ZooKeys 387: 51–72, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.387.5808
Review of genus Pseudorthocladius Goetghebuer, 1943 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from China
Jing Ren 1,†, Xiaolong Lin 1,‡, Xinhua Wang 1,§
1 College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China

Corresponding author: Xinhua Wang (xhwang@nankai.edu.cn)

Academic editor: V. Blagoderov

received 17 June 2013 | accepted 9 February 2014 | Published 11 March 2014
(C) 2014 Jing Ren. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
For reference, use of the paginated PDF or printed version of this article is recommended.

Citation: Ren J, Lin X, Wang X (2014) Review of genus Pseudorthocladius Goetghebuer, 1943 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from China. ZooKeys 387: 51–72. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.387.5808

Abstract

The genus Pseudorthocladius Goetghebuer, 1943 from China, including 12 species, is reviewed. Five new species, P. (P.) binarius sp. n., P. (P.) cylindratus sp. n., P. (P.) digitus sp. n., P. (P.) ovatus sp. n. and P. (P.) paucus sp. n. are described and illustrated as adult males. P. (P.) cristagus Stur & Sæther, 2004, P. (P.) jintutridecima (Sasa, 1996), P. (P.) macrovirgatus Sæther & Sublette, 1983, P. (P.) morsei Sæther & Sublette, 1983, P. (P.) uniserratus Sæther & Sublette, 1983, P. (L.) wingoi Sæther & Sublette, 1983 are newly recorded in Oriental Region. A key to the males of Pseudorthocladius in China is presented.

Keywords

Chironomidae, Pseudorthocladius, new species, new record, key, Oriental, China

Introduction

The genus Pseudorthocladius Goetghebuer, 1943 contains two subgenera, Pseudorthocladius Goetghebuer and Lordella Sæther & Sublette (Sæther and Sublette 1983). The two subgenera are different in the shape of inferior vosella and microtrichia on the gonostylus. The presence of well developed pulvilli [except Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) oyabecrassus Sasa, Kawai & Ueno, 1988], an apical antennal seta, lack of pseudospurs, acrostrichals long and beginning near the antepronorum, curved Cu1 and an anal point with strong setae will separate the genus from other orthoclad genera.

The subgenus Lordella shows some similarities and possible synapomorphies with Doithrix, such as the basally widened gonostylus and hook–shaped inferior volsella. However, the long anal point and setae on the point indicating an intermediate position between typical Pseudorthocladius s. str. and Doithrix. So the status of subgenus Lordella needs to be further discussed.

The immatures of Pseudorthocladius are found in a wide variety of damp habitats including mosses, hygropetric regions, seeps and floodplains along stream banks (Strenzke 1950, Sæther and Sublette 1983, Cranston et al. 1989)

According to Ashe and O’Connor 2012, this genus presently comprises 52 valid species in the world with 34 species in the Palaearctic Region, 17 in the Nearctic Region, 5 in the Oriental Region, 2 in the Afrotropical Region. Eastern Palaearctic Asia appears to be a rich area of diversity in the genus: 24 species from Japan (Yamamoto 2004), 7 species from the Far East of Russia (Makarchenko and Makarchenko 2012), only 1 species from China (Wang 2000).

In this paper, the Pseudorthocladius based on material from China is reviewed. Five new species are described, six species are newly recorded in China, and key to the Chinese species of Pseudorthocladius is presented.

Materials and methods

The morphological nomenclature follows Sæther (1980). The materials examined are mounted on slides, following the procedure outlined by Sæther (1969). Measurements are given as ranges followed by the mean, when four or more specimens are measured, followed by the number of specimens measured (n) in parentheses. All specimens examined during this study are deposited in the College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, China.

Taxonomy
Diagnosis.

The male imago can be distinguished from the known species of the genus by the following combination of characters: low AR (0.29); squama with few setae; anal lobe reduced; inferior volsella has two sub–lobes; virga absent.

Description.

Adult male (n = 4). Total length 1.50–1.80, 1.63 mm. Wing length 0.81–0.97, 0.89 mm. Total length/wing length 1.83–1.86, 1.84. Wing length/length of profemur 2.26–2.43 (3).

Coloration. Head, abdomen, legs brown; thorax with yellow ground with brown postnotum and preepisternum.

Head. Antenna with 13 flagellomeres. Terminal flagellomere length 95–108, 105 μm. AR 0.28–0.33, 0.29. Temporal setae 8 (2), including 2 (2) inner verticals, 3–4 (3) outer verticals, and 2 (2) postorbitals. Clypeus with 6–10, 8 setae. Tentorium 86–96, 92 μm long, 14–19, 15 μm wide. Palpomere lengths (in μm): 19–24, 22; 26–29, 28; 55–62, 59; 84–91, 86; 98–120, 110. L: 5th/3rd 1.77–2.10, 1.86.

Wing (Figure 1). VR 1.25–1.29 (3). Anal lobe reduced. Brachiolum with 1 seta; R with 9–15, 13 setae; R1 with 1–4, 2 setae; R4+5 9–11, 10 setae; M with 0–1, 1 seta. Squama with 1–2, 1 seta. Costal extension 70 μm long. Cu1 slightly curved.

Figures 1–7.

Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) binarius sp. n., male. 1 wing 2 thorax 3 hypopygium (dorsal view) 4 hypopygium (ventral view) 5 anal point 6 inferior volsella 7 gonostylus.

Thorax (Figure 2). Antepronotum with 3–6, 5 lateral setae, dorsocentrals 13–15, 13, acrostichals 3–7, 5, prealars 4–6, 5. Scutellum with 6–8, 7 setae.

Legs. Pulvilli present. Spur of fore tibia 29 (3) μm long, spurs of mid tibia 22–24, 23 μm and 16–19, 18 μm long; hind tibia with a long spur 40–43, 42 μm long, a short spur 14–17, 16 μm long and comb composed of 10–12, 11 spines. Width at apex of fore tibia 24–28, 26 μm, of mid tibia 20–26, 24 μm, of hind tibia 31–36, 33 μm. Lengths (in μm) and proportions of legs as in Table 1.

Table 1.

Lengths (in μm) and proportions of legs of Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) binarius sp. n.

p1 p2 p3
fe 350–400 (3) 350–400, 375 360–400, 380
ti 340–420 (3) 350–430, 373 410–500, 435
ta1 250–300 (2) 125–150, 131 220–260, 240
ta2 170–210 (2) 72–96, 78 115–130, 124
ta3 120–140 (2) 60–72, 63 105–126, 115
ta4 72–84 (2) 36–48, 42 48–60, 53
ta5 51–67 (2) 48–50, 49 48–60, 54
LR 0.71 (2) 0.33–0.37, 0.35 0.52–0.56, 0.55
BV 2.22–2.30, 2.29 3.63–3.98, 3.71 2.98–3.13, 3.02
SV 2.73–2.80, 2.76 5.53–5.72, 5.62 3.32–3.50, 3.41
BR 2.50–2.60, 2.56 3.14–3.67, 3.45 3.75–4.38, 4.03

Hypopygium (Figures 3–7). Laterosternite IX with 4–6, 5 setae. Anal point (Figure 5) subtriangular with rounded apex, 24–26, 25 μm long, with 13–15, 14 strong setae. Phallapodeme 22–24, 24 μm long. Transverse sternapodeme 44–50, 48 μm long. Virga absent. Gonocoxite 110–122, 118 μm long. Inferior volsella (Figure 6) with two sub–lobes, the dorsal lobe with concave inner margin and 4–5, 5 marginal setae, the ventral lobe semi–rounded with 3–4, 3 marginal setae. Gonostylus (Figure 7) 60–67, 64 μm long, narrowed at base. Megaseta 9–10, 10 μm long. HR 1.82–1.92, 1.85. HV 2.43–2.48, 2.45.

Female, pupa and larva unknown.

Type materials.

Holotype: ♂ (BDN No.20200), China, Fujian, Quanzhou City, Dehua County, Daiyun Mountain, 25°40'N, 118°11'E, 13.ix.2002, Zheng Liu, sweep net. Paratypes: 3 ♂♂, as holotype.

Etymology.

The specific name is from Latin, binarius, meaning “of two”, referring to the inferior volsella has two sub–lobes.

Remarks.

The new species resembles Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) tusimoquereus Sasa & Suzuki (1999) in the structure of hypopygium, but can be separated from the latter on the following points: (1) Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) binarius sp. n. has small body size (1.63 mm) and low AR (0.29); (2) wing anal lobe reduced and squama with few setae; (3) inferior volsella with two sub–lobes; (4) virga absent.

Distribution.

The new species is collected in a subtropical mountain area in Fujian Province (Oriental China).

Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) cristagus Stur & Sæther, 2004

http://species-id.net/wiki/Pseudorthocladius_cristagus

Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) cristagus Stur & Sæther, 2004: 79; Ashe and O’Connor 2012: 531.
Diagnosis.

The male imago is separable from the other species of the genus Pseudorthocladius by having hairy wings, strong crista dorsalis and outer heel of the gonotylus.

Specimens examined.

China, Zhejiang: 1 ♂ (BDN No.K5B50), Taizhou City, Tiantai County, Huading Mountain, 29°15'45"N, 121°06'36"E, 13.iv.2011, Xiaolong Lin, sweep net.

Remarks.

Stur and Sæther (2004) erected a hairy–winged species Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) cristagus based on the specimen from Luxemburg. The species can be separated from close species Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) pilosipennis by having a gonostylus with a prominent crista dorsalis and an outer heel. The Chinese specimen mainly agrees with the original description of Stur and Sæther (2004). Some measured differences between the specimens from China and Luxemburg are shown in Table 2.

Table 2.

Differences between the specimens from China and Luxemburg.

Chinese specimen Luxemburg specimens
TL 2.48 mm 3.35–3.41 mm
WL 1.63 mm 1.89–2.02 mm
AR 1.05 1.08–1.14
LR1 0.62 0.75–0.76
Distribution.

Zhejiang Province (Oriental China); Luxemburg.

Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) curtistylus (Goetghebuer, 1921)

http://species-id.net/wiki/Pseudorthocladius_curtistylus

Hydrobaenus (Psectrocladius) curtistylus Goetghebuer, 1921: 101.
Spaniotoma (Orthocladius) curtistylus (Goetghebuer); Edwards 1929: 350.
Orthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) curtistylus (Goetghebuer); Goetghebuer 1932: 93, 1940–50: 73.
Spaniotoma curtistylus (Goetghebuer); Edwards 1932: 141.
Hydrobaenus (Pseudokiefferiella) curtistylus (Goetghebuer); Laurence 1951: 165.
Pseudorthocladius curtistylus (Goetghebuer); Thienemann and Kruger 1939: 25; Thienemann 1944: 569, 616; Coe 1950: 160; Strenzke 1950: 230; Brundin 1956: 137; Lehmann 1971: 459; Pinder 1978: 94.
Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) curtistylus (Goetghebuer): Sæther and Sublette 1983: 69, fig. 37; Wang 2000: 639; Ashe and O’Connor 2012: 532; Makarchenko and Makarchenko 2012: 76–77.
Diagnosis.

AR 0.45–0.70; dorsocentrals 15–18; R with 9–13 setae, R1 with 2–3 setae, R4+5 with 0–14 setae; squama with 3–4 setae; virga present. Type I with low and extending crista dorsalis, type II with crista dorsalis absent, type III with round and protruding crista dorsalis.

Specimens examined.

China, Zhejiang: 3 ♂♂, Wenzhou City, Taishun County, 27°33'N, 119°39'E, 1.viii.2005, Xin Qi, light trap; Tianmu Mountain, 30°19'N, 119°26'E, 23.vi.1998, Bingchun Ji, sweep net. Fujian: 10 ♂♂, Wuyi City, Wuyi Mountain, 27°45'N, 118°03'E, 30.iv.1993, Xinhua Wang, sweep net. Guangdong: 5 ♂♂, Fengkai County, 23°24'N, 111°30'E, 20.iv.1988, Xinhua Wang, sweep net. Yunnan: 2 ♂♂, Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, Cang Mountain, Qingbi River, 25°36'N, 100°15'E, 23.v.1996, Yuzhou Du, light trap. Hunan: 2 ♂♂, Zhuzhou City, Yanling County, 26°27'N, 113°42'E, 16.vii.2004, Chuncai Yan, sweep net.

Remarks.

The Chinese specimens agree with the description of Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) curtistylus type II and type III. According to Sæther and Sublette (1983), type II without crista dorsalis, while type III with rounded and protruding crista dorsalis.

Distribution.

The species is widely distributed in Holarctic region.

Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) cylindratus sp. n.

http://zoobank.org/399C86DD-F23B-4C2B-9E9F-E8711959DCA2

http://species-id.net/wiki/Pseudorthocladius_cylindratus

Figures 8–13
Diagnosis.

The male imago can be distinguished from the known species of the genus by the following combination of characters: cylindrical anal point; well–developed triangular inferior volsella; low AR (0.66) and high VR (1.37).

Description.

Adult male (n = 6). Total length 1.68–1.97, 1.87 mm. Wing length 1.04–1.19, 1.15 mm. Total length/wing length 1.53–1.75, 1.63. Wing length/length of profemur 2.64–2.88, 2.71.

Coloration. Head, abdomen, legs light brown; thorax with light brown ground with brownish black postnotum and preepisternum.

Head. Antenna with 13 flagellomeres. Terminal flagellomere length 235–264, 254 μm. AR 0.65–0.67, 0.66. Temporal setae 8–10, 9, including 3–6, 4 inner verticals, 4–5, 5 outer verticals, and 0–2, 1 postorbital. Clypeus with 8–11, 10 setae. Tentorium 96–113, 103 μm long, 18–21, 19 μm wide. Palpomere lengths (in μm): 22–26, 24; 24–28, 26; 60–72, 65; 84–91, 86; 113–137, 130. L: 5th/3rd 1.87–2.28, 2.00.

Wing (Figure 8). VR 1.33–1.43, 1.37. Anal lobe obtuse. Brachiolum with 1 seta; R with 5–13, 9 setae; R1 with 1–4, 2 setae; other veins bare. Squama with 1–3, 2 setae. Costal extension 80–84, 81 μm long. Cu1 slightly curved.

Figures 8–13.

Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) cylindratus sp. n., male. 8 wing 9 thorax 10 hypopygium (dorsal view) 11 hypopygium (ventral view) 12 anal point and inferior volsella 13 gonostylus.

Thorax (Figure 9). Antepronotum with 4–6, 5 lateral setae, dorsocentrals 9–13, 11, acrostichals 3–7, 5, prealars 3–5, 4. Scutellum with 4–5, 5 setae.

Legs. Pulvilli present. Spur of fore tibia 29–41, 34 μm long, spurs of mid tibia 19–29, 22 μm and 19 μm long; hind tibia with a long spur 36–41, 38 μm long, a short spur 24–31, 27 μm long and comb composed of 10–12, 11 spines. Width at apex of fore tibia 34–46, 37 μm, of mid tibia 29–31, 30 μm, of hind tibia 31–36, 33 μm. Lengths (in μm) and proportions of legs as in Table 3.

Table 3.

Lengths (in μm) and proportions of legs of Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) cylindratus sp. n.

p1 p2 p3
fe 400–450, 423 440–500, 466 430–490, 456
ti 340–380, 360 440–510, 477 520–570, 530
ta1 420–460, 437 200–220, 210 310–340, 323
ta2 264–280, 271 150–175, 163 156–180, 171
ta3 180–190, 183 142–178, 152 140–144, 142
ta4 98–101, 100 52–72, 68 67–74, 72
ta5 67–72, 69 48–55, 51 45–55, 52
LR 1.11–1.23, 1.19 0.46–0.59, 0.50 0.60–0.62, 0.61
BV 1.64–1.90, 1.86 2.86–3.80, 2.89 2.92–3.04, 2.95
SV 1.74–1.80, 1.76 4.03–4.45, 4.28 3.00–3.05, 3.02
BR 1.83–2.00, 1.92 2.86–2.92, 2.88 3.00–3.57, 3.26

Hypopygium (Figures 10–13). Laterosternite IX with 4–6, 5 setae. Anal point (Figure 12) cylindrical and 45–49, 48 μm long and with 10–13, 11 stout setae, 23–28, 25 μm long. Phallapodeme 31–36, 34 μm long. Transverse sternapodeme 65–67, 66 μm long and convex in the middle. Virga absent. Gonocoxite 117–137, 123 μm long, with 7 setae along inner margin. Inferior volsella (Figure 12) developed and triangular with 3–4, 3 strong marginal setae. Gonostylus (Figure 13) 65–72, 67 μm long, narrowed at base and distal end, widen in the middle. Megaseta 8–10, 9 μm long. HR 1.83–1.90, 1.85. HV 2.74–3.14, 2.78.

Female, pupa and larva unknown.

Type materials.

Holotype: ♂ (BDN No.26348), China: Hunan Province, Chenzhou City, Yizhang County, Mang Mountain, 25°24'N, 113°18'E, 22.vii.2004, Chuncai Yan, light trap. Paratypes (5 ♂♂): 4 ♂♂, as holotype; 1 ♂, Hainan Province, Changjiang County, Bawang Mountain, 19°15'36"N, 109°03'18"E, 10.v.1988, Xinhua Wang, sweep net.

Etymology.

The specific name is from Latin, cylindratus, meaning “in the form of a cylinder”, referring to the cylindrical anal point, which is unique in the genus.

Remarks.

The new species resembles Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) amplicaudus Sæther & Sublette, 1983 in the structure of hypopygium, but the new species can be separated from latter on the basis of main characters in Table 4.

Table 4.

Main differences between Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) cylindratus sp. n. and Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) amplicaudus Sæther & Sublette (1983).

Characters Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) cylindratus sp. n. Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) amplicaudus Sæther & Sublette
Anal point 45–49 μm long and cylindrical 41 μm long and widen at base
AR 0.65–0.67 1.26
VR 1.33–1.43 1.14
LR1 1.11–1.23 0.66
Distribution.

The new species is known from Hunan, Hainan Province in Oriental China.

Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) digitus sp. n.

http://zoobank.org/F4701FCB-7F55-481D-8F07-0C64CF7C65BC

http://species-id.net/wiki/Pseudorthocladius_digitus

Figures 14–18
Diagnosis.

The male imago can be distinguished from the known species of the genus by the following combination of characters: anal point rounded and reaching beyond the caudal margin of Tergite IX; inferior volsella finger–shaped; squama bare; anal lobe reduced.

Description.

Adult male (n = 1). Total length 2.43 mm. Wing length 1.55 mm. Total length/wing length 1.57. Wing length/length of profemur 2.54.

Coloration. Head, abdomen, legs brown; thorax with yellow ground with brown postnotum and preepisternum.

Head. Antenna with 13 flagellomeres. Terminal flagellomere length 300 μm. AR 0.74. Temporal setae 7, including 4 inner verticals, 3 outer verticals. Clypeus with 2 setae. Tentorium 110 μm long, 24 μm wide. Palpomere lengths (in μm): 29, 31, 60, 108, –.

Wing (Figure 14). Anal lobe reduced. Brachiolum with 1 seta; R with 7 setae; R1 with 1 seta; other veins bare. Squama bare. Costa extention 41 μm long. Cu1 slightly curved.

Figures 14–18.

Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) digitus sp. n., male. 14 wing 15 thorax 16 hypopygium (dorsal view) 17 hypopygium (ventral view) 18 anal point and inferior volsella.

Thorax (Figure 15). Antepronotum with 5 lateral setae, dorsocentrals 7, acrostichals 2, prealars 5. Scutellum with 9 setae.

Legs. Pulvilli present. Spur of fore tibia 50 μm long, spurs of mid tibia both 29 μm long; hind tibia with a long spur 60 μm long, a short spur 29 μm long and comb composed of 12 spines. Width at apex of fore tibia 43 μm, of mid tibia 36 μm, of hind tibia 45 μm. Lengths (in μm) and proportions of legs as in Table 5.

Table 5.

Lengths (in μm) and proportions of legs of Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) digitus sp. n.

p1 p2 p3
fe 610 660 700
ti 650 660 800
ta1 410 264 450
ta2 250 146 240
ta3 156 101 180
ta4 96 67 74
ta5 72 60 72
LR 0.63 0.25 0.56
BV 2.91 4.23 3.44
SV 3.07 5.00 3.33
BR 2.63 1.36 2.78

Hypopygium (Figures 16–18). Laterosternite IX with 3 setae. Anal point (Figure 18) rounded and reaching beyond caudal margin of Tergite IX, maximum width 22 μm, with 10 long marginal setae. Phallapodeme 48 μm long. Transverse sternapodeme 50 μm long with small oral projection. Virga absent. Gonocoxite 178 μm long with 6 strong setae along inner margin. Inferior volsella (Figure 18) finger–shaped, parallel–sided and rounded in the apex, bearing some weak setae along the margin and covered by microtrichia. Gonostylus 84 μm long, narrow at base, widen to the distal, with 3–4 setae along inner margin. Crista dorsalis visible, relatively low. Megaseta 10 μm long. HR 2.11. HV 2.89.

Female, pupa and larva unknown.

Type materials.

Holotype: ♂ (BDN No.05327), China: Fujian Province, Wuyi City, Wuyi Mountain, 27°45'N, 118°03'E, 26.iv.1993, Xinhua Wang, sweep net.

Etymology.

The specific name is from Latin, digitus, meaning “finger”, referring to the finger–shaped inferior volsella.

Remarks.

Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) digitus sp. n. is close to Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) yakuxeyeus (Sasa & Suzuki, 2000) in the antenna ratio (0.71–0.74) and finger–liked inferior volsella. But it can be separated from the latter by having rounded anal point reaching beyond the caudal margin of tergite IX, reduced wing anal lobe and bare squama.

Distribution.

The new species is known from Fujian Province in Oriental China.

Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) jintutridecima (Sasa, 1996)

http://species-id.net/wiki/Pseudorthocladius_jintutridecima

Eukiefferiella jintutridecimus Sasa, 1996: 64.
? Psectrocladius (Mesopsectrocladius) jintutridecima Sæther, Ashe & Murray, 2000: 171.
Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) jintutridecima Yamamoto 2004: 82; Ashe and O’Connor 2012: 534.
Diagnosis.

AR 0.25–0.96; wing anal lobe near rectangular; tergite IX without anal point, just with a strongly chitinized broad and rounded ridge, bearing 13 strong setae; inferior volsella low and round, posterior corner.

Specimens examined.

China, Sichuan: 1 ♂, Baoxing County, 30°24'N, 102°54'E, 19.vi.1996, Ruilei Zhang, light trap. Shaanxi: 1 ♂, Liuba County, 33°39'N, 106°57'E, 1.viii.1994, Bingchun Ji, light trap. Fujian: 2 ♂♂ Wuyi City, Wuyi Mountain, 27°45'N, 118°03'E, 26.iv.1993, Xinhua Wang, light trap. Yunnan: 11 ♂♂, Lijiang City, Lijiang County, Shigu town, Chongjiang river, 26°51'N, 100°14'E, 25.v.1996, Xinhua Wang, light trap; 6 ♂♂, Yulong Naxi Autonomous County, Tiger Leaping Gorge, 27°11'24"N, 100°07'12"E, 26.v.1996, Xinhua Wang, light trap. Guangdong: 1 ♂, Fengkai County, 23°24'N, 111°30'E, 20.iv.1988, Xinhua Wang, sweep net.

Remarks.

Sasa (1996) described this species based on the material from Japan, and put it in the genus Eukiefferiella. Sæther, Ashe and Murray (2000) transferred this species to the genus ? Psectrocladius. Yamamoto (2004) transferred it into the genus Pseudorthocladius. The Chinese specimens agree with the original description of Sasa (1996) with exception of Chinese specimens have lower AR (0.25–0.86).

Distribution.

Shaanxi, Fujian, Guangdong, Sichuan, Yunnan Province (Oriental China); Japan.

Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) macrovirgatus Sæther & Sublette, 1983

http://species-id.net/wiki/Pseudorthocladius_macrovirgatus

Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) macrovirgatus Sæther & Sublette, 1983: 88; Ashe and O’Connor 2012: 535.
Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) cranstoni Sæther & Sublette, 1983: 92; Schnell 1991: 5–10.
Diagnosis.

AR 1.04–1.18; R4+5 with 0–8 setae, squama with 6–15 setae; virga consisting of 2 broad lateral spines and 4 partially fused median spines, about 0.5×as long as gonostylus; gonostylus well–developed with rounded inferior volsella.

Specimens examined.

China, Zhejiang: 1 ♂, Taizhou City, Tiantai County, Baxian Lake, 29°09'N, 120°57'E, 13.iv.2011, Xiaolong Lin, sweep net.

Remarks.

The Chinese specimen mainly agrees with the original description by Sæther and Sublette (1983). Some measured differences between the Chinese specimen and the specimen described by Sæther and Sublette (1983) are shown in Table 6.

Table 6.

Differences between the specimens of China and description of Sæther and Sublette (1983).

Chinese specimen Description of Sæther & Sublette
TL 2.58 mm 2.46–2.47 mm
WL 1.50 mm 1.07–1.37 mm
VR 1.08 1.15–1.21
LR1 0.62 0.57–0.62
HV 2.68 3.57–3.61
Distribution.

Zhejiang Province (Oriental China); Europe (Norway; Great Britain; Ireland; France and Netherlands, and North America (U.S.A. and Canada).

Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) morsei Sæther & Sublette, 1983

http://species-id.net/wiki/Pseudorthocladius_morsei

Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) morsei Sæther & Sublette, 1983: 85; Ashe and O’Connor 2012: 535.
Diagnosis.

AR 0.78–0.97; virga consisting of tight cluster of about 10 spines and 2 broader lateral blades; inferior volsella with concave inner margin and 1 anterior and 1posterior corner; gonostylus with basal inner lobe, a sharp bend distad of the middle, and a narrow apical posterior.

Specimens examined.

China, Sichuan: 1 ♂, Kangding County, 29°54'N, 102°06'E, 8.vi.1996, Xinhua Wang, light trap.

Remarks.

Sæther and Sublette (1983) described Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) morsei based on the material from U.S.A. Its gonostylus has a basal inner lobe, sharply bend distad of the middle and narrow in apical posterior, which is unique among Pseudorthocladius. The Chinese specimen agrees with the description except some minor differences shown in Table 7.

Table 7.

Differences between the specimen of China and description of Sæther and Sublette (1983).

Chinese specimen Description of Sæther & Sublette
TL 2.53 mm 1.97 mm
WL 1.80 mm 1.19 mm
AR 0.97 0.78
VR 1.12 1.09
LR1 0.62 0.59
Virga consisting of tight cluster of about 8 spines and 2 thin lateral spines consisting of tight cluster of about 10 spines and 2 broader lateral blades
inferior vollsella rectangular without visible corner with obvious anterior and posterior corner
Distribution.

Sichuan Province (Oriental China); U.S.A.; Canada.

Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) ovatus sp. n.

http://zoobank.org/672C06D7-0A63-4040-BE31-188FCA2FEB77

http://species-id.net/wiki/Pseudorthocladius_ovatus

Figures 19–23
Diagnosis.

The male imago can be distinguished from the known species of the genus by the following combination of characters: anal point round baring 9 long and strong setae; inferior volsella oval with round margin and bearing 8 long and stout marginal setae; high AR(1.40).

Description.

Adult male (n = 5). Total length 2.90–3.20, 2.98 mm. Wing length 1.43–1.55, 1.47 mm. Total length/wing length 1.88–2.08, 2.00. Wing length/length of profemur 2.26–2.41, 2.35.

Coloration. Head, abdomen, legs brown; thorax with yellow ground with brown preepisternum and brownish black postnotum.

Head. Antenna with 13 flagellomeres. Terminal flagellomere length 410–460, 440 μm. AR 1.31–1.55, 1.40. Temporal setae 8–11, 10, including 3–7, 4 inner verticals, 5–6, 5 outer verticals, and 0–1, 1 postorbital. Clypeus with 8–12, 10 setae. Tentorium 120–132, 126 μm long, 31–33, 32 μm wide. Palpomere lengths (in μm): 31–36, 32; 43–45, 44; 105–108, 107; 155–158, 156; 201–207, 204. L: 5th/3rd 1.81–1.96, 1.91.

Wing (Figure 19). VR 1.19–1.26, 1.21. Anal lobe well–developed. Brachiolum with 1 seta; R with 10–12, 10 setae; R1 with 3–4, 3 setae; other veins bare. Squama 14–18, 16 setae. Costa extension 36–50, 46 μm long. Cu1 slightly curved.

Figures 19–23.

Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) ovatus sp. n., male. 19 wing 20 thorax 21 hypopygium (dorsal view) 22 hypopygium (ventral view) 23 inferior volsella.

Thorax (Figure 20). Antepronotum with 5–8, 6 lateral setae, dorsocentrals 20–25, 22, acrostichals 8–12, 10, prealars 7–8, 8. Scutellum with 12–17, 15 setae.

Legs. Pulvilli present. Spur of fore tibia 45–48, 46 μm long, spurs of mid tibia both 19–24, 22 μm long; hind tibia with a long spur 48–52, 50 μm long, a short spur 17–24, 22 μm long and comb composed of 12–14, 13 spines. Width at apex of fore tibia 38–43, 41 μm, of mid tibia 31–40, 36 μm, of hind tibia 43–48, 45 μm. Lengths (in μm) and proportions of legs as in Table 8.

Table 8.

Lengths (in μm) and proportions of legs of Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) ovatus sp. n.

p1 p2 p3
fe 600–650, 630 640–700, 670 650–700, 678
ti 720–800, 750 620–670, 648 760–850, 825
ta1 480–550 (4), 498 250–330, 280 400–500, 562
ta2 310–340 (4), 320 122–156, 148 240–260, 250
ta3 210–250 (4), 230 100–115, 110 161–210, 192
ta4 140–150 (4), 143 60–72, 66 96–110, 102
ta5 90–100 (4), 96 60–72, 66 79–90, 87
LR 0.67–0.69 (4), 0.68 0.41–0.46, 0.43 0.53–0.59, 0.56
BV 2.37–2.76 (4), 2.41 4.04–4.25, 4.17 2.70–3.22, 3.11
SV 2.52–2.69 (4), 2.59 4.24–4.37, 4.32 3.08–3.27, 3.19
BR 1.67–2.22 (4), 1.88 2.65–2.78, 2.70 2.27–2.69, 2.54

Hypopygium (Figures 21–23). Laterosternite IX with 6–7, 6 setae. Tergite IX with round anal point, bearing 9–10, 9 long and strong setae. Phallapodeme 36–40, 38 μm long. Transverse sternapodeme 72–84, 81 μm long. Virga absent. Gonocoxite 153–168, 162 μm long with oval inferior volsella (Figure 23) with rounded margin and bearing 8 long, stout marginal setae. Gonostylus 89–96, 98 μm long, with small crista dorsalis. Megaseta 5–7, 6 μm long. HR 1.70–1.89, 1.75. HV 3.18–3.23, 3.22.

Female, pupa and larva unknown.

Type materials.

Holotype: ♂ (BDN No.26746), China: Zhejiang Province, Wenzhou City, Taishun County, 27°33'N, 119°39'E, 1.viii.2005, Bingchun Ji, light trap. Paratypes (4 ♂♂): 3 ♂♂, Zhejiang Province, Tianmu Mountain, 30°19'N, 119°26'E, 8.ix.1998, Xinhua Wang, light trap; 1 ♂, Zhejiang Province, Lishui City, Qingyuan county, 27°39'N, 119°09'E, 13.vii.1994, Hong Wu, sweep net.

Etymology.

The specific name is from Latin, ovatus, meaning egg–shaped, referring to the oval inferior volsella.

Remarks.

The new species is close to Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) matusecundus Sasa & Kawai, 1987 in the structure of hypopygium, but can be separated from the latter on the basis of characters in Table 9.

Table 9.

Main differences between Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) ovatus sp. n. and Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) matusecundus Sasa and Kawai (1987).

Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) ovatus sp. n. Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) matusecundus Sasa & Kawai
AR 1.31–1.55 1.09
palp segment 5 4
inferior volsella oval with round margin small with round margin and a small posterior corner
gonostulus widest at about basal 1/3 widest at about distal 1/3.
Distribution.

The new species is known from Zhejiang Province in Oriental China.

Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) paucus sp. n.

http://zoobank.org/1BEF00CA-4362-49BE-85D9-E161C9E2BDD0

http://species-id.net/wiki/Pseudorthocladius_paucus

Figures 24–30
Diagnosis.

The male imago can be distinguished from the known species of the genus by the following combination of characters: with few setae on squama, R4+5 and acrostichals; gonostylus expanded at the apex; anal point triangular baring about 7 stout setae; inferior volsella inserted along the gonocoxite, parallel–sided.

Description.

Adult male (n = 3). Total length 1.49–1.60 mm. Wing length 0.77–0.92 mm. Total length/wing length 1.74–1.75. Wing length/length of profemur 2.56–2.58.

Coloration. Head, abdomen, legs light brown; thorax with light brown ground with brownish black postnotum and preepisternum.

Head. Antenna with 13 flagellomeres. Terminal flagellomere length 115–153 μm, conspicuous swollen apically and with strong sensory setae. AR 0.26–0.48. Temporal setae 5–9, including 2–4 inner verticals, 3–5 outer verticals. Clypeus with 7–10 setae. Tentorium 72–84 μm long, 14–19 μm wide. Palpomere lengths (in μm): 22–24; 24–26; 48–55; 60–65; 91–96. L: 5th/3rd 1.62–1.65.

Wing (Figure 24). VR 1.15–1.27. Anal lobe obtuse. Brachiolum with 1 seta; R with 4 setae; R4+5 with 0–1 seta; other veins bare. Squama with 0–1 seta. Costa extension 60 μm long. Cu1 slightly curved.

Thorax (Figure 25). Antepronotum with 4–6 lateral setae, dorsocentrals 6–9, acrostichals 0–1, prealars 4–6. Scutellum with 6–7 setae.

Figures 24–30.

Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) paucus sp. n., male. 24 wing 25 thorax 26 hypopygium (dorsal view) 27 hypopygium (ventral view) 28 anal point 29 inferior volsella 30 gonostylus.

Legs. Pulvilli present. Spur of fore tibia 29–34 μm long, spurs of mid tibia both 17–19 μm long; hind tibia with a long spur 31–33 μm long, a short spur 19–24 μm long and comb composed of 10–12, 11 spines. Width at apex of fore tibia 21–26 μm, of mid tibia 21–24 μm, of hind tibia 24–29 μm. Lengths (in μm) and proportions of legs as in Table 10.

Table 10.

Lengths (in μm) and proportions of legs of Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) paucus sp. n.

p1 p2 p3
fe 320–360 320–380 430–490
ti 340–360 350–380 370–410
ta1 210–250 140–150 200–230
ta2 130–160 72–77 108–120
ta3 108–130 55–62 91–96
ta4 64–67 36–40 41–46
ta5 52–55 41–43 41–48
LR 0.62–0.69 0.35–0.40 0.52–0.56
BV 2.27–2.36 3.88–4.17 3.10–3.54
SV 2.88–3.19 4.79–5.07 3.44–3.65
BR 2.20–2.50 3.20–3.40 3.57–4.00

Hypopygium (Figures 26–30). Laterosternite IX with 3–4 setae. Anal point (Figure 28) subtriangular with round apex, 9–10 μm long and 24–26 μm wide, with 4–5 lateral setae and 2–5 long setae around the base. Phallapodeme 22–24 μm long. Transverse sternapodeme 43–48 μm long. Virga absent. Gonocoxite 77–89 μm long with reduced parallel–sided inferior volsella (Figure 29). Gonostylus (Figure 30) 43–50 μm long, expanded at the apex, crista dorsalis reduced. Megaseta 5 μm long. HR 1.60–1.83. HV 2.90–3.25.

Female, pupa and larva unknown.

Type materials.

Holotype: ♂ (BDN No.25207), China, Hunan, Hengyang County, Heng Mountain, 27°15'N, 112°51'E, 19.vii.2004, Chuncai Yan, sweep net. Paratypes: 2 ♂♂, Hunan, Dong’an Couny, Shunhuang Mountai, 26°24'N, 111°18'E, 26.vii.2004, Chuncai Yan, sweep net.

Etymology.

The specific name is from Latin, paucus, meaning “few”, referring to the new species has few setae on squama, R4+5 and acrostichals.

Remarks.

The new species resembles Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) oyabecrassus Sasa, Kawai & Ueno, 1988 in the low AR (0.43, 0.50), gonostylus strongly expanded at about distal, but can be separated from Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) oyabecrassus on the basis of characters in table 11.

Distribution.

The new species is known from Hunan Province in Oriental China.

Table 11.

Main different characters between Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) paucus sp. n. and Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) oyabecrassus Sasa, Kawai & Ueno (1988).

Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) paucus sp. n. Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) oyabecrassus Sasa, Kawai & Ueno
Body length 1.49–1.60 mm 2.18 mm
Acrostichals 0–1 11
Anal point subtriangular with round apex conical, darkly pigment
Pulvilli present absent
Inferior volsella parallel–sided with a small projection
Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) uniserratus Sæther & Sublette, 1983

http://species-id.net/wiki/Pseudorthocladius_uniserratus

Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) uniserratus Sæther & Sublette, 1983: 71; Ashe and O’Connor 2012: 538.
Diagnosis.

AR 0.63–0.95; R with 3–13 setae, R1 with 0–6 setae, R4+5 with 0–13 setae; squama with 4–6 setae; inferior volsella trianguler at middle; virga consisting of very weak field of about 20 minute spinules; crista dorsalis low, HR 1.68–1.91, HV 2.53.

Specimens examined.

China: Hunan Province: 1 ♂, Chenzhou City, Yizhang County, Mang Mountain, 25°24'N, 113°18'E, 22.vii.2004, Chuncai Yan, sweep net.

Remarks.

Sæther and Sublette (1983) described the male imago, pupa and larva from the U.S.A. The Chinese specimens mainly agree with the adult description of Sæther and Sublette (1983). According to Sæther and Sublette (1983), there are not significant differences between Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) uniserratus and Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) curtistylus in the male hypopygium, but as we can see in the figures of Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) uniserratus, the gonostylus is expanded at about distal while Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) curtistylus is narrowed; the inferior volsella is triangler at middle part. The Chinese specimens agree with Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) uniserratus more.

Distribution.

Oriental China (Hunan Province); U.S.A.; Canada.

Pseudorthocladius (Lordella) wingoi Sæther & Sublette, 1983

http://species-id.net/wiki/Pseudorthocladius_wingoi

Pseudorthocladius (Lordella) wingoi Sæther & Sublette, 1983: 98; Ashe and O’Connor 2012: 530.
Pseudorthocladius (Lordella) comans Sæther & Sublette, 1983: 95; Cranston and Oliver 1988: 446.
Diagnosis.

Inferior volsella hook-liked, bended posteriad; gonostylus broadest at base and densely covered with microtrichia; virga with 5–8 stronger spines and 0–20 finer spinules; AR 0.8–1.1; dorsocentrals 10–16; R with 1–3 setae, exceptionally with 12 setae.

Specimens examined.

China, Guizhou: 8 ♂♂, Fanjing Mountain, 27°54'54"N, 108°41'42"E, 28.v.–3.vi.2002, Bingchun Ji, sweep net.

Remarks.

The Chinese specimens mainly agree with the description by Sæther and Sublette (1983). According to Cranston and Oliver (1988), Pseudorthocladius (Lordella) comans is a synonym of Pseudorthocladius (Lordella) wingoi. Based on the specimens from Canada the shape of the gonostylus is highly dependent on orientation and the spines might be correlated with size, so Pseudorthocladius (Lordella) comans and Pseudorthocladius (Lordella) wingoi should be the same species. The minor differences between Chinese specimens and North America specimens are as follows: (1) The anal point is a little shorter (12–17 μm); (2) with small AR (0.75–0.86); (3) dorsocentrals 7–8.

Distribution.

Oriental China (Guizhou Province); U.S.A.; Canada.

Key to males of the genus Pseudorthocladius from China
1 Inferior volsella hook–liked, curved posteriad; gonostylus broadest at base and densely covered with microtrichia Pseudorthocladius (Lordella) wingoi Sæther & Sublette
Inferior volsella rounded, or bluntly triangular, never hook-shaped; gonostylus widest some distance from base or at apex, with less conspicuous microtrichia Pseudorthocladius subg. Pseudorthocladius
2 Wing membrane densely covered with setae Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) cristagus Stur & Sæther
Wing membrane bare 3
3 Gonostylus with median sharp bend and tapering apex Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) morsei Sæther & Sublette
Gonostylus without median bend and tapering apex 4
4 Inferior volsella finger-shaped 5
Inferior volsella rounded or triangular, never finger–shaped 6
5 Squama with 8 setae, inferior volsella with about 6 stout setae, transverse sternapodeme without oral projection Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) jintutridecima (Sasa)
Squama bare, inferior volsella with few weak setae, transverse sternapodeme with oral projection Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) digitus sp. n.
6 Virga consisting of 2 broader lateral spines and 4 partially fused median spines Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) macrovirgatus Sæther & Sublette
Virga absent, if present then consisting of fine spinules 7
7 Anal point long and cylindrical Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) cylindratus sp. n.
Anal point round or subtriangular 8
8 Inferior volsella with two lobes Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) binarius sp. n.
Inferior volsella with only one lobe 9
9 AR 0.26–0.48, acrostichal 0–1, R with 4 setae, dorsocentrals 6–9 Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) paucus sp. n.
AR ≤ 0.64 or ≥ 1.31, acrostichals 8–14, R with 10–13 setae, dorsocentrals 12–25 10
10 AR 1.31–1.55, squama 14–18, dorsocentrals 20–25, anal point rounded Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) ovatus sp. n.
AR 0.45–0.64, squama 3–4, dorsocentrals 12–18, anal point triangular 11
11 AR 0.45–0.51, crista dorsalis rounded and protruding Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) curtistylus (Goetghebuer)
AR 0.63–0.81, crista dorsalis lower and less rounded Pseudorthocladius (Pseudorthocladius) uniserratus Sæther & Sublette
Acknowledgements

Financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, grant No. 30870329; 31272284; 31301908; J1210005), Fauna of China (FY120100) and Sino-French Haihe IWRM Project (grant No. 2013DFA71340) are acknowledged with thanks.

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