriapookae sp. nov. Paectes lunodes Guenée Euteliidae: Euteliinae Ocotea veraguensis Lauraceae
G. wilmersimbanai sp. nov. Undetermined Apatelodidae Dendrophorbium lloense Asteraceae
G. wonyoungchoi sp. nov. Antiblemma ceras Druce Erebidae: Eulepidotinae Conostegia xalapensis Melastomataceae
G. yalizhangae sp. nov. Zanola sp. Apatelodidae Undetermined Asteraceae
Psammisia pauciflora Ericaceae
G. yanayacuensis sp. nov. Undetermined Noctuidae Diplazium costale var. robustum Dryopteridaceae

Approximately 96% of the Glyptapanteles species with known host records parasitize a defined group of Lepidoptera, just a single host family or a narrower group, while a very small number (five species) use a slightly broader taxonomic range, parasitizing more than one Lepidoptera family [e.g., G. andrewdebeveci (Noctuidae and Pyralidae), G. bobwhartoni (Erebiidae and Saturniidae), G. edwinnarvaezi (Apatelodidae, Noctuidae, and Nymphalidae), G. luchosalagaje (Nymphalidae and Saturniidae), and G. tomwallai (Apatelodidae and Erebidae)]. All of these supposedly broader host ranges require more study before concluding that they are accurate, owing to potential errors in host caterpillar identification. However, misidentifications at the family level seem to have a low probability.

In total, 16 Glyptapanteles species were reared from more than one Lepidoptera species that belong to the same caterpillar family as well as the same subfamily: G. alexborisenkoi (2), G. andydeansi (3), G. annettewalkerae (2), G. brianestjaquesae (2), G. charlesporteri (2), G. daveschindeli (3), G. donquickei (2), G. garygibsoni (2), G. ianyarrowi (4), G. jimmilleri (3), G. johnburnsi (3), G. johnnoyesi (2), G. lubomasneri (2), G. mikeschauffi (2), G. nealweberi (2), and G. sydneycameronae (3). Only two parasitoid species emerged from hosts from different subfamilies within the same family: G. bobkulai attacks members of Sterrhinae and Larentiinae (Geometridae) and G. ilarisaaksjarvi specialized in Amphipyrinae and Plusiinae (Noctuidae) (Table 4). With six Noctuidae species hosts, G. ilarisaaksjarvi is the species with the greatest number of hosts recorded in this study.

Four duos and two trios of Glyptapanteles species share the same Lepidoptera host(s). Thus, G. erictepei and G. haroldgreeneyi have been reared from Actinote stratonice Latreille (Nymphalidae), G. donquickei and G. ilarisaaksjarvi have been reared from Condica cupienta (Cramer) (Noctuidae), G. linghsiuae and G. luchosalagajei have been reared from Hypanartia sp. Hübner (Nymphalidae), G. sydneycameronae and G. andydeansi have been reared from Aleuron carinata (Walker), Enyo ocypete (Linnaeus), and Pachygonidia drucei (Rothschild & Jordan) (Sphingidae). Glyptapanteles felipesotoi, G. ferfernandezi, and G. genorodriguezae have been reared from Memphis nr. lorna (Druce) (Nymphalidae), and G. davesmithi, G. jamesrobertsoni, and G. jesusugaldei have been reared from Antiblemma sp. Hübner (Erebidae). All these host records (and for every caterpillar) require more replications and additional scrutiny of host caterpillar identifications to be certain that they represent actual host affiliations.

It is worth mentioning that none of the species previously reported as Lepidoptera hosts in the scientific literature from the Neotropics were obtained by the rearing projects. Some plausible explanations for the lack of those records include: some Lepidoptera species occur naturally at low densities at study sites, time of foraging (early or late in the season) does not coincide with the collecting time, and larvae are well-camouflaged or semi-concealed (leafrollers, leaf tiers, shelter-building, grass moth, twig-like pose of some Geometridae) are even more difficult to spot in the field and, to a certain extent, never collected during censuses. Moreover, previous studies seem to be mostly restricted to field crops, not natural ecosystems. Additionally, some species are not reared successfully because natural conditions are difficult to replicate in the laboratory; caterpillars need special conditions or succumb to pathogens or other sources of mortality.

Instars of Lepidoptera hosts

Lepidoptera hosts collected include caterpillars caught from eggs to last larval instar, and once caterpillars were collected, early instars (1–3) yielded more parasitoids than later instars. For an analysis of when oviposition occurs, and why, a totally different kind of study would need to be conducted.

Egg-larval parasitoidism

Microgastrinae is a subfamily of specialized parasitoids because larval parasitism is assumed to be the dominant life history strategy. However, there are some exceptions. Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson) (Ruberson and Whitfield 1996), C. hyphantriae (Riley) and Diolcogaster have the capacity to oviposit in both eggs and larvae, and emerge from the latter as last instar wasp larvae; this behavior may be facultative (Shaw and Huddleston 1991). In addition, morphological modifications found in the distal part of the ovipositor of Rasivalva Mason, another genus in the same subfamily (and related to Diolcogaster), suggest that parasitism of eggs is usual in that case (Shaw and Huddleston 1991).

Here, one species of Glyptapanteles was reared from oviposition in eggs. Glyptapanteles jimmilleri emerged from an undetermined species of dioptine Notodontidae whose eggs were collected on Passiflora ligularis (Passifloraceae) leaves. The wasp species has been also reared from Lyces fornax Druce and Josia ligata Walker (Notodontidae: Dioptinae) collected as eggs and as larvae in first, second, and fifth instars, and also feeding on Passiflora (Table 4). Thus, G. jimmilleri is the first Glyptapanteles species reported to be an egg-larval parasitoid. As noted above, almost all the Microgastrinae are endoparasitoids that feed and develop exclusively inside caterpillars. In this case of facultative egg-larval parasitism, the parasitoid waits in its egg until the host itself ecloses as a larva and only then begins to feed (Whitfield et al. 2018).

The subfamily Dioptinae is almost entirely Neotropical; only one of the 456 species described occurs on the USA, while the remaining taxa are found from Mexico south to northern Argentina and Uruguay. None is known from the Old World (Miller 2009). Unlike their relatives in other notodontid subfamilies, most dioptine adults are diurnal with aposematic color patterns and some of their larval food plants are toxic, such as nightshades (Solanum spp.) and passionflowers (Passiflora spp.) (Miller 2009). We note that G. jimmilleri is facultatively attacking eggs that are poorly defended immunologically in comparison to the larvae that will hatch from them, though obviously, the caterpillar must deal with the parasitoid, no matter how it gets into it. In addition, the dioptines oviposit aggregated eggs that may be easier to find than larvae that disperse in search of food (Shaw and Huddleston 1991).

Hyperparasitoidism and multiparasitoidism

The frequency of hyperparasitoidism for Glyptapanteles was 4% (six of 127 species); hyperparasitoids were from one family of Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae (Mesochorus Gravenhorst, Mesochorinae). Specimens of Mesochorus were reported as hyperparasitoids in six gregarious species: G. ianyarrowi, G. jesusugaldei, G. jjrodriguezae, G. luchosalagajei, G. marcpolleti, and G. sydneycameronae.

Mesochorus is a large genus of Ichenumonidae that attacks a broad range of hosts, including many species of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera (Yeargan and Braman 1989) and Hymenoptera, including Microgastrinae and Ichneumonidae. Besides Glyptapanteles, seven other Microgastrinae genera are hyperparasitized by Mesochorus: Alphomelon Mason, Apanteles, Cotesia, Diolcogaster, Hypomicrogaster Ashmead, Microplitis Förster, and Parapanteles Ashmead (Whitfield et al. 2009 and both of the current Neotropical inventories, unpublished data).

A case of multiparasitoidism was reported. A single lepidopteran host was attacked by more than one species of parasitoid. Copidosoma floridanum Ashmead (Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae, Encyrtinae) and the gregarious species G. ilarisaaksjarvi emerged from a caterpillar of Condica cupienta (Cramer), a Noctuidae, Amphipyrinae feeding on Mikania micranth (Asteraceae). Copidosoma floridanum, is one of the few species of Hymenoptera that is polyembryonic (clonal production of multiple embryos from a single fertilized egg) and at the same time has evolved a caste system (Smith et al. 2017). The two castes that produces this species are know as reproductive larvae and soldier larvae. Reproductive caste larvae synchronously emerge during the host’s last instar, consume the host, and metamorphose into adult wasps (Gordon and Strand 2009). In contrast, soldier caste larvae defense against other parasitoids that attempt to develop in the same host, never molt, and die when their reproductive caste siblings consume the host and pupate (Grbic et al. 1992). The female of this polyembryonic species lays its eggs in the egg stage of Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Noctuidae: Plusiinae). In contrast, larva stage of T. ni is parasitized by a microgastrine, Microplitis demolitor (Smith et al. 2017).

Here, four other species of Noctuidae in the subfamily Plusiinae were reported as hosts of G. ilarisaaksjarvi: Agrapha oxygramma (Geyer) feeding on Baccharis trinervis (Asteraceae), Argyrogramma basigera (Walker) feeding on Hydrocotyle umbellate (Araliaceae), Argyrogramma verruca (F.) feeding on Echinodorus subalatus (Alismataceae), and soybean looper Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) feeding on Milleria quinqueflora (Asteraceae).

Behavior

Endoparasitoid wasp larvae live inside the caterpillars until they are ready to emerge. After leaving their hosts, the parasitoid larvae pupate in their own cocoons. During their larval development, some endoparasitoids consume most or all tissues of the host (after spending most instars only consuming hemolymph and fat body), whereas others consume a small fraction of host resources and either ensure that the host moves away from the pupation site or allow the host to remain close to the parasitoid cocoon(s) (Harvey et al. 2011).

For a few species of Microplitis (Microgastrinae) the host may carry on moving and feeding for up to weeks following parasitoid larval emergence (Strand et al. 1988, Quicke 1997). In four gregarious species here described, the caterpillar hosts continued living even after parasitoid emergence and when the caterpillars were disturbed (pinched) they did not try to bite the investigator’s fingers. Neither time of death after the emergence of parasitoids nor ability to continue feeding was recorded. These species are: G. johnburnsi attacks two species of Nymphalidae, Eunica malvina (Bates) and E. caresa Hewitson; G. chrisgrinteri parasitizes one species of Noctuidae, Lesmone aemylia (Druce); G. corriemoreauae attacks one species of Geometridae, Euphyia crispa (Druce), and G. garygibsoni parasitizes two species of Notodontidae, Nystalea collaris Schaus and N. guzmani Schaus.

Usurpation hypothesis

The invariable consequence of parasitoidism for the host is to be killed by the parasitoid wasp of many higher taxa, as well as other kinds of parasitoids (fungi, flies, tapeworms, etc., Poulin and Randhawa 2015). However, it has been observed that some parasitoids modify the behaviour of their hosts, and that modification in the behavior is in place by the time the wasp larvae emerge from the caterpillar. A hypothesis known as the “usurpation hypothesis” was developed (Brodeur and Vet 1994) and describes a very commonly observed and frequently documented phenomenon of host exploitation strategies by the parasitoid. The parasitoid manipulates the host in such a way that the host guards the wasp larvae from hyperparasitoids, or from predators of the parasitoids (Harvey et al. 2008); thus, parasitoids may benefit from the retained defensive reflexes of the host. Following parasitoid emergence, the host caterpillar positions itself near the cocoons and undergoes a particular repertoire including a) ceasing feeding and walking, b) becoming the bodyguard defending the parasitoid cocoons by producing violent head swings against approaching predators or upon disturbance, c) regurgitating fluid from the gut, d) spinning protective thick silk webs over parasitoid cocoons, and e) dying before reaching adulthood (Grosman et al. 2008, Harvey et al. 2008). A few studies on wasp-caterpillar systems have revealed that parasitoid larvae can interfere with levels of juvenile hormone, ecdysteroids, and neurotransmitters (e.g., octopamine); the titer of these hormones increases shortly before the parasitoid(s) emerges from the host (Miles and Booker 2000), and continues to increase after parasitoid larval emergence. An elevated level of octopamine has been associated with the decline of caterpillar activity together with the decrease in the ability to digest food due to the absence or decrease of peristaltic activity in the foregut (Miles and Booker 2000), and they simply do not feed anymore.

This bodyguard behavior posited by the ‘usurpation hypothesis’ was frequently observed in many microgastrine genera by both inventories (e.g., Apanteles, Cotesia, Microplitis, Snellenius, Xanthomicrogaster Cameron, and others). Additionally, this has been reported for an undescribed species of Glyptapanteles from Brazil that attacks Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) (Geometridae) that feed on two Myrtaceae species: Psidium guajava (guava), and Eucalyptus grandis (eucalyptus) (Grosman et al. 2008) and Cotesia glomerata (L.) attacking Pieris brassicae (L.) (Pieridae) (Brodeur and Vet 1994, Harvey et al. 2008) or the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta (L.) (Sphingiidae) (Miles and Booker 2000). The behavior was observed in two gregarious Glyptapanteles species here described: G. howelldalyi that attacks caterpillar of Dyops chromatophila (Walker) (Noctuidae) that feed on Coussapoa nymphaeifolia (Urticaceae) and G. paulhansoni that parasitizes caterpillars of Yidalpta auragalis Guenée (Noctuidae) that feed on two species of Polygalaceae: Securidaca diversifolia and S. sylvestris. The wild caterpillars were collected while still alive taking care of cocoons. When the caterpillars were touched by anything, they bit and attacked violently, eventually spitting up red gut contents on the attacker. The long setae of the caterpillars also impeded access to the cocoons.

Cocoons (Fig. 4)

The cocoons recorded here commonly exhibit pale coloration (white and beige) although dark coloration (dark gray and black) is recorded for some species and white cocoons with dark spots throughout are infrequent (e.g., G. thomaspapei, Fig. 4E). Glyptapanteles species exhibit a diverse set of behaviors to spin cocoons. Shape, ornamentation, and location are highly distinctive and often species-specific. The function of those cocoons seems to be to protect the pupae from the weather (desiccation, water damage, and rapid temperature shifts) and reduce the risk of attack by natural enemies (Harvey et al. 2011). Some species of parasitoid wasps (Ichneumonidae) are able to adjust the investment in cocoon silk according to the environmental conditions. The thickness of the cocoon wall varies from thin in summer generations to thick in overwintering wasps from temperate regions (Tagawa and Sato 2009). The cocoons are made of dense silk threads produced by the labial glands. The strands are twisted together making them difficult to penetrate. In this study, at least seven major kinds of cocoons and cocoon masses were observed: oval, rings, lace-shaped, bud-like, drum-shaped, single row of cordwood, and two rows of cordwood.

Figure 4. 

J G. tanyadapkeyae sp. nov. parasitoid of Pero chapela Poole: Geometridae, 08-SRNP-31435, photo DHJ440487 K G. bobboharti sp. nov. parasitoid of Anomis luridula Guenée: Noctuidae, 01-SRNP-21185, photo DHJ62275 L G. andybennetti sp. nov. parasitoid of Aleuron iphis (Walker): Sphingidae, 08-SRNP-32177, photo DHJ445890 N G. charlesporteri sp. nov. parasitoid of Tarchon felderi Druce: Apatelodinae, 04-SRNP-3328, photo DHJ420376 O G. eowilsoni sp. nov. parasitoid of Calledema plusia Felder: Noctuidae, 09-SRNP-71063, photo DHJ461044 P G. garygibsoni sp. nov. parasitoid of Nystalea collaris Schaus: Noctuidae, 82-SRNP-418, photo DHJ4186 Q G. chrisdarlingi sp. nov. parasitoid of Concana sp. Walker: Noctuidae, 06-SRNP-4972, photo DHJ436488 R G. gerarddelvarei sp. nov. parasitoid of Macrocneme cabimensis Dyar: Erebidae, 07-SRNP-32365, photo DHJ421485 S G. henrytownesi sp. nov. parasitoid of Heterochroma sarepta (Druce): Noctuidae, 97-SRNP-990, photo DHJ40659 T G. iangauldi sp. nov. parasitoid of Zanola verago Cramer: Apatelodinae, 06-SRNP-9671, photo DHJ424751 U G. daveschindeli sp. nov. parasitoid of Oxydia vesulia (Cramer): Geometridae, 08-SRNP-16708, photo DHJ452329 V G. ilarisaaksjarvi sp. nov. parasitoid of Argyrogramma verruca (F.): Noctuidae, 92-SRNP-6132, photo DHJ16975 W G. johnnoyesi sp. nov. parasitoid of Deinopa signiplena Walker: Erebidae, 05-SRNP-31619, photo DHJ404219 X G. corriemoreauae sp. nov. parasitoid of Euphyia crispa Druce: Geometridae, 03-SRNP-23245, photo DHJ78940 Y G. jeremydewaardi sp. nov. parasitoid of Antiblemma sp. Hübner: Erebidae, 06-SRNP-35622, photo DHJ467720 Z G. mehrdadhajibabaei sp. nov. parasitoid of Carathis septentrionalis Becker: Erebidae, 06-SRNP-3399, photo DHJ436471 AA G. donquickei sp. nov. parasitoid of Condica funereal (Schaus): Noctuidae, 09-SRNP-43316, photo DHJ476509 AB G. howelldalyi sp. nov. parasitoid of Dyops chromatophila Walker: Noctuidae, 05-SRNP-6986, photo DHJ424017.

Shapes

Oval (Fig. 4B, C, E). This is the simplest cocoon shape. Those cocoons lack any kind of remarkable ornament. Sometimes the silk fibers are compact and neatly arranged and at other times the silk threads look disordered and fluffy.

Rings (Fig. 4U). An unusual disposition, only observed in G. daveschindeli, where cocoons were adhered laterally against the caterpillar’s body in rings.

Lace-shaped cocoon (Fig. 4D). A strange cocoon design which was observed in two species. In cocoons of G. montywoodi and G. rafamanitioi the exit hole, as well as the opposite end, are surrounded by a wavy lacy fringe, and although the body of the cocoon also displays the same kind of ornament, it is arranged in such a way that it forms three parallel lines running from the exit hole to the opposite end.

Bud-like cocoon (Fig. 4A, K). A peculiar architecture which was observed in some cocoons. Appendages in both ends of cocoons appear whereas the cocooned body lacks any kind of ornamentation. The exit hole is surrounded by a crown of elongated lobes while the opposite end is embellished with one elongate lobe at each side. Fifteen species exhibited those adornments: G. betogarciai, G. bobhanneri, G. bobkulai, G. bobwhartoni, G. boharti, G. brianestjaquesae, G. carinachicaizae, G. carlhuffakeri, G. dorislagosae, G. edgardpalacioi, G. erictepei, G. haroldgreeneyi, G. lubomasneri, G. paulheberti, and G. paulhurdi. The purpose of those bud-like cocoons (Koptur 1989) is to avoid perhaps visually oriented vertebrate predators as foliage-gleaning birds (Greenberg and Gradwohl 1980) or crawling predators. Falling away from the dead host, associated with white coloration as well as mimicry a flower could help parasitoid cocoons to be unnoticed or seen as fallen flower buds by birds (Koptur 1989). The hosts’ food plants of the fifteen species above mentioned encompassing a wide variety of families: Asteraceae, Ericaceae, Fabaceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Melastomataceae, Piperaceae, Poaceae, Sapindaceae, Solanaceae, and Violaceae (Table 4).

Drum-shaped cocoon (Fig. 4H, M). Two kinds of cocoons were observed in G. johnburnsi. In this gregarious species, single oval cocoons are somewhat separate from one another and individually adhered to the larval cuticle. However, among them, a few cocoons exhibit a drum-shaped form which never eclose because there is no pupa inside and it is unclear as to whom they belong or why these sterile cocoons are formed.

Single row of cordwood (Fig. 4Q, Y, Z). In this arrangement, the long chain of irregularly oval cocoons is located along the side of the cadaver of the caterpillar, but not forming double cordwood, so cocoons are adhered to the leaf substrate (e.g., G. charlesmichener, G. chrisgrinteri).

Two rows of cordwood (Fig. 4R, S, V, AA, AB). Some species form two parallel rows of cordwood cocoons strongly adhered to each other or sometimes well apart. The caterpillar cadaver always is located in the middle and cocoons adhered to the leaf substrate. This arrangement was observed in G. carlossarmientoi, G. carlrettenmeyeri, G. chrisdarlingi, G. davesmithi, G. donquickei, and G. eowilsoni.

The characteristics of the common mass of cocoons clearly may serve as a potential tool for identifying reared species. For example, Cotesia phobetri (Rohwer) and C. halisidotae (Muesebeck) are species morphologically similar as adults, both attack Arctiinae in the eastern United States; however, their cocoon masses associated with host remains are distinct. Cotesia phobetri kills the host larva before it reaches the last instar and forms the cocoon in an irregular mass on the back of the caterpillar. In contrast, C. halisidotae waits until the host spins its dark cocoon and then emerge, forming their cocoon inside the host cocoon. Discarding cocoons of reared parasitoids or dissecting the cocoon mass to put one cocoon with each point-mounted parasitoid causes an unfortunate loss of useful information (Mason 1981).

Another variation occurring is in the places where the cocoons are woven. Glyptapanteles species can weave cocoons either on the host, hosts’ food plants or in the soil after larval emergence. Some Glyptapanteles construct a mass of somewhat separate white cocoons completely filling the caterpillar cocoon (e.g., G. alvarowillei and G. charlesporteri, Fig. 4N). In contrast, other cocoons were found in the soil or litter or attached to the leaf substrate (Fig. 4I, O–S, V–W, Y–AB) (e.g., G. bobkulai, G. bobwhartoni, G. boharti, and G. carlhuffakeri). In many species, as in other genera of Microgastrinae (e.g., Apanteles, Cotesia, Hypomicrogaster, Microplitis, and others), the cocoons have tightly adhered to the host larval cuticle (Fig. 4F, L, M, T, U, X).

Food plants (Table 4)

Lepidopteran hosts were reared from 60 families of Angiosperms (147 species within 118 genera) according to the rearing databases. In the case of 14 Glyptapanteles species, the data do not clearly associate the food plants (neither species nor family) on which the caterpillar(s) feed. Of those, nine species correspond to the above-mentioned Malaise-trapped specimens: G. mikesharkeyi, G. nataliaivanovae, G. ninazitaniae, G. pamitchellae, G. scottshawi, G. shelbystedenfeldae, G. sondrawardae, G. stephaniekirkae, and G. sureshnaiki. For the other five species, although they were collected from reared material, plant names were not recorded: G. daveroubiki, G. jacklonginoi, G. petermarzi, G. philwardi, and G. suniae. Two species, G. ankitaguptae and G. betogarciai, were reared on undetermined Geometridae larvae collected from undetermined Pteridophyta. Additionally, G. scottmilleri was reared from Metalectra Hübner (Noctuidae: Boletobiinae), the caterpillars of which were collected feeding on undetermined epiphytic microplants. When comparing the quantity of food plants with herbivore hosts, the number of families, genera, and species is higher in the former. The extensive list of plants, plant-feeding insects and their associated parasitoids here provided is a basis for the future understanding of one of the most complex and species-rich food webs.

Taxonomic accounts

Glyptapanteles Ashmead, 1904

Type species

Glyptapanteles manilae Ashmead 1904 = Apanteles ashmeadi Wilkinson 1928.

Diagnosis

Hypopygium of female evenly sclerotized from side to side, never with a series of parallel longitudinal creases. Ovipositor sheath short and mostly concealed by hypopygium, its length not more than half of the hind tibia (rarely longer, but if so hypopygium is large and acutely pointed, concealing most of the ovipositor), sheaths dagger-shaped with only a few setae concentrated near the apex. Petiole on T1 never wider at the apex, the sides either gradually converging distally or parallel and strongly rounded to the apex. The median area on T2 broadening distally and often subtrapezoidal or truncate-trapezoidal, sometimes lateral grooves delimiting the median area are lost among many diverging aciculations and sometimes do not reach the proximal edge of T3; T3 always smooth. Propodeum usually completely or mostly smooth, but often with coarsely sculpture covering all or part of the surface; rarely with a median longitudinal carina, but never with even a trace of the areola. Fore wing with r-m vein absent, so that the small areolet is open distally. Distal half of margin of vannal lobe of hind wing convex or flattened, with or without a fringe of setae. The anterior furrow of metanotum flattened (without sublateral setiferous projections) and glabrous; scutellar phragma exposed or concealed (Mason 1981).

A dataset of 126 characters and 484 character-states was evaluated for each species and was used to provide uniformity for all species descriptions. In total, 20 character-states were found in all the species and they have therefore not been taken into account in the descriptions. They are: Head: pubescence on the head long and dense, placodes of proximal antennal flagellomeres arranged in two ranks, apex of distal antennal flagellomere pointed, antennal scrobes-frons shallow, toruli more than half total eye length, carina surrounding antennal scrobes and fronto-clypeal suture both absent, vertex medially convex and slightly dented, and occiput concave. Although the length of the three proximal antennal flagellomeres was always longer than wide it was conserved in the descriptions and their length was provided. Mesosoma: mesosoma dorso-ventrally convex, mesoscutum relatively setose, notauli absent, lunules smooth and semicircular, pleural suture in the metapleuron absent although a dark groove is visible, and median fovea in metapleuron present. Legs: antennal cleaner apparatus with a forked spur at the fore tibial apex and proximal weak emargination on fore basitarsus. Wings: hind wing with spectral junction among 2RS, 2M and (RS+M)b veins. Metasoma: Antero-median depression on petiole present, and pubescence adjacent to spiracle on T1 dense.

Key to Glyptapanteles species from Costa Rica and Ecuador

1 Fore wing with outer side of junction of r and 2RS veins forming a slight or distinct stub (Figs 16N, 22L, 96L, 139K, 150L) 2
Fore wing with outer side of junction of r and 2RS veins not forming a stub (Figs 92J, 136L, 168L, 186K, 222K) 75
2 Fore wing with r vein straight (Figs 44G, 70K, 81C, 137K, 216K) 3
Fore wing with r vein slightly curved or curved (Figs 75L, 115K, 140K, 213L, 215L) 20
3(2) Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 clearly defined and reaching the distal edge of T2 (Fig. 7G) 4
Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 distally losing definition on T2 5
4(3) Scutellar punctation distinct throughout (Figs 7F, 8F); area just behind transscutal articulation with same kind of sculpture as mesoscutum (Figs 7E, 8E); inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets (Figs 7B, 8B); vertex in dorsal view wide (Figs 7D, 8D) G . alexborisenkoi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Scutellar punctation distinct peripherally, absent centrally (Fig. 16G); area just behind transscutal articulation smooth and shiny (Figs 16G, H, 17F); inner margin of eyes straight throughout (Fig. 16B); vertex in dorsal view narrow (Figs 16D, 17C) G . andydeansi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
5(3) Petiole variously sculptured (finely sculptured, with one type of sculpture or with a mix of sculptures) 6
Petiole completely smooth and polished, with faint, satin-like sheen (Figs 44D, 45D, G) G . carlossarmientoi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
6(5) Petiole with one type of sculpture: finely sculptured or with rugae 7
Petiole with a mix of sculptures: finely rugulate and punctate (Fig. 137G, H) G . jumamuturii Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
7(6) Petiole finely sculptured (Figs 80H, 81G, 142D, 143G) 8
Petiole with rugae (Figs 138G, H) G . keithwillmotti Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
8(7) Propodeum with a median longitudinal dent (Figs 80G, 81F) 9
Propodeum without a median longitudinal dent 10
9(8) Precoxal groove smooth and shiny (Figs 80I, 81H); scutellar punctation scattered throughout (Figs 80F, 81E); vertex in dorsal view wide (Fig. 80C); mesoscutum punctation distinct throughout (Figs 80F, 81E); T3 as long as T2 (Figs 80K, 81G) G . erictepei Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Precoxal groove with transverse lineate sculpture (Fig. 217A, I); scutellar punctation distinct peripherally, absent centrally (Fig. 217F); vertex in dorsal view quite wide; mesoscutum punctation distinct proximally but absent/dispersed distally (Fig. 217E); T3 longer than T2 (Fig. 217H) G . toluagunbiadeae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
10(8) Petiole parallel-sided in proximal half or 3/4 (Figs 90G, 94G, 216H) 11
Petiole evenly narrowing distally (wide base to a narrow apex, Figs 70G, 119G, 212G) 14
11(10) Petiole on T1 parallel-sided in proximal half, then narrowing (gradually or not, Fig. 90G) 12
Petiole on T1 virtually parallel-sided over most of length but narrowing over distal 1/3 (Fig. 216H) or apex 13
12(11) Vertex in lateral view rounded (Fig. 90C); frons punctate; scutellar punctation scattered throughout (Figs 90E, 91B); in lateral view, metasoma curved (Figs 90A, 91A); median area on T2 as broad as long (Figs 90G, 91F) G . genorodriguezae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Vertex in lateral view pointed (Fig. 94C); frons smooth; scutellar punctation indistinct throughout (Fig. 94E); in lateral view, metasoma laterally compressed (Fig. 94A); median area on T2 broader than long (Fig. 94G) G . grantgentryi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
13(11) Inner margin of eyes straight throughout; medioanterior pit of metanotum circular without median longitudinal carina (Fig. 40D); mesoscutum punctation distinct throughout (Figs 39B, 40B); phragma of the scutellum partially exposed (Figs 39E, 40D) G . brianestjaquesae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets (Fig. 216B); medioanterior pit of metanotum circular with a short proximal carina (Fig. 216G); mesoscutum punctation proximally distinct, but distally absent/dispersed (Fig. 216F); phragma of the scutellum widely visible (Fig. 216G) G . thomaspapei Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
14(10) In lateral view, metasoma laterally compressed; T3 longer than T2; inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets 15
In lateral view, metasoma curved (Figs 70A, 71A); T3 as long as T2 (Figs 70H, 71D); inner margin of eyes straight throughout (Fig. 70B) G . diegocamposi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
15(14) Edges of median area on T2 obscured by weak longitudinal stripes 16
Edges of median area on T2 polished and followed by a deep groove (Fig. 212G) G. sydneycameronae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
16(15) Median area on T2 broader than long; vertex in dorsal view wide 17
Median area on T2 as broad as long (Figs 118H, 119G); vertex in dorsal view quite wide (Figs 118D, 119D) G. jerrypowelli Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
17(16) Fore wing with vein 2 cu-a absent 18
Fore wing with vein 2 cu-a present as spectral vein, sometimes difficult to see 19
18(17) Fore telotarsus almost same width throughout, ventral margin without seta; medioposterior band of scutellum only very partially overlapping the medioanterior pit of metanotum (Figs 142C, 143F); phragma of the scutellum partially exposed (Figs 142B, 143F) G . lubomasneri Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Fore telotarsus basally narrow, apically wide, ventral margin with a tiny curved seta; medioposterior band of scutellum not overlapping the medioanterior pit of metanotum (Fig. 159B, C); phragma of the scutellum widely visible (Figs 158B, 159C) G. meganmiltonae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
19(17) Hind coxa with dorsal half sparsely punctate, ventral half densely punctate (Fig. 35J); antenna shorter than body; distal antennal flagellomere subequal in length with penultimate; scutellar punctation distinct peripherally, absent centrally (Figs 35I, 36E) G. bobwhartoni Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Hind coxa finely punctate throughout (Fig. 95J); antenna longer than body; distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate; scutellar punctation scattered throughout (Fig. 95E, F) G. gunnarbrehmi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
20(2) Edges of median area on T2 obscured by sculpture (longitudinal stripes, coarse sculpture or finely sculptured, Figs 37I, 75H, 141G) 21
Edges of median area on T2 polished and followed by a deep groove (Figs 20G, 56D, 218G) 49
21(20) Dorsal outer depression on hind coxa absent (Figs 37D, 139J, 141I) 22
Dorsal outer depression on hind coxa present (Figs 135K, 144J, 162J) 33
22(21) Edges of median area on T2 obscured by sculptures (Figs 37I, 141G) 23
Edges of median area on T2 obscured by weak longitudinal stripes (Figs 33I, 42G, 140G) 24
23(22) Medioanterior pit of metanotum circular without median longitudinal carina (Fig. 37G); edges of median area on T2 with little sculpture (Figs 37I, 38I); scutellar punctation distinct peripherally, absent centrally (Figs 37G, 38G); in lateral view, metasoma laterally compressed (Figs 37A, 38A) G . boharti Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Medioanterior pit of metanotum circular and bisected by a median longitudinal carina (Fig. 141F); edges of median area on T2 obscured by coarse sculpture (Fig. 141G); scutellar punctation scattered throughout (Fig. 141E); in lateral view, metasoma curved (Fig. 141A) G. linghsiuae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
24(22) Surface of metasternum convex (Fig. 5F) 25
Surface of metasternum flat or nearly so (Figs 31H, 32H) 28
25(24) Propleuron with fine punctations throughout; longitudinal median carina on face present 26
Propleuron finely sculptured only ventrally (Fig. 139A, C); longitudinal median carina on face absent (Fig. 139B) G . kevinjohnsoni Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
26(25) Ventral margin of fore telotarsus entire without seta; anteroventral contour of mesopleuron straight/angulate or nearly so 27
Ventral margin of fore telotarsus slightly excavated and with a tiny curved seta; anteroventral contour of mesopleuron convex (Fig. 165A, I) G . mikepoguei Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
27(26) Medioanterior pit of metanotum elongated with some sculpture inside and not covered by medioposterior band of scutellum (Fig. 74G); transscutal articulation with small homogeneous carinated foveae (Fig. 74F); inner margin of eyes straight throughout; median area on T2 as broad as long (Fig. 74H, K) G . dorislagosae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Medioanterior pit of metanotum circular without median longitudinal carina and very partially covered by medioposterior band of scutellum (Fig. 140F); transscutal articulation with tiny homogeneous foveae without carina (Fig. 140E); inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets (Fig. 140B); median area on T2 broader than long (Fig. 140G, H) G . kyleparksi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
28(24) Petiole on T1 virtually parallel-sided but narrowing over distal 1/3 or at apex 29
Petiole on T1 evenly narrowing along its length (wide base to a narrow apex) 30
29(28) In lateral view scutellum slightly higher than mesoscutum (Figs 10A, 11A); T3 as longer as T2; longitudinal median carina on face absent (Fig. 11B); antenna shorter than body; distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate G . alvarowillei Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
In lateral view scutellum on same plane as mesoscutum (Fig. 42A); T3 longer than T2 (Fig. 42H); longitudinal median carina on face present (Fig. 42B); antenna longer than body; distal antennal flagellomere subequal in length with penultimate G . carlhuffakeri Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
30(28) Scutellum sculptured; medioposterior band of scutellum not overlapping or only very partially overlapping the medioanterior pit of metanotum 31
Scutellum shiny smooth (Fig. 96F); medioposterior band of scutellum mostly overlapping the medioanterior pit of metanotum (Fig. 96G) G . haroldgreeneyi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
31(30) Scutellar punctation distinct throughout (Figs 23G, 26D); fore wing with tubular vein 1 cu-a incomplete/broken, not reaching the edge of 1-1A vein (Figs 23L, 26K) 32
Scutellar punctation distinct peripherally, absent centrally (Figs 33G, 34F); fore wing with tubular vein 1 cu-a complete, touching the edge of 1-1A vein (Figs 33L, 34K) G . bobkulai Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
32(31) Propleuron with fine punctations throughout (Fig. 23C, J); axillary trough of metanotum with undulate carinae throughout (Figs 23G, 24C); medioposterior band of scutellum not overlapping the medioanterior pit of metanotum (Figs 23F, 24C); longitudinal median carina on face absent (Fig. 23B); inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets (Fig. 23B) G . annettewalkerae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Propleuron with fine punctations only ventrally (Figs 25A, 26A, B); axillary trough of metanotum proximally with undulate carina, distally smooth (Figs 25F, 26D); medioposterior band of scutellum only very partially overlapping the medioanterior pit of metanotum (Figs 25F, 26D); longitudinal median carina on face present (Figs 25B, 26A); inner margin of eyes straight throughout G . barneyburksi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
33(21) Petiole parallel-sided in proximal half, or over distal 1/3 or at apex then narrowing (gradually or not) 34
Petiole evenly narrowing distally (wide base to a narrow apex) 43
34(33) Edges of median area on T2 with little sculpture 35
Edges of median area on T2 obscured by longitudinal stripes 36
35(34) In lateral view, metasoma curved (Fig. 144A, J); hind coxa medium-size punctate throughout (Fig. 144A, J); antenna longer than body; scutellar punctation distinct peripherally, absent centrally (Fig. 144E, F) G . luchosalagajei Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
In lateral view, metasoma laterally compressed (Fig. 145A, J); hind coxa very finely punctate throughout (Fig. 145A, J); antenna shorter than body; scutellar punctation scattered throughout (Fig. 145E, F) G . malleyneae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
36(34) Edges of median area on T2 obscured by strong longitudinal stripes (Figs 135H, 149G) 37
Edges of median area on T2 obscured by weak longitudinal stripes (Figs 84G, 162G) 38
37(36) Petiole virtually parallel-sided, but narrowing over distal 1/3 (Fig. 135H, I); distal edge on T2 straight (Fig. 135H, I); lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 clearly defined and reaching the distal edge of T2 (Fig. 135H, I); T3 longer than T2 (Fig. 135I); distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate; mesoscutum punctation distinct throughout (Fig. 135F); in lateral view, metasoma curved (Fig. 135A, K) G . josesimbanai Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Petiole proximal half straight and distal half convex (Fig. 149G); distal edge on T2 slightly convex (Fig. 149G, H); lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 distally losing definition (Fig. 149G); T3 as long as T2 (Fig. 149H); distal antennal flagellomere subequal in length with penultimate; mesoscutum punctation proximally distinct, but distally absent/dispersed (Fig. 149E); in lateral view, metasoma laterally compressed (Fig. 149A, J) G . marcelotavaresi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
38(36) Petiole virtually parallel-sided, but narrowing over distal 1/3 or at apex 39
Petiole parallel-sided in proximal half, then narrowing (gradually or not) 40
39(38) In lateral view, metasoma curved (Fig. 148A, J); hind coxa very finely punctate throughout (Fig. 148A, J); propodeum without a transverse discontinuous carina (Fig. 148F); petiole virtually parallel-sided, but narrowing over distal 1/3 (Fig. 148G, H); scutellar punctation scattered throughout (Fig. 148E) G. mamiae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
In lateral view, metasoma cylindrical (Fig. 162A, J); hind coxa punctate only on ventral surface (Fig. 162A, J); propodeum with a transverse discontinuous carina only present laterally (Fig. 162F); petiole virtually parallel-sided, but narrowing at apex (Fig. 162G, H); scutellar punctation indistinct throughout (Fig. 162E, F) G. michelleduennesae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
40(38) Anterior furrow of metanotum without setiferous lobes (Fig. 84F) 41
Anterior furrow of metanotum with a small lobe (without setae, Fig. 150G) 42
41(40) Distal half of propodeum rugose (Figs 82F, 83C); precoxal groove indistinct (Figs 82I, 83E); on pronotum central area smooth, but both dorsal and ventral furrows with short parallel carinae (Figs 82C, 83E) G . felipesotoi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Distal half of propodeum with a mix of coarse sculpture and rugae (Figs 84F, 85C); precoxal groove deep (Figs 84H, 85D); on pronotum central area and dorsal furrow smooth, but ventral furrow with short parallel carinae (Figs 84C, 85D) G . ferfernandezi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
42(40) Malar suture present (Fig. 97B); median area between lateral ocelli without depression (Fig. 97D); propodeum medially rhomboid-shaped with transverse rugae (Fig. 97F); scutellar punctation indistinct throughout (Fig. 97E, F); axillary trough of metanotum proximally with a groove with some sculpturing, distally with rugae (Fig. 97E, F) G . helmuthaguirrei Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Malar suture absent or difficult to see (Fig. 150B); median area between lateral ocelli slightly depressed (Fig. 150D); propodeum with a median longitudinal dent, but no trace of median longitudinal carina (Fig. 150G); scutellar punctation distinct throughout (Fig. 150F, G); axillary trough of metanotum proximally with sculpture, but dorsally without a well delimited smooth area (Fig. 150F, G) G. marcepsteini Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
43(33) In dorsal view, proximal half of propodeum weakly curved 44
In dorsal view, proximal half of propodeum more strongly curved 46
44(43) Antenna longer than body; scutellum in profile flat and on same plane as mesoscutum 45
Antenna as same length as body; scutellum in profile slightly convex, but on same plane as mesoscutum (Figs 29I, 30G) G . billbrowni Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
45(44) Vertex in lateral view rounded (Fig. 41C); dorsal carina delimiting a dorsal furrow on propleuron absent (Fig. 41A, J); inner margin of eyes straight throughout (Fig. 41B); fore wing with vein 2-1A tubular throughout (Fig. 41L); median area on T2 broader than long (Fig. 41H, I) G . carinachicaizae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Vertex in lateral view pointed or nearly so (Fig. 184C); dorsal carina delimiting a dorsal furrow on propleuron present; inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets (Fig. 184B); fore wing with vein 2-1A proximally tubular, distally spectral (Fig. 184K); median area on T2 as broad as long (Figs 184H, 185D) G . paulhurdi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
46(43) Distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate; median area between lateral ocelli without depression 47
Distal antennal flagellomere subequal in length with penultimate; median area between lateral ocelli slightly depressed (Fig. 182C) G . paulheberti Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
47(46) Propodeal spiracle distally framed by faintly concave/wavy carina; inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets 48
Propodeal spiracle without distal carina (Fig. 75G); inner margin of eyes straight throughout (Fig. 75B) G . edgardpalacioi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
48(47) Surface of metasternum flat or nearly so; nucha surrounded by very short radiating carinae (Figs 76F, 77C); median area on T2 broader than long (Figs 76G, 77D) G . edwinnarvaezi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Surface of metasternum convex; nucha surrounded by long radiating carinae (Figs 58F, 59G); median area on T2 as broad as long (Figs 58G, 59E) G. claudiamartinezae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
49(20) Anteroventral contour of mesopleuron straight/angulate or nearly so (Figs 12J, 22J, 204J) 50
Anteroventral contour of mesopleuron convex (Figs 151I, 156I) 64
50(49) Precoxal groove shallow, but visible (Figs 20I, 204J) 51
Precoxal groove deep (Figs 12J, 210I) 53
51(50) Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 clearly defined and reaching the distal edge of T2; axillary trough of metanotum proximally with semircular/undulate carina, distally smooth 52
Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 distally losing definition (Figs 204H, 205D); axillary trough of metanotum completely smooth (Figs 204G, 205C) G . stephaniecluttsae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
52(51) Distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate; posterior ocelar line shorter than ocular ocelar line; mesoscutum punctation distinct throughout (Figs 20E, 21B) G . andywarreni Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Distal antennal flagellomere subequal in length with penultimate; posterior ocelar line broader than ocular ocelar line (Fig. 22D); mesoscutum punctation proximally distinct, but distally absent/dispersed (Fig. 22F) G . ankitaguptae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
53(50) Petiole parallel-sided in proximal half then narrowing or parallel-sided, but narrowing over distal 1/3 or at apex 54
Petiole evenly narrowing throughout length (Figs 12H, I, 13F) G . andrewdebeveci Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
54(53) Dorsal carina delimiting a dorsal furrow on propleuron present (Figs 56E, 210C, 218C) 55
Dorsal carina delimiting a dorsal furrow on propleuron absent (Figs 211C, 215C) 60
55(54) Nucha surrounded by long radiating carinae; propodeum without median longitudinal carina or medially rhomboid-shaped with transverse rugae 56
Nucha surrounded by very short radiating carinae (Fig. 210F); propodeum with a median longitudinal dent, but no trace of median longitudinal carina (Fig. 210F) G . sureshnaiki Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
56(55) Propodeal spiracle distally framed by faintly concave/wavy carina (Figs 218F, 220F); phragma of the scutellum widely visible (Figs 218F, 220F) 57
Propodeal spiracle without distal carina (Figs 56C, 99C); phragma of the scutellum partially exposed (Fig. 99C) or completely concealed (Fig. 56C) 58
57(56) Area just behind transscutal articulation with a sloped transverse strip (Fig. 218E); dorsal furrow of pronotum with a defined smooth band only proximally (Fig. 218A); entire surface of hind tibia with numerous strong spines G . tomwallai Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Area just behind transscutal articulation nearly at the same level as mesoscutum (flat, Fig. 220E); dorsal furrow of pronotum with a well-defined smooth band throughout (Fig. 220C); surface of hind tibia with strong spines only on distal half G . wilmersimbanai Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
58(56) Medioanterior pit of metanotum bisected by a median longitudinal carina; propodeum without a median longitudinal carina, without medially rhomboid-shaped; scutellum in profile flat and on same plane as mesoscutum 59
Medioanterior pit of metanotum without median longitudinal carina (Figs 105C, 106E); propodeum medially rhomboid-shaped with transverse rugae (Figs 105C, 106E); scutellum in profile convex and slightly higher than mesoscutum (Figs 105E, 106G) G . iangauldi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
59(58) Proximal half of propodeum weakly curved (Figs 56B, 57B); propleuron with fine punctations throughout throughout (Figs 56E, 57E); distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate; mesoscutum punctation distinct proximally ranging to satiny distally (Figs 56B, 57B) G . christerhanssoni Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Proximal half of propodeum curved (Figs 99B, 100B); propleuron with fine rugae (Figs 99E, 100E); distal antennal flagellomere subequal in length with penultimate; mesoscutum punctation distinct throughout (Figs 99B, 100B) G . henrytownesi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
60(54) Precoxal groove with faintly lineate sculpture (Figs 54E, 191J) 61
Precoxal groove smooth and shiny (Figs 213J, 215J) 62
61(60) In lateral view, metasoma laterally compressed (Figs 54A, G, 55A); fore wing with 1 cu-a vein straight, complete, touching the edge of 1-1A vein (Figs 54I, 55H); inner margin of eyes straight throughout; scutellum in profile flat and on same plane as mesoscutum (Figs 54E, 55E) G . chrisgrinteri Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
In lateral view, metasoma curved (Figs 191K, 192A); fore wing with 1 cu-a vein curved, incomplete/broken, not reaching the edge of 1-1A vein (Fig. 191L); inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets (Figs 191C, 192B); scutellum in profile convex and slightly higher than mesoscutum (Figs 191J, 192I) G . robbinthorpi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
62(60) Petiole on T1 distally with lateral margins curved (convex, Figs 211H, 213H); mesoscutum punctation proximally distinct, but distally absent/dispersed; dorsal furrow of pronotum with a well-defined smooth band 63
Petiole on T1 distally with lateral margins relatively straight (Fig. 215H, I); mesoscutum punctation distinct throughout (Fig. 215F); dorsal furrow of pronotum without a smooth band (Fig. 215C, J) G . thibautdelsinnei Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
63(62) Face punctate-lacunose (Fig. 211B); distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate; scutellum in profile slightly convex, but on same plane as mesoscutum (Fig. 211J) G. suzannegreenae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Face with dense fine punctations (Fig. 213B); distal antennal flagellomere subequal in length with penultimate; scutellum in profile convex and slightly higher than mesoscutum (Fig. 213A) G . taniaariasae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
64(49) Propodeum medially rhomboid-shaped with transverse rugae, but no trace of median longitudinal carina 65
Propodeum without medially rhomboid-shaped or without median longitudinal carina 66
65(64) Hind coxa with medium-size punctate throughout (Fig. 151A, J); hind telotarsus as equal in length as fourth tarsomere; distal antennal flagellomere subequal in length with penultimate; phragma of the scutellum widely visible (Fig. 151F) G . marcpolleti Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Hind coxa punctate only ventrally (Fig. 208A, J); hind telotarsus longer than fourth tarsomere; distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate; phragma of the scutellum completely concealed (Fig. 208F) G . sujeevanratnasinghami Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
66(64) Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 distally losing definition (Figs 15I, 128D, 156G) 67
Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 clearly defined and reaching the distal edge of T2 (Figs 157G, 170H, 223G) 69
67(66) Shape of proximal half of propodeum weakly curved in dorsal view; longitudinal median carina on face present 68
Shape of proximal half of propodeum more strongly curved in dorsal view (Fig. 156F); longitudinal median carina on face absent (Fig. 156B) G . marshawheelerae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
68(67) Dorsal outer depression on hind coxa absent (Figs 14D, 15E); fore telotarsus longer than fourth tarsomere; antenna shorter than body; distal antennal flagellomere shorter than penultimate; vertex in dorsal view narrow (Figs 14C, 15C); scutellar punctation distinct throughout (Figs 14F, 15G) G . andybennetti Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Dorsal outer depression on hind coxa present (Figs 127A, 128A); fore telotarsus as equal as fourth tarsomere; antenna slightly longer than body; distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate; vertex in dorsal view wide (Figs 127B, 128B); scutellar punctation indistinct throughout (Figs 127B, 128B) G . johnheratyi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
69(66) Anterior furrow of metanotum with a small lobe (without setae, Figs 122F, 223F); axillary trough of scutellum almost smooth (Figs 122F, 223F) 70
Anterior furrow of metanotum without setiferous lobes (Figs 115G, 177F); axillary trough of scutellum with sculpture (Figs 115G, 177F) 71
70(69) Petiole finely sculptured only distally (Fig. 122G, H); vertex in lateral view rounded (Fig. 122C); scutellar punctation indistinct throughout (Fig. 122E); phragma of the scutellum widely visible (Fig. 122F); median area on T2 as broad as long (Fig. 122G) G . jimmilleri Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Petiole completely smooth and polished, with faint, satin-like sheen (Fig. 223G, H); vertex in lateral view pointed or nearly so (Fig. 223C); scutellar punctation scattered throughout (Fig. 223F); phragma of the scutellum partially exposed (Fig. 223F); median area on T2 broader than long (Fig. 223G, H) G . yanayacuensis Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
71(69) Dorsal carina delimiting a dorsal furrow on propleuron present (Figs 157C, 177C) 72
Dorsal carina delimiting a dorsal furrow on propleuron absent (Fig. 115C) 73
72(71) Medioanterior pit of metanotum circular or oval with a short proximal carina (Fig. 157E, F); vertex in dorsal view wide (Fig. 157D); scutellar punctation indistinct throughout (Fig. 157E, F); dorsal furrow of pronotum without a smooth band (Fig. 157A, C, I) G . mayberenbaumae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Medioanterior pit of metanotum semicircular without median longitudinal carina (Fig. 177E, F); vertex in dorsal view narrow (Fig. 177D); scutellar punctation scattered throughout (Fig. 177E, F); dorsal furrow of pronotum with a well-defined smooth band (Fig. 177A, C, I) G . pachopinasi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
73(71) Scutellum in profile flat; fore wing with vein 2-1A tubular throughout; median area on T2 distally with lateral margins relatively straight 74
Scutellum in profile slightly convex (Fig. 170A, J); fore wing with vein 2-1A proximally tubular, distally spectral (Fig. 170L); median area on T2 distally with lateral margins curved (concave, Fig. 170H, I) G. montywoodi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
74(73) Distal 1/4 of mesoscutum with a central dent (Fig. 115F); medioposterior band of scutellum only very partially overlapping the medioanterior pit of metanotum (Fig. 115F, G); median area on T2 slightly longer than broad (Fig. 115E, H) G . jaquioconnorae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Distal 1/3 of mesoscutum with lateral margin slightly dented (Figs 133G, 134F); medioposterior band of scutellum mostly overlapping the medioanterior pit of metanotum (Figs 133G, H, 134F, G); median area on T2 broader than long (Figs 133I, 134H) G . johnstiremani Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
75(1) Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 clearly defined and reaching the distal edge of T2 (Figs 32I, 116D) 76
Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 distally losing definition (Figs 48D, 109D) 122
76(75) Propodeum with a clearly visible median longitudinal carina (Fig. 201F) 77
Propodeum without median longitudinal carina or with a median longitudinal dent, or medially rhomboid-shaped with transverse rugae, but no trace of median longitudinal carina 78
77(76) Precoxal groove smooth and shiny (Fig. 31A, G, H); medioanterior pit of metanotum circular without median longitudinal carina (Figs 31G, 32G); inner margin of eyes straight throughout; scutellar punctation indistinct throughout (Figs 31G, 32G); fore wing with 1 cu-a vein complete, touching the edge of 1-1A vein (Figs 31L, 32L) G . bobhanneri Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Precoxal groove with transverse lineate sculpture (Figs 201A, I, 202E); medioanterior pit of metanotum circular and bisected by a median longitudinal carina (Figs 201F, 202C); inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets (Fig. 201B); scutellar punctation distinct throughout (Figs 201E, 202B); fore wing with 1 cu-a vein complete, but junction with 1-1A vein spectral (Fig. 202D) G . shelbystedenfeldae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
78(76) Petiole on T1 completely smooth and polished, with faint, satin-like sheen (Figs 116D, 123D, 166F) 79
Petiole on T1 finely sculptured or with rugae (Figs 98G, 171E) or with a mix of sculpture (Figs 186G, 209G) 90
79(78) Petiole on T1 evenly narrowing distally (wide base to a narrow apex, Figs 116D, 123D) 80
Petiole on T1 parallel-sided in proximal half (gradually or not), then narrowing or petiole parallel-sided, but narrowing over distal 1/3 or at apex (Figs 9H, 125D, 131F) 84
80(79) Fore wing with r vein slightly curved or curved; distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate 81
Fore wing with r vein straight (Figs 116I, 117I); distal antennal flagellomere subequal in length with penultimate G . jeremydewaardi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
81(80) Surface of metasternum flat or nearly so (as in Figs 37H, 38H) 82
Surface of metasternum convex (as in Fig. 5F) G . mikeschauffi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
82(81) Antenna longer than body; longitudinal median carina on face absent G . jesusugaldei Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Antenna shorter than body; longitudinal median carina on face present 83
83(82) Vertex laterally pointed or nearly so; contour of mesopleuron straight/angulate or nearly so; area just behind transscutal articulation with a sloped transverse strip G . victoriapookae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Vertex laterally rounded; contour of mesopleuron convex; area just behind transscutal articulation depressed centrally G . jjrodriguezae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
84(79) Inner margin of eyes straight throughout 85
Inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets (Fig. 9B) 86
85(84) Precoxal groove shallow, but visible, smooth and shiny (Figs 92A, E, 93A, E); distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate; median area and adjacent area on T2 dark, but lateral ends pale G . gerarddelvarei Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Precoxal groove deep with transverse lineate sculpture (Figs 131D, 132G); distal antennal flagellomere subequal in length with penultimate; median area and lateral ends on T2 dark (Figs 131F, 132F) G. johnnoyesi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
86(83) Petiole virtually parallel-sided, but narrowing over distal 1/3 or at apex (Figs 9H, I, 125D, H) 87
Petiole parallel-sided in proximal half, then narrowing (gradually or not, Figs 62F, 152G) 88
87(86) Nucha surrounded by very short radiating carinae (Fig. 9G); proximal half of propodeum weakly curved (Fig. 9G); antenna longer than body; mesoscutum punctation proximally distinct, but distally absent/dispersed (Fig. 9F); axillary trough of metanotum with small punctation throughout (Fig. 9G) G . alexwildi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Nucha without distinct short radiating carinae (Figs 125C, 126C); proximal half of propodeum straight or nearly so (Fig. 125B, C); antenna as same length as body length; mesoscutum distinctly punctate throughout (Figs 125B, 126B); axillary trough of metanotum proximally with semircular/undulate carina, distally smooth (Figs 125C, 126C) G . johnburnsi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
88(86) Median area between lateral ocelli without depression; distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate 89
Median area between lateral ocelli slightly depressed (Figs 62B, 63A); distal antennal flagellomere subequal in length with penultimate G . daveroubiki Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
89(88) Vertex in lateral view rounded; anterior furrow of metanotum without setiferous lobes and not as well delineated as posterior furrow of metanotum (Figs 66B, C, 67C); mesoscutum punctation distinct throughout (Figs 66B, 67B); fore wing with vein 2-1A proximally tubular, distally spectral although sometimes difficult to see (Figs 66I, 67I) G . davesmithi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Vertex in lateral view pointed or nearly so (Fig. 153A); anterior furrow of metanotum with a small lobe (without setae) and not as well delineated as posterior furrow of metanotum (Figs 152C, 153C); mesoscutum proximally distinctly punctate, distally with a polished area (Figs 152B, 153B); fore wing with vein 2-1A absent (Figs 152I, 153I) G. marjorietownesae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
90(78) Inner margin of eyes straight throughout (Fig. 136B) 91
Inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets (Figs 168B, 186B) 92
91(90) Edges of median area on T2 polished and followed by a deep groove (Figs 129G, 130E); scutellar punctation only on distal half (Fig. 129D, F); in lateral view, metasoma laterally compressed (Figs 129H, 130G) G . johnlasallei Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Edges of median area on T2 obscured by weak longitudinal stripes (Fig. 136H, I); scutellar punctation scattered throughout (Fig. 136F, G); in lateral view, metasoma curved (Fig. 136A, K) G . juanvargasi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
92(90) Fore wing with r vein straight (Figs 6I, 98K) 93
Fore wing with r vein slightly curved or curved (Figs 18K, 27L) 94
93(90) Mesoscutum proximally convex distally flat with punctation distinct proximally ranging to satiny distally (Figs 5D, 6D); scutellar punctation peripherally distinct, absent centrally (Figs 5D, 6D); antenna shorter than body; phragma of the scutellum widely visible (Figs 5B, D, 6D); T3 longer than T2 (Fig. 5E) G . alejandrovalerioi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Distal 1/3 of mesoscutum with lateral margin slightly dented, punctation distinct throughout (Fig. 98E); scutellar punctation scattered throughout (Fig. 98E, F); antenna longer than body; phragma of the scutellum completely concealed (Fig. 98E, F); T3 as long as T2 (Fig. 98H) G . henryhespenheidei Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
94(92) Dorsal outer depression on hind coxa absent (Figs 18J, 27K) 95
Dorsal outer depression on hind coxa present (Figs 186J, 209J) 96
95(94) Propleuron with fine rugae (Figs 18I, 19E); anteroventral contour of mesopleuron straight/angulate or nearly so (Figs 18A, 19A); mesoscutum punctation proximally distinct, but distally absent/dispersed (Figs 18E, 19B); T3 longer than T2 (Figs 18H, 19D) G . andysuarezi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Propleuron with fine punctations throughout (Figs 27J, 28F); anteroventral contour of mesopleuron convex (Figs 27A, 28A); mesoscutum proximally with distinct punctation distally with a polished area (Figs 27F, 28C); T3 as long as T2 (Fig. 27I) G . betogarciai Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
96(94) Fore wing with vein 1 cu-a straight (Figs 172J, 175K, 222K) 97
Fore wing with vein 1 cu-a curved (Figs 72I, 193L, 207B) 103
97(96) Petiole on T1 with a mix of fine rugae and coarse sculpture (Figs 186G, 209G); propodeum medially rhomboid-shaped with transverse rugae, but no trace of median longitudinal carina (Figs 186F, 209F) 98
Petiole on T1 finely sculptured (Figs 171E, 222G); propodeum without median longitudinal carina or with a median longitudinal dent (Figs 171G, 222F) 99
98(97) Petiole on T1 with lateral margin straight throughout (Fig. 186G, H); fore telotarsus proximally narrow, distally wide; dorsal furrow of pronotum without a smooth band (Fig. 186A, I) G . petermarzi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Petiole on T1 with lateral margin relatively straight in proximal half, but distal half curved (convex, Fig. 209G, H); fore telotarsus almost same width throughout; dorsal furrow of pronotum with a well-defined smooth band (Fig. 209A, I) G . suniae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
99(97) Petiole on T1 virtually parallel-sided for most of length but narrowing for distal 1/3 or apex (Figs 190H, 222G) 100
Petiole on T1 parallel-sided in proximal half, then narrowing (Figs 171E, H, 172F) G . nataliaivanovae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
100(99) Temple punctate-lacunose; propodeum with a median longitudinal dent, but no trace of median longitudinal carina 101
Temple punctate; propodeum without median longitudinal carina 102
101(100) Fore wing with vein 2 cu-a present as spectral vein, sometimes difficult to see (Figs 175K, 176H); dorsal groove on axillary trough of scutellum with parallel carinae (Figs 175F, 176C); propodeum with a median longitudinal dent (Figs 175F, 176C); mesoscutum proximally distinctly punctate, distally with a polished area (Figs 175E, 176B) G . ninazitaniae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Fore wing with vein 2 cu-a absent (Fig. 222K); dorsal groove on axillary trough of scutellum smooth (Fig. 222E, F); propodeum with a shallow median longitudinal dent with rugae (Fig. 222F); mesoscutum punctation proximally distinct, but distally absent/dispersed (Fig. 222E) G . yalizhangae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
102(100) Vertex in lateral view rounded (Fig. 46A); dorsal groove on axillary trough of scutellum with semicircular/parallel carinae (Fig. 46B, C); distal antennal flagellomere subequal in length with penultimate; mesoscutum distinctly punctate throughout (Fig. 46B) G . carlrettenmeyeri Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Vertex in lateral view pointed or nearly so (Fig. 190C); dorsal groove on axillary trough of scutellum with carinae only proximally (Fig. 190F, G); distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate; mesoscutum punctation proximally distinct, but distally absent/dispersed (Fig. 190F) G . rafamanitioi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
103(96) Precoxal groove shallow, but visible (Figs 47I, 187I, 206I) 104
Precoxal groove deep (Figs 168I, 221I) 106
104(103) Petiole on T1 with rugae (Figs 187G, 206G) 105
Petiole on T1with a mix of fine rugae and coarse sculpture for most of the surface (Fig. 47H) G. celsoazevedoi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
105(104) Petiole on T1 with lateral margin in proximal half straight and distal half curved (convex, Fig. 187G, H); propodeum with a median longitudinal dent, but no trace of median longitudinal carina (Fig. 187F); hind coxa medially smooth, dorsally sparsely punctate, ventrally densely punctate (Fig. 187A, J); mesoscutum punctation proximally distinct, but distally absent/dispersed (Fig. 187E) G . phildevriesi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Petiole on T1 with lateral margins straight throughout (Fig. 206G, H); propodeum medially rhomboid-shaped with transverse rugae, but no trace of median longitudinal carina (Fig. 206F); hind coxa punctate only ventrally (Figs 206A, J, 207A); mesoscutum proximally distinctly punctate, distally with a polished area (Fig. 206E) G . stephaniekirkae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
106(103) Precoxal groove smooth and shiny (Figs 72E, 99I, 219I) 107
Precoxal groove with lineate sculpture (Figs 163F, 178I, 188I) 108
107(106) Petiole on T1 virtually parallel-sided for most of length, but narrowing along distal 1/3 (Fig. 72D, G); medioposterior band of scutellum only very partially overlapping the medioanterior pit of metanotum (Fig. 72B, C); pronotum virtually without trace of dorsal furrow (Fig. 72A, E) G . donquickei Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Petiole on T1 evenly narrowing distally (Figs 199G, H, 200E, G); medioposterior band of scutellum mostly overlapping the medioanterior pit of metanotum (Figs 199F, 220F); pronotum with a distinct dorsal furrow (Figs 199I, 200H) G . scottshawi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
108(106) Surface of metasternum convex (as in Fig. 5F) 109
Surface of metasternum flat or nearly so (as in Figs 17G, 25G) 113
109(108) Dorsal carina delimiting a dorsal furrow on propleuron present (Figs 188A, 203C) 110
Dorsal carina delimiting a dorsal furrow on propleuron absent (Figs 193J, 194I) G . ronaldzunigai Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
110(109) Antenna longer than body; anterior furrow of metanotum with a small lobe (without setae, Figs 174G, 203F); distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate 111
Antenna as same length as body; anterior furrow of metanotum without setiferous lobes (Fig. 188F); distal antennal flagellomere subequal in length with penultimate G . philwardi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
111(110) Propleuron with fine rugae (Figs 178C, 179G) 112
Propleuron with a mix of rugae and fine punctation (Fig. 203A, C, I) G . sondrawardae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
112(111) Ventral margin of fore telotarsus slightly excavated and with a tiny curved seta (as in Fig. 37E); medioanterior pit of metanotum semicircular and bisected by a median longitudinal carina (Figs 173F, 174G) G . nealweberi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Ventral margin of fore telotarsus entire without seta; medioanterior pit of metanotum circular without median longitudinal carina (Figs 178F, 179B) G . pamitchellae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
113(108) Petiole on T1 distally with lateral margins curved (convex, Figs 163E, 195H, 221G) 114
Petiole on T1 distally with lateral margins relatively straight (Figs 53G, 64D, 160D) 116
114(113) Fore telotarsus almost same width throughout; medioposterior band of scutellum only very partially overlapping the medioanterior pit of metanotum (Figs 195G, 221E) 115
Fore telotarsus proximally narrow, distally wide; medioposterior band of scutellum mostly overlapping the medioanterior pit of metanotum (Figs 163D, 164C) G . mikegatesi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
115(114) Ventral margin of fore telotarsus excavated with conspicuous curved seta over this excavation; mesoscutum distinctly punctate throughout (Figs 195F, 196E); fore wing with vein 2-1A present only proximally as tubular vein (Figs 195L, 196K) G . roysnellingi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Ventral margin of fore telotarsus apex excavated, but without seta; mesoscutum punctation distinct proximally ranging to satiny distally (Fig. 221E); fore wing with vein 2-1A absent (Fig. 221K) G . wonyoungchoi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
116(113) Propodeal spiracle without distal carina (Figs 52C, 64C, 101C) 117
Propodeal spiracle distally framed by a short concave carina (Figs 109C, 111B, 160C) 119
117(116) Ventral margin of fore telotarsus slightly excavated; scutellar punctation indistinct throughout (Figs 65B, 101B) 118
Ventral margin of fore telotarsus entire; scutellar punctation distinct throughout (Figs 52B, 53B) G . chrisdarlingi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
118(117) Mesoscutum punctation proximally distinct, but distally absent/dispersed (Figs 64B, 65B); phragma of the scutellum completely concealed (Figs 64C, 65C); antenna longer than body G . daveschindeli Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Mesoscutum punctate throughout (Figs 101B, 102B); phragma of the scutellum partially exposed (Figs 101C, 102C); antenna shorter than body G . howelldalyi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
119(116) Inner spur of hind tibia much longer than outer spur; median area on T2 broader than long (Figs 111C, 113D, 168H) 120
Inner spur of hind tibia slightly longer than outer spur; median area on T2 as broad as long (Fig. 160D, G) G . mehrdadhajibabaei Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
120(119) Ventral margin of fore telotarsus slightly excavated and with a tiny curved seta; distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate 121
Ventral margin of fore telotarsus entire without seta; distal antennal flagellomere subequal in length with penultimate G . mikesharkeyi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
121(120) Face convex (Fig. 112C); area just behind transscutal articulation nearly at the same level as mesoscutum (Fig. 112F) G . jacklonginoi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Face flat or nearly so (Fig. 113A); area just behind transscutal articulation with a sloped transverse strip (Figs 113B, 114B) G . jamesrobertsoni Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
122(75) Fore wing with 2RS vein straight (Figs 48G, 86I, 107I) 123
Fore wing with 2RS slightly convex to convex (Figs 104I, 146J) 132
123(122) Nucha surrounded by very short radiating carinae (Figs 107C, 180G); propodeum without median longitudinal carina; antenna longer than body 124
Nucha surrounded by long radiating carinae (Figs 109C, 110D); propodeum medially rhomboid-shaped with transverse rugae, but no trace of median longitudinal carina (Figs 109B, 110B); antenna shorter than body G . ilarisaaksjarvi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
124(123) Propodeal spiracle without distal carina (Figs 86C, 156F) 125
Propodeal spiracle distally framed by a short concave carina (Figs 48B, C, 49C) G . charlesmicheneri Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
125(124) Petiole on T1 distally with lateral margins curved (convex, Figs 87D, 107D) 126
Petiole on T1 distally with lateral margins relatively straight (Figs 154D, 214G) 127
126(125) Phragma of the scutellum partially exposed (Fig. 86B, C); longitudinal median carina on face absent; inner margin of eyes straight throughout; scutellar punctation scattered throughout (Figs 86B, 87C) G . garygibsoni Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Phragma of the scutellum widely visible (Figs 107C, 108C); longitudinal median carina on face present; inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets; scutellar punctation indistinct throughout (Figs 107B, 108B) G . ianyarrowi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
127(125) Anteroventral contour of mesopleuron convex 128
Anteroventral contour of mesopleuron straight/angulate or nearly so 130
128(127) Medioanterior pit of metanotum semicircular without median longitudinal carina (Figs 154C, 214F) 129
Medioanterior pit of metanotum circular and bisected by a median longitudinal carina (Figs 180G, 181C) G . paulhansoni Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
129(128) Medioposterior band of scutellum mostly overlapping the medioanterior pit of metanotum (Figs 154C, 155C); fore wing with vein 2-1A present only proximally as tubular vein (Figs 154I, 155I) G . markshawi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Medioposterior band of scutellum only very partially overlapping the medioanterior pit of metanotum (Fig. 214E, F); fore wing with vein 2-1A absent (Fig. 214K) G . tanyadapkeyae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
130(127) Propleuron with fine rugae (Figs 60E, 88E); mesoscutum punctate throughout (Fig. 60B) 131
Propleuron with fine punctations throughout (Figs 68E, 69E); mesoscutum punctation proximally distinct, but distally absent/dispersed (Figs 68B, 69B) G . davidwahli Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
131(130) Scutellar punctation distinctly throughout (Figs 60B, 61B); distal antennal flagellomere subequal in length with penultimate; inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets; phragma of the scutellum partially exposed (Figs 60C, 61C); fore wing with vein 2-1A proximally tubular, distally spectral (Figs 60J, 61I) G . corriemoreauae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Scutellar punctation indistinct throughout (Fig. 89B, C); distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate; inner margin of eyes straight throughout; phragma of the scutellum completely concealed (Figs 88C, 89C); fore wing with vein 2-1A absent (Figs 88I, 89I) G . gavinbroadi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
132(122) Propodeal spiracle distally framed by a short concave carina (Figs 50C, 51C); scutellum in profile convex and slightly higher than mesoscutum (Figs 50E, 51E) 133
Propodeal spiracle without distal carina (Figs 78C, 79C); scutellum in profile otherwise 134
133(132) Propleuron with fine rugae (Figs 50E, 51E); dorsal carina delimiting a dorsal furrow on propleuron absent (Figs 50E, 51E); distal antennal flagellomere subequal in length with penultimate; mesoscutum punctation distinct proximally ranging to satiny distally (Figs 50B, 51B); median area on T2 as broad as long (Figs 50D, 51D) G . charlesporteri Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Propleuron with fine punctation throughout (Figs 197C, 198D); dorsal carina delimiting a dorsal furrow on propleuron present (Figs 197I, 198D); distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate; mesoscutum proximally distinctly punctate, distally with a polished area (Figs 197E, 198B); median area on T2 broader than long (Figs 197G, 198F) G . scottmilleri Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
134(132) Anteroventral contour of mesopleuron straight/angulate or nearly so (Fig. 146A, G); distal antennal flagellomere subequal in length with penultimate 135
Anteroventral contour of mesopleuron convex (Figs 78A, 79A); distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate G . eowilsoni Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
135(134) Vertex in lateral view rounded; scutellum in profile flat and on same plane as mesoscutum (Fig. 104E); scutellar punctation indistinct throughout (Figs 103B, 104B) G . hugokonsi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Vertex in lateral view pointed or nearly so (Figs 146C, 147C); scutellum in profile slightly convex, but on same plane as mesoscutum (Figs 146G, 147H); scutellar punctation distinct throughout (Figs 146E, 147E) G . malloryvanwyngaardenae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.

Species descriptions

Glyptapanteles alejandrovalerioi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.

Figs 5, 6

Female

Body length 2.72 mm, antennal length 2.17 mm, fore wing length 2.55 mm.

Type material

Holotype: COSTA RICA • 1♀; 89-SRNP-670A DHJPAR0000057; Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Cafetal; 280 m; 10.85827, -85.61089; 15.vii.1989; gusaneros leg.; cocoons formed on 28.vii.1989 and adhered to the larval cuticle; adult parasitoids emerged on 05.viii.1989; (CNC). Paratypes. • 21 (4♀ + 2♂) (9♀ + 6♂); 89-SRNP-670A DHJPAR0000057; same data as for holotype; (CNC).

Other material

Reared material. COSTA RICA: Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Bosque Humedo: • 26 (0♀, 2♂) (0♀, 24♂); 90-SRNP-1146, DHJPAR0001443; dry forest; 290 m, 10.85145, -85.60801; 29.vi.1990; Daniel H Janzen leg.; caterpillar collected in second instar; cocoons formed on 13.vii.1990 and adhered to the larval cuticle; adult parasitoids emerged on 19.vii.1990. • 23 (0♀, 2♂) (0♀, 21♂); 90-SRNP-1146A, DHJPAR0001500; same data as for preceding except: 29.vi.1990; gusaneros leg.; white cocoons separated but tightly attached and adhered to the larval cuticle; adult parasitoids emerged on 18.vii.1990. • 30 (0♀, 2♂) (0♀, 28♂); 90-SRNP-1146B, DHJPAR0000058; same data as for preceding except: 29.vi.1990; gusaneros leg.; cocoons white and separate and tightly attached to larval cuticle. • 17 (0♀, 2♂) (0♀, 15♂); 04-SRNP-12126.2, DHJPAR0001516; same data as for preceding except: 20.vi.2004, Ruth Franco leg.; cocoons formed on 06.vii.2004 and adhered to the larval cuticle; adult parasitoids emerged on 14.vii.2004. • 13 (0♀, 3♂) (0♀, 10♂); 04-SRNP-12126.3, DHJPAR0001526; same data as for preceding except: 20.vi.2004, Ruth Franco leg.; caterpillar collected in third instar; cocoons massed among the scoli of the larva, formed on 06.vii.2004 and adhered to the larval cuticle; adult parasitoids emerged on 14.vii.2004. • 12 (0♀, 2♂) (0♀, 10♂); 04-SRNP-12126.1, DHJPAR0000286; same data as for preceding except: 20.vi.2004, Ruth Franco leg.; parasitoid cocoons formed on 06.vii.2004 and adhered to the larval cuticle; adult parasitoids emerged on 15.vii.2004.

Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Cafetal: • 17 (3♀ + 1♂), (11♀ + 2♂); 93-SRNP-2506, DHJPAR0000072; 280 m; 10.85827, -85.61089; 12.vi.1993; gusaneros leg.; caterpillar collected in second instar; white fluffy cocoons formed on 26.vi.1993 and adhered to the larval cuticle; adult parasitoids emerged on 02.vii.1993. • 11 (3♀ + 2♂) (4♀ + 2♂); 93-SRNP-2507, DHJPAR0000073; same data as for preceding except: white fluffy cocoons adhered to the larval cuticle; date of cocoons not reported; adult parasitoids emerged on 05.vii.1993.

Diagnosis

Mesoscutum proximally convex distally flat with punctation distinct proximally ranging to satiny distally (Figs 5D, 6D), scutellar punctation peripherally distinct, absent centrally (Figs 5D, 6D), antenna shorter than body, phragma of the scutellum widely visible (Figs 5B, D, 6D), T3 longer than T2 (Fig. 5E), fore wing with r vein straight, outer side of junction of r and 2RS veins not forming a stub (Fig. 6I), inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets (Fig. 5C), petiole on T1 finely sculptured only distally (Figs 5E, 6E), propodeum without median longitudinal carina (Figs 5D, 6D), and lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 clearly defined and reaching the distal edge of T2 (Figs 5E, 6E).

Figure 5. 

Glyptapanteles alejandrovalerioi sp. nov. female 89-SRNP-670A DHJPAR0000057 A Habitus B Mesosoma, lateral view C Head, frontal view D, F Mesosoma D Dorsolateral view F Ventrolateral view E T1–3, dorsolateral view G Genitalia: hypopygium, ovipositor, ovipositor sheaths, lateral view.

Figure 6. 

Glyptapanteles alejandrovalerioi sp. nov. male 89-SRNP-670A DHJPAR0000057 A Habitus B, C Head B Lateral view C Dorsal view D, H Mesosoma D Dorsolateral view H Lateral view E Propodeum, T1–3, dorsolateral view F Hind coxa, lateral view G Flagellomeres I, J Wings I Fore J Hind K Metasoma, lateral view.

Coloration

(Fig. 5A). General body coloration dark brown, except clypeus, labrum and mandibles yellow-brown; glossa, labial and maxillary palps yellow; all antennal flagellomeres dorsally lighter (light brown) than ventrally (dark brown); propleuron, pronotum, proximal middle area and distal corners of mesoscutum, scutellum, BS, lunules, BM and propodeum lighter than body coloration. Eyes dark gray and ocelli silver. Fore and middle legs brown, except apex of femur, tibiae and the four tarsomeres yellow, telotarsus with yellow-brown tints and claws brown; hind leg brown except proximal 1/3 of tibiae yellow-brown, tibial spurs yellow and tarsi yellow-brown. Petiole on T1 yellow-red/reddish with contours darkened, sublateral areas yellow-brown; T2 with median area and lateral ends brown; T3 and beyond completely brown. In lateral view, T1–2 yellow-brown; T3 and beyond brown. S1–2 yellow-brown, S3 and beyond brown, although hypopygium medially yellow-brown.

Description

Head (Fig. 5C). Head rounded with pubescence long and dense. Proximal three antennal flagellomeres longer than wide (0.11:0.06; 0.13:0.06; 0.14:0.06), distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate (0.09:0.05, 0.07:0.05), antenna shorter than body (2.17, 2.72); antennal scrobes-frons shallow. Face with punctate-lacunose sculpture, interspaces wavy, laterally with depression and longitudinal median carina present. Fronto-clypeal suture absent or at least indicated by a groove/dark coloration. Frons smooth. Temple wide, punctate-lacunose and interspaces wavy. Inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets; in lateral view, eye anteriorly convex and posteriorly straight. POL shorter than OOL (0.09:0.11). Malar suture present. Median area between lateral ocelli without depression. Vertex laterally pointed or nearly so and dorsally wide.

Mesosoma (Fig. 5B, D, F). Mesosoma dorsoventrally convex. Mesoscutum proximally convex and distally flat with punctation distinct proximally ranging to satiny distally and interspaces wavy/lacunose. Scutellum long and slender, distally sloped and fused with BS, scutellar punctation distinct peripherally, absent centrally, in profile scutellum flat and on same plane as mesoscutum, phragma of the scutellum widely visible; BS only very partially overlapping the MPM; ATS demilune proximally with undulate carinae and distally smooth; dorsal ATS groove smooth. Transscutal articulation with small and heterogeneous foveae; area just behind transscutal articulation smooth, shiny and nearly at the same level as mesoscutum (flat). Metanotum with BM wider than PFM (clearly differentiated); MPM circular without median longitudinal carina; AFM without setiferous lobes and not as well delineated as PFM; PFM thick and smooth; ATM with little and incomplete parallel carinae proximally. Propodeum without median longitudinal carina; proximal half relatively polished and weakly curved and distal half relatively polished; distal edge of propodeum with a flange at each side and without stubs; propodeal spiracle without distal carina; nucha surrounded by very short radiating carinae. Pronotum with a distinct dorsal furrow, dorsally with a defined smooth band only proximally; central area of pronotum and dorsal furrow smooth, but ventral furrow with short parallel carinae. Propleuron finely sculptured only ventrally and dorsally without a carina. Metasternum convex. Contour of mesopleuron convex; precoxal groove smooth, shiny, shallow, but visible. Epicnemial ridge convex and teardrop-shaped.

Legs. Ventral margin of fore telotarsus entire without seta, proximally narrow and distally wide; fore telotarsus longer than fourth tarsomere (0.10, 0.05). Hind coxa medially smooth, dorsally with scattered punctation, ventrally with dense punctation; dorsal outer depression on hind coxa present. Inner spur of hind tibia slightly longer than outer spur (0.16, 0.12); surface of hind tibia with strong spines only on distal half; hind telotarsus longer than fourth tarsomere (0.10, 0.08).

Wings. Fore wing with r vein straight; 2RS vein straight; r and 2RS veins forming an angle at their junction and outer side of junction not forming a stub; shape of 2M vein straight; distally fore wing [where spectral veins are] with microtrichiae more densely concentrated than the rest of the wing; anal cell 1/3 proximally lacking microtrichiae; subbasal cell proximal half smooth; veins 2CUa absent and 2CUb spectral; vein 2 cu-a absent; vein 2-1A present only proximally as spectral vein; tubular vein 1 cu-a straight, incomplete/broken, not reaching the edge of 1-1A vein. Hind wing with vannal lobe narrow, subdistally and subproximally straightened, and setae present only proximally.

Metasoma (Fig. 5E, C). Metasoma laterally compressed. Petiole on T1 fine-sculptured only distally; virtually parallel-sided over most of length but narrowing over distal 1/3 (length 0.25; maximum width 0.17; minimum width 0.07) with scattered pubescence concentrated in the first distal third and apex truncate. Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 clearly defined and reaching the dorsal edge (length median area 0.14, length T2 0.14); edges of median area polished, median area broader than long (length 0.14, maximum width 0.16; minimum width 0.07); T2 with a distinctive row of pubescence only at the distal margin. T3 longer than T2 (0.20, 0.14) and with a distinctive row of pubescence only at the distal margin. Pubescence on hypopygium scattered.

Cocoons. White oval cocoons with silk fibers messy/disordered/fluffy. Fluffy cocoons separated, but tightly attached and adhered to the larval cuticle.

Comments

The mesopleuron is elongated and rectangle-shaped, the precoxal groove is shallow, the telotarsus on fore leg is twice the length of fourth tarsomere (0.10, 0.05) and with a comb in the claw, the fifth tarsomere proximally is narrow, but it expands distally, the head in dorsal view is rectangular, and the petiole and the median area with the edges clearly distinct.

Male

(Fig. 6A–K). The body coloration is darker than females and the antennal flagellomeres are shorter than females.

Etymology

Alejandro A. Valerio is a Costa Rican entomologist; as a graduate student at UIUC, IL, USA he worked with Parapanteles and Hypomicrogaster (Microgastrinae) from ACG. Currently, he works at the Central American Institute of Biological Research and Conservation (CIBRC), Costa Rica.

Distribution

Parasitized caterpillars were collected in Costa Rica, ACG, Sector Santa Rosa (Cafetal and Bosque Humedo), during June-July 1990, June 1993, and June 2004, at 280–290 m in dry forest and coffee plantations.

Biology

The lifestyle of this parasitoid species is gregarious.

Host

Periphoba arcaei (Druce) (Saturniidae, Hemileucinae) feeding on Hymenaea courbaril (Fabaceae) and Combretum farinosum (Combretaceae). Caterpillars were collected at second and third instar.

Glyptapanteles alexborisenkoi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.

Figs 7, 8

Female

Body length 3.37 mm, antenna length 3.75 mm, fore wing length 3.57 mm.

Type material

Holotype: COSTA RICA • 1♀; 02-SRNP-23217, DHJPAR0000025; Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Cacao, Sendero Toma Agua; cloud forest; 1,140 m; 10.92847, -85.46680; 15.vii.2002; Freddy Quesada leg.; caterpillar collected in third instar; white cocoons somewhat scattered, adhered on leaf surface and formed on 03.viii.2002; adult parasitoid emerged on 17.viii.2002; (CNC). Paratypes. • 2 (0♀, 1♂), (0♀, 1♂); 02-SRNP-23217, DHJPAR0000025; same data as for holotype; (CNC).

Other material

Reared material. COSTA RICA: Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Cacao, Sendero Derrumbe: • 1 (0♀, 0♂) (1♀, 0♂); 06-SRNP-36373 DHJPAR0012668; cloud forest; 1,220 m; 10.92918, -85.46426; 13.x.2006, Manuel Pereira leg.; caterpillar collected in fifth instar; cocoons formed on 26.x.2006 and adhered to the leaf substrate; adult parasitoid emerged on 04.xi.2006.

Diagnosis

Scutellar punctation distinct throughout (Figs 7F, 8F), area just behind transscutal articulation with same kind of sculpture as mesoscutum (Figs 7E, 8E), inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets (Figs 7B, 8B), vertex in dorsal view wide (Figs 7D, 8D), lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 clearly defined and reaching the distal edge of T2 (Fig. 7G, H), and fore wing with r vein straight, outer side of junction of r and 2RS veins forming a stub (Fig. 8K).

Figure 7. 

Glyptapanteles alexborisenkoi sp. nov. female 02-SRNP-23217 DHJPAR0000025 A Habitus B–D Head B frontal view C lateral view D dorsal view E, I Mesosoma E Dorsal view I Lateral view F Scutellum, metanotum, propodeum, dorsal view G T1–2, dorsal view H, J Metasoma H Dorsal view J Lateral view.

Figure 8. 

Glyptapanteles alexborisenkoi sp. nov. male 02-SRNP-23217 DHJPAR0000025 A Habitus B–D Head B frontal view C lateral view D dorsal view E, I Mesosoma E Dorsal view I Lateral view F Scutellum, metanotum, propodeum, dorsal view, G T1–3, dorsal view H, J Metasoma H Dorsal view J Lateral view K, L Wings K Fore L Hind.

Coloration

(Fig. 7A–J). General body coloration dark reddish brown except glossa, labial and maxillary palps, and tegulae yellow-brown; apex of propleuron, lunules, BS, PMR and BM with yellow tints. Eyes dark gray and ocelli reddish. Fore legs with coxae yellow remaining parts missing; middle legs yellow although tarsomeres with brown tints; hind leg yellow-brown except coxae brown with yellow apex, apex of femora, distal half of tibia and tarsomeres brown. Petiole on T1 brown, although proximally slight lighter, contours darkened, sublateral areas light yellow-brown; T2 with median area brown, lateral ends light yellow-brown; T3 and beyond completely brown, distally each tergum with a narrow translucent band. In lateral view, T1–2 light yellow-brown; T3 and beyond with half dorsal brown, half ventral light yellow-brown. S1–4 light yellow-brown; penultimate sternum and hypopygium brown.

Description

Head (Fig. 7B–D). Head rounded with long and dense pubescence. Proximal three antennal flagellomeres longer than wide (0.23:0.06, 0.23:0.06, 0.23:0.05), distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate (0.12:0.05, 0.10:0.05), antenna longer than body (3.75, 3.37); antennal scrobes-frons shallow. Face with lateral depression, scattered and finely punctate, interspaces smooth and longitudinal median carina present. Frons punctate. Temple wide, punctations barely noticeable and interspaces smooth. Inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets; in lateral view, eye anteriorly convex and posteriorly straight. POL shorter than OOL (0.10, 0.12). Malar suture present. Median area between lateral ocelli without depression. Vertex laterally rounded and dorsally wide.

Mesosoma (Fig. 7E, F, I). Mesosoma dorsoventrally convex. Mesoscutum with punctation distinct throughout, interspaces wavy/lacunose, distal half with a central dent. Scutellum triangular, apex sloped and fused with BS, scutellar punctation distinct throughout, in profile slightly convex, but on same plane as mesoscutum, phragma of the scutellum partially exposed; BS not overlapping the MPM; ATS demilune with a little and incomplete parallel carinae only distally; dorsal ATS groove with carinae only proximally. Transscutal articulation with small and heterogeneous foveae, area just behind transscutal articulation with a sloped transverse strip and with same kind of sculpture as mesoscutum. Metanotum with BM wider than PFM (clearly differentiated); MPM circular and without median longitudinal carina; AFM without setiferous lobes and not as well delineated as PFM; PFM thick and smooth; ATM proximally with semicircular/undulate carina and distally smooth. Propodeum without median longitudinal carina, with fine sculpture throughout and with a shallow dent at each side of nucha; proximal half curved; distal edge with a flange at each side and without stubs; propodeal spiracle distally framed by faintly concave/wavy carina; nucha surrounded by very short radiating carinae. Pronotum with a distinct dorsal furrow, dorsally with a well-defined smooth band; central area of pronotum and both dorsal and ventral furrows smooth. Propleuron with fine punctations throughout and dorsally without a carina. Metasternum flat or nearly so. Contour of mesopleuron convex; precoxal groove smooth, shiny and shallow, but visible; epicnemial ridge convex and teardrop-shaped.

Legs. Ventral margin of fore telotarsus entire without seta, shape of fore telotarsus proximally narrow and distally wide. Hind coxa finely punctate throughout, and dorsal outer depression present. Inner spur of hind tibia slightly longer than outer spur (0.21, 0.19); surface of hind tibia with strong spines only on distal half. Hind telotarsus slightly longer than fourth tarsomere (0.15, 0.12).

Wings. Fore wing with r vein straight; 2RS vein slightly convex to convex; r and 2RS veins forming a weak, even curve at their junction and outer side of junction forming a slight stub; 2M vein slightly curved/swollen; distally fore wing [where spectral veins are] with microtrichiae more densely concentrated than the rest of the wing; anal cell 1/3 proximally lacking microtrichiae; subbasal cell with microtrichiae virtually throughout; veins 2CUa and 2CUb completely spectral; vein 2 cu-a present as spectral vein, sometimes difficult to see; vein 2-1A proximally tubular and distally spectral, although sometimes difficult to see; tubular vein 1 cu-a curved, incomplete/broken and not reaching the edge of 1-1A vein. Hind wing with vannal lobe narrow, subdistally evenly convex, subproximally evenly convex, and setae evenly scattered in the margin.

Metasoma (Fig. 7G, H, J). Metasoma cylindrical; petiole finely sculptured only laterally, evenly narrowing distally with apex truncate (length 0.40, maximum width 0.17, minimum width 0.12), with scattered pubescence on distal half only laterally. Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 distally losing definition (length median area 0.10, length T2 0.17), edges of median area with little sculpture, median area broader than long (length median area 0.10, maximum width 0.25, minimum width 0.10); T2 with scattered pubescence only distally. T3 longer than T2 (0.22, 0.17) and with scattered pubescence throughout. Pubescence on hypopygium dense.

Cocoons. White oval cocoons with silk fibers messy/disordered/fluffy. Cocoons somewhat scattered and adhered on leaf surface.

Comments

Both fore legs are missing. The third distal of mesoscutum is concave [with a dent]. The fronto-clypeal suture is present and dark delineated. The longitudinal median carina on the face is very short.

Male

(Fig. 8A–L). Similar in coloration to female, although in lateral view, all terga and sterna are brown (in females those are yellow). The fore legs are yellow with claws brown; both the dorsal and the ventral furrows of pronotum and epicnemial ridge with yellow coloration.

Etymology

Alex V. Borisenko is a research associate, Director of International Programs, at the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario (BIO), University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Distribution

The parasitized caterpillars were collected in Costa Rica, ACG, Sector Cacao (Sendero Toma Agua and Sendero Derrumbe), during July 2002 and October 2006 at 1,140 m and 1,220 m in cloud forest.

Biology

The lifestyle of this parasitoid species is solitary/gregarious.

Host

Cynea sp. Evans (Hesperiidae, Hesperinae, skipper butterflies) feeding on Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae). Saliana placens (Butler) (Hesperiidae, Hesperinae) feeding on Costus scaber (Costaceae). Caterpillars were collected in third and fifth instar.

Glyptapanteles alexwildi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.

Fig. 9

Male

Body length 3.23 mm, antenna length 4.69 mm, fore wing length 3.53 mm.

Type material

Holotype: ECUADOR • 1♀; EC-37439, YY-A162; Napo, Yanayacu Biological Station, Río Pumayacu, Plot 424; cloud forest; 2163 m; -0.5833, -77.8833; 06.iii.2009; CAPEA leg.; caterpillar collected in third instar; cocoons formed on 12.iii.2009; adult parasitoid emerged on 01.iv.2009; (PUCE).

Diagnosis

Nucha surrounded by very short radiating carinae (Fig. 9G), proximal half of propodeum weakly curved (Fig. 9G), antenna longer than body, mesoscutum punctation proximally distinct, but distally absent/dispersed (Fig. 9F), axillary trough of metanotum with small punctation throughout (Fig. 9G), inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets (Fig. 9B), petiole on T1 virtually parallel-sided, but narrowing over distal 1/3, completely smooth and polished, with faint, satin-like sheen (Fig. 9H, I), propodeum without median longitudinal carina (Fig. 9G), lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 clearly defined and reaching the distal edge of T2 (Fig. 9H, I), and fore wing with outer side of junction of r and 2RS veins not forming a stub (Fig. 9L).

Figure 9. 

Glyptapanteles alexwildi sp. nov. male EC-37439 YY-A162 A Habitus B, D Head B Frontal view D Dorsal view C Head, pronotum, propleuron, lateral view E Cocoon F Mesonotum, dorsal view G Scutellum, metanotum, propodeum, dorsal view H T1–3, dorsal view I, K Metasoma I Dorsal view K Lateral view J Mesosoma, lateral view L, M Wings L Fore M Hind.

Coloration

(Fig. 9A–M). General body coloration dark brown except clypeus, scape and pedicel (with some areas brown), propleuron, ventral edge from proximal to distal of mesopleuron, parts of dorsal and ventral furrows of pronotum, and epicnemial ridge yellow-brown; labrum, maxillae, maxillary and labial palps yellow. Eyes gray and ocelli yellowish. Fore and middle legs yellow except claws brown; hind legs yellow except a tiny brown dot at the apex of femora, tibiae medially yellow-brown and both ends brown, all tarsomeres brown. Petiole on T1 yellow-brown with the entire inner edge dark brown; T2 with median and wide adjacent areas light brown, and lateral ends yellow-brown; T3 completely light brown and distally with a narow whitish transparent band; T4 and beyond dark brown; distally each tergum with a narrow whitish transparent band. In lateral view, T1–3 completely yellow; T4 and beyond completely light brown. S1–3 completely yellow; S4 yellow, but medial brown; penultimate sternum and hypopygium completely brown.

Description

Head (Fig. 9B–D). Head triangular with pubescence long and dense. Proximal three antennal flagellomeres longer than wide (0.27:0.11, 0.29:0.11, 0.29:0.11), distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate (0.19:0.07, 0.16:0.07), antenna longer than body (4.69, 3.23); antennal scrobes-frons shallow. Face flat or nearly so, with dense fine punctations, interspaces wavy and longitudinal median carina present. Frons punctate. Temple wide, punctate and interspaces wavy. Inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets; in lateral view, eye anteriorly convex and posteriorly straight. POL shorter than OOL (0.10, 0.13). Malar suture present. Median area between lateral ocelli without depression. Vertex laterally rounded and dorsally wide.

Mesosoma (Fig. 9F–G, J). Mesosoma dorsoventrally convex. Mesoscutum with narrow grooves/dents taking the place of notauli, punctation distinct proximally, but absent/dispersed distally, and interspaces wavy/lacunose. Scutellum triangular, apex sloped and fused with BS, scutellar punctation distinct throughout, in profile scutellum slightly convex, but on same plane as mesoscutum, phragma of the scutellum completely concealed; BS only very partially overlapping the MPM; ATS demilune with short stubs delineating the area; dorsal ATS groove with carinae only proximally. Transscutal articulation with small and homogeneous foveae, area just behind transscutal articulation depressed centrally, sculpture on area just behind transscutal articulation smooth and shiny. Metanotum with BM wider than PFM (clearly differentiated); MPM semicircular without median longitudinal carina; AFM without setiferous lobes and not as well delineated as PFM; PFM thick and smooth; ATM small punctate throughout. Propodeum without median longitudinal carina, proximal half weakly curved with medium-sized sculpture and distal half with a shallow dent at each side of nucha; distal edge of propodeum with a flange at each side and without stubs; propodeal spiracle without distal carina; nucha surrounded by very short radiating carinae. Pronotum with a distinct dorsal furrow, dorsally with a defined smooth band only proximally; central area of pronotum and dorsal furrow smooth, but ventral furrow with short parallel carinae. Propleuron with fine rugae and dorsally without a carina. Metasternum flat or nearly so. Contour of mesopleuron straight/angulate or nearly so; precoxal groove deep and with faintly lineate sculpture; epicnemial ridge elongated, more fusiform (tapering at both ends).

Legs. Ventral margin of fore telotarsus entire without seta, fore telotarsus almost same width throughout and longer than fourth tarsomere (0.15, 0.08). Hind coxa with punctation only on ventral surface, dorsal outer depression present. Inner spur of hind tibia much longer than outer spur (0.42, 0.31). Entire surface of hind tibia with dense strong spines clearly differentiated by color and length. Hind telotarsus longer than fourth tarsomere (0.20, 0.16).

Wings (Fig. 9L, M). Fore wing with r vein curved; 2RS vein straight; r and 2RS veins forming a weak, even curve at their junction and outer side of junction not forming a stub; 2M vein slightly curved/swollen; distally fore wing [where spectral veins are] with microtrichiae more densely concentrated than the rest of the wing; anal cell 1/3 proximally lacking microtrichiae; subbasal cell with a small smooth area; veins 2CUa and 2CUb completely spectral; vein 2 cu-a present as spectral vein, sometimes difficult to see; vein 2-1A proximally tubular and distally spectral, although sometimes difficult to see; tubular vein 1 cu-a curved and complete, but junction with 1-1A vein spectral. Hind wing with vannal lobe narrow, subdistally and subproximally straightened, and setae evenly scattered in the margin.

Metasoma (Fig. 9H, I, K). Metasoma laterally compressed. Petiole on T1 completely smooth and polished, with faint, satin-like sheen, virtually parallel-sided over most of length, but narrowing over distal 1/3 (length 0.40, maximum width 0.19, minimum width 0.10) and with scattered pubescence concentrated in the first distal third. Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 clearly defined and reaching the distal edge of T2 (length median area 0.21, length T2 0.21), edges of median area polished, lateral grooves deep, median area as broad as long (length 0.21, maximum width 0.20, minimum width 0.07); T2 with scattered pubescence only distally. T3 longer than T2 (0.27, 0.21) and with scattered pubescence only distally.

Cocoon (Fig. 8E). Dark oval cocoon with silk fibers messy/disordered/fluffy.

Comments

The pronotum is elevated in the middle part (convex) and distally at different level that mesopleuron, there forming a deep hollow.

Female

Unknown.

Etymology

Alexander (Alex) L. Wild, is an American entomologist and photographer who worked on ant evolution. His photographs appear in numerous natural history museums, magazines, books, television programs, and other media. Currently, he works at the University of Texas, Austin, USA.

Distribution

Parasitized caterpillar was collected in Ecuador, Napo, Yanayacu Biological Station (Río Pumayacu), during March 2009 at 2,163 m in cloud forest.

Biology

The lifestyle of this parasitoid species is solitary.

Host

Undetermined species of Noctuidae feeding on Diplazium costale var. robustum (Dryopteridaceae). Caterpillar was collected at third instar.

Glyptapanteles alvarowillei Arias-Penna, sp. nov.

Figs 10, 11

Female

Body length 3.81 mm, antenna length 3.33 mm, fore wing length 3.17 mm.

Type material

Holotype: COSTA RICA • 1♀; 02-SRNP-8901, DHJPAR0000031; Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Cacao, Sendero Maritza; cloud forest; 760 m; 10.93644, -85.47764; 14.iv.2002; Freddy Quesada leg.; caterpillar collected in fourth instar; mass of somewhat separate white cocoons completely filling the caterpillar cocoon formed on 02.v.2002; adult parasitoids emerged on 16.v.2002; (CNC). Paratypes. • 40 (4♀, 5♂) (24♀, 5♂); 02-SRNP-8901, DHJPAR0000031; same data as for holotype; (CNC).

Other material

Reared material. COSTA RICA: Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Cacao, Sendero Derrumbe: • 30 (7♀, 1♂) (22♀, 0♂); 00-SRNP-9564, DHJPAR0000004; cloud forest; 1,220 m; 10.92918, -85.46426; 29.v.2000; Mariano Pereira leg.; caterpillar collected in fourth instar; elongate white cocoons, separate and formed on 07.vi.2000; adult parasitoids emerged on 22.vi.2000. • 41 (3♀, 3♂) (28♀, 7♂); 08-SRNP-35029, DHJPAR0020725; same data as for preceding except: 05.ii.2008; Dunia Garcia leg.; caterpillar collected in fifth instar; mass of white fluffy cocoons barely adhered together; date of cocoons not reported; adult parasitoids emerged on 23.ii.2008.

Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Cacao, Sendero Circular: • 17 (6♀, 1♂) (9♀, 1♂); 02-SRNP-9369, DHJPAR0000032; cloud forest; 1,185 m; 10.92714, -85.46683; 15.v.2002; Freddy Quesada leg.; caterpillar collected in fourth instar; white cocoons not glued together; adult parasitoids emerged on 05.vi.2002. • 52 (5♀, 5♂) (36♀, 6♂); 02-SRNP-23276, DHJPAR0000026; same data as for preceding except: 19.vii.2002; Mariano Pereira leg.; characteristics of cocoon not reported; adult parasitoids emerged on 10.viii.2002.

Diagnosis

In lateral view scutellum slightly higher than mesoscutum (Figs 10H, 11H), T3 as longer as T2 (Fig. 11G), longitudinal median carina on face absent (Fig. 11B), antenna shorter than body, distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate, petiole on T1 virtually parallel-sided but narrowing over distal 1/3 (Figs 10E, 11G), surface of metasternum flat or nearly so, edges of median area on T2 obscured by weak longitudinal stripes (Figs 10E, 11G), dorsal outer depression on hind coxa absent (Figs 10F, 11D), and fore wing with r vein slightly curved, outer side of junction of r and 2RS veins forming a slight stub (Figs 10J, 11J).

Figure 10. 

Glyptapanteles alvarowillei sp. nov. female 02-SRNP-8901 DHJPAR0000031 A Habitus B, C Head B Lateral view C Dorsal view D, H Mesosoma D Dorsolateral view H lateral view E T1–2, dorsolateral F Hind coxa, lateral view G Genitalia: hypopygium, ovipositor, ovipositor sheaths, lateral view I Metasoma, lateral view J, K Wings J Fore K Hind.

Figure 11. 

Glyptapanteles alvarowillei sp. nov. male 02-SRNP-8901 DHJPAR0000031 A Habitus B, C Head B Frontal view C Dorsal view D Hind coxa, lateral view E, F, H Mesosoma E Dorsolateral view F ventrolateral view H Lateral view G T1–3, dorsolateral view I Metasoma, lateral view J, K Wings J Fore K Hind.

Coloration

(Fig. 10A). General body coloration brown-red/reddish except labrum and maxillae yellow-brown; glossa, maxillary and labial palps yellow; propleuron, pronotum, epicnemial ridge, ventral edge of mesopleuron, distal edge of mesoscutum, lunules, BS, PFM, BM, and proximal-medial part of propodeum with yellow-brown tints. Eyes and median ocellus silver, lateral ocelli brown. Fore and middle legs yellow although middle tarsomeres with brown tints; hind legs yellow except coxae completely brown-red/reddish, distally femora with a tiny dot, tibiae and tarsi brown. Petiole on T1 brown-red/reddish coloration intensifying at the edges, thus contours darkened, sublateral areas light yellow-brown; T2 with median and adjacent areas brown, and lateral ends yellow-brown; T3 extended brown coloration, but lateral areas yellow-brown; T4 and beyond completely brown and distally each tergum with a narrow whitish translucent band. In lateral view, T1–3 completely yellow, T4 and beyond dorsally brown and ventrally yellow, extent of brown coloration intensity increasing from proximal to distal. S1–3 completely yellow; S4 yellow, but medially brown; penultimate sternum and hypopygium brown.

Description

Head (Fig. 10B, C). Head triangular with long and dense pubescence. Proximal three antennal flagellomeres longer than wide (0.27:0.08, 0.25:0.08, 0.25:0.08); distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate (0.15:0.05, 0.11:0.06); antenna shorter than body (3.33, 3.81); antennal scrobes-frons shallow. Face with scattered and finely punctate, interspaces smooth, distal half dented, but only laterally and longitudinal median carina absent. Frons smooth. Temple wide, punctate and interspaces clearly smooth. Inner margin of eyes straight throughout; in lateral view, eye anteriorly convex and posteriorly straight. POL shorter than OOL length (0.07, 0.13). Malar suture present. Median area between lateral ocelli without depression. Vertex laterally pointed or nearly so and dorsally wide.

Mesosoma (Fig. 10D, H). Mesosoma dorsoventrally convex. Mesoscutum with narrow grooves laterally, punctation distinct throughout and interspaces smooth. Scutellum triangular with punctation distinct throughout, apex sloped and fused with BS; in profile scutellum convex and slightly higher than mesoscutum; phragma of the scutellum partially exposed; BS only very partially overlapping the MPM; ATS demilune proximally with undulate carinae and distally smooth; dorsal ATS groove with carinae only proximally. Transscutal articulation with small and heterogeneous foveae; area just behind transscutal articulation with a smooth and shiny sloped transverse strip. Metanotum with BM wider than PFM (clearly differentiated); MPM circular without median longitudinal carina; AFM without setiferous lobes and not as well delineated as PFM; PFM thick and smooth; ATM proximally with semircular/undulate carina and distally smooth. Propodeum without median longitudinal carina, entirely with fine sculpture, proximal half of propodeum curved and distal half with a shallow dent at each side of nucha; distal edge of propodeum with a flange at each side and without stubs; propodeal spiracle without distal carina; nucha surrounded by very short radiating carinae. Pronotum with a distinct dorsal furrow, dorsally with a well-defined smooth band; central area of pronotum smooth, but both dorsal and ventral furrows with short parallel carinae. Propleuron finely sculpture throughout and dorsally without a carina. Metasternum flat or nearly so. Contour of mesopleuron convex; precoxal groove smooth, shiny and shallow, but visible; epicnemial ridge convex, teardrop-shaped.

Legs (Fig. 10A, F). Fore telotarsus proximally narrow and distally wide and longer than fourth tarsomere (0.10, 0.05). Hind coxa finely punctate throughout, and dorsal outer depression absent. Inner spur of hind tibia longer then outer spur (0.26, 0.21); entire surface of hind tibia with dense strong spines clearly differentiated by color and length. Hind telotarsus shorter than fourth tarsomere (0.12, 0.15).

Wings (Fig. 10J, K). Fore wing with r vein slightly curved; 2RS vein slightly convex to convex; r and 2RS veins forming a weak, even curve at their junction and outer side of junction forming a slight stub; shape of 2M vein slightly curved/swollen; distally fore wing [where spectral veins are] with microtrichiae more densely concentrated than the rest of the wing; anal cell with 1/3 proximal lacking microtrichiae; subbasal cell with microtrichiae virtually throughout; veins 2CUa and 2CUb completely spectral; vein 2 cu-a present as spectral vein, sometimes difficult to see; vein 2-1A proximally tubular and distally spectral, although sometimes difficult to see; tubular vein 1 cu-a straight, incomplete/broken, not reaching the edge of 1-1A vein. Hind wing with vannal lobe narrow, subdistally evenly convex, subproximally straightened, and setae evenly scattered in the margin.

Metasoma (Fig. 10E, G, I). Metasoma laterally compressed. Petiole on T1 finely sculptured only laterally, virtually parallel-sided over most of length, but narrowing over distal 1/3, apex truncate (length 0.45, maximum width 0.26, minimum width 0.11), and with scattered pubescence on distal half, but only laterally. Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 distally losing definition (length median area 0.15, length T2 0.22), edges of median area obscured by weak longitudinal stripes, median area broader than long (length 0.15, maximum width 0.20, minimum width 0.10); T2 with scarce pubescence throughout. T3 slightly longer than T2 (0.24, 022) and with scattered pubescence throughout. Pubescence on hypopygium scattered.

Cocoons (Fig. 4G). White oval cocoons with silk fibers messy/disordered/fluffy. Mass of elongate fluffy, white cocoons somewhat separate and completely filling the caterpillar cocoon.

Comments

In both sexes, laterally the mesoscutum with a narrow dent extending throughout almost all of its length (Fig. 10D, H). In some females, the body coloration is brown, thus the tints in the body are brown-red/reddish.

Male

(Fig. 11A–K). Similar in coloration to female.

Etymology

Álvaro Wille Trejos (May 17, 1928-June 11, 2006) was a well-known Costa Rican entomologist. Most of his publications were on bees, especially the phylogeny, behavior, and systematics of stingless bees (Meliponini).

Distribution

The parasitized caterpillars were collected in Costa Rica, ACG, Sector Cacao (Sendero Circular, Sendero Derrumbe, and Sendero Maritza), during May 2000, April-May and July 2002, and February 2008 at 760 m, 1,185 m, and 1,220 m in cloud forest.

Biology

The lifestyle of this parasitoid species is gregarious.

Host

Pachydota drucei Rothschild (Erebidae: Arctiinae) (Fig. 4G) feeding on Ocotea whitei (Lauraceae). Caterpillars were collected in fourth and fifth instar.

Glyptapanteles andrewdebeveci Arias-Penna, sp. nov.

Figs 12, 13

Female

Body length 2.53 mm, antenna length 3.38 mm, fore wing length 3.18 mm.

Type material

Holotype: ECUADOR • 1♀; EC-43507, YY-A155; Napo, Yanayacu Biological Station, Stream trail, Plot 451; 2,006 m; cloud forest; -0.596722, -77.895556; 19.xi.2009; Wilmer Simbaña leg.; caterpillar collected in second instar; cocoons formed on 08.xii.2009; adult parasitoid emerged on 05.i.2010; (PUCE). Paratype. • 1 (0♀, 1♂) (0♀, 0♂); EC-41691, YY-A161; same data as for holotype except: Plot 439; 2,114 m; -0.594444, -77.888333; 18.viii.2009; Lee Dyer leg.; caterpillar collected in third instar; cocoons formed on 28.viii.2009; adult parasitoid emerged on 19.ix.2009; (PUCE).

Other material

Reared material. ECUADOR: Napo, Yanayacu Biological Station, Yanayacu Road, Plot 360: • 1 (1♀, 0♂) (0♀, 1♂); EC-26062, YY-A222; 1,998 m; cloud forest; -0.566667, -77.866667; 10.ix.2007; Lauren Loe leg.; caterpillar collected in second instar; cocoons formed on 09.x.2007; adult parasitoid emerged on 26.xii.2007.

Napo, Yanayacu Biological Station, Sendero de las Lágrimas, Plot 365: • 1 (1♀, 0♂) (0♀, 0♂); EC-26559, YY-A223; 2,075 m; cloud forest; -0.598333, -77.882778; 24.ix.2007; Lauren Loe leg.; caterpillar collected in second instar; cocoons formed on 09.x.2007; adult parasitoid emerged on 03.xi.2007.

Diagnosis

Petiole on T1 evenly narrowing throughout length (Figs 12H, I, 13F), precoxal groove deep (Figs 12A, J, 13A, D), anteroventral contour of mesopleuron straight/angulate or nearly so (Figs 12A, 13A), edges of median area on T2 polished and followed by a deep groove (Figs 12H, I, 13F), and fore wing with r vein curved, outer side of junction of r and 2RS veins forming a slight stub (Fig. 12L).

Figure 12. 

Glyptapanteles andrewdebeveci sp. nov. female EC-26559 YY-A223 A Habitus B, D Head B Frontal view D Dorsal view C Head, pronotum, propleuron, lateral view E Cocoon F Mesonotum, dorsal view G Scutellum, metanotum, propodeum, dorsal view H T1–2, dorsal view I, K Metasoma I Dorsal view K Lateral view J Mesosoma, lateral view L, M Wings L Fore M Hind.

Figure 13. 

Glyptapanteles andrewdebeveci sp. nov. male EC-41691 YY-A161 A Habitus B Mesonotum, dorsal view C Scutellum, metanotum, propodeum, dorsal view D Mesosoma, lateral view E, F Metasoma E Lateral view F Dorsal view.

Coloration

(Fig. 12A–M). General body coloration dark brown except mandibles, scape and pedicel (both with lateral brown strip) yellow-brown; propleuron mostly brown with apex yellow; metasternum yellow; ventral edge of mesopleuron lighter than mesosoma coloration; labrum, maxillae, maxillary and labial palps, and tegulae yellow. Fore and middle legs yellow (in tarsomeres, yellow coloration intensity increasing from proximal to distal) except claws brown; hind legs yellow except a tiny brown dot at the apex of femora, tibiae with apex brown, all tarsomeres brown. Petiole on T1 dark brown with contours darkened and sublateral areas yellow; T2 with median and adjacent areas dark brown, and lateral ends yellow; T3 with an extended brown area which proximally coincides with width of dark area on T2, but distally narrow; T4 and beyond black. In lateral view, T1–3 completely yellow, T4–5 yellow, but dorsally brown; following tergites completely dark brown. S1–4 completely yellow, penultimate sternite with proximal half yellow and distal half brown; hypopygium completely brown.

Description

Head (Fig. 12B–D). Head rhomboid with pubescence long and dense. Proximal three antennal flagellomeres longer than wide (0.25:0.08, 0.26:0.08, 0.25:0.08), distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate (0.14:0.05, 0.11:0.05), antenna longer than body (3.38, 2.53); antennal scrobes-frons sloped and forming a shelf. Face flat or nearly so, with dense and fine punctations, interspaces smooth and longitudinal median carina present. Frons smooth. Temple wide, punctate and interspaces clearly smooth. Inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets; in lateral view, eye anteriorly convex and posteriorly straight. POL shorter than OOL (0.09, 0.13). Malar suture present. Median area between lateral ocelli slightly depressed. Vertex laterally pointed or nearly so and dorsally wide.

Mesosoma (Fig. 12F, G, J). Mesosoma dorsoventrally convex. Distal 1/3 of mesoscutum with lateral margin slightly dented, punctation distinct throughout, and interspaces smooth. Scutellum triangular, apex sloped and fused with BS, scutellar punctation scattered throughout, in profile scutellum flat and on same plane as mesoscutum, phragma of the scutellum partially exposed; BS only very partially overlapping the MPM; ATS demilune with a little, complete parallel carinae, dorsal ATS groove with carinae only proximally. Transscutal articulation with small and heterogeneous foveae, area just behind transscutal articulation with a smooth and shiny sloped transverse strip. Metanotum with BM wider than PFM (clearly differentiated); MPM circular without median longitudinal carina; AFM with a small lobe and not as well delineated as PFM; PFM thick and smooth; ATM proximally with a groove with some sculpturing and distally smooth. Propodeum relatively polished without median longitudinal carina, proximal half weakly curved; distal edge of propodeum with a flange at each side and without stubs; propodeal spiracle without distal carina; nucha surrounded by very short radiating carinae. Pronotum with a distinct dorsal furrow, dorsally with a well-defined smooth band; central area of pronotum smooth, but both dorsal and ventral furrows with short parallel carinae. Propleuron with fine rugae and dorsally with a carina. Metasternum flat or nearly so. Contour of mesopleuron straight/angulate or nearly so; precoxal groove deep and with transverse lineate sculpture; epicnemial ridge elongated, more fusiform (tapering at both ends).

Legs (Fig. 12A). Ventral margin of fore telotarsus slightly excavated and with a tiny curved seta, fore telotarsus almost same width throughout and longer than fourth tarsomere (0.15, 0.07). Hind coxa with punctation only on ventral surface, dorsal outer depression present, inner spur of hind tibia much longer than outer spur (0.35, 0.28), entire surface of hind tibia with dense strong spines clearly differentiated by color and length. Hind telotarsus longer than fourth tarsomere (0.21, 0.15).

Wings (Fig. 12L, M). Fore wing with r vein curved; r and 2RS veins forming a weak, even curve at their junction and outer side of junction forming a slight stub; 2M vein straight; distally fore wing [where spectral veins are] with microtrichiae more densely concentrated than the rest of the wing; anal cell 1/3 proximally lacking microtrichiae; subbasal cell with microtrichiae virtually throughout; veins 2CUa and 2CUb completely spectral; vein 2 cu-a present as spectral vein, sometimes difficult to see; vein 2-1A proximally tubular and distally spectral, although sometimes difficult to see; tubular vein 1 cu-a curved and complete, but junction with 1-1A vein spectral. Hind wing with vannal lobe wide, subdistally evenly convex, subproximally straightened, and setae evenly scattered in the margin.

Metasoma (Fig. 12H, I, K). Metasoma laterally compressed. Petiole on T1 finely sculptured only laterally, evenly narrowing distally (length 0.40, maximum width 0.15, minimum width 0.10) and with scattered pubescence concentrated in the first distal third. Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 clearly defined and reaching the distal edge of T2 (length median area 0.16, length T2 0.16), edges of median area polished and lateral grooves deep, median area as broad as long (length 0.16, maximum width 0.17, minimum width 0.08); T2 with scattered pubescence only distally. T3 longer than T2 (0.23, 0.16) and with scattered pubescence only distally. Pubescence on hypopygium dense.

Cocoon (Fig. 12E). Dark oval cocoon with silk fibers messy/disordered/fluffy.

Comments

Some females have both the dorsal and the ventral furrows of pronotum lighter than mesosoma coloration. The coloration on T3 varies dorsally, some females with T3 mostly yellow, but with a central proximal yellow-brown spot that occupies 2/3 proximal and not touching the boundaries between T3–4. The lunules and PFM are lighter than mesosoma coloration.

Male

(Fig. 13A–F). Like other females, the T3 coloration varies dorsally, some males with T3 mostly yellow, but with a central proximal yellow-brown spot that occupies 2/3 proximal and not touching the boundaries between T3–4.

Etymology

Andrew Henry Debevec is an American entomologist. As a graduate student at the UIUC, IL, USA, he was interested in Microgastrinae, mainly the genus Xanthomicrogaster. Now, he works as an IT specialist in the School of Integrative Biology at UIUC, IL, USA.

Distribution

Parasitized caterpillars were collected in Ecuador, Napo, Yanayacu Biological Station (Stream trail), during September 2007, and August and November 2009 at 1,998 m, 2,006 m, 2,075 m, and 2,114 m in cloud forest.

Biology

The lifestyle of this parasitoid species is solitary.

Host

Undetermined species of Pyralidae and Noctuidae feeding on Diplazium costale var. robustum (Dryopteridaceae). Caterpillars were collected in second and third instar.

Glyptapanteles andybennetti Arias-Penna, sp. nov.

Figs 14, 15

Female

Body length 2.83 mm, antenna length 2.78 mm, fore wing length 2.73 mm.

Type material

Holotype: COSTA RICA • 1♀; 05-SRNP-32118, DHJPAR0004225; Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Pitilla, Loaiciga; rain forest; 445 m; 11.01983, -85.41342; 15.vi.2005; Manuel Rios leg.; caterpillar collected on second instar; single beige-white cocoons formed on 07.vii.2005 and adhered to the larval cuticle; adult parasitoids emerged on 14.vii.2005; (CNC). Paratypes. • 71 (4♀, 5♂) (42♀, 20♂); 05-SRNP-32118, DHJPAR0004225; same data as for holotype; (CNC).

Other material

Reared material. COSTA RICA: Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Bosque Humedo: • 17 (3♀, 0♂) (14♀, 0♂); 95-SRNP-11077, DHJPAR0000090; dry forest; 290 m; 10.85145, -85.60801; 14.xi.1995; gusaneros leg.; caterpillar collected in fifth instar; each separate white elongate oval cocoons adhered tightly to larval cuticle; adult parasitoids emerged on 04.xii.1995.

Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector El Hacha, Finca Araya: • 138 (6♀, 5♂) (122♀, 5♂); 02-SRNP-4475, DHJPAR0000030; dry forest; 295 m; 11.01541, -85.51125; 22.i.2002; gusaneros leg.; caterpillar collected in fifth instar; cadaver of caterpillar covered with tightly packed separate white cocoons; cocoons at right angles adhered to the larval cuticle; adult parasitoids emerged on 07.ii.2002.

Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Alajuela, Sector Rincón Rain Forest, Sendero Anonás: • 56 (3♀, 3♂) (44♀, 6♂); 03-SRNP-10052, DHJPAR0001474; 405 m; 10.90528, -85.27882; 10.i.2003; José Perez leg.; caterpillar collected in fifth instar; elongate small white cocoons, adhered individually but in groups on back of caterpillar; adult parasitoids emerged on 28.i.2003.

Malaise-trapped material

COSTA RICA: Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Bosque Humedo: • 1 (1♀, 0♂) (0♀, 0♂); 98-SRNP-16105, DHJPAR0013357; dry forest; 290 m; 10.85145, -85.60801; 05.i.1998; Malaise trap; DH Janzen & W Hallwachs leg.

Diagnosis

Dorsal outer depression on hind coxa absent (Figs 14D, 15E), fore telotarsus longer than fourth tarsomere, antenna shorter than body, distal antennal flagellomere shorter than penultimate, vertex in dorsal view narrow (Figs 14C, 15C), scutellar punctation distinct throughout (Figs 14F, 15G), shape of proximal half of propodeum weakly curved in dorsal view, longitudinal median carina on face present (Figs 14B, 15B), lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 distally losing definition (Fig. 15I), propodeum without median longitudinal carina (Figs 14F, 15G), anteroventral contour of mesopleuron convex (Figs 14A, F, 15A, J), edges of median area on T2 polished and followed by a deep groove (Figs 14H, 15I), and fore wing with r vein curved, outer side of junction of r and 2RS veins forming a distinct stub (Figs 14K, 15L).

Figure 14. 

Glyptapanteles andybennetti sp. nov. female 05-SRNP-32118 DHJPAR0004225 A Habitus B, C Head B Laterofrontal view C Dorsal view D Hind coxa, lateral view E Genitalia: hypopygium, ovipositor sheaths, lateral view F, G, I Mesosoma F Dorsolateral view G Ventrolateral view I Lateral view H Propodeum, T1–3, laterodorsal view J Metasoma, lateral view K, L Wings K Fore L Hind.

Figure 15. 

Glyptapanteles andybennetti sp. nov. male 05-SRNP-32118 DHJPAR0004225 A Habitus B, C Head B Laterofrontal view C Dorsal view D Flagellomeres E Hind coxa, lateral view F Genitalia: parameres, lateral view G, H, J Mesosoma G Dorsolateral view H Ventrolateral view J Lateral view I T1–3, laterodorsal view K Metasoma, lateral view L, M Wings L Fore M Hind.

Coloration

(Fig. 14A). General body coloration dark-brown, except scape, pedicel, labrum, mandibles, and tegulae dark yellow; glossa, maxillary and labial palps pale yellow/ivory; low face, labrum, propleuron, pronotum, epicnemial ridge, ventral edge of mesopleuron, and metasternum with brown-reddish tints. Eyes and ocelli silver. Fore and middle legs yellow, claws brown; hind legs yellow except coxae light yellow-brown, apex of femora brown, 3/4 distal of tibiae and all tarsomeres yellow-brown. Petiole on T1 brown and sublateral areas yellow; T2 with median and narrow adjacent areas brown, and lateral ends yellow; T3–5 brown over most of the middle surface and with a narrow strip brown only proximally, but laterally with yellow-brown area; T6 and beyond completely brown. In lateral view, T1–2 completely yellow, T3 and beyond yellow, but dorsally with a small brown area. Each sternite completely yellow.

Description

Head (Fig. 14B, C). Head triangular with pubescence long and dense. Proximal three antennal flagellomeres longer than wide (0.22:0.07, 0.22:007, 0.22:0.07); distal antennal flagellomere shorter than penultimate (0.14:0.06, 0.11:0.06), antenna shorter than body (2.78, 2.83); antennal scrobes-frons shallow. Face finely punctate-lacunose, interspaces wavy, middle with lateral depression and longitudinal median carina present. Frons smooth. Temple wide, punctations barely noticeable and interspaces clearly smooth. Inner margin of eyes straight throughout; in lateral view, eye anteriorly convex and posteriorly straight. POL shorter than OOL (0.08, 0.15). Malar suture present. Median area between lateral ocelli without depression. Vertex laterally rounded and dorsally narrow.

Mesosoma (Fig. 14F, G, I). Mesosoma dorsoventrally convex. Mesoscutum convex with punctation distinct throughout, interspaces smooth, and 1/3 distally with slightly dented lateral margins. Scutellum triangular, apex sloped and fused with BS, in profile flat and on same plane as mesoscutum, scutellar punctation distinct throughout, phragma of the scutellum partially exposed; BS only very partially overlapping the MPM; ATS demilune with complete undulate/reticulate carinae; dorsal ATS groove smooth. Transscutal articulation with small and heterogeneous foveae; area just behind transscutal articulation with a smooth and shiny sloped transverse strip. Metanotum with BM wider than PFM (clearly differentiated); MPM circular without median longitudinal carina; AFM without setiferous lobes and not as well delineated as PFM; PFM thick and smooth; ATM proximally with semircular/undulate carina and distally smooth. Propodeum without median longitudinal carina, proximal half weakly curved and with fine sculpture, and distal half relatively polished, distal edge of propodeum with a flange at each side and without stubs; propodeal spiracle without distal carina; nucha surrounded by very short radiating carinae. Pronotum with a distinct dorsal furrow, dorsally with a well-defined smooth band; central area of pronotum and dorsal furrow smooth, but ventral furrow with short parallel carinae. Propleuron finely sculptured only ventrally and dorsally without a carina. Metasternum flat or nearly so. Contour of mesopleuron convex; precoxal groove smooth, shiny and shallow, but visible; epicnemial ridge convex, teardrop-shaped.

Legs (Fig. 14A, D). Ventral margin of fore telotarsus entire without seta, fore telotarsus proximally narrow and distally wide and longer than fourth tarsomere (0.13, 0.06). Hind coxa finely punctate throughout, and dorsal outer depression absent. Inner spur of hind tibia longer than outer spur (0.22, 0.18); entire surface of hind tibia with dense strong spines clearly differentiated by color and length. Hind telotarsus as longer than fourth tarsomere (0.15, 0.11).

Wings (Fig. 14K, L). Fore wing r vein slightly curved; 2RS vein straight; r and 2RS veins forming a weak, even curve at their junction and outer side of junction forming a slight stub; 2M vein slightly curved/swollen. Distally fore wing [where spectral veins are] with microtrichiae more densely concentrated than the rest of the wing; anal cell 1/3 proximally lacking microtrichiae; subbasal cell with a small smooth area; veins 2CUa and 2CUb completely spectral; vein 2 cu-a absent, vein 2-1A proximally tubular and distally spectral, although sometimes difficult to see; tubular vein 1 cu-a straight, incomplete/broken, not reaching the edge of 1-1A vein. Hind wing with vannal lobe very narrow subdistally and subproximally straightened; and setae evenly scattered in the margin.

Metasoma (Fig. 14E, H, J). Metasoma laterally compressed. Petiole on T1 completely smooth and polished, with faint, satin-like sheen, petiole evenly narrowing distally with apex truncate (length 0.40, maximum width 0.17, minimum width 0.10) and pubescence absent. Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 distally losing definition (length median area 0.08, length T2 0.16), edges of median area polished, median area broader than long (length 0.08, maximum width 0.15, minimum width 0.10); T2 with a distinctive row of pubescence only at the distal margin. T3 longer than T2 (0.25, 0.16), T3 with a distinctive row of pubescence only at the distal margin. Pubescence on hypopygium dense.

Cocoons (Fig. 4L). White/beige oval cocoons with silk fibers evenly smooth. Tightly packed separate elongate oval cocoons adhered tightly to larval cuticle.

Comments

The coloration on metasoma is different in some specimens (e.g., 95-SRNP-11077): in lateral view, all terga and all sterna are yellow-brown; in dorsal view T3 and beyond are completely brown.

Male

(Fig. 15A–M). Similar in coloration to female but darkened. However, in lateral view, T1–2 completely yellow; T3 and beyond yellow/yellow-brown and dorsally brown. S1–3 yellow, but beyond all sterna medial brown.

Etymology

Named after the noted ichneumonid wasp specialist Andrew M.R. Bennett, of the Canadian National Collection (CNC) of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Distribution

Parasitized caterpillars were collected in Costa Rica, ACG, Sector El Hacha (Finca Araya), Sector Pitilla (Loaiciga), Sector Rincón Rain Forest (Sendero Anonás), and Sector Santa Rosa (Bosque Humedo), during November 1995, January 2002, 2003, and June 2005 at 290 m, 295 m, 405 m, and 445 m in dry forest and rain forest.

Adult parasitoid was collected in Costa Rica, ACG, Sector Santa Rosa (Bosque Humedo), during January 1998 at 290 m in dry forest.

Biology

The lifestyle of this parasitoid species is gregarious.

Host

Unzela japix (Cramer) (Sphingidae: Macroglossinae, hawkmoths) feeding on Davilla kunthii, D. nitida, Doliocarpus multiflorus, and Tetracera volubilis (Dilleniaceae). Caterpillars were collected in second and fifth instars (dead).

Glyptapanteles andydeansi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.

Figs 16, 17

Female

Body length 3.5 mm, antenna length 3.85 mm, fore wing length 3.7 mm.

Type material

Holotype: COSTA RICA • 1♀; 03-SRNP-20108, DHJPAR0000037; Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Pitilla, Estación Pitilla; rain forest; 675 m; 10.98931, -85.42581; 11.vii.2003; Petrona Rios leg.; caterpillar collected in fourth instar; mass of cocoons adhered to the larval cuticle, but not to each other, and fall off easily, formed on 26.vii.2003; adult parasitoids emerged on 01.viii.2003; (CNC). Paratypes. • 30 (4♀, 5♂) (20♀, 1♂); 03-SRNP-20108, DHJPAR0000037; same data as for holotype; (CNC).

Other material

Reared material. COSTA RICA: Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Pitilla, Estación Pitilla: • 1 (1♀, 0♂) (0♀, 0♂ but many pieces in alcohol, website said 58 in total emerged); 03-SRNP-20107, DHJPAR0000036; rain forest; 675 m; 10.98931, -85.42581; 11.vii.2003; Petrona Rios leg.; caterpillar collected in fifth instar; cocoons adhered to the larval cuticle; adult parasitoids emerged on 24.vii.2003. • 26 (5♀, 1♂) (20♀, 0♂); 03-SRNP-20109, DHJPAR0000038; same data as for preceding except: caterpillar collected in second instar; large number of single white cocoons not fluffy, but very close together that fall easily off the living larva and formed on 28.vii.2003 and adhered to the larval cuticle; adult parasitoids emerged on 01.viii.2003. • 7 (2♀, 4♂) (1♀, 0♂); 03-SRNP-20132, DHJPAR0000039; same data as for preceding except: 12.vii.2003; caterpillar collected in fourth instar; isolated white tight elongated cylinders that stick to the back of the caterpillar in the last instar; adult parasitoids emerged on 21.xii.2003.

Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Pitilla, Ingas: • 190 (5♀, 5♂) (180♀, 0♂); 11-SRNP-31470, DHJPAR0042952; rain forest; 580 m; 11.00311, -85.42041; 23.v.2011; Freddy Quesada leg.; caterpillar collected in fourth instar; cocoons formed on 06.vi.2011 and adhered to the larval cuticle; adult parasitoids emerged on 11.vi.2011.

Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Pitilla, Sendero Orosilito: • 108 (5♀, 0♂) (103♀, 0♂); 11-SRNP-31486, DHJPAR0045148; rain forest; 900 m; 10.98332, -85.43623; 25.v.2011; Manuel Rios leg.; caterpillar collected in third instar; cocoons formed on 19.vi.2011 and adhered to the larval cuticle; adult parasitoids emerged on 23.vi.2011.

Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Alajuela, Sector Rincón Rain Forest, Sendero Anonás: • 41 (3♀, 3♂) (29♀, 6♂); 03-SRNP-11971, DHJPAR0000269; 405 m; 10.90528, -85.27882; 01.viii.2003; Osvaldo Espinoza leg.; caterpillar collected in fifth instar; many white cocoons adhered lightly to the back of the caterpillar and bunched, formed on 03.viii.2003; adult parasitoids emerged on 11.viii.2003.

Diagnosis

Scutellar punctation distinct peripherally, absent centrally (Fig. 16G), area just behind transscutal articulation smooth and shiny (Figs 16G, H, 17F), inner margin of eyes straight throughout (Fig. 16B), vertex in dorsal view narrow (Figs 16D, 17C), lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 clearly defined and reaching the distal edge of T2 (Fig. 16J, K), and fore wing with r vein straight, outer side of junction of r and 2RS veins forming a stub (Fig. 16N).

Figure 16. 

Glyptapanteles andydeansi sp. nov. female 03-SRNP-20108 DHJPAR0000037 A Habitus B–D Head B Frontal view C Ventrolateral view D Dorsolateral view E Hind coxa, lateral view F Genitalia: hypopygium, ovipositor, ovipositor sheaths, lateral view G Mesonotum, dorsal view H, L Metasoma H Dorsolateral view L Lateral view I Flagellomeres J T1–3 dorsolateral K, M Metasoma K Dorsal view M Lateral view N, O Wings N Fore O Hind.

Figure 17. 

Glyptapanteles andydeansi sp. nov. male 03-SRNP-20108 DHJPAR0000037 A Habitus B, C Head B Lateral view C Dorsal view D Hind coxa, lateral view E Genitalia: parameres, lateral view F, G, I Mesosoma F Dorsolateral view G Ventrolateral view I Lateral view H T1–3 laterodorsal view J Metasoma, lateral view K, L Wings K Fore L Hind.

Coloration

(Fig. 16A, B, K). General body coloration brown-black, except scape, pedicel, mandibles, propleuron, BS, lunules, PFM and BM with light brown tints; ventral edge of mesopleuron, metasternum, and distal edge of mesoscutum reddish brown; maxillary and labial palps, and tegulae yellow. Eyes purple (in preserved specimen) and ocelli yellowish. Fore legs yellow except brown claw; middle legs yellow although tarsomeres yellow-brown; hind legs yellow except coxae brown (distally yellow-brown and proximally light brown), small area on the apex of the femora brown, distal half of tibiae and all tarsomeres brown. Petiole on T1 brown and sublateral areas yellow; T2 with median and adjacent areas brown, adjacent area wide and with contours well-defined, and lateral ends brown; T3 and remaining terga medially with an area dark brown wider proximally than distally, and sublateral areas yellow; however on T4 and beyond that brown area is narrower than T3; T3 and beyond distally with a narrow yellowish transparent band. In lateral view, all terga yellow. All sterna yellow, although hypopygium medially brown.

Description

Head (Fig. 16B–D, I). Head triangular with pubescence long and dense. Proximal three antennal flagellomeres longer than wide (0.23:0.07, 0.22:0.07, 0.23:0.07), distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate (0.14:0.05, 0.12:0.05), antenna longer than body (3.85, 3.50); antennal scrobes-frons shallow. Face flat or nearly so, with scattered and fine sculpture, interspaces smooth and longitudinal median carina present. Frons smooth. Temple wide with punctate sculpture and interspaces clearly smooth. Inner margin of eyes straight throughout; in lateral view, eye anteriorly convex and posteriorly straight. POL shorter than OOL (0.10, 0.14). Malar suture present. Median area between lateral ocelli without depression. Vertex laterally rounded and dorsally narrow.

Mesosoma (Fig. 16G, H, L). Mesosoma dorsoventrally convex. Distal 1/3 of mesoscutum with lateral margin slightly dented, punctation distinct throughout, and interspaces smooth. Scutellum triangular, apex sloped and fused with BS, in profile flat and on same plane as mesoscutum, scutellar punctation distinct peripherally, absent centrally, phragma of the scutellum partially exposed; BS only very partially overlapping the MPM; ATS demilune with a little, complete parallel carinae; dorsal ATS groove with carinae only proximally. Transscutal articulation with small and heterogeneous foveae; area just behind transscutal articulation with a smooth and shiny sloped transverse strip. Metanotum with BM wider than PFM (clearly differentiated); MPM circular without median longitudinal carina; AFM without setiferous lobes and not as well delineated as PFM; PFM thick and smooth; ATM proximally with semircular/undulate carina and distally smooth. Propodeum without median longitudinal carina, proximal half curved with fine sculpture and distal half rugose and with a shallow dent at each side of nucha; distal edge of propodeum with a flange at each side and without stubs; propodeal spiracle without distal carina; nucha without distinct short radiating carinae. Pronotum virtually without trace of dorsal furrow, dorsally with a well-defined smooth band; central area of pronotum and dorsal furrow smooth, but ventral furrow with short parallel carinae. Propleuron finely sculptured only ventrally and dorsally without a carina. Metasternum flat or nearly so. Contour of mesopleuron convex; precoxal groove smooth, shiny and shallow, but visible; epicnemial ridge convex, teardrop-shaped.

Legs (Fig. 16A, E). Ventral margin of fore telotarsus entire without seta, proximally narrow and distally wide, and longer than fourth tarsomere (0.10, 0.06). Hind coxa with punctation only on ventral surface, dorsal outer depression absent. Inner spur of hind tibia much longer than outer spur (0.24, 0.17); entire surface of hind tibia with dense strong spines clearly differentiated by color and length. Hind telotarsus as equal as fourth tarsomere (0.12, 0.11).

Wings (Fig. 15N, O). Fore wing with r vein straight; 2RS vein slightly convex to convex; r and 2RS veins forming an angle at their junction and outer side of junction forming a slight stub; 2M vein slightly curved/swollen; distally fore wing [where spectral veins are] with microtrichiae more densely concentrated than the rest of the wing; anal cell 1/3 proximally lacking microtrichiae; subbasal cell with microtrichiae virtually throughout; veins 2CUa and 2CUb completely spectral; vein 2 cu-a present as spectral vein, sometimes difficult to see; vein 2-1A present only proximally as spectral vein; tubular vein 1 cu-a curved, incomplete/broken, and not reaching the edge of 1-1A vein. Hind wing with vannal lobe very narrow subdistally and subproximally evenly convex, and setae evenly scattered in the margin.

Metasoma (Fig. 16J, K, M). Metasoma laterally compressed. Petiole on T1 finely sculptured only distally, evenly narrowing distally and apex truncate (length 0.35, maximum width 0.20, minimum width 0.09), petiole with scattered pubescence concentrated in the first distal third. Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 distally losing definition (length median area 0.10, length T2 0.18), edges of median area polished, median area broader than long (length 0.10, maximum width 0.20, minimum width 0.08); T2 with scattered pubescence only distally. T3 longer than T2 (0.25, 0.18) and with scattered pubescence throughout. Pubescence on hypopygium dense.

Cocoons. Light (white, beige, or yellow) oval cocoons with silk fibers evenly smooth. Mass of tight elongate cylindrical cocoons adhered to the larval cuticle, but not to each other; cocoons fall easily off the living larva.

Comments

Some females (e.g., 09-SRNP-11971) with additional obvious reddish brown tints in both dorsal and ventral furrows of the pronotum, the epicnemial ridge and the mesopleuron. In lateral view, T4 and beyond with a narrow medial brown area.

Male

(Fig. 17A–L). Similar in coloration to female; however, genitalia and the two last distal sterna partly brown. Dorsally, T4 and beyond with brown medial areas more extensive than in females, also sublateral and lateral areas yellow-brown. In other males, T4 and beyond the medial brown area is not well delimited or even inexistent.

Etymology

Andrew (Andy) Robert Deans’ research has been focused largely on Evaniidae but includes the microgastrine genus Alphomelon. Currently, he is a professor and director of the Frost Entomological Museum at the Pennsylvania State University, PA, USA.

Distribution

The parasitized caterpillars were collected in Costa Rica, ACG, Sector Pitilla (Estación Pitilla, Ingas, and Sendero Orosilito) and Sector Rincón Rain Forest (Sendero Anonás), during July-August 2003 and May 2011 at 405 m, 580 m, 675 m, and 900 m in rain forest.

Biology

The lifestyle of this parasitoid species is gregarious.

Host

Enyo ocypete (L.), Pachygonidia drucei Rothschild & Jordan and Aleuron carinata (Walker) (Sphingidae: Macroglossinae) feeding on Doliocarpus multiflorus (Dilleniaceae). Caterpillars were collected in second, third, fourth and fifth instar.

Glyptapanteles andysuarezi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.

Figs 18, 19

Female

Body length 2.22 mm, antenna length 2.68 mm, fore wing length 2.53 mm.

Type material

Holotype: ECUADOR • 1♀; EC-14335, YY-A044; Napo, Yanayacu Biological Station, Baeza Granja Integral, Plot 215; 1,896 m; cloud forest; -0.45, -77.883333; 05.v.2006; Rafael Granizo leg.; caterpillar collected in second instar; cocoons formed on 22.v.2006; (PUCE). Paratypes. • 8 (2♀, 2♂) (4♀ in pieces, 0♂); EC-14335, YY-A044; same data as for holotype; (PUCE).

Diagnosis

Propleuron with fine rugae (Figs 18I, 19E), anteroventral contour of mesopleuron straight/angulate or nearly so (Figs 18A, I, 19A, E), mesoscutum punctation proximally distinct, but distally absent/dispersed (Figs 18E, 19B), T3 longer than T2 (Figs 18H, 19D), dorsal outer depression on hind coxa absent (Figs 18A, 19A, E), fore wing with r vein curved, outer side of junction of r and 2RS veins not forming a stub (Fig. 18K), inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets (Fig. 18B), petiole on T1 finely sculptured on 3/4 proximal (Figs 18G, H, 19D, G), propodeum without median longitudinal carina (Figs 18F, 19C), and lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 clearly defined and reaching the distal edge of T2 (Figs 18G, H, 19D, G).

Figure 18. 

Glyptapanteles andysuarezi sp. nov. female EC-14335 YY-A044 A Habitus B, D Head B Frontal view D Dorsal view C Head, pronotum, propleuron, lateral view E Mesonotum, dorsal view F Scutellum, metanotum, propodeum, dorsal view G T1–2, dorsal view H, J Metasoma H Dorsal view J Lateral view I Mesosoma, lateral view K, L Wings K Fore L Hind.

Figure 19. 

Glyptapanteles andysuarezi sp. nov. male EC-14335 YY-A044 A Habitus B Mesonotum, dorsal view C Scutellum, metanotum, propodeum, dorsal view D, F Metasoma D Dorsal view F Lateral view E Mesosoma, lateral view G T1–2, dorsal view.

Coloration

(Fig. 18A–L). General body coloration black except scape, pedicel, all antennal flagellomeres and tegulae dark brown; labrum, mandibles, maxillary and labial palps yellow-brown. Eyes gray/black and ocelli yellowish. Fore and middle legs yellow-brown except coxae light brown, claws black-brown; hind legs yellow-brown except black coxae with yellow-brown apex, 1/4 distal of femora, 1/4 distal of tibiae and tarsomeres brown, although proximal half of basitarsus yellow-brown. Petiole on T1 black with contours slightly darkened and sublateral areas yellow-brown; T2 with median area black, wide adjacent area brown forming a irregular shape, and lateral ends yellow-brown; T3 black, but proximal corners yellow-brown with diagonal inner edges; T4 and beyond completely black-brown; distally each tergum with a narrow whitish transparent band. In lateral view, T1–2 completely yellow-brown; T3 proximal half yellow-brown and distal half brown; T4 and beyond completely brown. S1–3 yellow, but medial brown; S4 and beyond completely brown.

Description

Head (Fig. 18B–D). Head rounded with pubescence long and dense. Proximal three antennal flagellomeres longer than wide (0.17:0.06, 20.18:0.06, 0.20:0.06), distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate (0.12:0.03, 0.10:0.03), antenna longer than body (2.68, 2.22); antennal scrobes-frons shallow. Face with dense fine punctations, interspaces with microsculpture, face with depression only laterally and longitudinal median carina present. Frons punctate. Temple wide, punctate and interspaces wavy. Inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets; in lateral view, eye anteriorly convex and posteriorly straight. POL shorter than OOL (0.10, 0.12). Malar suture present. Median area between lateral ocelli without depression. Vertex laterally rounded and dorsally wide.

Mesosoma (Fig. 18E, F, I). Mesosoma dorsoventrally convex. Mesoscutum proximally convex and distally flat, punctation distinct proximally, but absent/dispersed distally, and interspaces with microsculpture. Scutellum short and broad, apex sloped and fused with BS, scutellar punctation distinct throughout, in profile scutellum slightly convex, but on same plane as mesoscutum, phragma of the scutellum partially exposed; BS not overlapping the MPM; ATS demilune with short stubs delineating the area; dorsal ATS groove smooth. Transscutal articulation with small and heterogeneous foveae, area just behind transscutal articulation smooth, shiny and nearly at the same level as mesoscutum (flat). Metanotum with BM wider than PFM (clearly differentiated); MPM circular without median longitudinal carina; AFM with a small lobe and not as well delineated as PFM; PFM thick and smooth; ATM proximally with semircular/undulate carina and distally smooth. Propodeum without median longitudinal carina, proximal half weakly curved with medium-sized sculpture and distal half with a shallow dent at each side of nucha; distal edge of propodeum with a flange at each side and without stubs; propodeal spiracle distally framed by faintly concave/wavy carina; nucha surrounded by very short radiating carinae. Pronotum with a distinct dorsal furrow, dorsally with a narrow band; central area of pronotum smooth, but both dorsal and ventral furrows with short parallel carinae. Propleuron with fine rugae and dorsally without a carina. Metasternum flat or nearly so. Contour of mesopleuron straight/angulate or nearly so; precoxal groove shallow, but visible and with faintly lineate sculpture; epicnemial ridge elongated more fusiform (tapering at both ends).

Legs (Fig. 18A). Ventral margin of fore telotarsus entire, but with a tiny curved seta, fore telotarsus almost same width throughout and longer than fourth tarsomere (0.12, 0.10). Hind coxa with punctation only on ventral surface, dorsal outer depression absent. Inner spur of hind tibia much longer than outer spur (0.20, 0.12), entire surface of hind tibia with dende strong spines clearly differentiated by color and length. Hind telotarsus as equal as fourth tarsomere (0.10, 0.11).

Wings (Fig. 18K, L). Fore wing with r vein curved; 2RS vein slightly convex to convex; r and 2RS veins forming a weak, even curve at their junction and outer side of junction not forming a stub; 2M vein slightly curved/swollen; distally fore wing [where spectral veins are] with microtrichiae almost homogeneously distributed as the rest of the wing; anal cell 1/3 proximally lacking microtrichiae; subbasal cell with microtrichiae virtually throughout; veins 2CUa and 2CUb completely spectral; vein 2 cu-a absent; vein 2-1A proximally tubular and distally spectral, although sometimes difficult to see; tubular vein 1 cu-a straight, incomplete/broken and not reaching the edge of 1-1A vein. Hind wing with vannal lobe narrow, subdistally and subproximally straightened, and setae evenly scattered in the margin.

Metasoma (Fig. 18G, H, J). Metasoma cylindrical. Petiole on T1 finely sculptured on 3/4 proximal, parallel-sided in proximal half and then narrowing (length 0.30, maximum width 0.14, minimum width 0.08) and pubescence on distal half. Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 clearly defined and reaching the distal edge of T2 (length median area 0.15, length T2 0.15), edges of median area obscured by weak longitudinal stripes, median area broader than long (length 0.15, maximum width 0.18, minimum width 0.07); T2 with scattered pubescence throughout. T3 longer than T2 (0.20, 0.15) and with scattered pubescence throughout. Pubescence on hypopygium dense.

Cocoons. Unknown.

Comments

The sculpture on the body is rough. The junction between the placodes on flagellomeres is darker than flagellomere itself. On the face, the median longitudinal carina extends from the scrobes to the clypeus. The median area on the propodeum has a transversal fine rugae. Some females from the same sample have both dorsal and ventral furrows of pronotum and distally the propleuron with reddish/brown tints.

Male

(Fig. 19A–G). Coloration similar to that of female.

Etymology

Andrew (Andy) Suarez’s research is focused upon knowing the causes and consequences of biological invasions, mainly ants, and how polymorphism and complex societies contribute to their ecological success. Currently, he is head of Department of Animal Biology at UIUC, USA.

Distribution

Parasitized caterpillar was collected in Ecuador, Napo, Yanayacu Biological Station (Baeza Granja Integral), during May 2006 at 1,896 m in cloud forest.

Biology

The lifestyle of this parasitoid species is gregarious.

Host

Bertholdia partita Rawlins (Erebidae: Arctiinae) feeding on Renealmia fragilis (Zingiberaceae). Caterpillar was collected in second instar. In Ecuador, B. partita has been reported as host for three families of Hymenoptera: two groups of Eulophidae, one group of Braconidae and one group of Ichneumonidae; and one family of Diptera: Tachinidae.

Glyptapanteles andywarreni Arias-Penna, sp. nov.

Figs 20, 21

Female

Body length 2.88 mm, antenna length 3.03 mm, fore wing length 3.13 mm.

Type material

Holotype: ECUADOR • 1♀; EC-26009, YY-A051; Napo, Yanayacu Biological Station, Sendero Macuculoma, Plot 358; cloud forest; 2,091 m; -0.6, -77.883333; 07.ix.2007; Rafael Granizo leg.; caterpillar collected in fourth instar; loose groups of brown cocoons formed on 18.ix.2007; adult parasitoids emerged on 05.x.2007; (PUCE). Paratypes. • 17 (4♀, 1♂) (12♀, 0♂); EC-26009, YY-A051; same data as for holotype; (PUCE).

Diagnosis

Distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate, posterior ocelar line shorter than ocular ocelar line, mesoscutum punctation distinct throughout (Figs 20E, 21B), lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 clearly defined and reaching the distal edge of T2, edges of median area on T2 polished and followed by a deep groove (Figs 20G, 21D), axillary trough of metanotum proximally with semircular/undulate carina, distally smooth (Figs 20F, 21C), precoxal groove shallow, but visible (Figs 20I, 21E), anteroventral contour of mesopleuron straight/angulate or nearly so (Figs 20I, 21E), and fore wing with r vein curved, outer side of junction of r and 2RS veins forming a distinct stub (Fig. 20K).

Figure 20. 

Glyptapanteles andywarreni sp. nov. female EC-26009 YY-A051 A Habitus B Head, frontal view C Head, pronotum, propleuron, lateral view D Genitalia: hypopygium, ovipositor, ovipositor sheaths, lateral view E Mesonotum, dorsal view F Scutellum, metanotum, propodeum, dorsal view G T1–2, dorsal view H, J Metasoma H Dorsal view J Lateral view I Mesosoma, lateral view K, L Wings K Fore L Hind.

Figure 21. 

Glyptapanteles andywarreni sp. nov. male EC-26009 YY-A051 A Habitus B Mesonotum, dorsal view C Scutellum, metanotum, propodeum, dorsal view D, F Metasoma D Dorsal view F Lateral view E Mesosoma, lateral view.

Coloration

(Fig. 20A–L). General body coloration brown-black except clypeus and mandibles with yellow-brown coloration; glossa, maxillary and labial palps, and tegulae yellow; both dorsal and ventral furrows of pronotum, ventral edge of mesopleuron, epicnemial ridge, and lunules with reddish brown tints. Eyes silver and ocelli yellowish. Fore and middle legs yellow except coxae brown-black and claws brown; hind legs yellow except coxae black, 1/4 distal of femora, 3/4 proximal of tibia and tarsomeres brown. Petiole on T1 black, contours darkened and sublateral areas yellow; T2 with median area dark brown, contours darkened, wide adjacent area light yellow-brown, and lateral ends yellow; T3 yellow, but medially with an inverted triangle yellow-brown, proximal edges of inverted triangle area coincides with the width of median plus adjacent areas on T2; T4 yellow-brown/light brown with proximal corners yellow; T5 and beyond completely dark brown; distally each tergum with a narrow whitish/yellowish transparent band. In lateral view, T1–3 completely yellow; T4 and beyond dorsally brown and ventrally yellow, extent of brown area increasing from proximal to distal. S1–4 completely yellow; penultimate sternum yellow, ventrally with a brown spot; hypopygium completely brown.

Description

Head (Fig. 20A–C). Head triangular with pubescence long and dense. Proximal three antennal flagellomeres longer than wide (0.25:0.07, 0.25:0.07, 0.25:0.07), distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate (0.14:0.07, 0.10:0.07), antenna longer than body (3.03, 2.88); antennal scrobes-frons shallow. Face convex with dense fine punctations, interspaces smooth, and longitudinal median carina present. Frons punctate. Temple wide, punctate and interspaces wavy. Inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets; in lateral view, eye anteriorly convex and posteriorly straight. POL shorter than OOL (0.10, 0.14). Malar suture present. Median area between lateral ocelli without depression. Vertex laterally rounded and dorsally wide.

Mesosoma (Fig. 20E, F, I). Mesosoma dorsoventrally convex. Mesoscutum with narrow grooves/dents taking the place of notauli, punctation distinct throughout, and interspaces wavy/lacunose. Scutellum triangular, apex sloped and fused with BS, scutellar punctation distinct throughout, in profile scutellum slightly convex, but on same plane as mesoscutum, phragma of the scutellum partially exposed; BS only very partially overlapping the MPM; ATS demilune with a little and incomplete parallel carinae only proximally; dorsal ATS groove smooth. Transscutal articulation with small and heterogeneous foveae, area just behind transscutal articulation with a smooth and shiny sloped transverse strip. Metanotum with BM wider than PFM (clearly differentiated); MPM circular without median longitudinal carina; AFM without setiferous lobes and not as well delineated as PFM; PFM thick and smooth; ATM proximally with semircular/undulate carina and distally smooth. Propodeum without median longitudinal carina, proximal half weakly curved with medium-sized sculpture and distal half with a shallow dent at each side of nucha; distal edge of propodeum with a flange at each side and without stubs; propodeal spiracle distally framed by a short concave carina; nucha surrounded by very short radiating carinae. Pronotum all smooth with a distinct dorsal furrow, dorsally with a well-defined smooth band. Propleuron with fine punctations throughout and dorsally with a carina. Metasternum flat or nearly so. Contour of mesopleuron straight/angulate or nearly so; precoxal groove smooth, shiny and shallow, but visible; epicnemial ridge convex, teardrop-shaped.

Legs (Fig. 20A). Ventral margin of fore telotarsus entire, but with a tiny curved seta, fore telotarsus almost same width throughout and longer than fourth tarsomere (0.15, 0.07). Hind coxa with punctation only on ventral surface, dorsal outer depression present, inner spur of hind tibia much longer than outer spur (0.25, 0.17), entire surface of hind tibia with dense strong spines clearly differentiated by color and length. Hind telotarsus longer than fourth tarsomere (0.16, 0.13).

Wings (Fig. 20K, L). Fore wing with r vein slightly curved; 2RS vein straight; r and 2RS veins forming a weak, even curve at their junction and outer side of junction forming a distinct stub; 2M vein straight or slightly curved/swollen; distally fore wing [where spectral veins are] with microtrichiae more densely concentrated than the rest of the wing; anal cell 1/3 proximally lacking microtrichiae; subbasal cell with microtrichiae virtually throughout; veins 2CUa and 2CUb completely spectral; vein 2 cu-a present as spectral vein, sometimes difficult to see; vein 2-1A proximally tubular and distally spectral, although sometimes difficult to see; tubular vein 1 cu-a curved, complete, but junction with 1-1A vein spectral. Hind wing with vannal lobe narrow, subdistally and subproximally straightened, and setae evenly scattered in the margin.

Metasoma (Fig. 20D, G, H, J). Metasoma laterally compressed. Petiole on T1 completely smooth and polished, with faint, satin-like sheen, petiole evenly narrowing distally (length 0.40, maximum width 0.20, minimum width 0.10) and with scattered pubescence concentrated in the first distal third. Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 clearly defined and reaching the distal edge of T2 (length median area 0.18, length T2 0.18), edges of median area polished and lateral grooves deep, median area broader than long (length 0.18, maximum width 0.30, minimum width 0.08); T2 with scattered pubescence only distally. T3 longer than T2 (0.27, 0.18) and with scattered pubescence only distally. Pubescence on hypopygium dense.

Cocoons. Light brown oval cocoons with messy/disordered/fluffy silk fibers.

Comments

Distally the pronotum at different level than mesopleuron and forming a deep hollow. The lateral margins of the median area on T2 are delicately curved (concave, Figs 20G, H, 21D) resembling the median area on T2 of G. bourquini (Blanchard) and G. ecuadorius (Whitfield et al. 2002a, Figs 2, 14).

Male

(Fig. 21A–F). Coloration similar to females but darkened. Dorsally, T3 brown with lateral ends yellow-brown rather than yellow and with a brown inverted-triangle area.

Etymology

Andrew (Andy) D. Warren is an American lepidopterist, specialized on Hesperiidae. He is working as Senior Collections Manager at McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Distribution

Parasitized caterpillar was collected in Ecuador, Napo, Yanayacu Biological Station (Sendero Macuculoma), during September 2007 at 2,091 m in cloud forest.

Biology

The lifestyle of this parasitoid species is gregarious.

Host

Undetermined species of Noctuidae feeding on Evodianthus funifer (Cyclanthaceae). Caterpillar was collected in fourth instar.

Glyptapanteles ankitaguptae Arias-Penna, sp. nov.

Fig. 22

Male

Body length 2.99 mm, antenna length 4.04 mm, fore wing length 3.18 mm.

Type material

Holotype: ECUADOR • 1♀; EC-12625, YY-A207; Napo, Yanayacu Biological Station, Ruben trail, Plot 186; cloud forest; 2,105 m, -0.6, -77.883333; 24.ii.2006; María de los Ángeles Simbaña leg.; caterpillar collected in first instar; cocoons formed on 14.iii.2006; adult parasitoids emerged on 09.iv.2006; (PUCE).

Diagnosis

Distal antennal flagellomere subequal in length with penultimate, posterior ocelar line broader than ocular ocelar line (Fig. 22D), mesoscutum punctation proximally distinct, but distally absent/dispersed (Fig. 22F), lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 clearly defined and reaching the distal edge of T2 (Fig. 22H, I), axillary trough of metanotum proximally with semircular/undulate carina, distally smooth (Fig. 22G), precoxal groove shallow, but visible (Fig. 22A, J), anteroventral contour of mesopleuron straight/angulate or nearly so (Fig. 22A, J), edges of median area on T2 polished and followed by a deep groove (Fig. 22H, I), and fore wing with r vein curved, outer side of junction of r and 2RS veins forming a slight stub (Fig. 22L).

Figure 22. 

Glyptapanteles ankitaguptae sp. nov. male EC-12625 YY-A207 A Habitus B, D Head B Frontal view D Dorsal view C Head, pronotum, propleuron, lateral view E Cocoon F Mesonotum, dorsal view G Scutellum, metanotum, propodeum, dorsal view H T1–2, dorsal view I, K Metasoma I Dorsal view K Lateral view J Mesosoma, lateral view L, M Wings L Fore M Hind.

Coloration

(Fig. 22A–M). General body coloration black except labrum, mandibles, and tegulae yellow-brown; glossa, maxillary and labial palps yellow. Eyes gray/black and ocelli whitish/reddish. Fore and middle legs yellow or light yellow-brown, except tibiae with a dorsal narrow brown strip from top to bottom, middle tarsomeres light brown, claws brown; hind legs yellow except a tiny brown area in both ends of coxae, tibiae with a dorsal narrow brown strip from top to bottom, and tarsi and claws brown. Petiole on T1 black and sublateral areas yellow; T2 with median area black-brown and lateral ends brown; T3 and beyond black-brown; distally each tergum with a narrow yellowish transparent band. In lateral view, T1–2 completely yellow; T3 and beyond yellow, but dorsally brown, the extent of brown area increasing from proximal to distal. S1–3 completely yellow; S4 yellow-brown; penultimate sternum and hypopygium completely brown.

Description

Head (Fig. 22A–D). Head triangular with pubescence long and dense. Proximal three antennal flagellomeres longer than wide (0.28:0.10, 0.29:0.10, 0.31:0.10), distal antennal flagellomere subequal in length with penultimate (0.14:0.06, 0.14:0.06), antenna longer than body (4.04, 2.99); antennal scrobes-frons shallow. Face with lateral depression with scattered finely punctate, interspaces smooth, and longitudinal median carina present. Frons punctate. Temple wide, punctate and interspaces clearly smooth. Inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets; in lateral view, eye anteriorly convex and posteriorly straight. POL broader than OOL (0.14, 0.11). Malar suture present. Median area between lateral ocelli without depression. Vertex laterally rounded and dorsally wide.

Mesosoma (Fig. 22A, F–H, J). Mesosoma dorsoventrally convex. Distal 1/3 of mesoscutum with lateral margin slightly dented, punctation proximally distinct, but distally absent/dispersed, and interspaces wavy/lacunose. Scutellum triangular, apex sloped and fused with BS, scutellar punctation scattered throughout, in profile scutellum slightly convex, but on same plane as mesoscutum, phragma of the scutellum partially exposed; BS only very partially overlapping the MPM; ATS demilune with complete undulate/reticulate carinae; dorsal ATS groove with carinae only proximally. Transscutal articulation with small and heterogeneous foveae, area just behind transscutal articulation smooth, shiny and depressed centrally. Metanotum with BM wider than PFM (clearly differentiated); MPM semicircular without median longitudinal carina; AFM without setiferous lobes and not as well delineated as PFM; PFM thick and smooth; ATM proximally with semircular/undulate carina and distally smooth. Propodeum relatively polished without median longitudinal carina, proximal half straight or nearly so; distal edge of propodeum with a flange at each side and without stubs; propodeal spiracle distally framed by faintly concave/wavy carina; nucha surrounded by very short radiating carinae. Pronotum with a distinct dorsal furrow, dorsally with a well-defined smooth band; central area of pronotum and dorsal furrow smooth, but ventral furrow with short parallel carinae. Propleuron with fine punctations throughout and dorsally without a carina. Metasternum flat or nearly so. Contour of mesopleuron straight/angulate or nearly so; precoxal groove smooth, shiny, and shallow, but visible; epicnemial ridge elongated more fusiform (tapering at both ends).

Legs. Ventral margin of fore telotarsus entire without seta, fore telotarsus almost same width throughout and longer than fourth tarsomere (0.15, 0.08). Hind coxa with punctation only on ventral surface, dorsal outer depression absent, entire surface of hind tibia with dense strong spines clearly differentiated by color and length. Hind telotarsus longer than fourth tarsomere (0.14, 0.09).

Wings (Fig. 22L, M). Fore wing with r vein slightly curved; 2RS vein straight; r and 2RS veins forming a weak, even curve at their junction and outer side of junction forming a slight stub; 2M vein slightly curved/swollen; distally fore wing [where spectral veins are] with microtrichiae more densely concentrated than the rest of the wing; anal cell 1/3 proximally lacking microtrichiae; subbasal cell with microtrichiae virtually throughout; veins 2CUa and 2CUb completely spectral; vein 2 cu-a present as spectral vein, sometimes difficult to see; vein 2-1A proximally tubular and distally spectral, although sometimes difficult to see; tubular vein 1 cu-a curved, complete, but junction with 1-1A vein spectral. Hind wing with vannal lobe very narrow, subdistally and subproximally straightened, and setae evenly scattered in the margin.

Metasoma (Fig. 22A, H, I, K). Metasoma laterally compressed. Petiole on T1 completely smooth and polished, with faint, satin-like sheen, virtually parallel-sided over most of length, but narrowing over distal 1/3 (length 0.42, maximum width 0.20, minimum width 0.11), with scattered pubescence concentrated in the first distal third. Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 clearly defined and reaching the distal edge of T2 (length median area 0.12, length T2 0.12), edges of median area polished, median area broader than long (length 0.12, maximum width 0.20, minimum width 0.08); T2 with scattered pubescence throughout. T3 longer than T2 (0.25, 0.12) and with scattered pubescence throughout.

Cocoon (Fig. 22E). White oval cocoon with silk fibers messy/disordered/fluffy.

Comments

The inner spur in hind tibiae is missing. Length of the inner hind tibial spur is 0.24 mm, the outer spur is glued to pointed card, so it is difficult to see and measured.

Female

Unknown

Etymology

Ankita Gupta is an Indian entomologist who research is focused on parasitic Hymenoptera. She works at the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Distribution

Parasitized caterpillar was collected in Ecuador, Napo, Yanayacu Biological Station (Ruben trail), during February 2006 at 2,105 m in cloud forest.

Biology

The lifestyle of this parasitoid species is solitary.