Print
Drainage basin checklists and dichotomous keys for inland fishes of Texas
expand article infoCody Andrew Craig, Timothy Hallman Bonner
‡ Texas State University, San Marcos, United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

Species checklists and dichotomous keys are valuable tools that provide many services for ecological studies and management through tracking native and non-native species through time. We developed nine drainage basin checklists and dichotomous keys for 196 inland fishes of Texas, consisting of 171 native fishes and 25 non-native fishes. Our checklists were updated from previous checklists and revised using reports of new established native and non-native fishes in Texas, reports of new fish occurrences among drainages, and changes in species taxonomic nomenclature. We provided the first dichotomous keys for major drainage basins in Texas. Among the 171 native inland fishes, 6 species are considered extinct or extirpated, 13 species are listed as threatened or endangered by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and 59 species are listed as Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) by the state of Texas. Red River drainage basin was the most speciose with 120 fishes. Rio Grande & Pecos drainage basin had the greatest number of threatened or endangered fishes (N = 7) and the greatest number of SGCN fishes (N = 28). We revised drainage basin occurrences for 77 species. Drainage basin checklists and dichotomous keys provide finer resolution of species distributions within the geopolitical boundaries of Texas and can reduce probability of errors in fish identification errors by removing species not occurring within a natural boundary.

Keywords

Texas, fish, checklist, dichotomous key, key, identification, occurrence, drainage

Introduction

Species checklists consolidate biodiversity records using standardized taxonomic nomenclature and updated species occurrences within pre-defined boundaries (Fleishman et al. 2006; Martellos and Nimis 2015). Benefits of checklists include use in ecological studies and natural resources management, such as assessments of global patterns in species richness (Gaston 2000), identification of biodiversity hotspots (Kent et al. 2002), occurrences for species distribution models (Caicco et al. 1995), and expansion and contraction of native and non-native species (Lee et al. 2008; Magurran et al. 2010). Often coupled with checklists, dichotomous keys facilitate species identification using a series of distinguishing characteristics (Griffing 2011). Dichotomous keys usually are created for taxa within geopolitical boundaries (e.g., Hubbs et al. 2008); however, geopolitical boundaries often are arbitrary to species distributions (Forman 2014). Recent development and use of dichotomous keys along natural boundaries, such as drainage basin (Worsham et al. 2016), provide finer resolution on species distributions and reduce probability of identification errors by removing species not occurring within a natural boundary.

Within Texas, Evermann and Kendall (1894) published the first checklist of freshwater fishes. A revised checklist was published by Baughman (1950a, 1950b), using standardized taxonomic nomenclature provided by Jordan et al. (1930). Jurgens and Hubbs (1953) were the first to publish a checklist using standardized taxonomic nomenclature provided by American Fisheries Society Committee on Names of Fishes (Chute et al. 1948). This checklist was periodically revised by Hubbs (i.e., Hubbs 1957, 1958, 1961, 1972, 1976, 1982). Knapp (1953) published a checklist and the first dichotomous key for freshwater fishes of Texas. Texas drainage basin checklists were published for western Gulf Slope drainage basins (Conner and Suttkus 1986), Mississippi River drainage basins (Cross et al. 1986), and Rio Grande drainage basin (Smith and Miller 1986). Statewide checklist and dichotomous key were revised by Hubbs et al. (1991) and Hubbs et al. (2008).

Revisions of checklists for freshwater fishes of Texas were necessary through time to accommodate additions of previously unreported species, multiple species described from a single species, and non-native species introductions (Hanks and McCoid 1988; Eisenhour 2004; Gallaway et al. 2008) and to accommodate removal of introduced fishes that did not establish populations (Howells 2001). In addition, species distributions were updated to document range expansions (e.g., Percina carbonaria, Hubbs et al. 2008), range contractions (e.g., Ictalurus lupus, Kelsch and Hendricks 1990), and name changes (e.g., Micropterus treculi to Micropterus treculii) using standardized taxonomic nomenclature (e.g., Nelson et al. 2004). Since Hubbs et al. (2008), American Fisheries Society and American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists (AFS-ASIH) Committee of Names of Fishes published a revised common and scientific names list (Page et al. 2013), new native species were reported within Texas (e.g., Craig et al. 2015), a fish name was synonymized (Echelle et al. 2013), introduced species became established (e.g., Cohen et al. 2014), and species ranges expanded (e.g., Dautreuil et al. 2016) and contracted (e.g., Craig et al. 2017).

Purposes of this paper were to develop drainage basin checklists and dichotomous keys for Texas freshwater fishes. As with previous revisions, we updated the statewide checklist and dichotomous key with new species, removal of species, and range changes. However, our checklists and dichotomous keys differ markedly from previous revisions. We identified fishes as inland, rather than freshwater, and divided the geopolitical boundary into natural boundaries using major drainage basins. Texas is particularly well suited for drainage basin checklists and keys because majority of the drainage basins became independent of one another during the early Holocene (i.e., river termini in Gulf of Mexico bays), generally restricting freshwater fish movement among drainage basins. As such, fishes are rarely homogenously distributed among all drainage basins, with 41% of fishes restricted to one or two drainage basins (Conner and Suttkus 1986; Hubbs et al. 2008).

Materials and methods

Development of a freshwater fish checklist is a challenge within natural or geopolitical boundaries having fresh and marine environments (Ross 2001; Moyle 2002). Inclusions of marine fishes on a freshwater fish checklist are subjective (Ross 2001). Knapp (1953) included marine fishes if observed in waters with salinities < 2 ppt. Hubbs et al. (1991) included marine fishes if found in “low salinity habitats”. Using salinity as an objective measure is limiting. Several fishes found in upper reaches of the Canadian River, Red River, Brazos River, Colorado River, and Pecos River inhabit saline waters with salinities exceeding 50 ppt at times (Echelle et al. 1972), so excluding fishes based on salinity tolerances would exclude several species not known to inhabit marine or estuarine environments. Avoiding salinity as a measure, we used the term “inland” instead of “freshwater” to represent fishes found in Texas rivers generally upstream from transitory freshwater-saltwater boundaries. We accepted fishes as inland if they hatch, feed, and reproduce within inland waters (i.e., all water bodies upstream of river termini). We also accepted two forms of marine fishes as inland fishes: diadromous fishes (i.e., Anguilla rostrata, Agonostomus monticola, and Trinectes maculatus) and fishes with reported self-sustaining populations within inland waters (e.g., Syngnathus scovelli, Martin et al. 2013). Our acceptance of fishes as inland oversimplifies the complex and dynamic relationship of fish communities within estuarine systems of the Gulf of Mexico (Gelwick et al. 2001); therefore, our inland fish checklists underestimate the number of fishes encountered in estuarine systems.

Drainage basins were defined as major independent rivers that flow directly into the Gulf of Mexico (i.e., Sabine & Neches, Trinity & San Jacinto, Brazos, Colorado & Lavaca, Guadalupe & San Antonio, Nueces, and Rio Grande & Pecos) or beyond Texas borders (i.e., Canadian and Red) (Figure 1). Drainage basin checklists were developed using specific (Conner and Suttkus 1986; Cross et al. 1986; Smith and Miller 1986) and generalized (Hubbs et al. 2008) drainage basin checklists. Checklists were consolidated and updated based on drainage basin distribution records for each species using Texas Natural History Collections database (Hendrickson and Cohen 2015), published consolidated species accounts (e.g., Lee et al. 1980), and published individual species range accounts (e.g., Wilde and Bonner 2000). We only included species from previous checklists if species were recognized by Page et al. (2013) to minimize taxonomic inflation (Isaac et al. 2004). New species were added to checklists and keys based on published accounts of self-sustaining populations (Ameiurus nebulosus; Craig et al. 2015). A species was designated as native if it occurs within at least one Texas drainage basin without human aid. Transient border species (i.e., Pimephales notatus, Lee and Shute 1980; Hiodon tergisus, Gilbert 1980; Cyprinella panarcys, Pinion et al. 2018) with occurrences in boundary waters of Texas were excluded because of uncertainty in self-sustaining populations. At least 80 non-native fishes have been introduced into Texas drainage basins; however, the majority did not establish self-sustaining populations (Howells 2001). Non-native fishes were included in drainage basin checklists if we had evidence (i.e., publications, personal communications) of self-sustaining populations or regular stocking (e.g., Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fishes considered extinct (IUCN 2018) were included in the checklist but excluded from keys because of low likelihood of encounter.

Figure 1. 

Map of Texas with major drainage basins outlined and labeled. Also included are major cities to serve as reference points.

Each drainage basin dichotomous key consists of family and species keys. We developed novel distinguishing characteristics for family and species keys along with modifying and using characteristics from original species descriptions (e.g., Eisenhour 2004) and existing keys (e.g., Robison and Buchanan 1988; Sublette et al. 1990; Boschung and Mayden 2004; Thomas et al. 2007; Hubbs et al. 2008). Distinguishing characteristics were comprised of external and internal morphologies, meristics, and color patterns of adult fishes. Each couplet lists the most pronounced distinguishing characteristic first, followed by additional, generally less pronounced, distinguishing characteristics.

Results and discussion

The composite drainage basin checklist included 196 inland fishes, representing 79 genera and 30 families (Table 1). Dichotomous keys were developed for nine drainage basins (Suppl. material 1). The number of inland fishes, based on our definition herein, reported in previous checklists ranged from 93 (Evermann and Kendall 1894) to 191 (Hubbs et al. 2008). Hubbs et al. (2008) and our composite drainage basin checklist were the most similar but with differences. Our checklist included three fishes reported in Texas after 2008: native Ameiurus nebulosus (Craig et al. 2015), non-native Xiphophorus variatus (Cohen et al. 2014), and non-native Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (T. Bister, Texas Parks and Wildlife Inland Fisheries, personal communication 10 March 2019). Fishes included by Hubbs et al. (2008) and excluded from our checklist were Cyprinella sp., Cycleptus sp., and Ictalurus sp., because Page et al. (2013) did not recognize these three putative species. Also based on Page et al. (2013), fish names were changed for three species: Herichthys cyanoguttatus, Erimyzon claviformis, and Menidia audens. One species (i.e., Gambusia clarkhubbsi) was included by Hubbs et al. (2008) and Page et al. (2013) but excluded from our checklist, because G. clarkhubbsi was later determined to be a junior synonym for Gambusia krumholzi (Echelle et al. 2013). Gambusia krumholzi replaced G. clarkhubbsi in our checklist. We excluded 8 non-native fishes reported by Hubbs et al. (2008), each lacking evidence of self-sustaining populations: Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Agamyxis pectinifrons, Platydoras armatulus, Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus, Esox lucius, Perca flavescens, Sander canadensis, and Tilapia zillii. Our checklist includes updated distributions of several fishes from previous checklists. Our checklist has 77 fishes with different drainage basin distributions compared to the drainage basin checklists of Conner and Suttkus (1986), Cross et al. (1986), and Smith and Miller (1986). Although interpreted from generalized descriptions, we determined our checklist has different drainage basin distributions of at least 46 fishes compared to Hubbs et al. (2008). Differences in distributions of fishes are largely due to the generalized nature of Hubbs et al. (2008) descriptions, but also include range expansions and contractions.

Fishes in Texas inland waters. Presence is denoted by “X”. All scientific and common names were from Page et al. (2013). Asterisk next to scientific name denotes species that were not included in the dichotomous keys due to low likelihood of encounter. “Native” denotes species is native to any Texas drainage basin. “Ext/exp” denotes species is extinct or extirpated from Texas. “USFWS” denotes species that are federally listed as Threatened or Endangered Species by United States Fish and Wildlife Service. “SGCN” denotes species that are state listed as Species of Greatest Conservation Need.

Family Species Common Name Native Ext/exp USFWS SGCN Canadian Red Sabine & Neches Trinity & San Jacinto Brazos Colorado & Lavaca Guadalupe & San Antonio Nueces Rio Grande & Pecos
1 Petromyzontidae Ichthyomyzon castaneus Chestnut Lamprey X X X
2 Ichthyomyzon gagei Southern Brook Lamprey X X X X
3 Acipenseridae Scaphirhynchus platorynchus Shovelnose Sturgeon X X X
4 Polyodontidae Polyodon spathula Paddlefish X X X X X
5 Lepisosteidae Atractosteus spatula Alligator Gar X X X X X X X X X X
6 Lepisosteus oculatus Spotted Gar X X X X X X X X X
7 Lepisosteus osseus Longnose Gar X X X X X X X X X
8 Lepisosteus platostomus Shortnose Gar X X
9 Amiidae Amia calva Bowfin X X X X X X
10 Hiodontidae Hiodon alosoides Goldeye X X X
11 Anguillidae Anguilla rostrata American Eel X X X X X X X X X X
12 Clupeidae Dorosoma cepedianum Gizzard Shad X X X X X X X X X X
13 Dorosoma petenense Threadfin Shad X X X X X X X X X X
14 Cyprinidae Campostoma anomalum Central Stoneroller X X X X X X X X X
15 Campostoma ornatum Mexican Stoneroller X X X
16 Carassius auratus Goldfish X X X X X X X X
17 Ctenopharyngodon idella Grass Carp X X X X X X X X X
18 Cyprinella lepida Plateau Shiner X X X X
19 Cyprinella lutrensis Red Shiner X X X X X X X X X X
20 Cyprinella proserpina Proserpine Shiner X X X
21 Cyprinella venusta Blacktail Shiner X X X X X X X X X
22 Cyprinus carpio Common carp X X X X X X X X X
23 Dionda argentosa Manantial Roundnose Minnow X X X
24 Dionda diaboli Devils River Minnow X X X X
25 Dionda episcopa Roundnose Minnow X X X
26 Dionda nigrotaeniata Guadalupe Roundnose Minnow X X X X
27 Dionda serena Nueces Roundnose Minnow X X X
28 Gila pandora Rio Grande Chub X X X
29 Hybognathus amarus Rio Grande Silvery Minnow X X X X
30 Hybognathus hayi Cypress Minnow X X X
31 Hybognathus nuchalis Mississippi Silvery Minnow X X X X X
32 Hybognathus placitus Plains Minnow X X X X X
33 Hybopsis amnis Pallid Shiner X X X X X X
34 Hypophthalmichthys nobilis Bighead Carp X
35 Luxilus chrysocephalus Striped Shiner X X
36 Lythrurus fumeus Ribbon Shiner X X X X X X X
37 Lythrurus umbratilis Redfin Shiner X X X X
38 Cyprinidae Macrhybopsis aestivalis Speckled Chub X X X
39 Macrhybopsis australis Prairie Chub X X X
40 Macrhybopsis hyostoma Shoal Chub X X X X X X
41 Macrhybopsis marconis Burrhead Chub X X X
42 Macrhybopsis storeriana Silver Chub X X X X
43 Macrhybopsis tetranema Peppered Chub X X X
44 Notemigonus crysoleucas Golden Shiner X X X X X X X X X X
45 Notropis amabilis Texas Shiner X X X X X X
46 Notropis atherinoides Emerald Shiner X X X X X
47 Notropis atrocaudalis Blackspot Shiner X X X X X X
48 Notropis bairdi Red River Shiner X X X
49 Notropis blennius River Shiner X X X
50 Notropis braytoni Tamaulipas Shiner X X X
51 Notropis buccula Smalleye Shiner X X X X X
52 Notropis buchanani Ghost Shiner X X X X X X X X X
53 Notropis chalybaeus Ironcolor Shiner X X X X X X
54 Notropis chihuahua Chihuahua Shiner X X X
55 Notropis girardi Arkansas River Shiner X X X X
56 Notropis jemezanus Rio Grande Shiner X X X
57 Notropis maculatus Taillight Shiner X X X
58 Notropis orca* Phantom Shiner X X X
59 Notropis oxyrhynchus Sharpnose Shiner X X X X X
60 Notropis potteri Chub Shiner X X X X X
61 Notropis sabinae Sabine Shiner X X X X
62 Notropis shumardi Silverband Shiner X X X X X X X
63 Notropis simus Bluntnose Shiner X X X X X
64 Notropis stramineus Sand Shiner X X X X X X X X X
65 Notropis texanus Weed Shiner X X X X X X X X
66 Notropis volucellus Mimic Shiner X X X X X X X X
67 Opsopoeodus emiliae Pugnose Minnow X X X X X X X X
68 Phenacobius mirabilis Suckermouth Minnow X X X X X X
69 Pimephales promelas Fathead Minnow X X X X X X X X X X
70 Pimephales vigilax Bullhead Minnow X X X X X X X X X X
71 Platygobio gracilis Flathead Chub X X
72 Pteronotropis hubbsi Bluehead Shiner X X X
73 Rhinichthys cataractae Longnose Dace X X X
74 Semotilus atromaculatus Creek Chub X X X X X
75 Catostomidae Carpiodes carpio River Carpsucker X X X X X X X X X X
76 Cycleptus elongatus Blue Sucker X X X X X X X X X X
77 Erimyzon claviformis Western Creek Chubsucker X X X X X X
78 Erimyzon sucetta Lake Chubsucker X X X X X X
79 Ictiobus bubalus Smallmouth Buffalo X X X X X X X X X
80 Ictiobus cyprinellus Bigmouth Buffalo X X X
81 Ictiobus niger Black Buffalo X X X X X X
82 Minytrema melanops Spotted Sucker X X X X X X
83 Moxostoma austrinum Mexican Redhorse X X X
84 Moxostoma congestum Gray Redhorse X X X X X X
85 Moxostoma erythrurum Golden Redhorse X X
86 Moxostoma poecilurum Blacktail Redhorse X X X
87 Characidae Astyanax mexicanus Mexican Tetra X X X X X X X X
88 Ictaluridae Ameiurus melas Black Bullhead X X X X X X X X X X
89 Ameiurus natalis Yellow Bullhead X X X X X X X X X X
90 Ameiurus nebulosus Brown Bullhead X X
91 Ictalurus furcatus Blue Catfish X X X X X X X X X
92 Ictalurus lupus Headwater Catfish X X X X X X
93 Ictalurus punctatus Channel Catfish X X X X X X X X X X
94 Noturus gyrinus Tadpole Madtom X X X X X X X X X
95 Noturus nocturnus Freckled Madtom X X X X X
96 Pylodictis olivaris Flathead Catfish X X X X X X X X X X
97 Satan eurystomus Widemouth Blindcat X X X
98 Trogloglanis pattersoni Toothless Blindcat X X X
99 Loricariidae Hypostomus plecostomus Suckermouth Catfish X X
100 Pterygoplichthys anisitsi Southern Sailfin Catfish X X
101 Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus Vermiculated Sailfin Catfish X X X
102 Salmonidae Oncorhynchus clarkii Cutthroat Trout X X X X
103 Oncorhynchus mykiss Rainbow Trout X X X X X X X X X
104 Esocidae Esox americanus Redfin Pickerel X X X X X
105 Esox niger Chain Pickerel X X X
106 Aphredoderidae Aphredoderus sayanus Pirate Perch X X X X X X
107 Mugilidae Mugil cephalus Striped Mullet X X X X X X X X X
108 Agonostomus monticola Mountain Mullet X X X X X X X X
109 Atherinopsidae Labidesthes sicculus Brook Silverside X X X X X
110 Membras martinica Rough Silverside X X X
111 Menidia audens Mississippi Silverside X X X X X X X X X X
112 Fundulidae Fundulus blairae Western Starhead Topminnow X X X X X
113 Fundulus chrysotus Golden Topminnow X X X X X X X
114 Fundulus grandis Gulf Killifish X X X X
115 Fundulus kansae Northern Plains Killifish X X
116 Fundulus notatus Blackstripe Topminnow X X X X X X X X
117 Fundulus olivaceus Blackspotted Topminnow X X X X X
118 Fundulus zebrinus Plains Killifish X X X X X X
119 Lucania goodei Bluefin Killifish X
120 Lucania parva Rainwater Killifish X X X X
121 Cyprinodontidae Cyprinodon bovinus Leon Springs Pupfish X X X X
122 Cyprinodon elegans Comanche Springs Pupfish X X X X
123 Cyprinodon eximius Conchos Pupfish X X X
124 Cyprinodon pecosensis Pecos Pupfish X X X
125 Cyprinodon rubrofluviatilis Red River Pupfish X X X X X X
126 Cyprinodon variegatus Sheepshead Minnow X X X X X
127 Poeciliidae Gambusia affinis Western Mosquitofish X X X X X X X X X X
128 Gambusia amistadensis* Amistad Gambusia X X X
129 Gambusia gaigei Big Bend Gambusia X X X X
130 Gambusia geiseri Largespring Gambusia X X X X
131 Gambusia georgei* San Marcos Gambusia X X X X
132 Gambusia heterochir Clear Creek Gambusia X X X X
133 Poeciliidae Gambusia krumholzi Spotfin Gambusia X X
134 Gambusia nobilis Pecos Gambusia X X X X
135 Gambusia senilis Blotched Gambusia X X X X
136 Gambusia speciosa Tex-Mex Gambusia X X
137 Heterandria formosa Least Killifish X X
138 Poecilia formosa Amazon Molly X X X
139 Poecilia latipinna Sailfin Molly X X X X X X X
140 Poecilia reticulata Guppy X
141 Xiphophorus hellerii Green Swordtail X
142 Xiphophorus variatus Variable Platyfish X
143 Syngnathidae Syngnathus scovelli Gulf Pipefish X X
144 Moronidae Morone chrysops White Bass X X X X X X X X X X
145 Morone mississippiensis Yellow Bass X X X X X
146 Morone saxatilis Striped Bass X X X X X X X X
147 Centrarchidae Ambloplites rupestris Rock Bass X
148 Centrarchus macropterus Flier X X X X
149 Lepomis auritus Redbreast Sunfish X X X X X X X X
150 Lepomis cyanellus Green Sunfish X X X X X X X X X X
151 Lepomis gulosus Warmouth X X X X X X X X X
152 Lepomis humilis Orangespotted Sunfish X X X X X X X X X
153 Lepomis macrochirus Bluegill X X X X X X X X X X
154 Lepomis marginatus Dollar Sunfish X X X X X
155 Lepomis megalotis Longear Sunfish X X X X X X X X X X
156 Lepomis microlophus Redear Sunfish X X X X X X X X X X
157 Lepomis miniatus Redspotted Sunfish X X X X X X X X X
158 Lepomis symmetricus Bantam Sunfish X X X X X X
159 Micropterus dolomieu Smallmouth Bass X X X X X X X
160 Micropterus punctulatus Spotted Bass X X X X X X X
161 Micropterus salmoides Largemouth Bass X X X X X X X X X X
162 Micropterus treculii Guadalupe Bass X X X X X X
163 Pomoxis annularis White Crappie X X X X X X X X X X
164 Pomoxis nigromaculatus Black Crappie X X X X X X X X X
165 Percidae Ammocrypta clara Western Sand Darter X X X X
166 Ammocrypta vivax Scaly Sand Darter X X X X
167 Etheostoma artesiae Redspot Darter X X X
168 Etheostoma asprigene Mud Darter X X X
169 Etheostoma chlorosoma Bluntnose Darter X X X X X X X
170 Etheostoma fonticola Fountain Darter X X X X
171 Etheostoma fusiforme Swamp Darter X X X
172 Etheostoma gracile Slough Darter X X X X X X X X X
173 Etheostoma grahami Rio Grande Darter X X X
174 Etheostoma histrio Harlequin Darter X X X
175 Etheostoma lepidum Greenthroat Darter X X X X
176 Etheostoma parvipinne Goldstripe Darter X X X X X X
177 Etheostoma proeliare Cypress Darter X X X X X
178 Etheostoma radiosum Orangebelly Darter X X X
179 Etheostoma spectabile Orangethroat Darter X X X X X X
180 Percina apristis Guadalupe Darter X X X
181 Percina caprodes Logperch X X
182 Percina carbonaria Texas Logperch X X X X X X
183 Percina macrolepida Bigscale Logperch X X X X X X X X
184 Percina maculata Blackside Darter X X X X X
185 Percidae Percina phoxocephala Slenderhead Darter X X
186 Percina sciera Dusky Darter X X X X X X
187 Percina shumardi River Darter X X X X
188 Sander vitreus Walleye X X
189 Sciaenidae Aplodinotus grunniens Freshwater Drum X X X X X X X X X
190 Elassomatidae Elassoma zonatum Banded Pygmy Sunfish X X X X X
191 Cichlidae Herichthys cyanoguttatus Rio Grande Cichlid X X X X X X X
192 Oreochromis aureus Blue Tilapia X X X X X X
193 Oreochromis mossambicus Mozambique Tilapia X X X
194 Gobiidae Awaous banana River Goby X X
195 Gobiosoma bosc Naked Goby X X
196 Achiridae Trinectes maculatus Hogchoker X X X X X X X
Total 171 6 13 59 37 120 101 102 96 94 94 66 95

Our composite drainage basin checklist has 171 native and 25 non-native inland fishes. Among native species, three fishes (i.e., Notropis orca, Gambusia amistadensis, and Gambusia georgei) are considered extinct, and three fishes (i.e., Notropis simus, Oncorhynchus clarkii, and Gambusia senilis) are considered extirpated (Hubbs et al. 2008). Thirteen fishes are listed as threatened and endangered by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and 59 fishes are listed as Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN, Texas Parks and Wildlife 2012). Number of native fishes by drainage basin ranged from 32 in the Canadian to 111 in the Red. Rio Grande & Pecos had the greatest number of USFWS threatened and endangered fishes (N = 7) and SGCN fishes (N = 28). Number of non-native fishes by drainage basin ranged from five in the Canadian to 20 in the Guadalupe & San Antonio. Origins of non-native fishes are from marine waters of Texas and from inland waters of North America and other continents (Table 2). Based on published accounts, non-native fishes were introduced for human consumption and sport (Nico and Fuller 1999), bait bucket releases (Howells 2001), vegetation control (Guillory and Gasaway 1978), accidental aquaculture releases (Howells 2001), and aquarium releases (Cohen et al. 2014).

Non-native fishes established in Texas and their continent of origin with respective citation. Presence denoted by “X”.

Family Species Common Name Marine North America Asia Africa South America Europe Citation
Cyprinidae Carassius auratus Goldfish X Hubbs et al. 2008
Ctenopharyngodon idella Grass Carp X Guillory and Gasaway 1978
Cyprinus carpio Common carp X Allen 1980
Hypophthalmichthys nobilis Bighead Carp X Kolar et al. 2007
Loricariidae Hypostomus plecostomus Suckermouth Catfish X Hubbs et al. 2008
Pterygoplichthys anisitsi Southern Sailfin Catfish X Nico and Martin 2001
Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus Vermiculated Sailfin Catfish X Nico and Martin 2001
Salmonidae Oncorhynchus mykiss Rainbow Trout X Hubbs et al. 1991
Atherinopsidae Membras martinica Rough Silverside X Hubbs et al. 1991
Fundulidae Fundulus grandis Gulf Killifish X Hubbs et al. 1991
Lucania goodei Bluefin Killifish X Gallaway et al. 2008
Cyprinodontidae Cyprinodon variegatus Sheepshead Minnow X Hubbs et al. 1991
Poeciliidae Poecilia formosa Amazon Molly X Hubbs et al. 1991
Poecilia latipinna Sailfin Molly X Hubbs et al. 1991
Poecilia reticulata Guppy X Hubbs et al. 2008
Xiphophorus hellerii Green Swordtail X Hubbs et al. 2008
Xiphophorus variatus Variable Platyfish X Cohen et al. 2014
Moronidae Morone saxatilis Striped Bass X Hubbs et al. 1991
Centrarchidae Ambloplites rupestris Rock Bass X Hubbs et al. 1991
Lepomis auritus Redbreast Sunfish X Hubbs et al. 1991
Micropterus dolomieu Smallmouth Bass X Hubbs et al. 1991
Percidae Sander vitreus Walleye X Hubbs et al. 1991
Cichlidae Oreochromis aureus Blue Tilapia X Hubbs et al. 2008
Oreochromis mossambicus Mozambique Tilapia X Hubbs et al. 2008
Gobiidae Gobiosoma bosc Naked Goby X T. Bonner, unpublished data

A limitation of the drainage basin checklist and dichotomous keys is that documentation of species by drainage is incomplete. As such, our drainage basin checklists and dichotomous keys should be viewed as living documents and will need periodic updates. While using a drainage basin key, we caution users that the key only includes species known to occur within a basin, and the drainage basin might include more species. If an unknown specimen does not seem to key to a species, we recommend using a key from an adjacent drainage basin. Periodic updates of checklists for Texas inland fishes will come from previously unreported species, non-native species introductions, extirpations of introduced and native fishes, and multiple species described from a single species through genetic analyses. Sources of this information will be dependent on publications and ichthyological records, such as Texas Natural History Collections (Hendrickson and Cohen 2015). In addition to publications and ichthyological records, an emerging tool for documenting species occurrences is the use of citizen science through web-based applications (e.g., iNaturalist, http://www.inaturalist.org). We plan to publish revised checklists and keys following the next release of revised common and scientific names list by the AFS-ASIH Committee of Names of Fishes.

Acknowledgments

We would like to acknowledge Dave Ruppel and Nicky Faucheux with additions and revisions to the drainage basin keys, V Alex Sotola for making the map, and Brad Littrell with review on earlier versions of the drainage basin keys.

References

  • Allen AW (1980) Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus), Common Carp. In: Lee DS, Gilbert CR, Hocutt CH, Jenkins RE, McAllister DE, Stauffer JR (Eds) Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina, 152.
  • Baughman JL (1950a) Random notes on Texas fishes Part I. Texas Journal of Science 1: 117–139.
  • Baughman JL (1950b) Random notes on Texas fishes Part II. Texas Journal of Science 1: 242–263.
  • Chute WH, Bailey WA, Dymond JR, Hildebrand SF, Myers GS, Schultz LP (1948) A list of common and scientific names of the better known fishes of the United States and Canada. 1st edition. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland, 355–398.
  • Cohen AE, Dugan LE, Hendrickson DA, Martin FD, Huynh J, Labay BJ, Casarez MJ (2014) Population of Variable Platyfish (Xiphophorus variatus) established in Waller Creek, Travis County, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 59: 413–419. https://doi.org/10.1894/MP-10.1
  • Conner JV, Suttkus RD (1986) Zoogeography of freshwater fishes of the western Gulf Slope of North America. In: Hocutt CH, Wiley EO (Eds) The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 413–456.
  • Craig CA, Littrell BM, Bonner TH (2017) Population status and life history attributes of the Texas Shiner Notropis amabilis. The American Midland Naturalist 177: 277–288. https://doi.org/10.1674/0003-0031-177.2.277
  • Craig CA, Vaughn CR, Ruppel DS, Bonner TH (2015) Occurrence of Ameiurus nebulosus (Brown Bullhead) in Texas. Southeastern Naturalist 14: N35–N37. https://doi.org/10.1656/058.014.0213
  • Cross F, Richard M, Stewart J (1986) Fishes in the western Mississippi basin (Missouri, Arkansas, and Red rivers). In: Hocutt CH, Wiley EO (Eds) Zoogeography of North American Freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 363–412.
  • Dautreuil VLE, Craig CA, Bonner TH (2016) Persistence of Etheostoma parvipinne (Goldstripe Darter) in a single tributary on the periphery of its range. Southeastern Naturalist 15: N28–N32. https://doi.org/10.1656/058.015.0310
  • Echelle AA, Echelle AF, Hill LG (1972) Interspecific interactions and limiting factors of abundance and distribution in the Red River Pupfish, Cyprinodon rubrofluviatilis. American Midland Naturalist 88: 109–130. https://doi.org/10.2307/2424492
  • Echelle AA, Lourdes L, Baker S, Wilson WD, Echelle AF, Garrett GP, Edwards RJ (2013) Conservation genetics of Gambusia krumholzi (Teleostei: Poeciliidae) with assessment of the species status of G. clarkhubbsi and hybridization with G. speciosa. Copeia 2013: 72–79. https://doi.org/10.1643/CG-11-167
  • Eisenhour DJ (2004) Systematics, variation, and speciation of the Macrhybopsis aestivalis complex west of the Mississippi River. Bulletin of the Alabama Museum of Natural History 23: 9–48. https://doi.org/10.2307/1447972
  • Evermann BW, Kendall WC (1894) The fishes of Texas and Rio Grande Basin, considered chiefly with reference to their geographic distribution. Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission, Washington, DC, 12: 57–126.
  • Forman RT (2014) Land mosaics: The ecology of landscapes and regions 1995. In: Ndubisi F (Ed.) The Ecological design and planning reader. Island Press, Washington, DC, 217. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781107050327
  • Gallaway BJ, Fechhelm RG, Howells RG (2008) Introduction of the Bluefin Killifish (Lucania goodei) in Texas. Texas Journal of Science 60: 69–72.
  • Gelwick FP, Akin S, Arrington DA, Winemiller KO (2001) Fish assemblage structure in relation to environmental variation in a Texas gulf coastal wetland. Estuaries 24: 285. https://doi.org/10.2307/1352952
  • Gilbert CR (1980) Hiodon tergisus Lessueur. In: Lee DS, Gilbert CR, Hocutt CH, Jenkins RE, McAllister DE, Stauffer JR (Eds) Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. Raleigh, North Carolina, 75.
  • Griffing LR (2011) Who invented the dichotomous key? Richard Waller’s watercolors of the herbs of Britain. American Journal of Botany 98: 1911–1923. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1100188
  • Hanks BG, McCoid MJ (1988) First record for the Least Killifish, Heterandria formosa (Pisces: Poeciliidae), in Texas. Texas Journal of Science 40: 447–448.
  • Hendrickson DA, Cohen AE (2015) Fishes of Texas Project and Online Database (version 2.0). Published by Texas Natural History Collection, a division of Texas Natural Science Center, University of Texas at Austin.
  • Howells RG (2001) Introduced non-native fishes and shellshes in Texas waters: An updated list and discussion. Texas Parks and Wildlife, Austin, Texas.
  • Hubbs C (1957) A checklist of Texas fresh-water fishes. Texas Game and Fish Commission, IF Series 3: 1–11.
  • Hubbs C (1958) A checklist of Texas fresh-water fishes. Texas Game and Fish Commission, IF Series 3, Revised: 1–14.
  • Hubbs C (1972) A checklist of Texas freshwater fishes. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Technical Series 11: 1–11.
  • Hubbs C (1976) A checklist of Texas freshwater fishes. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Technical Series 11, revised: 1–14.
  • Hubbs C (1982) A checklist of Texas freshwater fishes. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Technical Series 11, revised: 1–15.
  • Hubbs C, Edwards RJ, Garrett GP (1991) Annotated check list and key to the freshwater fishes of Texas, with keys to the identification of species. Texas Journal of Science: 43: 1–56.
  • Hubbs C, Edwards RJ, Garrett GP (2008) An annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of texas, with keys to identification of species. Texas Academy of Science, Special Publication, 1–87.
  • Jordan DS, Evermann BW, Clark HW (1930) Check list of the fishes and fishlike vertebrates of North and Middle American North of the Northern Boundary of Venezuela and Colombia. Report, U.S. Commission of Fisheries for 1928, Appendix 10, 670 pp.
  • Jurgens K, Hubbs C (1953) A checklist of Texas freshwater fishes. Texas Game and Fish Magazine, Austin.
  • Kelsch SW, Hendricks FS (1990) Distribution of the Headwater Catfish Ictalurus lupus (Osteichthyes : Ictaluridae). The Southwestern Naturalist 35: 292–297. https://doi.org/10.2307/3671942
  • Kent J, da Fonseca GAB, Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG (2002) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–858. https://doi.org/10.1038/35002501
  • Knapp F (1953) Fishes found in the freshwaters of Texas. Ragland Studio and Litho Printing Company, Brunswick, Georgia, 166 pp.
  • Kolar CS, Chapman DC, Courtenay WR, Housel CM, Williams JD, Jennings D (2007) American Fisheries Society special publication bigheaded carps – a biological synopsis and environmental risk assessment. https://doi.org/10.1643/OT-09-041
  • Lee DS, Gilbert CR, McAllister DE, Stauffer Jr J (1980) Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, 854 pp.
  • Lee DS, Shute JR (1980) Pimephales notatus (Rafinesque). In: Lee DS, Gilbert CR, Hocutt CH, Jenkins RE, McAllister DE, Stauffer JR (Eds) Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes, Raleigh, North Carolina, 340.
  • Lee H, Reusser DA, Olden JD, Smith SS, Graham J, Burkett V, Dukes JS, Piorkowski RJ, McPhedran J (2008) Integrated monitoring and information systems for managing aquatic invasive species in a changing climate. Conservation Biology 22: 575–584. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00955.x
  • Magurran AE, Baillie SR, Buckland ST, Dick JMP, Elston DA, Scott EM, Smith RI, Somerfield PJ, Watt AD (2010) Long-term datasets in biodiversity research and monitoring: Assessing change in ecological communities through time. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25: 574–582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2010.06.016
  • Martin FD, Cohen AE, Labay BJ, Casarez MJ, Dean A, Martin FD, Cohen AE, Labay BJ, Casarez MJ, Hendrickson DA (2013) Apparent persistence of a landlocked population of gulf pipefish Syngnathus scovelli. The Southwestern Naturalist 58: 376–378. https://doi.org/10.1894/0038-4909-58.3.376
  • Moyle PB (2002) Inland fishes of California: revised and expanded. University of California Press, London, 489 pp.
  • Nelson JS, Crossman E, Espinosa-Perez H, Findley L, Gilbert C, Lea R, Williams JD (2004) Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. 6th edition. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland, 386 pp.
  • Nico LG, Martin RT (2001) The South American Suckermouth Armored Catfish, Pterygoplichthys anisitsi (Pisces: Loricaridae), in Texas, with comments on foreign fish introductions in the American Southwest. The Southwestern Naturalist 46: 98. https://doi.org/10.2307/3672381
  • Page LP, Esponosa-Perez H. Findley LT, Gilbert CR, Lea RN, Mandrak NE, Nelson JS, Mayden RL (2013) Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland, 384 pp.
  • Pinion AK, George SD, Perkin JS, Conway KW (2018) First record of the Conchos Shiner Cyprinella panarcys (Hubbs & Miller, 1978) from the mainstem of the Rio Grande along the USA-Mexico border. Check List 14: 1123–1129. https://doi.org/10.15560/14.6.1123
  • Robison HW, Buchanan TM (1988) Fishes of Arkansas. University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, 536 pp.
  • Ross ST (2001) The inland fishes of Mississippi. University Press of Mississippi, Jackson, 623 pp.
  • Smith M, Miller R (1986) The evolution of the Rio Grande Basin as inferred from its fish fauna. In: Hocutt CH, Wiley EO (Eds) Zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 457–486.
  • Thomas C, Bonner TH, Whiteside BG (2007) Freshwater fishes of Texas: A field guide. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, 220 pp.
  • Wilde GR, Bonner TH (2000) First records of the Suckermouth Minnow Phenacobius mirabilis from the Canadian River, Texas. Texas Journal of Science 52: 71–74.