ZooKeys 389: 27–33, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.389.6066
A new species of Grotea Cresson (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Labeninae) from Colombia
Andrés Fabián Herrera-Flórez 1,†
1 University of Manitoba, Department of Entomology, 214 Animal Science Bldg, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N2

Corresponding author: Andrés Fabián Herrera-Flórez (andresfhf@gmail.com)

Academic editor: G. Broad

received 7 August 2013 | accepted 27 February 2014 | Published 14 March 2014
(C) 2014 Andrés Fabián Herrera-Flórez. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Citation: Herrera-Flórez AF (2014) A new species of Grotea Cresson (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Labeninae) from Colombia. ZooKeys 389: 27–33. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.389.6066


The genus Grotea has 18 described species. A new species, Grotea villosissima sp. n., is described here and its host information included. This is the first record of Grotea for Colombia.


Ichneumonoidea, Groteini, South America, Neotropics, taxonomy, bee parasitoid, Chilicola, Labeniformes, host record


The Labeninae is a group of parasitoid wasps with a mainly Gondwanan distribution (Townes 1969; Gauld 1983; Wahl 1993, Gauld 2000); although most of its members occur in the Australasian or the Neotropical region, two of its genera, Labena and Grotea, occur in North America (Townes and Townes 1960; Slobodchikoff 1970, Gauld 2000). According to Gauld and Wahl (2000), those exceptions provide evidence of the spread of some members of this subfamily towards the north after the establishment of the Mesoamerican land bridge (Gauld and Wahl 2000, Gauld 2000).

The described species of Grotea can be grouped in 4 species-groups: Grotea anguina species-group, Grotea superba species-group, Grotea chiloe species-group and Grotea gayi species-group (Wahl 1993). According to Gauld and Wahl (2000)Grotea originated in southern South America, diversified in tropical South America, and colonized North America recently across the Mesoamerican land bridge. Proof of this is that the more basal taxa of Grotea are endemic to Chile and that the richness of species and the richness of species groups are highest in South America. Grotea comprises 18 species (Yu et al. 2005): 9 occur in South America, 8 in Central America and 3 in North America (Yu et al. 2005). From the 4 species-groups of Grotea, the anguina species-group is the only one that occurs outside the Gondwanan region (South America, south of equator) (Gauld 2000).

Grotea species parasitize bee hosts of the genera Ceratina Latreille, 1802 (Graenicher 1905; Rau 1928; Daly et al. 1967; Slobochikoff 1970), Chilicola Spinola, 1851 (Packer 2004; González and Giraldo 2009), Megachile Latreille, 1802 and Manuelia Vachal, 1905 (Janvier 1967; Gauld 2000; Gauld and Wahl 2000).

The aim of this paper is to describe a new species collected from a nest of Chilicola (subgenus Oroediscelis) deborahae Gonzalez, 2009 (Gonzalez and Giraldo 2009) found in Boyaca, Colombia. This is the first record of Grotea for Colombia.

Material and methods

A nest of Chilicola (Colletidae) was found by my colleague Victor González in dry branches of Espeletia argentea. A Grotea specimen emerged from one of the cells. After comparing this specimen with the descriptions made by Cameron (1886), Cresson (1864, 1874, 1879), Gauld (2000), Porter (1989), Schmiedeknecht (1907), Slobodchikoff (1970), Spinola (1851), Thunberg (1822) and Townes and Townes (1960) it was clear that the specimen belongs to a new species. The morphological terminology used in the description of Grotea villosissima sp. n. follows Gauld (1991, 2000).

The holotype is preserved at the Museo de Entomología “Francisco Luis Gallego”, Universidad Nacional, sede Medellín (UNCM).

Genus Grotea Cresson, 1864
Material examined.

Holotype: female, “COLOMBIA: Boyacá: Arcabuco. Santuario de Fauna y Flora de Iguaque, Camino de la Laguna, 5°70'N, 73°46'W, 3400–3600m, emergió de celda en nido de Chilicola (Oroediscelis) sp. n. (Apoidea, Colletidae). Ese nido estaba en ramas secas de Espeletia argentea, 23 Agosto 2003, leg.V.González (UNCM)”.


This new species can be recognized from other described species of Grotea by the following combination of characters: gena close to the junction of occipital and hypostomal carinae with inwards genal projections (Fig. 8); propodeum with anterior transverse carina centrally weak and indented (Fig. 9); metasoma with tergite I slender but slightly shorter than mesosoma and rather straight (Figs 1, 3, 6); ovipositor shorter than the fore wing (Fig. 6).

Figures 1–5.

Photographs of Grotea villosissima sp. n. 1 Head, mesosoma and first tergite, lateral view 2 Head, mesosoma, dorsal view 3 Part of mesosoma and metasoma, lateral view 4 Head and part of mesosoma, ventral view 5 Hind wing.

Figures 6–10.

Line drawings of Grotea villosissima sp. n. 6 Habitus 7 Head, posterodorsal view 8 Head (showing detail of genal projection), posteroventral view 9 Propodeum, dorsal view 10 Wings.


Female. Fore wing 7.4 mm long.

Head in dorsal view with gena behind eyes rounded (Fig. 7); posterior ocellus separated from eye by 1.7 × its own maximum diameter (Fig. 7); genal projection present, laterally indistinct, ventroposteriorly evident; projection narrowing apically, horizontally oriented to inside of oral cavity; genal projections almost touching each other (Fig. 8); antenna with 35 flagellomeres (Fig. 6); flagellomere I 1.0 × as long as flagellomeres II and III combined. Epomia absent.

Mesosoma. Mesoscutum smooth with isolated inconspicuous punctures; scutellum in profile weakly convex; hind wing with Cu1 strongly pigmented, not reaching margin (Figs 5, 10); propodeum (Fig. 9) 2.1–2.2 × as long as broad; anterior transverse carina complete, centrally weak and indented, thus not forming a smooth arc from side to side (area basalis posteriorly enclosed); pleural carina complete; posterior transverse carina complete, although laterally weak; lateral longitudinal carina complete (area spiracularis enclosed); lateromedian longitudinal carina reaching anterior transverse carina, then absent; area lateralis not enclosed internally, rectangular, about 2.3 × as long as broad, with posterolateral corner at right angle removed from lobe surrounding coxal insertion. Area superomedia not differentiated, basally and distally weak, laterally open.

Metasoma. Tergite I (Figs 1, 3, 6) straight (not bowed upwards) and slender, shorter than mesosoma (mesosoma 1.5 × as long as tergite I); tergite I at least 4 times as long as broad posteriorly; visible part of ovipositor 2.7–2.9 × as long as hind tibia (Fig. 6).

Color. (Figs 1–5).

A predominantly black species with head with yellow circumocular area and clypeus. Pronotum with two longitudinal yellow spots, along ventral and dorsal margins, and a submedial red spot towards posterior margin. Mesopleuron mostly red with two large black areas, one at epicnemium and other towards posterior margin, and a yellow spot close to tegula. Mesoscutum with yellow longitudinal spots distally. Scutellum mostly brownish anteriorly. Propodeum with brownish area basalis, area superomedia with yellow central spot, yellow areae petiolaris, posteroexterna and spiracularis, dull yellow area lateralis. Metasoma with extensively yellow marked tergites. Dull yellow ovipositor sheath. Fore and mid legs with extensively yellow-marked coxae and femora. Hind leg with extensively red marked coxa and femur. Fore wing hyaline.

Pubescense. Gena, vertex, mesosoma and metasoma with dense, whitish setae, setae longer on propleuron, pronotum, mesopleuron and metapleuron.


The name of this new Grotea species refers to its uncommon pubescence.


The 12 described species of the Grotea anguina species-group have backwards-directed genal projections whilst Grotea villosissima sp. n. has inwards-projecting genal projections (Fig. 8).

The three described species of the Grotea chiloe species-group have an upwards bowed first tergite, whilst Grotea villosissima sp. n. has a straight first tergite (Figs 1, 3, 6).

The two described species of the Grotea gayi species-group lack genal projections, have a strong epomia and have a fully closed area superomedia. Grotea villosissima sp. n. has genal projections (Fig. 8), lacks epomia and has an incomplete area superomedia (Fig. 9).

Grotea superba, the only described species of the Grotea superba species-group, is similar to Grotea villosissima sp. n. in having a straight first tergite (Figs 1, 3, 6). However, Grotea superba has sharp downwards-projecting genal projections, 43 flagellomeres, 9.0–12.5 mm fore wing length, hind wing with a strongly pigmented Cu1 reaching the margin of the wing, and ovipositor always longer than the fore wing. Grotea villosissima sp. n. has inwards-projecting genal projections, 35 flagellomeres, 7.4 mm fore wing length, hind wing with Cu1 not reaching margin of the wing (Fig. 5, 10) and ovipositor shorter than the fore wing (Fig. 6). Finally, there are also clear differences in the color pattern between these two species (e.g. black flagellum with a white ring between flagellomeres 24 to 42 in Grotea superba and a black flagellum (Figs 1, 3) in Grotea villosissima sp. n.). All the differences between Grotea villosissima sp. n. and the described species of Grotea make the inclusion of this new species into any of the species-groups proposed by Wahl (1993) uncertain.

Grotea villosissima sp. n. is the first species of Grotea recorded from Colombia, where at least 5 more species of this genus occur (Gonzalez and Giraldo 2009).


Edgard E. Palacio loaned the specimen that during the study belonged to his personal collection and now is housed by the Museo de Entomología “Francisco Luis Gallego”, Universidad Nacional, sede Medellín (UNCM). Consuelo García from the Herbarium of Universidad de Antioquia (HUA) made the drawings. Luciana Bueno dos Reis Fernandes edited the figures. Monique Dumontet, Kathy Block and Tim Podolsky reviewed the text. Ricardo Callejas, Fernando J. Muñoz-Quesada, Fernando Fernández, John Alveiro Quiroz, Diego Campos, Allan H. Smith, Víctor Hugo González and Juan Manuel Vargas advised me during the undergraduate project that generated this publication. DEGSA (Department of Entomology Graduate Student Association) and UMGSA (University of Manitoba Graduate Student Association) gave me financial support for this publication.

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