ZooKeys 253: 1–158, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.253.3414
Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae,  Galerucinae,  Alticini)
Maurizio Biondi 1, Paola D’Alessandro 1
1 Department of Health, Life and Environmental Sciences, University of L’Aquila, 67100 Coppito-L’Aquila, Italy

Corresponding author: Maurizio Biondi (maurizio.biondi@univaq.it)

Academic editor: A. Konstantinov

received 23 May 2012 | accepted 28 November 2012 | Published 20 December 2012


(C) 2012 Maurizio Biondi. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC-BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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Abstract

A revision of the Alticini genera from the Afrotropical region is reported. The paper includes the following for the flea beetle fauna occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: a key to their identification; habitus photos of all the genera; microscope and scanning electron micrographs of many diagnostic morphological characters; and an updated annotated catalogue with biogeographical notes that include new distributional data. The following new synonymies are proposed: Aphthona Chevrolat, 1836 = Ethiopia Scherer, 1972 syn. n.; Sanckia Duvivier, 1891 = Eugonotes Jacoby, 1897 syn. n.; Eurylegna Weise, 1910a = Eurylegniella Scherer, 1972 syn. n.; Kimongona Bechyné, 1959a = Mesocrepis Scherer, 1963 syn. n.; Diphaulacosoma Jacoby, 1892a = Neoderina Bechyné, 1952 syn. n.; Sesquiphaera Bechyné, 1958a = Paropsiderma Bechyné, 1958a syn. n.; Podagrica Chevrolat, 1836 = Podagricina Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940syn. n.; Amphimela Chapuis, 1875 = Sphaerophysa Baly, 1876a syn. n. The following new combinations are proposed: Blepharida insignis Brancsik, 1897 = Xanthophysca insignis (Brancsik, 1897) comb. n.; Blepharida multiguttata Duvivier, 1891 = Xanthophysca multiguttata (Duvivier, 1891) comb. n.; Hemipyxis balyana (Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940) = Pseudadorium balyanum (Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki, 1940) comb. n.; Hemipyxis brevicornis (Jacoby, 1892a) = Pseudadorium brevicornis (Jacoby, 1892a) comb. n.; Hemipyxis cyanea (Weise, 1910b) = Pseudadorium cyaneum (Weise, 1910b) comb. n.; Hemipyxis gynandromorpha Bechyné, 1958c = Pseudadorium gynandromorphum (Bechyné, 1958c) comb. n.; Hemipyxis latiuscula Bechyné, 1958c = Pseudadorium latiusculum (Bechyné, 1958c) comb. n.; Hemipyxis soror (Weise, 1910b) = Pseudadorium soror (Weise, 1910b) comb. n. The genera Buphonella Jacoby, 1903aand Halticopsis Fairmaire, 1883a are transferred to the tribe Galerucini; the genus Biodontocnema Biondi, 2000 stat. prom. is considered to be valid and reinstated at generic level. Finally, a zoogeographical analysis of the flea beetle fauna in the Afrotropical region is provided.

Keywords

Taxonomy, Afrotropical region, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini, flea beetle genera, identification key, catalogue, synonymies, new combinations, status promotus

Introduction

The Chrysomelidae is one of the largest phytophagous insect families and includes approximately 37, 000 to 40, 000 species (Jolivet and Verma 2002). The monophyletic tribe Alticini is closely related to the tribe Galerucini, both contained within in the subfamily Galerucinae (Bouchard et al. 2011). The relationship between these two tribes, often considered as different subfamilies, is an area of active research regarding Chrysomelidae phylogeny (Duckett et al. 2004; Gómez-Zurita et al. 2007; Ge et al. 2011, 2012). In our paper, Alticini and Galerucini are considered to be separate suprageneric taxa because of the metafemoral spring in Alticini, as well as specific structures of the spermatheca, median lobe of aedeagus and hind wing venation of these two groups (cf. Furth and Suzuki, 1994, 1998). In our opinion, some of the recently established groupings, based on DNA sequences, still need further in-depth analysis because they are phylogenetically and biogeographically incomplete (cf. Ge et al. 2011, 2012). The Alticini is a tribe composed of minute to medium sized beetles, whose enlarged hind femora and renowned jumping ability have earned them the common name of ‘flea beetles’. They are highly specialised phytophagous insects. Both the adult and larval stages feed on stems, leaves or roots, and rarely on flowers, in almost all the higher plant families (Konstantinov and Vandenberg 1996). The tribe Alticini includes 4, 000 to 8, 000 species, grouped in approximately 500 genera. This taxon has a world-wide distribution, but occurs mainly in the tropical regions of South America, Africa and Asia (Konstantinov and Vandenberg 1996; Santiago-Blay 2004; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a).

We recently published an annotated catalogue of the Afrotropical flea beetle genera, based largely on data from the literature (Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a). Subsequent to a deeper and more extensive examination of type material, and the study of new Afrotropical flea beetle material preserved in the institutions listed below, it was possible to compile an updated catalogue that contains new synonymies, new combinations, new genera and new distribution records. Even so, many details concerning the composition of the Afrotropical flea beetle fauna remain incomplete (Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a). The discrepancy in the number of morphogenera, and morphospecies in particular, preserved in public and private collections of African entomological material, and those that have been officially described, highlights this shortcoming. Current scientific literature includes over 300 research papers dedicated as a whole, or in part, to Sub-Saharan and Madagascan Alticini. These publications include contributions on taxonomy, faunistics and ecology (Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a). The chronological trend in the number of publications over time is summarized in Fig. 1, the first appearing as early as 1830. However, the first significant contribution on the Afrotropical (including Madagascar) flea beetle fauna was made by the English coleopterist, Joseph Sugar Baly (1816−1890). Subsequently, in the twenty years following Baly’s death (1890−1910), there were three respected entomologists working on this fauna: Léon Fairmaire (1820−1906), a French specialist on Coleoptera and Hemiptera; Julius Weise (1844−1925), a German coleopterist that, during his life, published a large number of scientific papers, not only on Chrysomelidae but also on Coccinellidae, Curculionoidea and others; and Martin Jacoby (1842−1907), a German musician and coleopterist, who published 150 articles on leaf beetles after moving to London.

A decrease in the number of publications on the Afrotropical flea beetle fauna followed, until a revival in 1930−1940, initiated by the English coleopterist Gilbert Ernest Bryant (1878−1965) and the French chrysomelid specialist Victor Laboissière (1875−1942). Jan Bechyné (1920−1973) and Gerhard Scherer (1929-2012), specialists on the Alticinae, then published many monographs (see References) on the flea beetle fauna of Sub-Saharan Africa and, to a lesser extent, Madagascar. They described many new genera and species between 1950 and 1970. More recently, contributions on the Afrotropical flea beetle fauna were published by Gerhard Scherer, Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro, Manfred Döberl, Serge Doguet, and Elizabeth Grobbelaar (see References).

Figure 1.

Chronology of publications on the Afrotropical flea beetle fauna. ASC: Afrotropical Scientific Contributions (update from Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a).

Materials and methods

The catalogue is arranged alphabetically by generic names. Names in bold refer to flea beetle genera primarily occurring in the Afrotropical region; those in square brackets refer to: synonymies; genera incorrectly reported in the Afrotropical region; in some cases genera transferred to Galerucini; or genus-group names that are unavailable. The rules of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1999) are adhered to the Fourth Edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

In addition to the author and date of publication, each genus-group name is accompanied by: a) synonymies, exclusively those for the Afrotropical region; b) bibliographic references, including the original description, other important taxonomic contributions, and distribution data; c) type species, including the method of species assignment; d) geographic distribution in the Afrotropical region (cf. Graf and Cummings 2007) and other zoogeographical regions (cf. Sclater 1858); e) ecological remarks, mainly host-plants and/or habitat preferences in the Afrotropical region; f) notes, including the number of Afrotropical species and significant taxonomic information.

Specimens were examined and dissected using WILD MZ12.5 and LEICA M205C binocular microscopes. Photomicrographs were taken using a Leica DFC500 camera and the Auto-Montage Pro 2006 software (license number: 15224*syn2459*153a2112_maurizio_266836). Scanning electron micrographs were taken using a PHILIPS SEM XL30 CP and HITACHI TM-1000. Morphometric measures were taken using the image analysis software Image-Pro Insight 8.0 (license number: 03080000-5385).

The type material examined during this study is preserved in the following institutions: BAQ: collection of M. Biondi, University of L’Aquila, Italy; BMNH: The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom; ISNB: Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium; MNHN: Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France; MCSN: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale ‘Giacomo Doria’, Genova, Italy; MRAC: Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium; MUAF: Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Brno, Czech Republic; MZHF: Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, Finland; MZLU: Lund University, Sweden; NHMB: Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel, Switzerland; NHRS: Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, Sweden; NMPC: Entomologické Oddělení Národního Muzea, Praha-Kunratice, Czech Republic; SANC: South African National Collection, ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute, Pretoria, South Africa; SMNS: Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart, Germany; TMSA: Ditsong: National Museum of Natural History (formerly Transvaal Museum), Pretoria, South Africa; ZMHB: Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany; ZSM: Zoologische Staatssammlung, Munich, Germany.

Abbreviations.Morphology - LAN: length of antennae; LB: total length of body; LE: length of elytra; LHT: length of hind tibia; LHTS: length of hind tibial spur; LP: length of pronotum; WE: width of elytra; WP: width of pronotum. Regions - AFR: Afrotropical; AUR: Australian; CAF: Central Afrotropical; EAF: Eastern Afrotropical; ORR: Oriental; MAD: Madagascar; MAS: Mascarene Islands; NAR: Nearctic; NTR: Neotropical; PAR: Palaearctic; SAF: Southern Afrotropical; SEY: Seychelles Islands; SSA: Sub-Saharan Africa; WAF: Western Afrotropical. (?) record to be confirmed; (!) new record; (i) introduced.

Key to the identification of afrotropical flea beetle genera

A new key for the identification of the Afrotropical flea beetle genera is proposed. In comparison with the key previously proposed by Scherer (1961), our key includes all the known flea beetle genera occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar, Seychelles and the Mascarene Islands. The first key below identifies eight different generic groups, labelled with an uppercase letter (group A, group B etc.). Our generic groups are, on the whole, similar to the seven numbered groups (group 1, group 2 etc.) proposed by Scherer (1961). For widespread genera, we have primarily concentrated on the morphological and chromatic variability displayed by those species of the genus in question, known to occur in the Afrotropical region.

Key to groups
1 Antennae with 10 antennomeres Group A
Antennae with 11 antennomeres. 2
2 Apical tarsomere of metatarsus distinctly swollen (Figs 200, 237) Group B
Apical tarsomere of metatarsus not swollen (Figs 144, 149, 166, 169) 3
3 Dorsal margin of middle and hind tibiae with distinct ciliate dentate emargination, acute or subrounded apically (Figs 144, 148, 154, 163, 258) Group C
Dorsal margin of middle and hind tibiae without distinct ciliate dentate emargination 4
4 Pronotum with a distinct but poorly defined median depression near each lateral margin with surface more strongly punctate (Fig. 135) Group D
Pronotum uniformly or sparsely punctate, but never with more strongly punctate median depression near lateral margin 5
5 Pronotum with ante-basal transverse sulcus (Figs 120, 121, 126, 206, 209, 212, 225, 246) Group E
Pronotum without ante-basal transverse sulcus 6
6 Pronotal base with two short sublateral longitudinal striae (Figs 85–86) [sometimes also with two distinct longitudinal grooves on anterior pronotal margin (Figs 217218)] Group F
Pronotal base without short sublateral longitudinal striae 7
7 Pronotum with distinct sublateral mesal callosity bounded by more or less deeply impressed diagonal sulcus laterally (Figs 133, 153) Group G
Pronotum without sublateral callosity Group H
Group A
1 Elytral punctation arranged in regular rows (Fig. 91). Metatarsus preapically inserted on tibia (Fig. 248). Procoxal cavities closed posteriorly Psylliodes Berthold, 1827 (Fig. 91)
Elytral punctation confused (Fig. 32). Metatarsus apically inserted on tibia. Procoxal cavities open posteriorly Decaria Weise, 1895 (Fig. 32)
Group B
1 Elytral punctation arranged in regular rows (Fig. 109). Procoxal cavities closed posteriorly Zomba Bryant, 1922 (Fig. 109)
Elytral punctation confused. Procoxal cavities open posteriorly 2
2 Elytral epipleura vertically orientated in distal 2/3s, not visible in lateral view (Fig. 238) 3
Elytral epipleura horizontally or obliquely downward orientated in distal 2/3s, visible in lateral view (Figs 184, 229, 233) 4
3 Pronotum with anterior angles distinctly produced towards anterior and distinctly thickened; posterior angles rounded (Fig. 236). Hind tibiae often curved towards inside (Fig. 237). First metatarsomere wide and subtriangular (Fig. 237). Apical tarsomere of metatarsus moderately swollen (Fig. 237) Physomandroya Bechyné, 1959 (Fig. 83)
Pronotum with anterior angles not thickened, dentiform apically, indistinctly produced forwards anterior; posterior angles dentiform apically (Fig. 199). Hind tibiae straight (Fig. 200). First metatarsomere narrow, subcylindrical (Fig. 200). Apical tarsomere of metatarsus distinctly swollen (Fig. 200) Hyphasis Harold, 1877 (Fig. 54)
4 Vertex of head distinctly and densely punctate (Fig. 239). Frontal tubercles wide, subtriangular, well defined, and closely associated lengthwise (Fig. 239) Physonychis Clark, 1860 (Fig. 84)
Vertex of head smooth or indistinctly and sparsely punctate (Figs 234–235). Frontal tubercles small, generally poorly defined (Figs 234–235) 5
5 Frons distinctly sharp-edged distally in lateral view or clearly produced anteriorly, forming a smooth wide surface, often with evident laminate extensions (Figs 234–235) Physoma Clark, 1863 (Fig. 82)
Frons arcuate distally in lateral view, never with eversions or laminate extensions 6
6 Pronotum distinctly rounded laterally, generally at least 2x wider than long (WP/LP > 2.00); pronotal base depressed, sometimes with distinct transverse ante-basal sulcus, more distinctly impressed near posterior angles of pronotum (Fig. 78) Philopona Weise, 1903 (Fig. 78)
Pronotum almost straight or very slightly rounded laterally, less than 2x wider than long (WP/LP ≤ 2.00); pronotal base generally not depressed, never with distinct transverse ante-basal sulcus (Figs 183, 232) 7
7 Elytral epipleura obliquely downward orientated in apical 2/3s, easily visible in lateral view (Fig. 184). Elytra subparallel or widening slightly laterally towards posterior, distinctly bordered and finely channeled laterally (Fig. 44). Pronotum generally more transverse (WP/LP > 1.90), indistinctly bordered laterally, with not uniformly distributed punctation (Fig. 183). Dorsal integument always with strongly impressed punctation (Figs 44, 183, 184). Elytra pale brown with longitudinal black stripes (Fig. 44). Body smaller (generally LB ≤ 7.50 mm) Eutornus Clark, 1860 (Fig. 44)
Elytral epipleura horinzontally orientated in apical 2/3s, little visible in lateral view (Fig. 233). Elytra widening distinctly laterally towards posterior, narrowly bordered laterally (Fig. 81). Pronotum generally less transverse (WP/LP ≤ 1.90), finely bordered laterally, with uniformly distributed punctation (Fig. 232). Dorsal integument generally from finely to moderately punctate (Figs 81, 233). Elytra unicolor, never with longitudinal black stripes (Fig. 81). Body larger (generally LB > 7.50 mm) Physodactyla Chapuis, 1875 (Fig. 81)
Group C
1 First metatarsomere distinctly shorter than second (Fig. 267). Elytral punctation arranged in 11 rows (+1 long sutural row), partially irregular only in sutural area (Fig. 102). Prothorax subcylindrical. Eyes roundish, distinctly protuberant (Fig. 266) Terpnochlorus Fairmaire, 1904 (Fig. 102)
First metatarsomere as long as second or longer (Figs 117, 121, 124, 163). Elytral punctation confused or arranged in 9 single or double rows (+1 short sutural row). Prothorax distinctly depressed dorsally. Eyes generally subelliptical, not distinctly protuberant (Figs 146, 150, 158) 2
2 First metatarsomere narrow, subcylindrical or subrectangular (Figs 144, 154, 258). Claws simple or subappendiculate (Figs 144, 154). Body smaller (generally LB < 4.00 mm) 3
First metatarsomere wide, subtriangular (Figs 148, 149). Claws generally appendiculate (Fig. 162). Body larger (generally LB ≥ 4.00 mm) 7
3 Hind tibiae with dorsal margin distinctly bidentate (Figs. 144, 258) 4
Hind tibiae with dorsal margin unidentate (Fig. 154) [in Chaetocnema schlaeflii (Stierlin, 1866) and Chaetocnema major (Jacquelin du Val, 1852), the dorsal tibial margin may appear bidentate, but Seychellaltica is easily distinguishable from these two species mainly by having the frontal sulci very short, not visible around eyes (Fig. 252), and the first pro- and mesotarsomeres distinctly asymmetrical (Fig. 254); while Biodontocnema is easily distinguishable by having a wider socket on the hind tibia with inner margin dentiform (Figs 142–144); weakly developed metasternum (Fig. 145); antennomeres 6–10 distinctly shorter, as long as wide (Figs 22); and first metatarsomere that is laterally compressed (Fig. 142); in addition, Biodontocnema has shorter antennae that do not reach half of the elytral length and distinctly smaller size (LB > 3.00 mm; LB < 2.50 mm) (Fig. 22)] 5
4 Frontal sulci very short, not visible around eyes (Fig. 257). Antennae longer, reaching half of elytral length (Fig. 97). Antennomeres 6–10 distinctly longer than wide (Fig. 97). Body elongate, with pronotum distinctly transverse (generally WP/LP > 1.57); humeral calli distinct (Fig. 97). Ratio of metasternal width/metasternal length ≤ 2.50 (Fig. 260). First metatarsomere at least twice as long as second and third together, not laterally compressed (Fig. 258). First pro- and mesotarsomeres distinctly asymmetrical (Fig. 259). Hind tibial socket narrow without dentiform inner margin (Fig. 258) Seychellaltica Biondi, 2002 (Fig. 97)
Frontal sulci elongate, distinctly visible around eyes (Fig. 141). Antennae shorter, only reaching base of elytra (Fig. 22). Antennomeres 6–10 about as long as wide. Body oval, with pronotum slightly transverse (generally WP/LP ≤ 1.57); humeral calli absent (Fig. 22). Ratio of metasternal width/metasternal length > 2.50 (Fig. 145). First metatarsomere shorter than second and third together, and laterally compressed (Figs 142–144). First pro- and mesotarsomeres symmetrical. Hind tibial socket wide with distinctly dentiform inner margin (Figs 142–143) Biodontocnema Biondi, 2000 stat. prom. (Fig. 22)
5 Interocular space with at least a distinct transverse carina (Fig. 150). Distal margin of frons distinctly incised medially (Fig. 150). Interantennal space at least twice as wide as length of first antennomere (Fig. 150) Carcharodis Weise, 1910 (Fig. 25)
Interocular space without transverse carinae. Distal margin of frons medially not incised. Interantennal space less than twice as wide as of first antennomere length (Fig. 159) 6
6 Prosternum distinctly convex anteriorly (Fig. 160), most of mouthparts fitting into this convexity when head is in resting position, except labrum and mandibles, which act as a ‘cover’ (Fig. 159); maxillae and labium sunken (Fig. 159). Pronotal punctation variable, displaying punctures of different sizes (Fig. 158) Collartaltica Bechyné, 1959 (Fig. 31)
Prosternum moderately convex anteriorly, mouthparts do not fit into this convexity when head is in resting position; maxillae and labium exposed and not sunken. Pronotal punctation uniform Chaetocnema Stephens, 1831 (Fig. 28)
7 Procoxal cavities closed posteriorly. Antennomere 4 about as long as antennomere 3, or shorter (Figs 147, 273, 274). Elytral punctation generally arranged in regular rows, more rarely partially in irregular double rows or confused (Figs 23, 107). Antennae shorter, not reaching half elytral length (Figs 23, 107) 8
Procoxal cavities open posteriorly. Antennomere 4 at least double length of antennomere 3 (Figs 161, 240, 241). Elytral punctation always confused, densely and uniformly impressed (Figs 33, 87). Antennae longer, reaching half elytral length (Figs 33, 87) 9
8 Pronotum with distinct apical, median or basal impressions, always with two sublateral series of large and deeply impressed punctures from anterior margin to middle of pronotum (subgenus Blepharidina Bechyné) (Fig. 146); pronotal punctation not uniformly distributed (Fig. 146). Hind tibiae broadly channeled dorsally (Fig. 148). Frontal sulci deeply impressed (subgenus Blepharidina Bechyné) (Fig. 147). Eyes generally very elongate longitudinally (Fig. 147). Elytral punctation from moderately to distinctly impressed, generally arranged in regular rows (Figs 23, 148) (in Afrotropical region only Blepharida geminata Bryant, 1944 shows elytral punctation arranged in regular partially double rows). Posterior margin of hind femora indistinctly or moderately emarginated Blepharida Chevrolat, 1836 (Fig. 23)
Pronotum without distinct impressions; pronotal punctation uniformly distributed (Figs 107, 273). Hind tibiae indistinctly channeled dorsally (Fig. 275). Frontal sulci moderately impressed (Fig. 274). Eyes less elongate longitudinally, sometimes roundish (Fig. 274). Elytral punctation moderately impressed, arranged in double partially regular rows (Figs 107, 275) or mostly confused. Posterior margin of hind femora often distinctly emarginated (Fig. 275) Xanthophysca Fairmaire, 1901 (Fig. 107)
9 Antennae filiform with antennomeres 4–10 filiform or slightly enlarged (Fig. 161) Diamphidia Gerstaecker, 1855 (Fig. 33)
Antennae with antennomeres 4–10 pectinate or flabellate in male and serrate in female (Figs 240–241) Polyclada Chevrolat, 1836 (Fig. 87)
Group D
1 Pronotum with two very short but distinct longitudinal sublateral impressions basally; transverse sulcus absent ante-basally (Fig. 103). Elytral punctation confused, finely but distinctly and densely impressed, mainly in basal half (Fig. 103). Body larger (LB > 3.90 mm), subsphaerical (Fig. 103) Toxaria Weise, 1903 (Fig. 103)
Pronotum with transverse sulcus ante-basally, sometimes very slightly impressed. Elytral punctation generally very slightly or indistinctly impressed (Fig. 101), sometimes subseriate (Fig. 18). Body smaller (LB ≤ 3.90 mm), oval or elliptical (Fig. 18, 101) 2
2 Pronotum comparatively smaller (LE/LP > 2.80), slightly rounded laterally; transverse sulcus always distinctly impressed ante-basally, bounded by two distinct longitudinal striae laterally (Fig. 101) Stuckenbergiana Scherer, 1963 (Fig. 101)
Pronotum comparatively larger (LE/LP ≤ 2.80), more distinctly rounded laterally; transverse sulcus very slightly impressed ante-basally, not bounded laterally and sometimes only visible medially (Fig. 18) Bechuana Scherer, 1970 (Fig. 18)
Group E
1 Dorsal integument distinctly pubescent (Fig. 40, 41) 2
Dorsal integument apparently glabrous. Elytra sometimes very sparsely pubescent in Lampedona and Lypnea 3
2 Pronotum as wide as elytra basally, subparallel or convergent towards anterior laterally; sulcus more or less deeply impressed ante-basally, bounded by two short longitudinal striae laterally (Fig. 40). Frontal tubercles very small, elongate and narrow (Fig. 180). Antennomere 4 distinctly shorter than antennomeres 2–3 together. Body less elongate (LB/WE < 2.00) (Fig. 41). Elytra not modified apically in male Epitrix Foudras, 1860 (Fig. 40)
Pronotum narrower than elytra basally, divergent towards anterior laterally; transverse sulcus finely impressed ante-basally, not bounded by longitudinal striae laterally (Fig. 41). Frontal tubercles larger, subrectangular or subtriangular, often elongate towards upper ocular margin (Fig. 181). Antennomere 4 as long as antennomeres 2–3 together. Body more elongate (LB/WE ≥ 2.00) (Fig. 41). Elytra generally with modified structures apically in male (Fig. 41) Eriotica Harold, 1877 (Fig. 41)
3 Hind tibia with two apical spurs (Fig. 216) Myrcina Chapuis, 1875 (Fig. 69)
Hind tibia with only one apical spur 4
4 Pronotum with transverse sulcus bounded laterally by two short longitudinal striae ante-basally or touching basal margin (Figs 126, 170, 209, 225, 246) 5
Pronotum with transverse sulcus not bounded by longitudinal striae laterally and ante-basally; sulcus interrupted laterally, or touching lateral margin or posterior angles (Figs 120, 121, 212) 20
5 Antennomere 3 distinctly longer than antennomere 1 (Figs 12, 73). Frons distinctly elongate (Figs 127, 222, 223). Genae about 1.5x length of vertical ocular diameter (Figs 127, 223). Antennae comparatively elongate (LB/LAN < 1.20) (Figs 12, 73) 6
Antennomere 3 shorter than antennomere 1 (Fig. 210). Frons short. Genae distinctly shorter than vertical ocular diameter. Antennae comparatively short (LB/LAN ≥ 1.20) 7
6 Elytral punctation arranged in 9 regular rows, partially confused in sutural area; interstriae distinctly convex on disc, and subcarinate laterally (Figs 73, 222). Anterior angles of pronotum not bevelled, distinctly dentiform apically (Fig. 221). Antennae extraordinarily elongate in male (LB/LAN < 0.90), with antennomeres 3–6 distinctly enlarged; antennae in female not enlarged and little shorter than the body (Fig. 73). Body elongate and slightly convex (Figs 73, 222) Ntaolaltica Biondi & D’Alessandro, in press (Fig. 73)
Elytral punctation entirely confused (Fig. 12). Anterior angles of pronotum bevelled, moderately dentiform apically (Fig. 126). Antennae filiform in both sexes (LB/LAN ≥ 0.90), without enlarged antennomeres or only moderately enlarged only in male (Fig. 12). Body thickset and distinctly convex (Fig. 12) Antanemora Bechyné, 1964 (Fig. 12)
7 Pronotum with ante-basal transverse sulcus not bounded by longitudinal striae laterally, and touching basal margin (Figs 170, 246) 8
Pronotum with ante-basal transverse sulcus bounded by two short longitudinal striae laterally (Fig. 225) 13
8 Elytral punctation arranged in regular, or sometimes partially irregular, single or double rows 9
Elytral punctation entirely confused 10
9 Antennae in female robust, generally with antennomere 2 as long as antennomere 3; antennomeres 9–11 in male distinctly enlarged, about as wide as long (Fig. 90). Elytral punctation indistinctly impressed, sometimes hardly visible amongst interstrial punctuation (Fig. 247). Pronotum distinctly rounded and widely bordered laterally (Fig. 246) Pseudophygasia Biondi & D’Alessandro, in press (Fig. 90)
Antennae filiform with antennomere 2 distinctly shorter than antennomere 3; antennomeres 9–11 elongate (Fig. 210). Elytral punctation distinctly impressed (Fig. 64). Pronotum slightly rounded and finely bordered laterally (Fig. 209) Lypnea Baly, 1876a (Fig. 64)
10 Pronotum distinctly arcuate laterally, distinctly narrower basally; posterior angles distinctly laterally produced at apex (Fig. 170). Frontal tubercles rounded, distinctly raised (Figs 170–171). Antennae more robust, often with distinctly enlarged distal antennomeres (Fig. 171) Diphaulacosoma Jacoby, 1892a (Fig. 36)
Pronotum moderately rounded, slightly narrower basally; posterior angles very indistinctly produced laterally, finely dentiform at apex. Frontal tubercles generally subtriangular, flat or slightly raised. Antennae filiform, never with distinctly enlarged antennomeres 11
11 Frontal tubercles extended distally between antennae, forming two parallel, acute apically longitudinal carinae which surround clypeus distally (Fig. 207). Body smaller (generally LB < 2.60 mm). Pronotum with distinctly impressed transverse sulcus ante-basally (Fig. 61) Lepialtica Scherer, 1962 (Fig. 61)
Frontal tubercles not extended distally between antennae; frontal carina simple. Body larger (generally LB ≥ 2.60 mm). Pronotum with indistinctly impressed transverse sulcus ante-basally 12
12 Elytra widely bordered laterally (Fig. 77). Frontal carina narrow and acute apically (Fig. 228). Interantennal space narrow, about as wide as 1/3 of length of first antennomere (Fig. 228) Perichilona Weise, 1919 (Fig. 77)
Elytra narrowly bordered laterally (Fig. 42). Frontal carina wider and rounded apically (Fig. 182). Interantennal space wider, about as wide as length of first antennomere (Fig. 182) Eurylegna Weise, 1910 (Fig. 42)
[= Eurylegniella Scherer, 1972 syn. n. (Fig. 43)]
13 Elytral punctation arranged in simple or double rows, sometimes partially irregular 14
Elytral punctation entirely confused 17
14 Elytral punctation arranged in double partially irregular rows (Fig. 118). Elytra generally with a distinct longitudinal carina laterally (Fig. 118) Afrocrepis Bechyné, 1954 (Fig. 4)
Elytral punctation arranged in single regular rows. Elytra never with longitudinal carinae laterally 15
15 Anterior tibiae distinctly enlarged distally, with a deep longitudinal depression in distal half (Fig. 188). Interocular space distinctly punctate (Fig. 187) Guinerestia Scherer, 1959 (Fig. 47)
Anterior tibiae normally shaped. Interocular space impunctate or very sparsely punctate (Figs 119, 205) 16
16 Procoxal cavities open posteriorly. Pronotal sulcus curved towards base medially, bounded by two short longitudinal striae laterally (Figs 58, 59). Elytra with distinct basal calli (Figs 58, 59). Frontal carina narrow, acute apically (Fig. 205). Frontal tubercles next to each other (Fig. 205) Kimongona Bechyné, 1959 (Fig. 58)
[= Mesocrepis Scherer, 1963 syn. n. (Fig. 59)]
Procoxal cavities closed posteriorly. Pronotal sulcus straight, bounded by two longer longitudinal striae laterally (Fig. 5). Elytra without basal calli (Fig. 5). Frontal carina wide, subrounded apically (Fig. 119). Frontal tubercles distant from each other (Fig. 119) Afrorestia Bechyné, 1959 (Fig. 5)
17 Antennae comparatively short (LB/LAN ≥ 2.20), with antennomeres 6–11 as long as wide (Fig. 10) Anaxerta Fairmaire, 1902 (Fig. 10)
Antennae comparatively long (LB/LAN < 2.20), with antennomeres 6–11 distinctly longer than wide 18
18 Procoxal cavities closed posteriorly. Pronotum moderately rounded laterally; posterior angles not dentiform apically (Fig. 70). Antennae often with alternate groups of black and yellowish antennomeres (Fig. 70) Neodera Duvivier, 1891 (Fig. 70)
Procoxal cavities open posteriorly. Pronotum distinctly rounded laterally; posterior angles distinctly dentiform apically. Antennae never with alternate groups of black and yellowish antennomeres 19
19 Antennomere 2 about as long as antennomere 3 or slightly shorter (Fig. 225). Frontal tubercles indistinctly defined posteriorly, and slightly raised (Fig. 226) . Pronotum narrowly bordered laterally Fig. 225) Orthocrepis Weise, 1888 (Fig. 75)
Antennomere 2 distinctly shorter than antennomere 3 (Fig. 230). Frontal tubercles distinctly defined posteriorly, and distinctly raised (Fig. 230). Pronotum widely bordered laterally (Fig. 79) Phygasia Chevrolat, 1836 (Fig. 79)
20 Elytral punctation entirely confused [see also Guilielmia at couplet 24] 21
Elytral punctation arranged in simple or double rows, more or less irregular only in Guilielmia 23
21 Procoxal cavities closed posteriorly (157). Anterior and middle femora enlarged, particularly in male (Fig. 157) Chirodica Germar, 1834 (see also Group H couplet 28) (Fig. 30)
Procoxal cavities open posteriorly. Anterior and middle femora not enlarged 22
22 Pronotum with distinctly impressed transverse sulcus ante-basally, often touching lateral margins of pronotum (Fig. 121); anterior angles generally rounded apically. Interantennal space narrower than length of first antennomere (Fig. 121). Frontal carina narrow and acute (Fig. 121). Pronotal punctation generally indistinctly impressed (Fig. 121). Dorsal integument usually blue or green, always with distinct metallic luster (Fig. 7) Altica Geoffroy, 1762 (Fig. 7)
Pronotum with slightly impressed transverse sulcus ante-basally, never touching lateral margins of pronotum (Fig. 1); anterior angles obliquely bevelled apically . Interantennal space distinctly wider than length of first antennomere (Fig. 120). Frontal carina wide and flat. Pronotal punctation distinctly impressed (Fig. 120). Dorsal integument brownish with partially blackened elytra, without metallic luster (Fig. 6) Alocypha Weise, 1911 (Fig. 6)
23 Humeral calli absent. Ante-basal pronotal sulcus barely visible (Figs 26, 46) 24
Humeral calli distinct. Ante-basal pronotal sulcus always distinctly impressed, medially at least (Figs 172, 206, 212) 25
24 Elytral punctation arranged in 9 regular rows. Dorsal integument from yellowish to brownish Celisaltica Biondi, 2001a (Fig. 26)
Elytral punctation more or less irregular. Dorsal integument dark Guilielmia Weise, 1924 (Fig. 46)
25 Antennomere 2 as long as antennomere 1 and at least twice as long as antennomere 3 (Fig. 172). Procoxal cavities closed posteriorly Djallonia Bechyné, 1955 (Fig. 37)
Antennomere 2 distinctly shorter than antennomere 1 and about as long as antennomere 3. Procoxal cavities open posteriorly 26
26 Antennomere 1 at least 2.5 times longer than antennomere 2. Pronotal base not, or very slightly, sinuous (Fig. 206). Body larger (LB ≥ 4.50 mm). Elytra comparatively elongate (LE/WE > 1.60) (Fig. 60) Lampedona Weise, 1907 (Fig. 60)
Antennomere 1 about 1.5 times longer than antennomere 2. Pronotal base distinctly sinuous (Figs 204, 212). Body smaller (LB < 4.50 mm). Elytra comparatively short (LE/WE ≤ 1.60) (Figs 57, 66) 27
27 Frontal tubercles distinctly defined posteriorly. Pronotum with distinctly impressed transverse sulcus ante-basally, touching lateral margins of pronotum; posterior angles distinctly dentiform apically (Fig. 212). Dorsal integument with distinctly impressed punctation (Fig. 66). First metatarsomere longer than second and third together. Elytra with prominent basal calli (Fig. 66) Manobia Jacoby, 1885 (Fig. 66)
Frontal tubercles not distinctly defined posteriorly. Pronotum with a moderately or indistinctly impressed transverse sulcus ante-basally, not touching the lateral margins of pronotum; posterior angles subrounded apically, never distinctly dentiform (Fig. 204). Dorsal integument with slightly or moderately impressed punctation (Fig. 57). First metatarsomere shorter than second and third together. Elytra with basal calli barely visible (Fig. 57). Kenialtica Bechyné, 1960 (Fig. 57)
Group F
1 Anterior margin of pronotum without distinct longitudinal impressions, with very short incisions at most. Pronotum slightly narrower than elytra basally. Body generally less convex and more elongate (Figs 85–86) Podagrica Chevrolat, 1836 (Fig. 85)
[= Podagricina Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940 syn. n. (Fig. 86)]
Anterior margin of pronotum with two longitudinal groove-like impressions, often deeply impressed (Figs 217–218) and sometimes reaching middle of pronotum. Pronotum as wide as elytra basally (Figs 71, 217, 218). Body thickset and distinctly convex (Fig. 71). Nisotra Baly, 1864 (Fig. 71)
Group G
1 Body more elongate, less convex, with comparatively elongate elytra (LE/WE < 1.25) (Fig. 16). Elytral margin in dorsal view well visible in its all length. Pronotum with straight sublateral sulci, basally obliquely slanted and distally never touching the lateral margin of pronotum (Fig. 133). Argopistoides Jacoby, 1892b (Fig. 16)
Body subsphaerical, distinctly convex, with comparatively short elytra (LE/WE ≥ 1.25) (Fig. 27). Elytral margin in dorsal view generally not visible or visible only basally. Pronotum with sinuous sublateral sulci, basally starting sub-parallel to lateral margin of pronotum and distally sometimes touching it (Fig. 153) Chabria Jacoby, 1887 (Fig. 27)
Group H
1 Apical spur of hind tibiae distinctly serrate (Fig. 252, 253, 277) 2
Apical spur of hind tibiae differently shaped but never serrate 3
2 Elytral punctation distinctly impressed, arranged in regular rows (Fig. 251). First metatarsomere longer than 2/3s length of hind tibia and dorsally or preapically inserted on hind tibia (Fig. 252). Apical spur of hind tibiae distinctly elongate (LHT/LHTS ≤ 8.00) (Figs 252–253) Serraphula Jacoby, 1897 (Fig. 94)
Elytral punctation slightly impressed, poorly visible and only partially arranged in regular rows (Fig. 276). First metatarsomere at most as long as half of hind tibial length and apically inserted on hind tibia (Fig. 276). Apical spur of hind tibiae very short (LHT/LHTS > 8.00) (Figs 276–277) Yemenaltica Scherer, 1985 (Fig. 108)
3 Metatarsus dorsally inserted at about half of tibial length (Fig. 213) Metroserrapha Bechyné, 1958a (Fig. 67)
Metatarsus apically inserted on tibia 4
4 Apical spur of hind tibiae distally bifid or trifid (Figs 179, 270) 5
Apical spur of hind tibiae simple [in Trachytetra hind apical spur thickset, subtruncate, sometimes apparently bifid (Fig. 269); but this genus is easily distinguishable from Dunbrodya and Dibolia by having distinctly defined frontal tubercles; and frons that is elongate distally in lateral view] 8
5 Apical spur of hind tibiae obtusely pointed apically (Fig. 270). Antennae about as long as body (Fig. 105). Habitus similar to Longitarsus Tritonaphthona Bechyné, 1960 (Fig. 105)
Apical spur of hind tibiae bifid apically (Fig. 179). Antennae generally short, at most reaching half of elytra 6
6 First metatarsomere about 1/3 of length of hind tibia (Fig. 178). Pronotum less transverse, lateral margins converging slightly towards anterior (WP/LP ≤ 1.70) (Fig. 176). Frons with distinct longitudinal carina medially (Fig. 177). Body elongate and slightly convex (Fig. 39). Habitus similar to Aphthona Dunbrodya Jacoby, 1906 (Fig. 39)
First metatarsomere about 1/5 of length of hind tibia (Fig. 166). Pronotum distinctly transverse, laterally margins converging distinctly towards anterior (WP/LP > 1.70) (Fig. 164). Frons without or with very short longitudinal carina medially (Figs 165, 227). Body thickset and distinctly convex (Figs 34, 76) 7
7 Eyes small, widely separated dorsally, interocular distance at least 3 times wider than length of second antennomere (Fig. 165) Dibolia Latreille, 1829 (Fig. 34)
Eyes very large, closely associated dorsally; interocular space as wide as length of second antennomere (Fig. 227) Paradibolia Baly, 1875 (Fig. 76)
8 Elytra distinctly reduced, obliquely truncate apically (Fig. 262). Pronotum subtrapezoidal, with maximum width at anterior angles; lateral margins straight (Fig. 261) Sjostedtinia Weise, 1910 (Fig. 98)
Elytra not reduced, generally rounded apically. Pronotum subrectangular or subtrapezoidal with maximum width generally at middle or basally; lateral margins more or less rounded 9
9 Elytral surface distinctly and uniformly pubescent 10
Elytral surface apparently glabrous, rarely very sparsely setose towards apex 14
10 First metatarsomere about half length of tibia (Fig. 250). Elytral punctation arranged in regular rows (Figs 92–93) Sanckia Duvivier, 1891 (Fig. 92)
[= Eugonotes Jacoby, 1897 syn. n. (Fig. 93)]
First metatarsomere distinctly shorter than half length of tibia. Elytral punctation confused 11
11 Pronotum pubescent Hespera Weise, 1889 (Fig. 51)
Pronotum glabrous 12
12 Elytral punctation confused, densely and finely impressed (Figs 53, 198). Elytral surface with short dense pubescence (Fig. 198). Frontal tubercles not defined posteriorly. Antennae short, not reaching middle of elytra (Fig. 53). First metatarsomere shorter than length of second and third together (Fig. 198). Elytral margins widely bordered laterally (Fig. 198) Homichloda Weise, 1902 (Fig. 53)
Elytral punctation arranged in regular or partially irregular rows, distinctly impressed (Figs 49, 52). Elytral surface with longer sparse pubescence (Fig. 191). Frontal tubercles well defined posteriorly (Figs 190, 196, 197). Antennae longer, reaching beyond middle of elytra. First metatarsomere longer than second and third together (Fig. 191). Elytral margins narrowly bordered laterally (Fig. 191) 13
13 Pronotal punctation distinctly impressed on surface with distinct transverse and longitudinal carinae, sulci and/or protuberances (Figs 196–197). Frontal tubercles medially separated by deep longitudinal sulcus (Figs 196–197) Hildebrandtina Weise, 1910 (Fig. 52)
Pronotal punctation indistinctly impressed on surface without distinct impressions or protuberances Fig. 189). Frontal tubercles medially separated by fine longitudinal sulcus (Fig. 190) Halticotropis Fairmaire, 1886 (Fig. 49)
14 Body slightly elongate, often subsphaerical (LB/WE < 1.70). Pronotum more transverse (generally WP/LP > 1.80) 15
Body distinctly elongate, never subsphaerical (LB/WE ≥ 1.70). Pronotum less transverse (generally WP/LP ≤ 1.70 ) 24
15 Pronotum with anterior setigerous pore near middle of lateral margin (Fig. 201). Antennomere 3 as long as, or longer than, antennomeres 4–5 together (Fig. 202) Jacobyana Maulik, 1926 (Fig. 55)
Pronotum with anterior setigerous pores near anterior angles. Antennomere 3 distinctly shorter than antennomeres 4–5 together 16
16 Body smaller (LB < 1.60 mm). Elytral punctation with scutellar stria long, reaching apical declivity of elytra (Fig. 138). Apical spur of hind tibia very small and slender Bezdekaltica Döberl, 2012 (Fig. 20)
Body larger (LB ≥ 1.60 mm). Elytral punctation with scutellar stria short, not reaching middle of elytra. Apical spur of hind tibia robust 17
17 Pronotum with lateral margins diverging from base towards middle, then converging slightly towards anterior; maximum pronotal width in anterior third; anterior angles distinctly dentiform apically (Fig. 219). Pronotal punctation very distinctly impressed especially laterally (Fig. 219). Elytra with submarginal stria of distinctly and deeply impressed punctures laterally, delimiting wide and distinctly raised lateral band (Fig. 220) Notomela Jacoby, 1899 (Fig. 72)
Pronotum with lateral margins converging distinctly towards anterior; maximum pronotal width at base; anterior angles not distinctly dentiform apically. Pronotal punctation from finely to moderately impressed. Elytra lacking submarginal stria with distinctly impressed punctures and distinctly raised lateral band 18
18 Frontal tubercles and frontal carina absent (Fig. 122). Interantennal space at least as wide as transverse ocular diameter (Fig. 122). Elytral interstriae always densely punctuated Amphimela Chapuis, 1875 (Fig. 8)
[= Sphaerophysa Baly, 1876b syn. n. (Fig. 9)]
Frontal tubercles distinctly defined. Frontal carina narrow, often raised. Interantennal space narrower than transverse ocular diameter. Elytral interstriae generally not densely punctuated 19
19 Pronotal base regularly rounded, not sinuate 20
Pronotal base bisinuate 22
20 Elytral punctation regularly striate. Scutellum not visible (Fig. 265). Body smaller (LB < 2.30 mm), distinctly convex (Fig. 100) Stegnaspea Baly, 1877 (Fig. 100)
Elytral punctation confused and finely impressed. Scutellum distinctly visible. Body larger (LB ≥ 2.30 mm), moderately convex 21
21 Frontal carina not prolonged towards clypeus (Fig. 244). Frons distinctly raised distally in lateral view. Elytra with distinct basal calli (Fig. 89). Pronotum with anterior angles distinctly thickened, projecting distinctly towards anterior (Fig. 243). Body more convex (Fig. 89). Hind tibiae narrowly and less deeply channeled dorsally (Fig. 245) Pseudadorium Fairmaire, 1885 (Fig. 89)
Frontal carina prolonged towards clypeus (Fig. 193). Frons not raised distally in lateral view. Elytra without distinct basal calli (Fig. 50). Pronotal anterior angles slightly or moderately thickened, not projecting towards anterior, but sometimes dentiform laterally (Fig. 192). Body less convex (Fig. 50). Hind tibiae broadly and more deeply channeled dorsally (Fig. 194) Hemipyxis Chevrolat, 1836 (Fig. 50)
22 Hind tibiae with distinct preapical tooth on inside (Fig. 132). Hind femora at least as wide as length of hind tibia (Fig. 131). Eyes elongate, closely associated dorsally, separated by less than transverse ocular diameter (Fig. 130). First abdominal ventrite medially with two distinct longitudinal ridges forward convergent (Fig. 131) Argopistes Motschulsky, 1860 (Fig. 15)
Hind tibiae lacking distinct preapical tooth on inside. Hind femora narrower than length of hind tibia. Eyes rounded, widely separated dorsally, separated by transverse ocular diameter at least. First abdominal ventrite without distinct longitudinal ridges 23
23 Pronotum wider (WP/LP ≥ 2.30), distinctly bisinuate basally; anterior angles projecting distinctly towards anterior; apically widely rounded and completely bordered by thickened margin (Figs 254–255). Elytral epipleura obliquely upward orientated, generally not visible in lateral view (Fig. 256). Elytral punctation confused, finely impressed (Figs 95–96). Body subsphaerical (Figs 95–96) Sesquiphaera Bechyné, 1958 (Fig. 95)
[= Paropsiderma Bechyné, 1958 syn. n. (Fig. 96)]
Pronotum narrower (WP/LP < 2.30), moderately bisinuate basally; anterior angles projecting slightly towards anterior; apically not completely bordered by thickened margin, limited to lateral edge of pronotum (Fig. 263). Elytral epipleura horizontally or slightly obliquely downward orientated, well visible in lateral view (Fig. 264). Elytral punctation often more or less seriate, punctures more distinctly impressed. Body generally short and oval, rarely subsphaerical (Fig. 99) Sphaeroderma Stephens, 1831 (Fig. 99)
24 Apical spur of hind tibiae robust, often very short, generally absent on anterior and middle tibiae. Antennomere 2 about as long as antennomere 4 (only in some Chirodica antennomere 4 distinctly longer than antennomere 2 but anterior and middle femora enlarged and procoxal cavities closed posteriorly). Elytra apparently not pubescent. Body slightly elongate 25
Apical spur very slender and present on all tibiae; hind apical spur always elongate but sometimes very short on anterior and middle tibiae. Antennomere 2 much shorter than antennomere 4. Elytra or apical part of elytra very sparsely pubescent (Fig. 174). Body distinctly elongate. Habitus similar to Galerucini 37
25 First metatarsomere as long or longer than half tibial length (Figs 137, 140, 208) 26
First metatarsomere shorter than half tibial length 28
26 Elytral punctation confused Longitarsus Berthold, 1827 (Fig. 62)
Elytral punctation regularly seriate 27
27 First metatarsomere about same length as tibia (Fig. 137). Interantennal space about as wide as transverse ocular diameter; frontal carina apically rounded, moderately raised (Fig. 136). Apical spur of hind tibiae long (LHT/LHTS ≤ 10.00) (Fig. 137). Dorsal integument from yellowish to pale brown (Fig. 19) Bechynella Biondi & D’Alessandro, 2010b (Fig. 19)
First metatarsomere about half length of tibia (Fig. 140). Interantennal space distinctly narrower than transverse ocular diameter; frontal carina apically acute and raised (Fig. 139). Apical spur of hind tibiae shorter (LHT/LHTS > 10.00). Dorsal integument generally darker with more or less distinct metallic reflections (Figs 21, 140) Bikasha Maulik, 1931 (also see couplet 34) (Fig. 21)
28 Procoxal cavities closed posteriorly (Fig. 157). Anterior and middle femora distinctly enlarged, particularly in male (Fig. 157). Pronotum sometimes with a very small transverse sulcus ante-basally. Second maxillary palpomere about as wide as first (Fig. 156) Chirodica Germar, 1834 (also see Group E couplet 21) (Fig. 30)
Procoxal cavities open posteriorly. Anterior and middle femora not enlarged. Pronotum never with a transverse sulcus ante-basally. Second maxillary palpomere generally wider than first 29
29 Antennomeres 7–11 or 8–11 more enlarged than those remaining (Figs 2, 3, 111) 30
Antennomeres 7–11 similar in width to those remaining 31
30 Humeral calli absent (Fig. 3). Pronotum distinctly convex, very narrowly bordered laterally; anterior angles rounded or slightly bevelled; posterior angles rounded (Fig. 114). Metasternum shorter than length of mid-coxal cavity (Fig. 117). Middle and hind tibiae distinctly enlarged from base to apex, particularly in male; middle tibiae with distinct triangular hollow ventrally in male (Fig. 115) Afroaltica Biondi & D’Alessandro, 2007 (Fig. 3)
Humeral calli distinct (Figs 2, 110). Pronotum moderately convex, distinctly bordered laterally; anterior angles distinctly dentiform and widely bevelled; posterior angles acute, often dentiform (Fig. 110). Metasternum longer than length of mid-coxal cavity (Fig. 112). Middle and hind tibiae moderately enlarged from base to apex; middle tibiae without distinct hollow ventrally in male Abrarius Fairmaire, 1902 (Fig. 2)
31 Frontal carina narrow and distinctly raised with few large superficial punctures, and a narrow longitudinal groove distally between antennae (Fig. 242). Elytral and often also pronotal punctation, exceptionally dense and strongly impressed (Fig. 88) Pratima Maulik, 1931 (Fig. 88)
Frontal carina wide, flat or convex but never grooved longitudinally. Elytral punctation from indistinctly to moderately impressed 32
32 Anterior angles of pronotum not obliquely bevelled (Fig. 214). Humeral calli absent (Figs 68, 215). Elytral apex subtruncate (Fig. 215) Montiaphthona Scherer, 1961 (Fig. 68)
Anterior angles of pronotum obliquely bevelled. Humeral calli generally visible. Elytral apex generally rounded 33
33 Frontal tubercles absent or indistinctly defined (Fig. 231). Anterior angles of pronotum not widely and obliquely bevelled (Fig. 231). Elytral punctation confused. Body flatter and more elongate (Fig. 80) Phyllotreta Chevrolat, 1836 (Fig. 80)
Frontal tubercles distinctly defined. Anterior angles of pronotum widely and obliquely bevelled. Elytral punctation sometimes partially regularly striate. Body more convex and less elongate 34
34 Apical spur of hind tibiae thickset, subtruncate apically, often apparently bifid (Fig. 269). Frons elongate distally in lateral view (Fig. 268). Elytral punctation confused Trachytetra Sharp, 1886 (Fig. 104)
Apical spur of hind tibiae slender, acute apically, never apparently bifid. Frons short and regularly arcuate distally in lateral view. Elytral punctation confused, seriate or subseriate 35
35 Elytra with poorly defined but distinct basal calli (Fig. 140). Humeral calli bounded posteriorly by distinct, often deeply impressed, depression (Fig. 140). Frontal tubercles always well defined (Fig. 140). Elytral punctation seriate or subseriate, always distinctly impressed, and never confused (Fig. 140) Bikasha Maulik, 1931 (see also couplet 27) (Fig. 21)
Elytra lacking basal calli. Humeral calli bounded posteriorly by more or less flat area. Frontal tubercles often not well defined. Elytral punctation generally confused, rarely seriate or subseriate; in this case punctation is slightly impressed and frontal tubercles are generally not distinct 36
36 Pronotum subtrapezoidal, straight or very slightly rounded and widely bordered laterally; anterior angles generally thickened, distinctly dentiform apically; posterior angles with distinct, laterally produced, tubercle at apex (Fig. 123). Pronotal base finely but distinctly sinuate (Fig. 123). Frontal tubercles elongate, V-shaped (Fig. 124). Elytra more widely bordered laterally, always with distinctly impressed punctation (Fig. 125). Dorsal integuments blue with distinct metallic reflections (Figs 11, 125). Spermatheca with coiled ductus Angulaphthona Bechyné, 1960 (Fig. 11)
Pronotum subrectangular, more distinctly rounded and finely bordered laterally; anterior angles not thickened, not dentiform apically; posterior angles subrounded apically or slightly dentiform, without distinct tubercles (Fig. 128). Pronotal base generally not sinuate (Fig. 128). Frontal tubercles subtriangular or roundish, rarely elongate. Elytra narrowly bordered laterally, generally with slightly or moderately impressed punctation (Fig. 129). Dorsal integument varies in colour. Spermatheca with uncoiled ductus, very rarely coiled Aphthona Chevrolat, 1836 (Fig. 13)
[= Ethiopia Scherer, 1972 syn. n. (Fig. 14)]
37 Pronotum with distinct oblique or transverse sublateral impressions medially (Figs 17, 29, 74) 38
Pronotum without impressions 40
38 Antennomeres 3 and 4 about same length, each about three times longer than antennomere 2; antennomeres 6–11 shorter and subequal in length (Fig. 134) Bangalaltica Bechyné, 1960 (Fig. 17)
Antennomere 3 very much shorter than antennomere 4 (Figs 155, 224) 39
39 Antennomere 1 as long as antennomeres 2–4 together (Fig. 155). Antennae in male with antennomeres 2–3 very strongly reduced and 6–7 distinctly enlarged (Fig. 155). Pronotum distinctly more transverse (WP/LP > 1.65) (Fig. 29) Chaillucola Bechyné, 1968 (Fig. 29)
Antennomere 1 much shorter than antennomeres 2–4 together (Fig. 224). Antennae similar in both sexes. Pronotum distinctly less transverse (WP/LP ≤ 1.65) Nzerekorena Bechyné, 1955 (Fig. 74)
40 First metatarsomere distinctly compressed laterally (Figs 169, 272) 41
First metatarsomere not compressed laterally 42
41 Antennomeres 4–11 subglobose; antennomere 3 about twice as long as antennomere 4 (Fig. 271). Hind femora without processes or projections Upembaltica Bechyné, 1960 (Fig. 106)
Antennomeres 4–11 not subglobose; antennomere 3 as long as antennomere 4 (Fig. 167). Hind femora of male with a distinct subtriangular, dentiform process, situated medially on ventral side (Fig. 168) Dimonikaea Bechyné, 1968 (Fig. 35)
42 Antennomere 4 about as long as antennomere 3, but considerably shorter than antennomere 5; antennomere 5 about as long as antennomeres 2–4 together (Fig. 203). Female unknown Kanonga Bechyné, 1960 (Fig. 56)
Antennomere 4 longer than antennomere 3 or as long as antennomere 5 43
43 Antennomeres 8–10 very small, subglobose, each distinctly shorter than antennomeres 4–7 (Fig. 211) Malvernia Jacoby, 1899 (Fig. 65)
Antennomeres differently shaped. In Gabonia, males often with antennae with distinctly modified segments, but never as in Malvernia 44
44 Metasternum shorter than length of mid-coxal cavity (Fig. 175). Legs very elongate, particularly hind femora and tibiae (Fig. 38). Antennae normally longer than body, particularly in male (Fig. 38). Elytra comparatively short (LE/LP ≤ 2.60); humeral calli absent (Fig. 38) . Wings vestigial Drakensbergianella Biondi & D’Alessandro, 2003 (Fig. 38)
Metasternum at least 1.5x longer than length of mid-coxal cavity (Fig. 186). Legs not elongate (Figs 45, 63). Antennae very rarely longer than body (Figs 45, 63). Elytra comparatively elongate [LE/LP > 2.60 (normally > 3.00)]; humeral calli present. Wings well developed Luperomorpha Weise, 1887 (Fig. 63)
[Gabonia Jacoby, 1893 (see Notes on page 48) (Fig. 45)]
Catalogue of afrotropical flea beetle genera
Abrarius Fairmaire, 1902

http://species-id.net/wiki/Abrarius

Figs 2, 110–112, 278
=Entymosina Weise, 1910 (synonymized by Bechyné 1958c)
References.

Fairmaire 1902: 261; Weise 1910b: 438; Bechyné 1947a: 44 (as Entymosina); 1958c: 9; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 402.

Type species.

Abrarius: Abrarius cribrosus Fairmaire, 1902: 261 (Madagascar: Plateau de l’Ankara), designation by monotypy; Entymosina: Entymosina parvula Weise, 1910b: 439 (Madagascar: Nossibé), by present designation.

Distribution.

Madagascar (Fig. 278).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Endemic to Madagascar and comprises about ten known species. The Neotropical genus Gioia Bechyné (1955d: 77) is very similar to Abrarius, and may well be a synonym.

Afroaltica Biondi & D’Alessandro, 2007

http://species-id.net/wiki/Afroaltica

Figs 3, 113 –117, 279
References.

Biondi and D’Alessandro 2007: 99; 2010a: 402; D’Alessandro and Biondi 2011: 365.

Type species.

Afroaltica subaptera Biondi & D’Alessandro, 2007: 100 (Republic of South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Karkloof area), by original designation.

Distribution.

Republic of South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, and Mpumalanga) (Fig. 279).

Ecology.

Afroaltica subaptera was collected in an open field on Poaceae (also known as Gramineae) (Biondi and D’Alessandro 2007).

Notes.

Two species have been described.


[Afroalytus Scherer, 1961]

= Manobia Jacoby, 1885

Afrocrepis Bechyné, 1954b

http://species-id.net/wiki/Afrocrepis

Figs 4, 118, 280
References.

Bechyné 1954b: 680; Heikertinger 1925: 99 (as Derocrepis Weise, 1886); Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 403.

Type species.

Crepidodera carinipennis Jacoby, 1903a: 12 (KwaZulu-Natal, Malvern), by original designation.

Distribution.

Madagascar (!) [Ambalamanankana (NHMB); Perinet (NHMB); Andohahele (BAQ)] and the Republic of South Africa (Fig. 280).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Three species are known. Crepidodera betiokyensis Bechyné (1954a: 46) from Madagascar, erroneously attributed to this genus by Bechyné (1964: 152), was placed in Afrorestia Bechyné (cf. Scherer 1962b: 57; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 403).However, it is here confirmed that this genus does occur in Madagascar.

Afrorestia Bechyné, 1959b

http://species-id.net/wiki/Afrorestia

Figs 5, 119, 281
References.

Bechyné 1959b: 232; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 403.

Type species.

Crepidodera laeviuscula Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940, 1940: 297 (West Africa), by original designation.

Distribution.

Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Republic of South Africa, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe (Fig. 281).

Ecology.

Some species of this genus have been collected from plants in the family Apiaceae in South Africa (personal data).

Notes.

About twenty described species. Crepidodera betiokyensis Bechyné (1954a: 46) from Madagascar, erroneously attributed to Afrocrepis Bechyné by Bechyné (1964: 152), was transferred to this genus (cf. Scherer 1962b: 57; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 403). Crepidodera sjostedti Weise (1910a: 221) from Kilimanjaro was incorrectly attributed to Asiorestia Jacobson, 1925 (a genus that does not occur in the Afrotropical region) by Bechyné (1957: 181). This species was transferred to Afrorestia Bechyné by Biondi and D’Alessandro (2010a: 403).


[Allomorpha Jacoby, 1892b]

= Hespera Weise, 1889

Alocypha Weise, 1911

http://species-id.net/wiki/Alocypha

Figs 6, 120, 282
References.

Weise 1911: 170; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 403.

Type species.

Alocypha litura Weise, 1911: 171 (East Africa: Lindi) [(= Aphthona bimaculata Jacoby, 1903a: 11) (KwaZulu-Natal)], designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Republic of South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal), Tanzania and Zambia (Fig. 282).

Ecology.

Alocypha bimaculata is a harmful pest of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) (Pedaliaceae) crops, particularly in Tanzania (Mponda et al. 1997).

Notes.

Only one species is known.

Altica Geoffroy, 1762

http://species-id.net/wiki/Altica

Figs 7, 121, 283
=Haltica Illiger, 1801 (unjustified emendation)
=Graptodera Chevrolat, 1836 (synonymized by Weise 1888)
References.

Geoffroy 1762: 244; Illiger 1801: 138; Chevrolat 1836: 388; Weise 1888: 825; Allard 1889a: 43 (as Graptodera); Bechyné 1954a: 43; 1955a: 209; 1960b: 77; Döberl 2008: 35; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 403.

Type species.

Altica: Chrysomela oleracea Linnaeus, 1758: 372 (Europe), by subsequent designation by Latreille (1810: 432); Graptodera: Chrysomela oleracea Linnaeus, 1758: 372 (Europe), by subsequent designation by Chevrolat (1845: 307).

Distribution.

All zoogeographical regions (Fig. 283).

Ecology.

Polyphagous. This genus has been found associated with herbaceous plants, shrubs and trees belonging to several plant families (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995).

Notes.

About fifty species are known from Madagascar and Sub-Saharan Africa.

Amphimela Chapuis, 1875

http://species-id.net/wiki/Amphimela

Figs 8, 9, 122, 284
=Cercyonia Weise, 1901 (synonymized by Scherer 1961)
=Diboloides Jacoby, 1897 (synonymized by Scherer 1961)
=Dibolosoma Jacoby, 1897 (synonymized by Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a)
=Halticella Jacoby, 1899b (name preoccupied by Halticella Stephens 1829: 36, Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea)
=Halticorthaea Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940 (new name for Halticella Jacoby, 1899; synonymized by Scherer 1961)
=Halticova Fairmaire, 1898 (synonymized by Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a)
=Sphaerophysa Baly, 1876 syn. n.
References.

Chapuis 1875: 34; Baly 1875: 27; 1876b: 582; Jacoby 1897: 553, 559; 1899b: 357; Fairmaire 1898: 428; Weise 1901: 303; Maulik 1929: 307 (as Diboloides); Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940: 418; Bechyné 1958c: 10; Scherer 1961: 252; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 403.

Type species.

Amphimela: Amphimela mouhoti Chapuis, 1875: 36 (Indonesia), designation by monotypy; Cercyonia: Cercyonia variabilis Weise, 1901: 303 (Tanzania: Bagamojo, Kunow), designation by monotypy; Diboloides: Diboloides bicolor Jacoby, 1897: 553 (Mashonaland), designation by monotypy; Dibolosoma: Dibolosoma quadripustulatum Jacoby, 1897: 560 (Madagascar: Diego-Suarez), designation by monotypy; Halticella: Halticella flavopustulata Jacoby, 1899b: 357 (Natal, Frere), designation by monotypy; Halticova: Halticova rufoguttata Fairmaire, 1898: 428 (Madagascar), designation by monotypy; Sphaerophysa: Sphaerophysa clavicornis Baly, 1876b: 582 (Madagascar), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Afrotropical (including Madagascar), Australian, Eastern Palaearctic and Oriental regions (Fig. 284).

Ecology.

Amphimela bryanti (Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940) on Bersama sp. (Melianthaceae) in Uganda (Bryant 1936, as Cercyonia quadrinotata Bryant 1936: 218); Amphimela citri (Bryant 1922: 474) cited as a harmful pest of citrus in West Africa (Bryant 1922a).

Notes.

About thirty-five species have been described in the Afrotropical region. Bechyné (1964: 161) established the synonymy between Dibolosoma quadripustulatum Jacoby, 1897 [as 4-punctata (sic!)] and Halticova rufoguttata Fairmaire, 1898; while Weise (1910b: 496) established the synonymy between Sphaerophysa Baly and Dibolosoma Jacoby. Moreover, there are no important diagnostic characters distinguishing Sphaerophysa from Amphimela, this latter characterized by a wide variability in the Afrotropical region. Therefore, the following new synonymy is proposed: Amphimela Chapuis, 1875 = Sphaerophysa Baly, 1876b syn. n. Material examined: Sphaerophysa clavicornis Baly (det. J. Bechyné), “Madagascar, Tananarive”, 2 specimens (NMPC).

Anaxerta Fairmaire, 1902

http://species-id.net/wiki/Anaxerta

Figs 10, 285
References.

Fairmaire 1902: 267; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 403.

Type species.

Anaxerta castanea Fairmaire, 1902: 268 (Madagascar: Ankarahitra), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Madagascar (Fig. 285).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

A single species has been described.

Angulaphthona Bechyné, 1960b

http://species-id.net/wiki/Angulaphthona

Figs 11, 123–125, 286
References.

Bechyné 1960b: 74; Scherer 1978: 265; Gruev 1981: 55; Medvedev 1996: 261.

Type species.

Aphthona heteromorpha Bechyné, 1955c: 62 (Madagascar: Bas Mangoky), by original designation.

Distribution.

Egypt, Tchad, Sudan, Somaliland, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Zambia (!) [50 km W Kasama (BAQ)], Malawi (!) [Dedza (BAQ)], Mozambique, Republic of South Africa (!) [KwaZulu-Natal: Durban (SANC)], Madagascar, and Arabian Peninsula (Saudi Arabia and North Yemen) (Fig. 286).

Ecology.

Angulaphthona heteromorpha collected on cotton plants, Gossypium sp. (Malvaceae) (Bechyné 1955c, as Aphthona).

Notes.

Five species are known from the Afrotropical region.

Antanemora Bechyné, 1964

http://species-id.net/wiki/Antanemora

Figs 12, 126–127, 287
Lactica Erichson, 1847 (pars)
References.

Bechyné 1950: 220 (as Lactica); 1964: 145; Bechyné and Bechyné 1975: 26; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 403.

Type species

.Lactica carbonaria Bechyné, 1948a: 7 (Madagascar: Environs de Rogez; Ankazoabo), by original designation.

Distribution.

Madagascar (Fig. 287).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

There are about twenty known species (personal data).

Aphthona Chevrolat, 1836

http://species-id.net/wiki/Aphthona

Figs 13, 14, 128–129, 288
=Ethiopia Scherer, 1972 syn. n.
=Pseudeugonotes Jacoby, 1899 (synonymized by Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a)
References.

Chevrolat 1836: 391; Jacoby 1899a: 531; Bechyné 1955c: 62; 1960b: 67, 74; Scherer 1972: 7; 1978: 265 (as Ethiopia); Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 404, 407 (as Ethiopia).

Type species.

Aphthona: Altica cyparissiae Koch, 1803: 80 (Europe), by subsequent designation by Chûjô (1937: 119); Ethiopia: Ethiopia tricolor Scherer, 1972: 7 (Ethiopia: Agheresalam), by original designation; Pseudeugonotes: Pseudeugonotes vannutellii Jacoby, 1899a: 531 (Ethiopia: Sancurar-Amarr Burgi), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Afrotropical (including Madagascar), Australian, Nearctic, Oriental and Palaearctic regions (Fig. 288). All the species from the Neotropical region described as Aphthona should be attributed to different genera (cf. Konstantinov and Vandenberg 1996; Konstantinov 1998).

Ecology.

Genus mainly associated with Euphorbiaceae, but also with Geraniaceae, Cistaceae, Rosaceae, Linaceae, Iridaceae, Malvaceae and Lythraceae (cf. Bechyné 1955c; Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995).

Notes.

About one hundred species are described from Madagascar and Sub-Saharan Africa. There are no important diagnostic characters distinguishing Ethiopia Scherer from Aphthona. Therefore, the following new synonymy is proposed: Aphthona Chevrolat, 1836 = Ethiopia Scherer, 1972 syn. n. Type material examined: Ethiopia tricolor Scherer, holotype ♂ and paratype ♀, “Ethiopia, Agheresalam, 7.6.1963, Linnavuori” (MZHF).

Argopistes Motschulsky, 1860

http://species-id.net/wiki/Argopistes

Figs 15, 130–132, 289
References.

Motschulsky 1860: 236; Weise 1895: 335; Bryant 1922a: 474; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 404.

Type species.

Argopistes biplagiata Motschulsky, 1860: 236 (Siberia), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Central, Eastern and Southern Africa, and Madagascar; Australian, Eastern Palaearctic, Nearctic, Northern Neotropical and Oriental regions (Fig. 289).

Ecology.

Many species of this genus are associated with Oleaceae in Sub-Saharan Africa, especially with Olive trees [Olea europaea var. africana (Mill.)], on which the larvae are leaf miners and adults defoliators (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995; personal data).

Notes.

About fifteen species recorded from Madagascar and Sub-Saharan Africa (personal data).

Argopistoides Jacoby, 1892b

http://species-id.net/wiki/Argopistoides

Figs 16, 133, 290
= Torodera Weise, 1902a (synonymized by Medvedev 2009)
References.

Jacoby 1892b: 932; Weise 1902a: 163; Scherer 1987: 67 (as Torodera); Biondi 1994 (as Torodera): 437; Medvedev 2009: 40; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 404 (as Torodera).

Type species.

Argopistoides septempunctata Jacoby, 1892b: 932 [Burma (=Myanmar): Carin Chebà], designation by monotypy; Torodera: Torodera octomaculata Weise, 1902a: 164 (Kwai), by subsequent designation by Scherer (1987:67).

Distribution.

Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Kenya, Rwanda (!) [Nyungwe National Park, Kamiranzovu (BAQ)], Republic of South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal), Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe, and Oriental region (Fig. 290).

Ecology.

Genus reported from Poaceae (also known as Gramineae) (Oryza) in Kenya [cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995 (as Torodera)].

Notes.

The Afrotropical region has four described species.


[Argopus Fischer, 1824]

Not present in the Afrotropical region.

References. Fischer 1824: 184; Weise 1902a: 171; Laboissière 1941: 319.

Notes. Argopus maculiceps Boheman (1859: 200) was transferred to the genus Toxaria Weise by Laboissière (1941); Argopus pusillus Gerstaecker (1871: 85) was transferred to the genus Sphaeroderma Stephens by Weise (1902a).


[Argosomus Wollaston, 1867]

= Sphaeroderma Stephens, 1831


[Aridohespera Selman, 1963]

= Eriotica Harold, 1877a


[Asiorestia Jacobson, 1925]

Not present in the Afrotropical region.

References. Jacobson 1925: 274; Bechyné 1957: 181; 1959b: 233.

Notes. Bechyné (1957) attributed Crepidodera sjostedti Weise (1910a: 221) from Kilimanjaro to this genus. This species was recently transferred to Afrorestia Bechyné by Biondi and D’Alessandro (2010a: 404).


[Asphaera Chevrolat, 1843]

Not present in the Afrotropical region.

References. Chevrolat 1843: 227; Fairmaire 1886: 93; Jacoby 1892a: 573; Bechyné 1959c: 319.

Notes. Three species wrongly attributed to this Neotropical genus were transferred to the genera Physomandroya Bechyné and Hemipyxis Chevrolat by Bechyné (1959c).

Bangalaltica Bechyné, 1960a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Bangalaltica

Figs 17, 134, 291
References.

Bechyné 1960a: 9; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2003: 104; 2010a: 404.

Type species.

Bangalaltica antennalis Bechyné, 1960a: 9 (Democratic Republic of the Congo: Bangala; Lubutu-Kituri), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Democratic Republic of the Congo and Republic of the Congo (Fig. 291).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

One species is known.


[Balanomorpha Chevrolat, 1836]

= Mantura Stephens, 1831

Bechuana Scherer, 1970

http://species-id.net/wiki/Bechuana

Figs 18, 135, 292
References.

Scherer 1970: 301; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 404.

Type species.

Bechuana nigripes Scherer, 1970: 302 (Free State: Boshof; North-West Province: Vryburg), by original designation.

Distribution.

Republic of South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, North-West Province and Western Cape Provinces) (Fig. 292).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

There are two known species. Ochrosis natalensis Jacoby (1906: 17) was attributed to this genus by Biondi and D’Alessandro (2010a).

Bechynella Biondi & D’Alessandro, 2010

http://species-id.net/wiki/Bechynella

Figs 19, 136–137, 293
Serraphula Jacoby, 1897 (pars)
References.

Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010b: 28; Bechyné 1955b: 517 (as Serraphula); 1959a: 13 (as Serraphula).

Type species.

Serraphula bohumilae Bechyné, 1955b: 517 (French Guinea: Dalaba), by original designation.

Distribution.

Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Ivory Coast and Nigeria (Fig. 293).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

The three species attributed to this genus were described by Bechyné (1955b, 1959a) as Serraphula Jacoby (Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010b).

Bezdekaltica Döberl, 2012

http://species-id.net/wiki/Bezdekaltica

Figs 20, 138, 294
References.

Döberl 2012: 434.

Type species.

Bezdekaltica socotranaDöberl, 2012: 435 (Socotra Island), by original designation.

Distribution.

Yemen (Socotra Island) (Fig. 294).

Ecology.

Collected in November in Dracaena (Dracenaceae) Forest.

Notes.

Only one species has been described.

Bikasha Maulik, 1931

http://species-id.net/wiki/Bikasha

Figs 21, 139 –140, 295
References.

Maulik 1931: 256; Konstantinov and Prathapan 2008: 387; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 404.

Type species.

Bikasha tenuipunctata Maulik, 1931: 257 (Seychelles), by original designation.

Distribution.

Burundi (!) [Kibira National Park (BAQ)], Democratic Republic of the Congo (!) [Kivu, Mbingi (BAQ)], Kenya (!) [Mt. Kenya (BAQ); Kikuyu (BAQ)], Madagascar (!) [NW of Ranomafana (ZMHB); Andasibe (BAQ)], Malawi (!) [Dedza (BAQ)], Republic of South Africa (!) (KwaZulu-Natal, 17 km NE of Empangeni (MZLU)], Rwanda (!) [Nyungwe National Park, Pindura (BAQ)]; Seychelles, Sierra Leone (!) [Bumbuna (BAQ); S of Freetown (MZLU)], Eastern Palaearctic and Oriental regions (Fig. 295).

Ecology.

In Seychelles, Bikasha tenuipunctata Maulik and Bikasha fortipunctata Maulik (1931: 258) were collected in forest, and Bikasha minor Maulik (1931: 259) in wet coastal meadows.

Notes.

About ten species are known from the Afrotropical region (personal data).

Biodontocnema Biondi, 2000 stat. prom.

http://species-id.net/wiki/Biodontocnema

Figs 22, 141–145, 296
References.

Biondi 2000: 347; 2002b: 356; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 404; Konstantinov et al. 2011: 19.

Type species.

Biodontocnema brunnea Biondi, 2000: 348 (Namibia, Kaross), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Namibia (Fig. 296).

Ecology.

Biodontocnema brunnea is the only species in this genus, and it is associated with moist habitats (Biondi 2000).

Notes.

One species has been described. This genus was erroneously synonymized with Chaetocnema Stephens by Konstantinov et al. (2011). These authors did not examine material of Biodontocnema and based their synonymy only on the examination of some photos and figures. Chaetocnema schlaeflii (Stierlin 1866: 31) and Chaetocnema major (Jacquelin du Val 1852: 717), display an apparently bidentate dorsal tibial margin, which differs from the bidentate dorsal tibial margin of Biodontocnema (Fig. 144). These two species are easily distinguishable from this Namibian genus by having: hind tibial socket narrow with no dentiform inner margin [hind tibial socket wide with dentiform inner margin in Biodontocnema (Figs 142–143)]; ratio of metasternal width/metasternal length ≤ 2.50 [> 2.50 in Biodontocnema (Fig. 145)]; first metatarsomere not laterally compressed [laterally compressed in Biodontocnema (Fig. 142)]; antennomeres 6–10 distinctly longer than wide [antennomeres 6–10 about as long as wide in Biodontocnema (Figs 22)]; distinctly larger size (LB > 3.00 mm) ( LB < 2.5 mm in Biodontocnema); longer antennae that reach at least the middle of the elytra [antennae shorter reaching only base of elytra in Biodontocnema (Fig. 22)]; Moreover, Biodontocnema is phylogenetically more closely related to Carcharodis Weise than to Chaetocnema (Biondi 2002b). On the basis of these considerations, we regard Biodontocnema Biondi, 2000 as a valid genus.

Blepharida Chevrolat, 1836

http://species-id.net/wiki/Blepharida

Figs 23, 146–149, 297
= Blepharidella Weise, 1910a (synonymized by Scherer 1961)
= Blepharidula Weise, 1916 (an unnecessary new name for Eutheca Baly 1878)
= Calotheca Heyden, 1887(new name for Eutheca Baly, 1878; synonymized by Scherer 1961)
= Eutheca Baly, 1878c (name preoccupied by Eutheca Kiesenwetter in Erichson 1877: 155, Coleoptera: Anobiidae)
subgen. Blepharidina Bechyné, 1968
References.

Chevrolat 1836: 394; Baly 1878c: 204; Heyden 1887: 98; Duvivier 1891: 242; Weise 1910a: 220; 1916: 39; Laboissière 1942: 95; Bryant 1944a: 129; Scherer 1961: 252; Bechyné 1968: 1725; Furth 1998: 12; Furth and Lee 2000: 26; Becerra 2004: 116; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 404.

Type species.

Blepharida: Chrysomela rhois Forster, 1771: 21 (North America), by subsequent designation by Chevrolat (1842: 606); Blepharidella: Blepharidella sjostedti Weise, 1910a: 219 (Kilimanjaro, Kibonoto), by subsequent designation by Furth (1998: 12); Blepharidina: Blepharida guttulata Baly, 1881: 52 (Angola), by original designation; Eutheca: Eutheca haroldi Baly, 1878c: 205 (Lake Nyassa), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Afrotropical (excluding Madagascar), Nearctic, Neotropical and Southern Palaearctic (Egypt, Israel, and Saudi Arabia) regions (Fig. 297).

Ecology.

The Afrotropical species of Blepharida are generally associated with shrubs of Rhus (Anacardiaceae) (Furth and Young 1988: 496; Prathapan and Chaboo 2011: 97–105; personal data).

Notes.

Sub-Saharan Africa has about thirty-five described species. Two species from Madagascar previously attributed to this genus, Blepharida multiguttata Duvivier (1891: 242) and Blepharida insignis Brancsik (1897: 130), are transferred to Xanthophysca Fairmaire. The nominotypical subgenus of Blepharida is mainly widespread in Nearctic and Neotropical regions, whereas the subgenus Blepharidina Bechyné is restricted to the Afrotropical region (Furth 1998).


[Blepharidina Bechyné, 1968]

subgenus of Blepharida Chevrolat, 1836


[Blepharidula Weise, 1916]

= Blepharida Chevrolat, 1836

References. Weise 1916: 39; Baly 1878c: 204; Heyden 1887: 98.

Notes. An unnecessary new name proposed by Weise (1916) for Eutheca Baly, 1878 (nec Eutheca Kiesenwetter in Erichson 1877: 155, Coleoptera: Anobiidae). Weise (1916) incorrectly regarded the previous replacement name for Eutheca (Calotheca Heyden, 1887) as unavailable because it was already in use for a plant genus of Poaceae (also known as Gramineae) (cf. Palisot de Beauvois 1812: 85).


[Brinckaltica Bechyné, 1959b]

= Chaetocnema Stephens, 1831


[Buphonella Jacoby, 1903a]

Fig. 24

The genus Buphonella(Fig. 24) is here transferred to the tribe Galerucini.

References. Jacoby 1903a: 37; Laboissière 1922: 178; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 405.

Type species.Apophylia murina Gerstaecker, 1871: 83 (Zanzibar), by subsequent designation by Laboissière (1922: 179).

Distribution. Central, Eastern andSouthernAfrica.

Ecology. Associated with Poaceae (also known as Gramineae). Buphonella murina (Gerstaecker) and Buphonella nigroviolacea (Allard, 1889b: LXXI, LXXIV) can damage maize (cf. Drinkwater 1989: 315).

Notes. Four species have been described. Furth and Suzuki (1994: 123, Fig. 10) report a metafemoral spring for this genus, including a drawing, but re-examination of the specimens they examined revealed that they belong to the genus Hespera Weise. Dissection of a variety of Buphonella specimens did not reveal any structure comparable to a metafemoral spring either. We therefore transfer the genus Buphonella Jacoby to the tribe Galerucini.


[Calotheca Heyden, 1887]

= Blepharida Chevrolat, 1836

Carcharodis Weise, 1910b

http://species-id.net/wiki/Carcharodis

Figs 25, 150, 298
References.

Weise 1910b: 434; Bechyné 1954b: 683; Biondi 2002b: 356; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 405.

Type species.

Chaetocnema rugiceps Baly, 1877: 308 (Madagascar), by subsequent designation by Bechyné (1954b: 683).

Distribution.

Central and Southern Africa, and Madagascar (Fig. 298).

Ecology.

Species of this genus live in moist habitats and are probably associated with plants of the family Cyperaceae (personal data).

Notes.

There are seven known species.

Celisaltica Biondi, 2001a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Celisaltica

Figs 26, 151 –152, 299
References.

Biondi 2001a: 644; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 405.

Type species.

Celisaltica ruwenzorica Biondi, 2001a: 644 (Ruwenzori), by original designation.

Distribution.

Uganda (Fig. 299).

Ecology.

This is the only species in this genus. It lives at high altitudes (3200–4000 m) on the Ruwenzori Massif, and is associated with the Ericetum (Ericaceae) plant community (Biondi 2001a).

Notes.

One species.


[Cercyonia Weise, 1901]

= Amphimela Chapuis, 1875

Chabria Jacoby, 1887

http://species-id.net/wiki/Chabria

Figs 27, 153, 300
References.

Jacoby 1887: 92; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2012a: 3.

Type species.

Chabria nigroplagiata Jacoby, 1887: 92 (Sri Lanka: Bogawantalawa), by subsequent designation by Maulik (1926: 312).

Distribution.

Cameroon (probably introduced); Madagascar, and Republic of South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal) (probably introduced), Australian and Oriental regions; (Fig. 300).

Ecology.

There is no information for the Afrotropical region. Chabria species were collected on Melastoma (Melastomataceae) in Malaysia (Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995), in cacao plantations [Theobroma cacao L. (Malvaceae)] in Sulawesi (Indonesia) (Medvedev 2008) and in primary forest in Mindanao (Philippines) (Medvedev 2002).

Notes.

Four species are known from Afrotropical region, one from Sub-Saharan Africa, probably introduced, and three from Madagascar.

Chaetocnema Stephens, 1831

http://species-id.net/wiki/Chaetocnema

Figs 28, 154, 301
=Brinckaltica Bechyné, 1959b (synonymized by Scherer 1961)
=Exorhina Weise, 1886 (synonymized by Heikertinger and Csiki 1940)
=Plectroscelis Chevrolat, 1836 (synonymized by Weise 1886)
References.

Stephens 1831: 325; Chevrolat 1836: 393; Baly 1877: 166; Weise 1886: 750; Bryant 1928: 393; Heikertinger and Csiki 1940: 376; Laboissière 1942: 81; Bechyné 1959b: 236; 1960b: 91; Scherer 1961: 259; Biondi 2001b: 233; 2002a: 266; 2002b: 356; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2006: 720; 2010a: 405.

Type species.

Chaetocnema: Chrysomela concinna Marsham, 1802 (Europe), by subsequent designation by Westwood (1840: 42); Exorhina: Haltica chlorophana Duftschmid, 1825: 286 (Austria), by subsequent designation by Döberl (2010: 508); Brinckaltica: Chaetocnema subaterrima Jacoby, 1900: 254 (Natal), by original designation.

Distribution.

All zoogeographical regions (Fig. 301).

Ecology.

This genus is mainly associated with plants in the families Chenopodiaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, Poaceae (also known as Gramineae), and Polygonaceae (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995). In the Afrotropical region some Chaetocnema are serious pests of rice (Biondi and D’Alessandro 2008a).

Notes.

Over one hundred species are known from Madagascar and Sub-Saharan Africa.

Chaillucola Bechyné, 1968

http://species-id.net/wiki/Chaillucola

Figs 29, 155, 302
References.

Bechyné 1968: 1713; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2003: 104; 2010a: 405.

Type species.

Chaillucola formicicornis Bechyné 1968: 1714 (Republic of Congo: Mbila), by original designation.

Distribution.

Cameroon (!) [N’Kongsamba (MCSN)] and Republic of Congo (Fig. 302).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

A single species has been described.


[Chaloenus Westwood, 1862]

Not present in the Afrotropical region.

References. Westwood 1862: 216; Bryant 1927: 615; Bechyné 1955b: 543.

Notes. Terpnochlorus perrieri Fairmaire, 1904 (= Chaloenus viridis Bryant, 1927); this species was incorrectly attributed to the Oriental genus Chaloenus(Bechyné, 1955b).

Chirodica Germar, 1834

http://species-id.net/wiki/Chirodica

Figs 30, 156–157, 303
References.

Germar 1834: 2; Baly 1876a: 441; Scherer 1983: 173; Biondi 1998b: 17, 45; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 406.

Type species.

Chirodica chalcoptera Germar, 1834: 16 (Cape of Good Hope), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Namibia and the Republic of South Africa (Fig. 303).

Ecology.

This genus is strictly associated with the plant family Proteaceae (mainly Protea spp. and Leucadendron spp.) (Biondi 1998b).

Notes.

Eight species have been described.


[Cladocera Hope, 1840]

= Polyclada Chevrolat, 1836


[Cladotelia Kolbe, 1894]

= Polyclada Chevrolat, 1836

Collartaltica Bechyné, 1959a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Collartaltica

Figs 31, 158–160, 304)
References.

Bechyné 1959a: 27; Biondi 2002b: 358; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2004: 286; 2010a: 406.

Type species.

Collartaltica cryptostoma Bechyné, 1959a: 27 (Democratic Republic of the Congo: Faradje, Tomati), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Nigeria, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania and Zimbabwe (Fig. 304).

Ecology.

This genus is associated with Poaceae (also known as Gramineae) in moist meadows and forest clearings (Biondi and D’Alessandro 2004).

Notes.

There are six known species.


[Crepidodera Chevrolat, 1836]

Not present in the Afrotropical region.

References. Chevrolat 1836: 391.

Notes. Afrotropical species initially attributed to this genus (cf. Bryant 1927; Jacoby 1899b, 1903a, 1906, Weise 1902b, 1910a, 1924) have mostly been transferred to the genera Afrorestia Bechyné, Afrocrepis Bechyné and Orthocrepis Weise, 1888.


[Cyrtoma Clark, 1863]

Nomen nudum.

Notes. Clark (1863: 165) uses this genus-name, without any description, for an unpublished species from Madagascar [“apicale, Clark” synonymized with “4-maculata, Chevr.” and “Madecassae, Chevr.” (the latter two were also never published)].

Decaria Weise, 1895

http://species-id.net/wiki/Decaria

Figs 32, 305
=Embolimus Weise, 1902
References.

Weise 1895: 344; 1902b: 303; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2003: 104; 2010a: 406.

Type species.

Decaria: Decaria tricolor Weise, 1895: 344 (Sierra Leone, Bang-Haas), designation by monotypy; Embolimus: Embolimus pauli Weise, 1902b: 304 (Kwai), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Afrotropical region (excluding Madagascar) (Fig. 305).

Ecology.

Decaria is associated mainly with plans from the genera Heliotropium (Boraginaceae), Cola (Sterculiaceae) and Ocimum (Lamiaceae) (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995).

Notes.

About twenty species have been described.


[Decarthrocera Laboissière, 1937]

References. Laboissière 1937: 27; Furth and Suzuki 1994: 131.

Notes.

This genus was transferred to the subfamily Galerucinae (currently tribe Galerucini) by Furth and Suzuki (1994).


[Derocrepis Weise, 1886]

Not present in the Afrotropical region.

References. Weise 1886: 676, 686; Heikertinger 1925: 95.

Notes. Species initially attributed to this Palaearctic genus were transferred to the genera Afrocrepis Bechyné and Afrorestia Bechyné.

Diamphidia Gerstaecker, 1855

http://species-id.net/wiki/Diamphidia

Figs 33, 161–163, 306
References.

Gerstaecker 1855: 638; Baly 1861: 198; Laboissière 1942: 109; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 406.

Type species.

Diamphidia femoralis Gerstaecker, 1855: 638 (Sena and Port Natal), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Central, Eastern, and Southern-Eastern Africa (Fig. 306).

Ecology.

A genus associated with shrubs and trees of Commiphora (Burseraceae) (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995; Chaboo et al. 2007).

Notes.

Seventeen species are known.

Dibolia Latreille, 1829

http://species-id.net/wiki/Dibolia

Figs 34, 164–166, 307
=Haltitarsus Berthold in Latreille 1827 (synonymy reported by Heikertinger and Csiki 1940)
References.

Latreille 1829: 155; Berthold in Latreille 1827: 401; Baly 1876b: 598; Weise 1926: 24 (as Haltitarsus); Heikertinger and Csiki 1940: 485; Bechyné 1960b: 101; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 406.

Type species.

Dibolia: Haltica occultans Koch, 1803: 22 (Europe), by subsequent designation by Chûjô (1936: 84).

Distribution.

Sub-Saharan Africa (absent in Madagascar); Nearctic, Neotropical and Palaearctic regions (Fig. 307).

Ecology.

A genus associated mainly with plants in the family Lamiaceae, but also with plants in the Scrophulariceae, Asteraceae and Apicaeae (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995).

Notes.

About twenty species in Sub-Saharan Africa.


[Diboloides Jacoby, 1897]

= Amphimela Chapuis, 1875


[Dibolosoma Jacoby, 1897]

= Amphimela Chapuis, 1875

Dimonikaea Bechyné, 1968

http://species-id.net/wiki/Dimonikaea

Figs 35, 167–169, 308
References.

Bechyné 1968: 1711; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2003: 104; 2010a: 406.

Type species.

Dimonikaea descarpentriesi Bechyné, 1968: 1712 (Republic of Congo: Dimonika), by original designation.

Distribution.

Republic of Congo and Gabon (!) [Makokou (NMHN)] (Fig. 308).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

A single species is known. Bechyné (1968) incorrectly included Gabonia miraculosa Scherer (1963: 652) in this genus (Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a).

Diphaulacosoma Jacoby, 1892a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Diphaulacosoma

Figs 36, 170–171, 309
= Neoderina Bechyné, 1952 (subgenus of Neodera Duvivier, 1891) syn. n.
References.

Jacoby 1892a: 574; Bechyné 1952: 251; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 406.

Type species.

Diphaulacosoma: Diphaulacosoma laevipenne Jacoby, 1892a: 574−575 (Madagascar), designation by monotypy; Neoderina: Neodera (Neoderina) crassicornis Bechyné, 1952: 251 (Madagascar, Ambohitsitondrona), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Madagascar (Fig. 309).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Four species (personal data). No diagnostic characters distinguish Neoderina Bechyné from Diphaulacosoma. Therefore, the following new synonymy is proposed: Diphaulacosoma Jacoby, 1892a = Neoderina Bechyné, 1952 syn. n. Material examined: Neodera (Neoderina) crassicornis Bechyné, “Madagascar, Ambohitsitondrona, x-xii.47, Michel leg.”, “typus” ♂ and “cotypus” ♀ (MNHN).

Djallonia Bechyné, 1955b

http://species-id.net/wiki/Djallonia

Figs 37, 172, 310
References.

Bechyné 1955b: 534; Scherer 1962a: 57; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 406.

Type species.

Djallonia maindra Bechyné, 1955b: 534 (French Guinea: Dalaba), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Democratic Republic of the Congo and Guinea (Fig. 310).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Only one species is known.

Drakensbergianella Biondi & D’Alessandro, 2003

http://species-id.net/wiki/Drakensbergianella

Figs 38, 173–175, 311
References.

Biondi and D’Alessandro 2003: 100; 2010a: 406.

Type species.

Drakensbergianella rudebecki Biondi and D’Alessandro, 2003: 100 (Republic of South Africa, Drakensberg), designation by monotypy.

Distribution. Republic of South Africa (Free State and KwaZulu-Natal) (Fig. 311).

Ecology.

Drakensbergianella rudebecki is the only species in this genus. It lives in alpine meadows (> 2, 000 m) on the Drakensberg and was collected on the inflorescences of Senecio and Helichrysum (Asteraceae) (Biondi and D’Alessandro 2003).

Notes.

A single species has been described.

Dunbrodya Jacoby, 1906

http://species-id.net/wiki/Dunbrodya

Figs 39, 176–179, 312
References.

Jacoby 1906: 19; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 407.

Type species.

Dunbrodya nitida Jacoby, 1906: 20 (Cape Colony), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Ethiopia (!) [Sidamo (BAQ)] and the Republic of South Africa [Eastern (!): Kirkwood (SANC), Grahamstown (SANC), Uitenhage (BAQ); Northern (!): Port Nolloth (SANC); and Western Cape Provinces] (Fig. 312).

Ecology.

Dunbrodya nitida was collected on an Asparagus sp. (Asparagaceae) (Jacoby 1906).

Notes.

Two species are known (personal data).


[Embolimus Weise, 1902b]

= Decaria Weise, 1895


[Entymosina Weise, 1910b]

= Abrarius Fairmaire, 1902

Epitrix Foudras, 1860

http://species-id.net/wiki/Epitrix

Figs 40, 180, 313
=Euplecnema Jacoby, 1906 (synonymized by Scherer 1963)
References.

Foudras 1860: 147; Jacoby 1906: 22; Scherer 1963: 672; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 407.

Type species.

Epitrix: Epitrix atropae Foudras, 1860: 55 (Europe), by subsequent designation by Maulik (1926: 130, 133); Euplecnema: Euplecnema nigrita Jacoby, 1906: 22 (Dunbrody, Cape Colony), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

All zoogeographical regions (Fig. 313).

Ecology.

The genus Epitrix is mainly associated with plants in the family Solanaceae. Some species can be harmful to plants of economic importance (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995).

Notes.

About a dozen species are known from Madagascar and Sub-Saharan Africa.


[Eremiella Weise, 1910a]

= Eurylegna Weise, 1910a

Eriotica Harold, 1877a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Eriotica

Figs 41, 181, 314
=Aridohespera Selman, 1963 (synonymized by Selman 1968)
=Niphraea Baly, 1878a (synonymized by Harold 1878)
References.

Harold 1877a: 107; 1878: 206; Baly 1878a: 40; Ferreira 1963: 516; Selman 1963: 1156; 1968: 248; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 407.

Type species.

Eriotica: Eriotica fuscipennis Harold, 1877a: 107 (Nyassa), designation by monotypy; Aridohespera: Aridohespera mateui Selman, 1963: 1157 (Terr. N. Tchad, Ouedi Saala, Mortcha), by original designation. Niphraea: Niphraea hirtipennis Baly, 1878a (Lake Nyassa), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Ethiopia, Kenya (!) [S of Garissa (BAQ); NW of Garsen (BAQ); Taita, Mwatate (BAQ)], Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Socotra Island (Yemen) (Fig. 314).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Seven species are known.


[Escaleriella Weise, 1907a]

= Lypnea Baly, 1876a


[Ethiopia Scherer, 1972]

= Aphthona Chevrolat, 1836


[Eugonotes Jacoby, 1897]

= Sanckia Duvivier, 1891


[Euplecnema Jacoby, 1906]

= Epitrix Foudras, 1860

Eurylegna Weise, 1910a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Eurylegna

Figs 42, 43, 182, 315
=Eremiella Weise, 1910a (synonymized by Scherer 1972)
=Eurylegniella Scherer, 1972 syn. n.
References.

Weise 1910a: 228; Scherer 1972: 10, 12; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 407.

Type species.

Eurylegna: Eurylegna fulva Weise, 1910a: 228 (Kilimanjaro), designation by monotypy; Eremiella: Eremiella rubra Weise, 1910a: 229 (Kilimanjaro in Kiboscho, 3.000 m), designation by monotypy; Eurylegniella: Eurylegna guineensis Bechyné, 1955b: 528 (French Guinea: Mount Gangan; Dalaba; Nzérékoré; Mount Nimba), by original designation.

Distribution.

Nigeria, Guinea, Ethiopia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda (!) [Budongo Forest, Sonso (BAQ)], Rwanda, and Malawi (!) [Dedza (BAQ)] (Fig. 315).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Six species have been described. There are no important diagnostic characters distinguishing Eurylegniella Scherer from Eurylegna. The following synonymy is therefore proposed: Eurylegna Weise, 1910 = Eurylegniella Scherer, 1972 syn. n. Material examined: Eurylegniella guineensis (Bechyné) (det. G. Scherer), “Imperial College, Expdn. Ghana 1960, 24.8.60, Bobiri Forest, Kumasi, Ashanti”, 1 specimen (ZSM); “Congo Belge, P.N.G., Miss. H. De Saeger, Mt Embe, 20-iv-1952, H. De Saeger, 3347”, 1 specimen (MRAC).


[Eurylegniella Scherer, 1972]

= Eurylegna Weise, 1910a


[Eutheca Baly, 1878c]

= Blepharida Chevrolat, 1836

Eutornus Clark, 1860

http://species-id.net/wiki/Eutornus

Figs 44, 183–184, 316
Oedionychus Berthold, 1827 (pars)
References.

Clark 1860: 64; Bechyné 1959c: Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 407.

Type species.

Oedionychus (Eutornus) africanus Clark, 1860: 65, by original designation.

Distribution.

Madagascar and Sub-Saharan Africa (absent in the northern-eastern part of EAF) (Fig. 316).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

About eight species are known, one of which is from Madagascar.


[Exorhina Weise, 1886]

= Chaetocnema Stephens, 1831

Gabonia Jacoby, 1893

http://species-id.net/wiki/Gabonia

Figs 45, 185–186, 317
=Jamesonia Jacoby, 1895 (unnecessary new name for Gabonia Jacoby; synonymized by Weise 1902a)
=Orneates Jacoby, 1899b (synonymized by Weise 1910a)
=Thrymnes Weise, 1895 (synonymized by Weise 1902a)
References.

Jacoby 1893: 101; 1895: 341; 1899b: 345; Weise 1895: 338; 1902a: 173; 1910a: 231; Bechyné 1955b: 489; Scherer 1962a: 21; Scherer and Boppré 1997: 10, 32; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2003: 105; 2010a: 407.

Type species.

Gabonia: Gabonia unicostata Jacoby, 1893: 101 (Gabon), designation by monotypy; Orneates: Orneates nigritus Jacoby, 1899b: 345 (Natal), designation by monotypy; Thrymnes: Thrymnes custos Weise, 1895: 339 (Ashante), by present designation.

Distribution.

Afrotropical region (excluding Madagascar) and Arabian Peninsula (?) (Fig. 317).

Ecology.

Polyphagous. This genus has been associated with several plant families (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995; personal data).

Notes.

About one hundred and fifty species are known to occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. According to Biondi and D’Alessandro (2003), Gabonia is closely related to Luperomorpha Weise, 1887. The latter genus is widespread and prevalent in the Australian and Oriental regions, and is probably a synonym of the former genus. Many species currently attributed to Gabonia do not show any significant differences from Luperomorpha species. The diagnostic character reported by Scherer and Boppré (1997) for separating these two genera is the apical spur on the hind tibia: long and straight in Gabonia; very short in Luperomorpha. However, this character is not always reliable. In view of the wide spectrum of variability displayed by the genus Gabonia, and the need to consider various other genera, synonymy with Luperomorpha may be confirmed by a detailed and careful comparative study of this complicated African genus in the future (Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a; Doguet 1979).


[Gastrida Chapuis, 1879]

References. Chapuis, 1879: 20; Furth and Suzuki 1994: 131.

Notes. This genus was transferred to the subfamily Galerucinae (currently tribe Galerucini) by Furth and Suzuki (1994).


[Graptodera Chevrolat, 1836]

= Altica Geoffroy, 1762

Guilielmia Weise, 1924

http://species-id.net/wiki/Guilielmia

Figs 46, 318
References.

Weise 1924: 23; Scherer 1961: 269; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2003: 97; 2010a: 408.

Type species.

Guilielmia monticola Weise, 1924: 24 (Birunga, Mount Mukeno), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Uganda and Rwanda (Fig. 318).

Ecology.

The only species in this genus was collected at a high altitude (3100 m) (Weise 1924).

Notes.

A single species is known.

Guinerestia Scherer, 1959

http://species-id.net/wiki/Guinerestia

Figs 47, 187 –188, 319
References.

Scherer 1959: 243−244; 1962a: 57; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 408.

Type species.

Guinerestia rubripes Scherer, 1959: 244 (Nigeria-Cameroon: Mamfe), by original designation.

Distribution.

Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Nigeria and Rwanda (Fig. 319).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Three species have been described.


[Haltica Illiger, 1801]

= Altica Geoffroy, 1762


[Halticella Jacoby, 1899b]

= Amphimela Chapuis, 1875


[Halticopsis Fairmaire, 1883a]

Fig. 48

The genus Halticopsis (Fig. 48) is here transferred to the tribe Galerucini.

References. Fairmaire 1883a: 197, 1883b: 112; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 408.

Type species.Halticopsis spissicornis Fairmaire, 1883b: 112 (Mountains of Abyssinia), designation by monotypy.

Distribution. Ethiopia.

Ecology. No information.

Notes. This Afrotropical genus, including a single species known from Ethiopia, is here transferred to the tribe Galerucini because of the absence of a metafemoral spring.


[Halticorthaea Csiki, 1940 in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940]

= Amphimela Chapuis, 1875

Halticotropis Fairmaire, 1886

http://species-id.net/wiki/Halticotropis

Figs 49, 189–191, 320
References.

Fairmaire 1886: 95; Bechyné 1964: 158; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 408.

Type species.

Halticotropis multiplicata Fairmaire, 1886: 95 (Madagascar), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Madagascar (Fig. 320).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Two species have been described.


[Halticova Fairmaire, 1898]

= Amphimela Chapuis, 1875


[Haltitarsus Berthold, 1827]

= Dibolia Latreille, 1829

Hemipyxis Chevrolat, 1836

http://species-id.net/wiki/Hemipyxis

Figs 50, 192 –194, 321
=Sebaethe Baly, 1864 (synonymized by Monrós and Bechyné 1956)
Asphaera Chevrolat, 1843 (pars)
References.

Chevrolat 1836: 387; 1843: 227; Baly 1864: 438; Monrós and Bechyné 1956: 1134; Bechyné 1958b: 193; 1960b: 110; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 408.

Type species.

Hemipyxis: Haltica troglodytes Olivier, 1808: 700 (India), by subsequent designation by Chevrolat (1845: 6); Sebaethe: Haltica badia Erichson, 1834: 274 (Philippines), by original designation.

Distribution.

Afrotropical (excluding Madagascar), Australian, Eastern Palaearctic, and Oriental regions (Fig. 321).

Ecology.

Polyphagous. This genus has been associated with herbaceous plants and shrubs belonging to many plant families (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995).

Notes.

About thirty species are known from Sub-Saharan Africa. Six species of Hemipyxis, known from Madagascar, are here transferred to the genus Pseudadorium Fairmaire (see Notes in Pseudadorium).


[Hermaeophaga Foudras, 1859]

Not present in the Afrotropical region.

References. Foudras, 1859: 147.

Notes. Species originally described in this Palaearctic genus were subsequently transferred to Orthocrepis Weise by Scherer (1961: 267).

Hespera Weise, 1889

http://species-id.net/wiki/Hespera

Figs 51, 195, 322
=Allomorpha Jacoby, 1892b (synonymized by Maulik 1926)
References.

Weise 1889: 638; Jacoby 1892b: 934; Maulik 1926: 137; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 408.

Type species.

Hespera: Hespera sericea Weise, 1889: 639 (China), by original designation; Allomorpha: Allomorpha sericea Jacoby, 1892b: 934 [Burma (=Myanmar): Carin Chebà], designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Afrotropical (excluding Madagascar), Eastern Palaeartic, and Oriental regions (Fig. 322).

Ecology.

The Afrotropical species of this genus are mainly associated with plants in the families Anacardiaceae and Ericaceae (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995; personal data).

Notes.

About thirty species are known from Sub-Saharan Africa.

Hildebrandtina Weise, 1910b

http://species-id.net/wiki/Hildebrandtina

Figs 52, 196–197, 323
References.

Weise 1910b: 464; Laboissière 1932: 584; Bechyné 1948b: 99; 1964: 131; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 408.

Type species.

Hildebrandtina variegata Weise, 1910b: 465 (Madagascar), by original designation.

Distribution.

Madagascar (Fig. 323).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

This genus, with about ten species known to occur in Madagascar, was transferred from the subfamily Galerucinae to the Alticinae (currently the tribe Alticini) by Biondi and D’Alessandro (2010a). The reason being the presence of a metafemoral spring, very similar to that described for the Oriental genus Mandarella Duvivier (1892b: 433) (cf. Furth and Suzuki 1994).

Homichloda Weise, 1902a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Homichloda

Figs 53, 198, 324
=Weiseana Jacoby, 1903a (synonymized by Cox 1997)
References.

Weise 1902a: 165; Jacoby 1903a: 16, 1906: 23 (as Weiseana); Cox 1997: 939.

Type species.

Homichloda: Homichloda pauli Weise, 1902a: 166 (Kwai), designation by monotypy; Weiseana: Weiseana barkeri Jacoby, 1903: 16 (Natal, Malvern), by original designation.

Distribution.

Kenya, Republic of South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal), Tanzania and Zambia (Fig. 324).

Ecology.

A genus that has been associated with a variety of Acacia species, trees in the family Fabaceae (Cox 1997).

Notes.

Three species have been described.

Hyphasis Harold, 1877b

http://species-id.net/wiki/Hyphasis

Figs 54, 199 –200, 325
= Hyphasoma Jacoby, 1903b (synonymized by Chen 1936)
Physoma Clark, 1863 (pars)
References.

Clark 1863: 165; Harold 1877b: 434; Jacoby 1901: 298; 1903b: 110; Maulik 1926: 158, 166; Chen 1936: 627; Heikertinger and Csiki 1940: 457; Bechyné 1948a: 10; 1958a: 90 (as Hyphasoma); Konstantinov and Vanderberg 1996: 369.

Type species

. Hyphasis: Oedionychis magica Harold, 1877b: 434 (India), by original designation. Hyphasoma: Hyphasoma inconspicua Jacoby, 1903b: 111 (India), by subsequent designation of Maulik (1926: 156).

Distribution.

Mascarene Islands (probably introduced), Oriental region and South-Eastern part of the Palaearctic region (Fig. 325).

Ecology.

This genus is associated with plants in the families Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995).

Notes.

The Malagasy species initially attributed to this Oriental genus were previously transferred to Hyphasoma Jacoby (Heikertinger and Csiki 1940) and then to Physoma Clark (Bechyné 1948a). Bechyné (1958a) reports Hyphasis (as Hyphasoma) sita (Maulik 1926: 158), described from Sri Lanka (= Ceylon), as an introduced species on the Mascarene Islands (Mauritius). We here confirm that this flea beetle genus does occur on the island of Mauritius.

Jacobyana Maulik, 1926

http://species-id.net/wiki/Jacobyana

Figs 55, 201–202, 326
References.

Maulik 1926: 284, 302–303; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2011: 49.

Type species.

Sphaerophysa piceicollis Jacoby, 1889c: 195 (Burma), by original designation.

Distribution.

Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Republic of South Africa (Eastern Cape Province), Zimbabwe (!) [Bulawayo, Shangani (BAQ)], and the Oriental region (Fig. 326).

Ecology.

No information for Afrotropical region.

Notes.

Three species have been described.


[Jamesonia Jacoby, 1895]

= Gabonia Jacoby, 1893

Kanonga Bechyné, 1960b

http://species-id.net/wiki/Kanonga

Figs 56, 203, 327
References.

Bechyné 1960a: 54; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2003: 104; 2010a: 409.

Type species.

Kanonga atra Bechyné, 1960b: 54 (Upemba National Park: Kanonga), by original designation.

Distribution.

Democratic Republic of the Congo and Togo (Fig. 327).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

One species is known.

Kenialtica Bechyné, 1960b

http://species-id.net/wiki/Kenialtica

Figs 57, 204, 328
=Mediafra Scherer, 1961 (synonymy reported in Seeno and Wilcox 1982)
References.

Bechyné 1960b: 75; Scherer 1961: 266; Seeno and Wilcox 1982: 136; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 409.

Type species.

Kenialtica: Aphthona muhavura Bechyné, 1955a: 207 (Rwanda, East of Muhavura), by original designation; Mediafra: Aphthona muhavura Bechyné, 1955a: 207 (Rwanda, East of Muhavura), by original designation.

Distribution.

Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Madagascar, Republic of South Africa (Limpopo), Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Sierra Leoneand Uganda (!) [Budongo Forest, Sonso (BAQ)] (Fig. 328).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Seven species have been described.

Kimongona Bechyné, 1959a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Kimongona

Figs 58, 59, 205, 329
=Mesocrepis Scherer, 1963 syn. n.
References.

Bechyné 1959a: 19; Scherer 1963: 668; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 409, 410.

Type species.

Kimongona: Kimongona callifera Bechyné, 1959a: 19 (Democratic Republic of the Congo: Mayumbe, Kimongo), by original designation. Mesocrepis: Mesocrepis lindemannae Scherer, 1963: 669 (Tanzania: Njombe), by original designation.

Distribution.

Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of South Africa (Mpumalanga), Rwanda, and Tanzania (Fig. 329).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Three species are known.There are no significant diagnostic characters distinguishing Mesocrepis Scherer from Kimongona. Therefore, the following new synonymy is proposed: Kimongona Bechyné, 1959 = Mesocrepis Scherer, 1963 syn. n.Type material examined: Mesocrepis lindemannae Scherer, “Tanganjika, Uwemba b. Njombe, 2000 m, 8–11.XI.1958, leg. C. Lindemann”, paratypes 1♂ and 1♀ (NHMB).


[Lactica Erichson, 1847]

Not present in the Afrotropical region.

References. Erichson 1847: 173; Weise 1902b: 302; Bryant 1940: 46; Bechyné 1959a: 19.

Notes. The Afrotropical species initially attributed to this Neotropical genus were transferred to Phygasia Chevrolat (Weise 1902b; Bryant 1940) and Orthocrepis Weise (Döberl 2012: 438); and the Malagasy species were transferred to Antanemora Bechyné (Bechyné 1959a).

Lampedona Weise, 1907a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Lampedona

Figs 60, 206, 330
References.

Weise 1907a: 399; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 409.

Type species.

Lampedona tarsalis Weise, 1907a: 399 (Spanish Guinea), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Republic of the Congo and Tanzania (Fig. 330).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

There are three described species.

Lepialtica Scherer, 1962a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Lepialtica

Figs 61, 207, 331
References.

Scherer 1962a: 30; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 409.

Type species.

Lepialtica bicolor Scherer, 1962a: 31 (Garamba National Park), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi (!) [Mulanje Mts (BAQ); Kasungu(BAQ)] and Zambia (!) [35 km S of Kasama (BAQ)] (Fig. 331).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Four species are known (personal data).


[Livolia Jacoby, 1903]

References. Jacoby, 1903a: 16; Furth and Suzuki 1994: 132.

Notes. Genus transferred to the subfamily Galerucinae (currently tribe Galerucini) by Furth and Suzuki (1994).

Longitarsus Berthold, 1827

http://species-id.net/wiki/Longitarsus

Figs 62, 208, 332)
References.

Berthold 1827: 401; Bechyné 1958c: 8; 1960b: 55; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2008b: 719; 2010a: 409.

Type species.

Chrysomela atricilla Linnaeus 1761: 166 (Europe), by subsequent designation by Maulik (1926: 333).

Distribution.

All zoogeographical regions (Fig. 332).

Ecology.

This genus is polyphagous and has been associated with several plant families, particularly the Boraginaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Scrophulariaceae (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995; personal data).

Notes.

Over one hundred species known from Madagascar and Sub-Saharan Africa (personal data).

Luperomorpha Weise, 1887

http://species-id.net/wiki/Luperomorpha

Figs 63, 333
References.

Weise 1887: 202; 1915: 179; Bechyné 1959a: 1; Doguet 1979: 308; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 409; Döberl 2012: 439.

Type species.

Luperomorpha trivialis Weise, 1887: 204 (Siberia: Raddefka; Chingan), by original designation.

Distribution.

Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia (!) [Oromia region (BAQ)], Nigeria, and Saudi Arabia, Socotra Island (Yemen) and the Australian, Eastern Palaearctic and Oriental regions (Fig. 333).

Ecology.

Polyphagous (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995). There is no ecological information on this genus for the Afrotropical region. Luperomorpha biondii Döberl (2012: 439) was collected in Socotra on Cephalocroton socotranus (Euphorbiaceae).

Notes.

Two species have been described for the Afrotropical region: Luperomorpha vittula (Weise, 1915) [described as Jamesonia Jacoby but then transferred to Luperomorpha by Bechyné (1959a)] and Luperomorpha biondii Döberl. Concerning the presence of this genus in the Afrotropical region, we refer to the comments reported for Gabonia Jacoby.

Lypnea Baly, 1876a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Lypnea

Figs 64, 209–210, 334)
=Escaleriella Weise, 1907 (synonymized by Scherer 1961)
=Poephila Weise, 1895 (name preoccupied by Poephila Gould 1842: 93 [pl.], Aves, Estrildidae)
=Poephilina Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki, 1940 (new name for Poephila Weise, 1895; synonymized by Bechyné 1968)
References.

Baly 1876a: 446; Weise 1895: 342; 1907a: 396; Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940: 349; Bechyné 1960a: 15; 1968: 1717−1718; Scherer 1961: 267; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 409.

Type species.

Lypnea: Lypnea flava Baly, 1876a: 446 (New Guinea, Batchian), designation by monotypy; Escaleriella: Escaleriella marginata Weise, 1907: 398 [Spanish Guinea (= Equatorial Guinea)], by present designation; Poephila: Poephila lacessita Weise, 1895: 342 (Addah), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Afrotropical (including Madagascar), Australian, Eastern Palaearctic, and Oriental regions (Fig. 334).

Ecology.

Lypnea flaveola (Bryant, 1944) collected on Oncoba echinata Oliver (Flacourtiaceae) (Bryant 1944b, as Poephila).

Notes.

About ten species are known from Madagascar and Sub-Saharan Africa . Bechyné (1968: 1718) considered Escaleriella Weise and Lypnea Baly to be separate genera because of the difference in the shape of their elytral epipleura: expanded in Lypnea, but straight and narrow in Escaleriella.


[Macroorthocrepis Pic, 1921]

= Phygasia Chevrolat, 1836

Malvernia Jacoby, 1899b

http://species-id.net/wiki/Malvernia

Figs 65, 211, 335
References.

Jacoby 1899b: 346; Biondi 1998a: 37; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2003: 104; 2010a: 410.

Type species.

Malvernia varicornis Jacoby 1899b: 347 (KwaZulu-Natal, Malvern), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Malawi and the Republic of South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, and North-West Province) (Fig. 335).

Ecology.

Malvernia varicornis has been collected on the flowers of Burchellia bubalina (L. f.) Simms (Rubiaceae) (Biondi 1998a).

Notes.

Two known species.

Manobia Jacoby, 1885

http://species-id.net/wiki/Manobia

Figs 66, 212, 336
=Afroalytus Scherer, 1961 (synonymized by Biondi 2001a)
References.

Jacoby 1885: 73; Scherer 1961: 269; 1962a: 54; Biondi 2001a: 648; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 410.

Type species.

Manobia: Manobia nigripennis Jacoby, 1885: 73 (Sumatra), by subsequent designation by Maulik (1926: 285, 407); Afroalytus: Afroalytus kivuensis Scherer, 1961: 269, 286 (Kivu: T. Kalehe, 2850 m), by original designation.

Distribution.

Central, Eastern [Kenya (!), Taita Hills, Ngangao (BAQ)] and Western Africa; Australian, Eastern Palaearctic, and Oriental regions (Fig. 336).

Ecology.

This genus is probably polyphagous and has been reported mainly from the following plant families: Epacridaceae, Urticaceae, Cyatheaceae, Asteraceae and Arecaceae (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995).

Notes.

About fifteen species described from Sub-Saharan Africa.


[Mantura Stephens, 1831]

Not present in the Afrotropical region.

= Balanomorpha Chevrolat, 1836 (synonymy reported in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940)

References. Stephens 1831: 285, 322; Chevrolat 1836: 393; Weise 1907b: 222; Bechyné 1955a: 220.

Notes. Mantura quadriplagiata Jacoby (1895: 321) transferred to Podagrica Chevrolat by Bechyné (1955a); Balanomorpha aethiopica Chapuis (1879: 13) transferred to Neumannia Weise nom. preocc.(= Podagricina Csiki; = Podagrica Chevrolat) by Weise (1907).


[Mediafra Scherer, 1961]

= Kenialtica Bechyné, 1960a


[Mesocrepis Scherer, 1963]

= Kimongona Bechyné, 1959a

Metroserrapha Bechyné, 1958a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Metroserrapha

Figs 67, 213, 337
References.

Bechyné 1958a: 86; Doguet 1974: 120; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 410.

Type species.

Metroserrapha prima Bechyné, 1958a: 86 (Mauritius Island), by original designation.

Distribution.

Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands (Fig. 337).

Ecology.

The species in this genus are probably polyphagous, and have been associated mainly with plants in the Ericaceae, Asteraceae and Polygonaceae (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995).

Notes.

Seven species are known from the Mascarene Islands and about ten, as yet undescribed, from Madagascar (personal data).


[Monodaltica Bechyné, 1955b]

= Trachytetra Sharp, 1886

Montiaphthona Scherer, 1961

http://species-id.net/wiki/Montiaphthona

Figs 68, 214–215, 338
References.

Scherer 1961: 282; 1962a: 17; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2003: 98; 2010a: 410.

Type species.

Montiaphthona monticola Scherer, 1961: 285 (Kivu: Mont Muhi), by original designation.

Distribution.

Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Republic of South Africa (!) [Mpumalanga, Mount Sheba (BAQ)], Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda (Fig. 338)

Ecology.

The species of this genus generally live at altitudes above 2, 500 m in mixed bamboo forests.

Notes.

Six species have been described.


[Musaka Bechyné, 1958a]

= Sphaeroderma Stephens, 1831

Myrcina Chapuis, 1875

http://species-id.net/wiki/Myrcina

Figs 69, 216, 339
=Myrcinella Jacoby, 1901 (synonymized by Bechyné 1964)
=Xenaltica Baly, 1875 (synonymized by Laboissière 1942)
References.

Chapuis 1875: 124, 126; Baly 1875: 25; Jacoby 1901: 301; Laboissière 1942: 50; Bechyné 1964: 150; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 410.

Type species.

Myrcina: Myrcina nigra Chapuis, 1875: 127 (Vieux-Calabar), by original designation; Myrcinella: Myrcina spectabilis Baly, 1878b: 232 (Madagascar), by subsequent designation by Bechyné (1964: 150); Xenaltica: Xenaltica murrayi Baly, 1875: 26 (Old Calabar) (= Myrcina nigra Chapuis, 1875: 127), by present designation.

Distribution.

Madagascar and Sub-Saharan Africa (absent in the southern part of SAF) (Fig. 339).

Ecology.

Some species of this genus were collected from Spathodea sp. (Bignoniaceae) in Eastern Africa (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995).

Notes.

Twenty-three species are known.


[Myrcinella Jacoby, 1901]

= Myrcina Chapuis, 1875

Neodera Duvivier, 1891

http://species-id.net/wiki/Neodera

Figs 70, 340
References.

Duvivier 1891: 316; Bechyné 1947b: 139; 1964: 152; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 410.

Type species.

Crepidodera picticornis Harold, 1877a: 107 (Madagascar), by present designation.

Distribution.

Madagascar. Weise (1923: 122) described Neodera australis from specimens from Australia (Queensland); however the generic placement of this species is not correct (C. Reid, 2010, pers. comm.) (Fig. 340).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

About fifteen known species.The subgenusNeoderina Bechyné (1952) is here considered to be a synonym of Diphaulacosoma Jacoby (see above).


[Neoderina Bechyné, 1952]

= Diphaulacosoma Jacoby, 1892a


[Neumannia Weise, 1907b]

= Podagrica Chevrolat, 1836


[Niphraea Baly, 1878a]

= Eriotica Harold, 1877a

Nisotra Baly, 1864

http://species-id.net/wiki/Nisotra

Figs 71, 217 –218, 341
=Pseudonisotra Bechyné, 1968 (synonymized by Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a)
References.

Baly 1864: 437; Bechyné 1955a: 220; 1959d: 153; 1960b: 88; 1968: 1719; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 411.

Type species.

Nisotra: Haltica gemella Erichson, 1834: 275 (Philippines: Luzon), by subsequent designation by Chapuis (1875: 42); Pseudonisotra: Crepidodera tosta Gerstaecker, 1871: 85 (Kenya: Mombasa), by original designation.

Distribution.

Afrotropical (including Madagascar), Australian, Eastern Palaearctic and Oriental regions (Fig. 341).

Ecology.

Species in this genus are mainly associated with plants in the family Malvaceae (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995).

Notes.

About seventy species of this genus are known to occur in Madagascar and Sub-Saharan Africa.

Notomela Jacoby, 1899b

http://species-id.net/wiki/Notomela

Figs 72, 219–220, 342
References.

Jacoby 1899b: 357; Bryant 1931: 255; Scherer 1969: 371; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 411.

Type species.

Notomela cyanipennis Jacoby, 1899b: 357 (Cameroon), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea (Fernando Poo Island), Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, Republic of South Africa (North-West Province and KwaZulu-Natal), Rwanda and Uganda, (Fig. 342).

Ecology.

Notomela fulvicollis Bryant, 1931 was collected on Xanthoxylum capense (Thunb.) Harv. (Rutaceae) in South East Africa (Bryant 1931).

Notes.

Four species have been described.

Ntaolaltica Biondi and D’Alessandro, in press

http://species-id.net/wiki/Ntaolaltica

Figs 73, 221–223, 343
References.

Biondi and D’Alessandro, in press.

Type species.

Ntaolaltica antennata Biondi and D’Alessandro, in press (Madagascar: Analamerana, 50 km SE of Diégo-Suarez), by original designation.

Distribution.

Madagascar (Fig. 343).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

A single species has been described.

Nzerekorena Bechyné, 1955b

http://species-id.net/wiki/Nzerekorena

Figs 74, 224, 344
References.

Bechyné 1955b: 507; Scherer 1959: 190; Scherer and Boppré 1997: 10, 32; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2003: 104; 2010a: 411.

Type species.

Nzerekorena cerambycina Bechyné, 1955b: 507 (French Guinea: Nzérékoré; Liberia: Kaouyéké; Dahomey: Forèt de Ketou), by original designation.

Distribution.

Benin, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi (!) [Mulanje Mts. (BAQ)], Nigeria and Uganda (Fig. 344).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Nine species are known.


[Ochrosis Foudras, 1860]

Not present in the Afrotropical region.

References. Foudras 1860: 147; Jacoby 1906: 17; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 411.

Notes.

The species Ochrosis natalensis Jacoby (1906) was first attributed to this Palaearctic genus. However, examination of the type material resulted in the transfer of this species to the genus Bechuana Scherer (Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a).


[Oedionychis Latreille, 1829]

Not present in the Afrotropical region.

References. Latreille 1829: 154; Konstantinov and Vandenberg 1996: 367.

Notes. Currently, four species that occur in southwestern Europe and North Africa are attributed to this genus (Konstantinov and Vanderberg 1996). Afrotropical species described as Oedyonichis were previously transferred to the genera Eutornus Clark, Philopona Weise, Physodactyla Chapuis, Physoma Clark, and Physomandroya Bechyné.


[Orneates Jacoby, 1899b]

= Gabonia Jacoby, 1893

Orthocrepis Weise, 1888

http://species-id.net/wiki/Orthocrepis

Figs 75, 225–226, 345
Crepidodera Chevrolat, 1836 (pars)
Hermaeophaga Foudras, 1860 (pars)
Lactica Erichson, 1847 (pars)
References.

Weise 1888: 850; Bechyné 1948a: 4 (as Hermaeophaga); 1954b: 677; 1955a: 224; 1964: 141; Scherer 1961: 267; 1963: 664; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 411.

Type species.

Haltica ruficollis Lucas, 1849: 546 (Algeria), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Afrotropical (including Madagascar), Oriental and Palaearctic regions (Fig. 345).

Ecology.

The species in this genus are mainly associated with plants in the family Euphorbiaceae, but also with Leguminosae and Malvaceae (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995; Pollard 1957).

Notes.

About twenty-five species have been recorded in Sub-Saharan Africa and sixteen from Madagascar.

Paradibolia Baly, 1875

http://species-id.net/wiki/Paradibolia

Figs 76, 227, 346
References.

Baly 1875: 31; Weise 1912: 157; Bryant 1927: 617; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 411.

Type species.

Paradibolia indica Baly, 1875: 31 (India), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Namibia (!) [Fish River Canyon (ZMHB); Hereroland (ZMHB); Windhoek (BAQ); Waterberg National Park (BAQ)], Republic of South Africa, Sierra Leone, Australian and Oriental regions (Fig. 346).

Ecology.

Species in this genus are associated with plants from the family Lamiaceae in South Africa (personal data).

Notes.

Three species are known.


[Paropsiderma Bechyné, 1958a]

= Sesquiphaera Bechyné, 1958a

Perichilona Weise, 1919

http://species-id.net/wiki/Perichilona

Figs 77, 228, 347
References.

Weise 1919: 202; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 411.

Type species.

Perichilona rufa Weise, 1919: 203 (Gaviro, Kwiro), by present designation.

Distribution.

Tanzania (Fig. 347).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Two species have been described.

Philopona Weise, 1903

http://species-id.net/wiki/Philopona

Figs 78, 229, 348
Oedionychus Berthold, 1827 (pars)
References.

Weise 1903: 216; Laboissière 1942: 105; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 411.

Type species.

Oedionychis (?) vernicata Gerstaecker, 1871: 84 (Zanzibar), by original designation.

Distribution.

Afrotropical (excluding Madagascar), Australian, Oriental and Southern-Eastern Palaearctic regions (Fig. 348).

Ecology.

Philopona usambarica Csiki (in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940: 453) collected on Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims (Acanthaceae) in Kenya (Furth 1985).

Notes.

About twenty species known from Sub-Saharan Africa.

Phygasia Chevrolat, 1836

http://species-id.net/wiki/Phygasia

Figs 79, 230, 349
=Macroorthocrepis Pic, 1921 (synonymized by Bechyné 1960b)
Lactica Erichson, 1847 (pars)
References.

Chevrolat 1836: 387; Harold 1877b: 365; Fairmaire 1888: 156; Pic 1921: 14; Bryant 1940: 46; Bechyné 1960b: 82; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 412; in press.

Type species.

Phygasia: Altica unicolor Olivier, 1808: 699 (India), by original designation; Macroorthocrepis: Macroorthocrepis pallidicolor Pic, 1921: 14 (Abyssinia), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Afrotropical (excluding Madagascar), Oriental and Palaearctic regions (Fig. 349).

Ecology.

Species in this genus are mainly associated with plants in the family Asclepiadaceae (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995).

Notes.

About thirty-five species have been described in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Madagascan species previously attributed to this genus have been transferred to the genus Pseudophygasia Biondi and D’Alessandro, in press.

Phyllotreta Chevrolat, 1836

http://species-id.net/wiki/Phyllotreta

Figs 80, 231, 350
References.

Chevrolat 1836: 391; Bryant 1942a: 145; Heikertinger 1943: 33; Bechyné 1955c: 61; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 412.

Type species.

Chrysomela brassicae Fabricius, 1787: 78 (Europe), by subsequent designation by Chevrolat (1845: 6).

Distribution.

All zoogeographical regions (Fig. 350).

Ecology.

A genus that has mainly been associated with plants in the families Cruciferae (= Brassicaceae), Resedaceae, and Capparidaceae (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995).

Notes.

About forty species are known from the Arabian Peninsula, Madagascar and Sub-Saharan Africa.

Physodactyla Chapuis, 1875

http://species-id.net/wiki/Physodactyla

Figs 81, 232–233, 351
Oedionychus Berthold, 1827 (pars)
References.

Chapuis 1875: 83, 88; Scherer 1962a: 72; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 412.

Type species.

Physonychis africana Chapuis, 1875: 89 (East Africa), by original designation.

Distribution.

Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Republic of South Africa (Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal), Sudan and Tanzania (Fig. 351).

Ecology.

Physodactyla rubiginosa (Gerstaecker 1871: 84) was collected from Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims (Acanthaceae) in Kenya (Furth 1985); Physodactyla africana (Chapuis) from Digera arvensis Forssk. (Amaranthaceae) in Sudan (Pollard 1957, as Physonychis).

Notes.

Six described species.

Physoma Clark, 1863

http://species-id.net/wiki/Physoma

Figs 82, 234–235, 352
=Tropidophora Thomson, 1858: 217 (synonymized by Jacoby 1888)
Hyphasis Harold, 1877 (pars)
Hyphasoma Jacoby, 1903 (pars)
Oedionychus Berthold, 1827 (pars)
References.

Clark 1863: 165; Thomson 1858: 217; Chapuis 1875: 83, 87; Harold 1877b: 434; Weise 1895: 344; Jacoby 1888: 205; 1903b: 110; Bechyné 1959c: 318; Scherer 1962a: 73 (as Physonychis); Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 412.

Type species.

Physoma:Physoma tripartitum (Thomson, 1858) (Gabon)(= Physonychis rugicollis Clark, 1860 in litteris), by subsequent designation by Chapuis (1875); Tropidophora: Tropidophora tripartita Thomson, 1858: 217 (Gabon), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Central and Western Africa, and Madagascar (Fig. 352)

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Two species known from Sub-Saharan Africa and about twenty from Madagascar.The genus-nameTropidophora Thomson is not available because it was ambiguously applied (ICZN, 1999: art. 12.2.5).

Physomandroya Bechyné, 1959

http://species-id.net/wiki/Physomandroya

Figs 83, 236–238, 353
Asphaera Chevrolat, 1843 (pars)
Oedionychus Berthold, 1827 (pars)
References.

Chevrolat 1843: 227; Bechyné 1959c: 318: Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 412.

Type species.

Physomandroya decorsei Bechyné, 1959c: 319 (Madagascar: Ambowombé), by original designation.

Distribution.

Madagascar (Fig. 353).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Seven described species. Bechyné (1959c) also transferred Asphaera melanarthra Fairmaire, 1886: 94 (= Asphaera madagascariensis Jacoby, 1892a: 573) to this genus.

Physonychis Clark, 1860

http://species-id.net/wiki/Physonychis

Figs 84, 239, 354
References.

Clark 1860: 29; Duvivier 1891: 424; Bechyné 1959c: 321; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 412.

Type species.

Physonychis smaragdina Clark, 1860: 31 (Western Africa), by original designation.

Distribution.

Sub-Saharan Africa (absent in the southern-western part of SAF and Madagascar). Physonychis varicornis Duvivier, 1891 from Madagascar was transferred to the genus Physoma Clark by Bechyné (1959c) (Fig. 354).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

About thirty known species.


[Plectroscelis Chevrolat, 1836]

= Chaetocnema Stephens, 1831

Podagrica Chevrolat, 1836

http://species-id.net/wiki/Podagrica

Figs 85, 86, 355
= Neumannia Weise, 1907 (name preoccupied by Neumania Lebert, 1879: 357, Acari, Unionicolidae)
= Podagricina Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940 (new name for Neumannia Weise, 1907) syn. n.
=Podagrixena Bechyné, 1968 (synonymized by Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a)
References.

Chevrolat 1836: 394; Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940: 364; Weise 1907b: 223; Bryant 1942b: 229; Bechyné 1960b: 84; 1968: 1719; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 412.

Type species.

Podagrica: Altica fuscipes Fabricius, 1775: 114 (Europe), by subsequent designation by Maulik, (1926: 273); Neumannia: Balanomorpha aethiopica Chapuis, 1879: 13 (Ethiopia), by present designation; Podagrixena: Podagrica decolorata Duvivier, 1892a: 60 (Democratic Republic of the Congo: Ibembo), by original designation.

Distribution.

Afrotropical [including Madagascar (!): Nossibé (ZMHB); Ranohira (ZMHB); Tamatave (ZMHB)], Oriental , and Palaearctic regions (Fig. 355).

Ecology.

The species in this genus are mainly associated with plants in the family Malvaceae (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995: 128); some are known to cause damage to cotton crops, Gossypium sp. (Malvaceae).

Notes.

About fifty species are known from Sub-Saharan Africa, with one having been recorded from Madagascar. There are no significant diagnostic characters distinguishing Podagricina Csiki from Podagrica. Therefore, the following new synonymy is proposed: Podagrica Chevrolat, 1836 = Podagricina Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki, 1940 syn. n. Type material examined: Balanomorpha aethiopica Chapuis, “Bogos, 1870, Keren, O. Beccari”, 4 syntypes (MCSN).


[Podagricina Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940]

= Podagrica Chevrolat, 1836


[Podagrixena Bechyné, 1968]

= Podagrica Chevrolat, 1836


[Poephila Weise, 1895]

= Lypnea Baly, 1876a


[Poephilina Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940]

= Lypnea Baly, 1876a

Polyclada Chevrolat, 1836

http://species-id.net/wiki/Polyclada

Figs 87, 240–241, 356
=Cladocera Hope, 1840 (synonymy reported in Achard 1922)
=Cladotelia Kolbe, 1894 (synonymy reported in Achard 1922)
References.

Chevrolat 1836: 375; Hope 1840: 169; Baly 1861: 198; Kolbe 1894: 86; Achard 1922: 4; Medvedev 1996: 261; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 413.

Type species.

Polyclada: Clythra pectinicornis Olivier, 1789: 31 (Africa), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Sub-Saharan Africa (absent in the south-western part of SAF and Madagascar), Saudi Arabia, and Yemen (Fig. 356).

Ecology.

This genus is generally associated with plants in the family Anarcadiaceae (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995; Chaboo et al. 2007).

Notes.

Sixteen species have been described.

Pratima Maulik, 1931

http://species-id.net/wiki/Pratima

Figs 88, 242, 357
References.

Maulik 1931: 253; Bechyné 1958a: 84; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 413.

Type species.

Pratima variabilis Maulik, 1931: 253 (Seychelles: Silhouette and Mahe), by original designation.

Distribution.

Indian Ocean (Seychelles and Mascarene Islands) (Fig. 357).

Ecology.

The species of this genus live in forests (300–700 m) (Maulik 1931).

Notes.

There are eight known species.


[Prototrigona Chevrolat, 1837]

Nomen nudum.

Notes. Chevrolat (1837: 411) uses this genus-name, without a description, for the following two unpublished species: “Glauca, Dej.” from Madagascar, and “Viridana, Dej.” from an unknown locality. “Glauca, Dej.” was also synonymized with “Prasinipennis, Chevr.”; this was also never published.

Pseudadorium Fairmaire, 1885

http://species-id.net/wiki/Pseudadorium

Figs 89, 243–245, 358
Asphaera Chevrolat, 1843 (pars)
Hemipyxis Chevrolat, 1836 (pars)
References.

Fairmaire 1885: 239; Bechyné 1958b: 193.

Type species.

Pseudadorium vernicatum Fairmaire, 1885: 239 (Madagascar), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Only found onMadagascar (Fig. 358).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

About twenty described species. We define this genus in a broader sense than Bechyné (1958b) did. He separated Pseudadorium from Hemipyxis Chevrolat on the basis of the distinctly vertically orientated elytral epipleura alone; not visible laterally in dorsal view (horizontally orientated and visible in lateral view in Hemipyxis). However, the elytral epipleural configuration is variable. Other diagnostic characters are more useful for separating these two genera, such as: frontal carina not extended towards the clypeus (Fig. 244) in Pseudadorium [extended in Hemipyxis (Fig. 193)]; frons distinctly raised distally (Fig. 244) in Pseudadorium [not raised in Hemipyxis (Fig. 193)]; elytra with distinct basal calli in Pseudadorium (absent in Hemipyxis); pronotum with anterior angles distinctly thickened and produced towards anterior (Fig. 243) in Pseudadorium [slightly thickened and not distinctly produced towards the anterior in Hemipyxis (Fig. 192)]; hind tibiae narrowly and less deeply channeled dorsally in Pseudadorium (Fig. 245) [broadly and more deeply channeled in Hemipyxis (Fig. 194)]. The following species from Madagascar, previously attributed to Hemipyxis, are here transferred to Pseudadorium: Hemipyxis balyana (Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940: 461) = Pseudadorium balyanum (Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940) comb. n.; Hemipyxis brevicornis (Jacoby, 1892a: 573) = Pseudadorium brevicornis (Jacoby, 1892a) comb. n.; Hemipyxis cyanea (Weise, 1910b: 439) = Pseudadorium cyaneum (Weise, 1910b) comb. n.; Hemipyxis gynandromorpha Bechyné, 1958c: 195 = Pseudadorium gynandromorphum (Bechyné, 1958c) comb. n.; Hemipyxis latiuscula Bechyné, 1958c: 195 = Pseudadorium latiusculum (Bechyné, 1958c) comb. n.; Hemipyxis soror (Weise, 1910b: 469) = Pseudadorium soror (Weise, 1910b) comb. n.


[Pseudonisotra Bechyné, 1968]

= Nisotra Baly, 1864

Pseudophygasia Biondi & D’Alessandro, in press

http://species-id.net/wiki/Pseudophygasia

Figs 90, 247 –248, 359
Phygasia Chevrolat, 1836 (pars)
References.

Biondi and D’Alessandro, in press; Bechyné 1952: 249.

Type species.

Crepidodera analis Harold, 1877a: 107 (Madagascar), by original designation.

Distribution.

Only found on Madagascar (Fig. 359).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Nine described species. All the species previously attributed to the genus Phygasia Chevrolat from Madagascar have been moved to Pseudophygasia (Biondi and D’Alessandro, in press).

Psylliodes Berthold, 1827

http://species-id.net/wiki/Psylliodes

Figs 91, 248, 360
References.

Berthold 1827: 401; Biondi 1996: 257; Nadein 2007: 317; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 413; Döberl 2012: 444.

Type species.

Chrysomela chrysocephala Linnaeus, 1758: 372 (Europe), by subsequent designation by Maulik (1926: 144).

Distribution.

Found inall the zoogeographical regions. In the Afrotropical region this genus is known from Ethiopia, Kenya, Republic of South Africa, Tanzania and Socotra Island (Yemen) (Fig. 360).

Ecology.

Known host plants for this genus fall in the plant families Cruciferae (= Brassicaeae), Solanaceae and Poaceae (also known as Gramineae) (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995).

Notes.

There are seven described species.

Pydaristes Harold, 1875

http://species-id.net/wiki/Pydaristes

References.

Harold 1875: 446; Scherer 1961: 252; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 413.

Type species.

Pydaristes attagenoides Harold, 1875: 447 (Africa), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

“Africa”.

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Only one species is known. Unfortunately, the location for the type material is unknown. The original description of Pydaristes appears to be identical or very close to that of Amphimela Chapuis. The synonymy proposed by Scherer (1961) between Pydaristes and Blepharida Chevrolat is unconvincing, because of the absence of dentiform emargination on the hind tibiae in Pydaristes (according to the original description), such emargination is characteristically present in Blepharida.

Sanckia Duvivier, 1891

http://species-id.net/wiki/Sanckia

Figs 92, 93, 249–250, 361
=Eugonotes Jacoby, 1897 syn. n.
References.

Duvivier 1891: 316; Jacoby 1897: 558; Bechyné 1956: 173; Medvedev 1995: 479; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 413.

Type species.

Sanckia: Sanckia johanna Duvivier, 1891: 316 (Madagascar: Antsianaka Forest), by original designation; Eugonotes: Eugonotes longicornis Jacoby, 1897: 559 (Madagascar: Diego-Suarez), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Burundi (!) [Bururi (ZSM)], Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda, and the Oriental region (Fig. 361).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

About twenty species are known from the Afrotropical region, most of these are from Madagascar. There are no significant diagnostic characters distinguishing Eugonotes Jacoby from Sanckia. The following new synonymy is therefore proposed: Sanckia Duvivier, 1891 = Eugonotes Jacoby, 1897 syn. n. Type material examined: Eugonotes longicornis Jacoby, “Madagascar, Diego Suarez”, syntype ♀ (BMNH).

Serraphula Jacoby, 1897

http://species-id.net/wiki/Serraphula

Figs 94, 251–253, 362
References.

Jacoby 1897: 556; Maulik 1929: 308; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a; 413; 2010b: 3.

Type species.

Serraphula aenea Jacoby, 1897: 557 (Mashonaland), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Republic of South Africa (Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern, and Western Cape Provinces) and Zimbabwe (Fig. 362).

Ecology.

Species in this genus are known to be associated with plants in the family Asteraceae (Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010b).

Notes.

Nineteen species have been described.

Sesquiphaera Bechyné, 1958a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Sesquiphaera

Figs 95, 96, 254–256, 363
=Paropsiderma Bechyné, 1958a syn. n.
References.

Bechyné 1958a: 92; Scherer 1961: 275; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 411, 413.

Type species.

Sesquiphaera: Sphaeroderma mashonanum Jacoby, 1900: 252 (Mashonaland: Salisbury), by original designation; Paropsiderma: Sphaeroderma anthrax Brancsik, 1910: 185 (Madagascar), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Madagascar, Namibia, Republic of South Africa (Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and KwaZulu-Natal), Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe (Fig. 363).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

There are about ten described species. No significant diagnostic characters distinguish Paropsiderma Bechyné from Sesquiphaera. The following new synonymy is therefore proposed: Sesquiphaera Bechyné, 1958 = Paropsiderma Bechyné, 1958 syn. n. Material examined: Paropsiderma anthrax (Brancsik) (det. J. Bechyné), “Madagascar, Joffreville, 13.V.1953, F. Kaiser”, 1 specimen (NHMB).

Seychellaltica Biondi, 2002b

http://species-id.net/wiki/Seychellaltica

Figs 97, 257 –260, 364
References.

Biondi 2002b: 358; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 413.

Type species.

Chaetocnema mahensis Maulik, 1931: 250 (Seychelles: Mahé), by original designation.

Distribution.

Indian Ocean (Seychelles) (Fig. 364).

Ecology.

The species in this genus are associated with indigenous forests in the Seychelles.

Notes.

Four species have been described.

Sjostedtinia Weise, 1910a

http://species-id.net/wiki/Sjostedtinia

Figs 98, 261–262, 365
References.

Weise 1910a: 205; Bryant 1953: 162; Scherer 1963: 648; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 413.

Type species.

Sjostedtinia montivaga Weise, 1910a: 206 (Kilimanjaro: Kibocho), by original designation.

Distribution.

Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, (Fig. 365).

Ecology.

This genus lives at high altitudes on Kilimanjaro and Mount Elgon. Sjostedtinia montivaga has been collected from Lobelia deckeni (Asch.) Hemsl. (Lobeliaceae) (Weise, 1910a), and Sjostedtinia fordi Bryant, 1953 from a Senecio sp. (Asteraceae) in Uganda (Bryant, 1953), and from a Lobelia sp. in Kenya (S. Zoia 2009, pers. comm.).

Notes.

Two species are known.

Sphaeroderma Stephens, 1831

http://species-id.net/wiki/Sphaeroderma

Figs 99, 263–264, 366
=Argosomus Wollaston, 1867 (synonymized by Scherer 1961)
=Musaka Bechyné, 1958a (synonymized by Scherer 1961)
References.

Stephens 1831: 328; Wollaston 1867: 152; Bryant 1943: 487; Bechyné 1958a: 89; 1968: 1702; Scherer 1961: 252; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 414.

Type species.

Sphaeroderma: Altica testacea Fabricius, 1775: 114 (Europe), by subsequent designation by Maulik, (1926: 316); Argosomus: Argosomus epilachnoides Wollaston, 1867: 152 (Cape Verde Islands: Brava), by subsequent designation by Konstantinov and Vanderberg (1996: 351); Musaka: Sphaeroderma freyi Bechyné, 1955b: 563 (Cameroon), by original designation.

Distribution.

Afrotropical (including Madagascar) and Australian, Oriental, and Palaearctic regions. The species of Sphaeroderma reported from the Neotropical and Nearctic regions should be attributed to different genera (cf. Savini and Furth 2001) (Fig. 366).

Ecology.

Species in this genus are mainly associated with plants in the families Asteraceae and Ranunculaceae (cf. Jolivet and Hawkeswood 1995).

Notes.

Over fifty species have been recorded from Sub-Saharan African and about ten from Madagascar.


[Sphaerophysa Baly, 1876b]

= Amphimela Chapuis, 1875

Stegnaspea Baly, 1877

http://species-id.net/wiki/Stegnaspea

Figs 100, 265, 367
References.

Baly 1877: 181; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 414; D’Alessandro et al. 2012: 12.

Type species.

Stegnaspea trimeni Baly, 1877: 182 (Cape of Good Hope), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Republic of South Africa (Western Cape Province) and Tristan da Cunha (Fig. 367).

Ecology.

Stegnaspea trimeni collected from Poaceae (also known as Gramineae) in meadows (D’Alessandro et al. 2012).

Notes.

Six species are known.

Stuckenbergiana Scherer, 1963

http://species-id.net/wiki/Stuckenbergiana

Figs 101, 368
References.

Scherer 1963: 670; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 414.

Type species.

Podagrica glabrata Jacoby, 1899b: 349 (KwaZulu-Natal: Umtenweni River; Eastern Cape Province: Port St. John), by original designation.

Distribution.

Republic of South Africa [Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, and Eastern Cape Province] (Fig. 368).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Only one species is known.

Terpnochlorus Fairmaire, 1904

http://species-id.net/wiki/Terpnochlorus

Figs 102, 266–267, 369
Chaloenus Westwood, 1862 (pars)
References.

Fairmaire 1904: 269; Laboissière 1932: 575; Bryant 1927: 615 (as Chaloenus); Bechyné 1955b: 543; 1960b: 101; Furth and Suzuki 1994: 130; Biondi 2002b: 364; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 414.

Type species.

Terpnochlorus perrieri Fairmaire, 1904: 269 (Madagascar: Soalala), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Madagascar, Mali, Namibia, Sierra Leone, and South America (Venezuela and Mexico) (Fig. 369).

Ecology.

This genus lives in moist habitats generally associated with plans from the family Juncaceae (Biondi 2002b).

Notes.

Two species have been described from the Afrotropical region. Bechynè (1955b) synonymised Chaloenus viridis Bryant (Bryant 1927) with Terpnochlorus perrieri Fairmaire [Terpnochlorus perrieri Fairmaire = Chaloenus viridis Bryant (Bryant 1927)].


[Torodera Weise, 19082a]

= Argopistoides Jacoby, 1892b

Toxaria Weise, 1903

http://species-id.net/wiki/Toxaria

Figs 103, 370
References.

Weise 1903: 215; 1912: 157; Laboissière 1941: 318; Bryant 1943: 488; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 414.

Type species.

Galleruca indica Fabricius, 1798: 98 (Western Cape), by original designation.

Distribution.

Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, the Republic of South Africa, and Uganda (Fig. 370).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Five species are known.

Trachytetra Sharp, 1886

http://species-id.net/wiki/Trachytetra

Figs 104, 268–269, 371
=Monodaltica Bechyné, 1955b (synonymized by Konstantinov and Prathapan 2008)
References.

Sharp 1886: 448; Bechyné 1955b: 509; Scherer 1962a: 18 (as Monodaltica); Konstantinov and Prathapan 2008: 413; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 414.

Type species.

Phyllotreta rugulosa Broun, 1880: 636 (New Zealand), by original designation; Monodaltica: Monodaltica guineensis Bechyné, 1955b: 510 (French Guinea), by original designation.

Distribution.

Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guinea, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and Australian, Eastern Palaearctic, and Oriental regions (Fig. 371).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Five species have been described from Sub-Saharan Africa.

Tritonaphthona Bechyné, 1960b

http://species-id.net/wiki/Tritonaphthona

Figs 105, 270, 372
References.

Bechyné 1960b: 70; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 416.

Type species.

Aphthona longicornis Laboissière, 1942: 21 (Albert National Park), by original designation; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 415.

Distribution.

Democratic Republic of the Congo (Fig. 372).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

One described species.


[Thrymnes Weise, 1895]

= Gabonia Jacoby, 1893


[Tropidophora Thomson, 1858]

= Physoma Clark, 1863

Upembaltica Bechyné, 1960b

http://species-id.net/wiki/Upembaltica

Figs 106, 271 –272, 373
References.

Bechyné 1960b: 53; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2003: 104; 2010a: 416.

Type species.

Upembaltica scolytina Bechyné 1960b: 53−54 (Upemba National Park: Lupiala; Kaswabilenga), by original designation.

Distribution.

Democratic Republic of the Congo (Fig. 373).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Only one species has been recorded.


[Weiseana Jacoby, 1906]

= Homichloda Weise, 1902

Xanthophysca Fairmaire, 1901

http://species-id.net/wiki/Xanthophysca

Figs 107, 273–275, 374
References.

Fairmaire 1901: 242; Achard 1915: 31; Bechyné 1954a: 46; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 417.

Type species.

Xanthophysca perrieri Fairmaire, 1901: 242 (Madagascar: Saberbieville), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Madagascar (Fig. 374).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Five species have been described. These usually display different colour varieties. Two species from Madagascar, previously included in the genus Blepharida, are here attributed to this genus: Xanthophysca multiguttata (Duvivier, 1891: 242) comb. n. and Xanthophysca insignis (Brancsik, 1897: 130) comb. n.


[Xenaltica Baly, 1875]

= Myrcina Chapuis, 1875

Yemenaltica Scherer, 1985

http://species-id.net/wiki/Yemenaltica

Figs 108, 276–277, 375
References.

Scherer 1985: 86; Medvedev 1996: 261; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 417; Döberl 2012: 444.

Type species.

Yemenaltica scorteccii Scherer, 1985: 86 (Yemen: El Kasaba), by original designation.

Distribution.

Arabian Peninsula and Socotra Island (Yemen) (Fig. 375).

Ecology.

No information.

Notes.

Two species have been described.

Zomba Bryant, 1922b

http://species-id.net/wiki/Zomba

Figs 109, 376
References.

Bryant 1922a: 263; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a: 417.

Type species.

Zomba gossypii Bryant, 1922a: 264 (Nyasaland: Luchenza; N.W. Rhodesia: Livingstone), designation by monotypy.

Distribution.

Malawi and Zimbabwe (Fig. 370).

Ecology.

The only species in this genus was collected from Cotton plants, Gossypium sp. (Malvaceae) (Bryant 1922a).

Notes.

Only one species is known. This genus is particularly interesting because it is the only representative of the tribe Monoplatini in the Afrotropical region. This tribe occurs almost exclusively in the Neotropical and southern part of the Nearctic regions. The only exceptions are the genera Zomba and Opisthopygme Blackburn (1896: 41); this last genus is occurring with two species in the Australian region.

Discussion

There are 99 flea beetle genera known from the Afrotropical region. Of these, 83 occur in continental Sub-Saharan Africa, with the different regions each having a varying number of species: CAF: 63; EAF; 55; SAF: 58; and WAF: 44. Furthermore, 39 genera are known from Madagascar, 9 from the Mascarene Islands and 5 from the Seychelles Islands ((Table 1, Fig. 377). However, these numbers are still provisional as information concerning the Afrotropical flea beetle fauna is limited, particularly for Madagascar.

Our preliminary analysis indicates that this fauna is distinct and can be separated from the faunas of other zoogeographical regions. In Fig. 381, a dendrogram obtained from the cluster analysis [Coincidence index and Weighted Pair Group Method using Arithmetic averaging (WPGMA) (cf. Biondi 2006; Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a)] performed, using the presence/absence data of flea beetle genera in each of the OGUs (Operational Geographical Unit) considered, is reported. Results reveal a main Sub-Saharan cluster, including the four continental OGUs, these in turn form two subclusters, namely a central-western (WAF-CAF) subcluster and a southern-eastern (EAF-SAF) subcluster. Madagascar (MAD) also forms part of the Sub-Saharan cluster, completing the “Afrotropical group”.

The Seychelles (SEY) and the Mascarene islands (MAS) are more closely associated with the other zoogeographical regions [(NAR-NTR)(PAR-ORR)AUR)] because of the occurrence of a high percentage of widespread genera that characterize the flea beetle fauna of these two archipeligoes. Moreover, faunistic similarity based on the widespread flea beetle genera also clusters the other zoogeographical regions together in two distinct groups, namely the Palaearctic-Oriental-Australian regions [(PAR-ORR)AUR] and Nearctic-Neotropical regions (NAR-NTR).

The geographic distribution of Afrotropical flea beetle genera is therefore well characterized and it has distinct Malagasy and Sub-Saharan African components (Fig. 381).

The percentage of Alticini genera endemic to the Afrotropical region is very high (71.0%), with the following distribution: Sub-Saharan Africa, 52 genera; Madagascar, 12; Seychelles Islands, 1; Sub-Saharan Africa-Madagascar, 4; Madagascar-Mascarene Islands, 1; Seychelles-Mascarene Islands, 1 (Fig. 378). Within the endemic Sub-Saharan Africa component, only 6 genera occur in all four subregions, while 25 genera occur only in one subregion (SAF: 11; CAF: 9; EAF: 5). There are no exclusively endemic flea beetle genera in WAF (Fig. 378).

The percentage of genera occurring in both the Afrotropical and another zoogeographical region is 32.0%, with the cosmopolitan component significant and well represented [8.0% of the total of 99] (Fig. 379). The Afrotropical region shares the highest percentage of genera with the Oriental (27.0%) and Palaearctic (27.0%) regions (Fig. 380). The co-presence of genera in both the Afrotropical and Oriental regions, often called Palaeotropical distribution, may be due to a possible Gondwanian origin., Sanckia is such an example, although the genus occurs mainly in Madagascar, species are also found in Sub-Saharan Africa and the southern part of the Oriental region. Other examples are the genera Argopistoides and Jacobyana which occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Oriental region and are absent from Madagascar; and Amphimela, Chabria, Nisotra, and Paradibolia, which occur in the Afrotropical, Oriental and the Australian regions. Other genera, such as Bikasha, Hemipyxis, Luperomorpha, Lypnea, Manobia, Philopona and Trachytetra occur not only in the Afrotropical (including Madagascar, although infrequently), Oriental and, generally Australian regions, but also in the eastern part of the Palaearctic region. More specifically, the Palaeartic region shares 27 flea beetle genera with the Afrotropical region (Fig. 380), including the unique Pan-African flea beetle genus, Angulaphthona, which occurs in Mediterranean Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar (cf. Biondi and D’Alessandro 2006). A significantly lower percentage of genera (20.0%) occur in both the Afrotropical and Australian regions, although all of these can also be found throughout the Oriental region.

As expected, the lowest percentage of genera occur in both the Afrotropical/Nearctic regions (10.0%) and Afrotropical/Neotropical regions (10.0%). All genera common to the Afrotropical, Nearctic and Neotropical regions are also found in all other zoogeographical regions with the exception of the genus Terpnochlorus, which only occurs in the Afrotropical region, Venezuela and Mexico (cf. Furth and Suzuki 1994). Moreover, the possible synonymy between the genera Abrarius from Madagascar and Gioia from South America (see above), if confirmed, could indicate an interesting zoogeographical connection among the ancient regions of Gondwana (Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a).

As reported in Biondi and D’Alessandro (2010a), other likely Gondwanian elements in the Afrotropical flea beetle fauna are:

The unique Afrotropical genus Zomba belonging to the tribe Monoplatini, which mainly occurs in the Neotropical region with a few species found in the Nearctic region. The genus Opisthopygme, also from the Monoplatini, is also present in Australia (see above).

Two new, as yet undescribed, flea beetle genera that occur in Madagascar and South Africa (Western Cape Province). Both these genera have clavate or subclavate antennae with 11 segments, are subsphaerical in shape and very small, characteristics they share with related genera in Central America, such as: Bubiscus Savini, Furth and Joly (2009: 53), a recently described Costa Rican genus (1 species); Normaltica Konstantinov (2002: 2), an endemic genus from Great Antilles (2 species); Clavicornaltica Scherer (1974: 58), a genus occurring in the Oriental (18 species) and Australian regions (1 species) (cf. Konstantinov and Duckett 2005). Other very closely related flea beetle genera, but with a reduced number of antennal segments, are: Kiskeya Konstantinov and Chamorro-Lacayo (2006: 276), which has nine-segmented clavate antennae - 2 species in the Dominican Republic; and Monotalla Bechyné (1956: 588), which has ten-segmented clavate antennae, with 1 species in Guadalupe (cf. Savini and Furth 2001: 907).

There are 39 flea beetle genera known from Madagascar, 13 of which are endemic. One of them, Metroserrapha Bechyné, also occurs in the Mascarene Islands (Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a; 2012, in press). Some of these Madagascan genera, such as Neodera, Physomandroya, Pseudadorium, Pseudophygasia, and Xanthophysca, show clear African affinities, but Antanemora, Ntaolaltica, and Metroserrapha are more closely related to Oriental genera (Biondi and D’Alessandro 2012, in press). The remaining endemic Malagasy genera, Anaxerta, Diphaulacosoma, Halticotropis, and Hildebrandtina, are probably all very ancient. Establishing their affinities with certainty, whether African or Oriental, is very difficult using only a comparative morphological approach.

Table 1.

Occurrence of Alticinae genera of the Chrysomelidae in different areas of the Afrotropical region and other zoogeographical areas (see text for abbreviations) (updated from Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a).

Genus WAF CAF EAF SAF MAD SEY MAS PAR NAR NTR ORR AUR
Abrarius         X     ?    
Afroaltica       X                
Afrocrepis       X X          
Afrorestia   X X X X          
Alocypha     X X                
Altica X X X X X X X X X X X
Amphimela X X X X X X     X X
Anaxerta         X          
Angulaphthona X X X X X X        
Antanemora         X          
Aphthona X X X X X X X X   X X
Argopistes X X X X X X X X X X
Argopistoides X X X X             X  
Bangalaltica   X                    
Bechuana       X                
Bechynella X X                    
Bezdekaltica     X                  
Bikasha X X X X X X X     X  
Biodontocnema       X                
Blepharida X X X X       X X X X X
Carcharodis   X   X X          
Celisaltica   X                    
Chabria i?     i? X           X  
Chaetocnema X X X X X X X X X X X X
Chaillucola   X                    
Chirodica       X                
Collartaltica X X X X                
Decaria X X X X                
Diamphidia   X X X                
Dibolia X X X X       X X X    
Dimonikaea   X                    
Diphaulacosoma         X          
Djallonia X X                    
Drakensbergianella       X                
Dunbrodya     X X                
Epitrix X X X X X X X X X X X
Eriotica     X                  
Eurylegna   X X                  
Eutornus X X X X X              
Gabonia X X X X                
Guilielmia   X                    
Guinerestia X X                    
Halticotropis         X          
Hemipyxis X X X X   X     X X
Hespera X X X X       X     X  
Hildenbrandtina         X          
Homichloda   X X X                
Hyphasis             i? X     X  
Jacobyana   X X X             X  
Kanonga X X                    
Kenialtica X X X X X          
Kimongona   X X X                
Lampedona   X X                  
Lepialtica   X X                  
Longitarsus X X X X X X X X X X X X
Luperomorpha   X X         X     X X
Lypnea X X X X X X     X X
Malvernia     X X                
Manobia X X X         X     X X
Metroserrapha X X          
Montiaphthona   X X X                
Myrcina X X X X X          
Neodera         X        
Nisotra X X X X X X     X X
Notomela X X   X                
Ntaolaltica         X              
Nzerekorena X X X                  
Orthocrepis X X X X X X     X  
Paradibolia X X   X             X X
Perichilona     X                  
Philopona X X X X   X     X X
Phygasia X X X X   X     X  
Phyllotreta X X X X X X X X X X
Physodactyla   X X X                
Physoma X X X          
Physomandroya         X          
Physonychis X X X X                
Podagrica X X X X X     X     X  
Polyclada X X X X       X        
Pratima         X X          
Pseudadorium         X          
Pseudophygasia         X              
Psylliodes     X X       X X X X X
Sanckia X X X   X       X  
Serraphula       X                
Sesquiphaera X X X X X              
Seychellaltica X          
Sjostedtinia   X X                  
Sphaeroderma X X X X X X X X X X X
Stegnaspea       X                
Stuckenbergiana       X                
Terpnochlorus X X   X X     X    
Toxaria   X X X                
Trachytetra X X           X     X X
Tritonaphthona   X                    
Upembaltica   X                    
Xanthophysca         X          
Yemenaltica     X         X        
Zomba     X X                
Figure plates
Figures 2–10.

Habitus. 2 Abrarius cribrosus Fairmaire 3 Afroaltica subaptera Biondi & D’Alessandro Afrocrepis malvernensis (Jacoby) 5 Afrorestia peringueyi (Jacoby) 6 Alocypha bimaculata (Jacoby) 7 Altica madagascariensis (Allard) 8 Amphimela bryanti (Csiki) 9 Amphimela (ex Sphaerophysa Baly) heikertingeri (Bechyné) 10 Anaxerta castanea Fairmaire.

Figures 11–19.

Habitus .11 Angulaphthona heteromorpha (Bechyné) 12 Antanemora ghesquierei (Bechyné) 13 Aphthona senegalensis Jacoby 14 Aphthona (ex Ethiopia Scherer) tricolor (Scherer) 15 Argopistes sexvittatus Bryant 16 Argopistoides africanus (Bryant) 17 Bangalaltica antennalis Bechyné 18. Bechuana nigripes Scherer 19 Bechynella pallens (Bechyné).

Figures 20–28.

Habitus. 20 Bezdekaltica socotrana Döberl 21 Bikasha tenuipunctata Maulik 22 Biodontocnema brunnea Biondi 23 Blepharida ornata Baly 24 Buphonella nigroviolacea (Allard) (genus transferred to Galerucini) 25 Carcharodis rugiceps (Baly). 26 Celisaltica ruwenzorica Biondi 27 Chabria bezanozana Biondi & D’Alessandro 28 Chaetocnema purpurea Jacoby.

Figures 29–37.

Habitus. 29 Chaillucola formicicornis Bechyné 30 Chirodica chalcoptera Germar 31 Collartaltica cryptostoma Bechyné 32 Decaria abdominalis Jacoby 33 Diamphidia nigroornata Stål 34 Dibolia bimaculata Jacoby 35 Dimonikaea descarpentriesi Bechyné 36 Diphaulacosoma laevipenne Jacoby 37 Djallonia maindra Bechyné.

Figures 38–46.

Habitus. 38 Drakensbergianella rudebecki Biondi & D’Alessandro 39 Dunbrodya nitida Jacoby 40 Epitrix aethiopica Weise 41 Eriotica fuscipennis Harold 42 Eurylegna fulva Weise 43 Eurylegna (ex Eurylegniella Scherer) guineensis Bechyné 44 Eutornus rugicollis (Jacoby) 45 Gabonia unicostata Jacoby 46 Guilielmia monticola Weise.

Figures 47–55.

Habitus. 47 Guinerestia rubra Scherer 48 Halticopsis spissicornis Fairmaire (genus transferred to Galerucini) 49 Halticotropis costipennis Bechyné 50 Hemipyxis africana (Allard) 51 Hespera africana Jacoby 52 Hildebrandtina similis Bechyné 53 Homichloda barkeri (Jacoby) 54 Hyphasis sita (Maulik) 55 Jacobyana bezdeki Biondi & D’Alessandro.

Figures 56–64

. Habitus. 56 Kanonga atra Bechyné 57 Kenialtica muhavura Bechyné 58 Kimongona callifera Bechyné 59 Kimongona (ex Mesocrepis Scherer) lindemannae (Scherer) 60 Lampedona testacea Bechyné 61 Lepialtica bicolor Scherer 62 Longitarsus africanus Jacoby 63 Luperomorpha biondii Döberl 64 Lypnea costatipennis ( Jacoby).

Figures 65–73.

Habitus. 65 Malvernia varicornis Jacoby 66 Manobia africana Laboissière 67 Metroserrapha sp 68 Montiaphthona gedyei (Bryant) 69 Myrcina vandenplaasi Laboissière 70 Neodera fraterna Duvivier 71 Nisotra aruwimiana Weise 72 Notomela fulvicollis Bryant 73 Ntaolaltica antennata Biondi & D’Alessandro.

Figures 74–82.

Habitus. 74 Nzerekorena filicornis Scherer & Boppré 75 Orthocrepis togoensis Weise 76 Paradibolia abdominalis (Jacoby) 77 Perichilona bicolor Weise 78 Philopona fulvicollis (Fabricius) 79 Phygasia rubripennis Weise 80 Phyllotreta puncticollis (Jacoby) 81 Physodactyla rubiginosa (Gerstaecker) 82 Physoma costuliferum Bechyné.

Figures 83–91.

Habitus. 83 Physomandroya melanarthra (Fairmaire) 84 Physonychis violaceipennis (Baly) 85 Podagrica oneili (Jacoby) 86 Podagrica (ex Podagricina Csiki) aethiopica (Chapuis) 87 Polyclada bohemani (Baly) 88 Pratima variabilis Maulik 89 Pseudadorium amplum (Weise) 90 Pseudophygasia analis (Harold) 91 Psylliodes calcarata (Bryant).

Figures 92–100.

Habitus. 92 Sanckia lebisi Bechyné 93 Sanckia (ex Eugonotes Jacoby) longicornis (Jacoby) 94 Serraphula elongata Jacoby 95 Sesquiphaera mashonana (Jacoby) 96 Sesquiphaera (ex Paropsiderma Bechyné) near vadoni (Bechyné) 97 Seychellaltica mahensis (Maulik) 98 Sjostedtinia montivaga Weise 99 Sphaeroderma femoratum Jacoby 100 Stegnaspea trimeni Baly.

Figures 101–109.

Habitus. 101 Stuckenbergiana glabrata (Jacoby) 102 Terpnochlorus perrieri Fairmaire 103 Toxaria indica (Fabricius) 104 Trachytetra guineensis (Bechyné) 105 Tritonaphthona longicornis (Laboissière) 106 Upembaltica scolytina Bechyné 107 Xanthophysca perrieri Fairmaire 108 Yemenaltica scorteccii Scherer 109 Zomba gossypii Bryant.

Figures 110–115.

Morphological characters. 110 Abrarius aethiops (Weise), head and pronotum in dorsal view 111 Ditto, head and right antenna in dorsal view 112 Abrarius cribrosus Fairmaire, ventral parts 113 Afroaltica parvula D’Alessandro & Biondi, head in frontal view 114 Afroaltica subaptera Biondi & D’Alessandro, head and pronotum in dorsal view 115 Ditto, triangular hollow on ventral side of middle tibiae in male.

Figures 116–121.

Morphological characters. 116 Afroaltica subaptera Biondi & D’Alessandro, prosternum 117 Ditto, meso- and metasternum (white arrow) 118 Afrocrepis carinipennis (Jacoby), pronotum and elytra in sublateral view 119 Afrorestia jonesi (Bryant), head in frontal view 120 Alocypha bimaculata (Jacoby), head and pronotum in dorsal view 121 Altica nigrita Laboissière, head and pronotum in dorsal view.

Figures 122–127.

Morphological characters. 122 Amphimela citri (Bryant), head in frontal view 123 Angulaphthona latipennis (Pic), head and pronotum in dorsal view 124 Ditto, head in frontal view 125 Ditto, elytra in dorsal view 126 Antanemora ghesquierei (Bechyné), head and pronotum in dorsal view 127 Ditto, head in frontal view.

Figures 128–133.

Morphological characters. 128 Aphthona braunsi (Jacoby), head and pronotum in dorsal view 129 Ditto, elytra in dorsal view 130 Argopistes silvestrii Weise, head in frontal view 131 Ditto, ventral parts 132 Argopistes sexvittatus Bryant, apical part of hind tibia 133 Argopistoides africanus (Bryant), sublateral sulci on pronotum.

Figures 134–139.

Morphological characters. 134 Bangalaltica antennalis Bechyné, head and right antenna in dorsal view 135 Bechuana nigripes Scherer, sublateral depression on pronotum 136 Bechynella pallens (Bechyné), head in frontal view 137 Ditto, hind tibia and metatarsus 138 Bezdekaltica socotrana Döberl, elytra in dorsal view 139 Bikasha fortipunctata Maulik, head in frontal view.

Figures 140–145.

Morphological characters. 140 Bikasha fortipunctata Maulik, hind leg and elytra in lateral view 141 Biodontocnema brunnea Biondi, head in frontal view 142 Ditto, distal half of hind tibia and metatarsus 143 Ditto, hind tibial socket 144 Ditto, dentiform process (white arrow) in inner apical side of hind tibiae 145 Ditto, ventral parts.

Figures 146–151.

Morphological characters. 146 Blepharida intermedia Jacoby, head and pronotum in dorsal view 147 Blepharida reticulata (Baly), head in frontal view 148 Blepharida ugandae Bryant, hind leg 149 Blepharida geminata Bryant, metatarsus 150 Carcharodis malvernensis Bechyné, head in frontal view 151 Celisaltica ruwenzorica Biondi, prosternum.

Figures 152–157.

Morphological characters. 152 Celisaltica ruwenzorica Biondi, metasternum and abdomen 153 Chabria betsimisaraka Biondi & D’Alessandro, sublateral sulci on pronotum 154 Chaetocnema sudafricana Biondi & D’Alessandro, ciliate dentate emargination of hind tibiae 155 Chaillucola formicicornis Bechyné, head and right antenna in dorsal view in male 156 Chirodica similfulva Biondi, buccal parts 157 Chirodica chalcoptera Germar, prosternum and anterior femora in ventral view.

Figures 158–163.

Morphological characters. 158 Collartaltica tenebrosa (Laboissière), head and pronotum in dorsal view 159 Ditto, head in ventral view 160 Ditto, prosternum 161 Diamphidia femoralis Gerstaecker, left antenna in dorsal view 162 Ditto, mesotarsus 163 Diamphidia nigroornata Stål, hind leg and elytral punctation.

Figures 164–169.

Morphological characters. 164 Dibolia thoracica Jacoby, head and pronotum in dorsal view 165 Ditto, head in frontal view 166 Ditto, hind leg and elytral punctation 167 Dimonikaea descarpentriesi Bechyné, head and right antenna in dorsal view 168 Ditto, dentiform process on ventral side of hind femora in male 169 Ditto, metatarsus in lateral (left) and dorsal (right) view.

Figures 170–175.

Morphological characters. 170 Diphaulacosoma laevipenne Jacoby, head and pronotum in dorsal view 171 Ditto, head and right antenna in dorsal view 172 Djallonia maindra Bechyné, head, pronotum and right antenna in dorsal view 173 Drakensbergianella rudebecki Biondi & D’Alessandro, head in frontal view 174 Ditto, elytral surface 175 Ditto, meso- and metasternum.

Figures 176–181.

Morphological characters. 176 Dunbrodya nitida Jacoby, head and pronotum in dorsal view 177 Ditto, head in frontal view 178 Ditto, hind leg 179 Ditto, bifid apical spur of hind tibiae 180 Epitrix aethiopica Weise, head in frontal view 181 Eriotica fuscipennis Harold, head in frontal view.

Figures 182–187.

Morphological characters. 182 Eurylegna rubra (Weise), head in frontal view 183 Eutornus dilatatus Bryant, head and pronotum in dorsal view 184 Eutornus taeniatus Bechyné, elytra in lateral view 185 Gabonia nigripennis (Jacoby), head in frontal view 186 Ditto, meso- and metasternum 187 Guinerestia rubra Scherer, head in frontal view.

Figures 188–193.

Morphological characters. 188 Guinerestia rubra Scherer, longitudinal hollow in distal half of anterior tibiae 189 Halticotropis costipennis Bechyné, head and pronotum in dorsal view 190 Ditto, head in frontal view 191 Ditto, hind leg and elytral surface 192 Hemipyxis burgeoni (Laboissière), head and pronotum in dorsal view 193 Ditto, head in frontal view.

Figures 194–199.

Morphological characters. 194 Hemipyxis obscuretestaceum (Thomson), hind tibia and metatarsus 195 Hespera maculicollis Jacoby, head and pronotum in dorsal view 196 Hildebrandtina obscura Bechyné, head and pronotum in dorsal view 197 Hildebrandtina similis Bechyné, head and pronotum in dorsal view 198 Homichloda barkeri (Jacoby), hind tibia and metatarsus and elytral surface 199 Hyphasis sita (Maulik), head and pronotum in dorsal view.

Figures 200–205.

Morphological characters. 200 Hyphasis sita (Maulik), hind tibia and metatarsus 201 Jacobyana bezdeki Biondi & D’Alessandro, head and pronotum in dorsal view 202 Ditto, ventral parts 203 Kanonga atra Bechyné, head and right antenna in dorsal view 204 Kenialtica muhavura Bechyné, head and pronotum in dorsal view 205 Kimongona callifera Bechyné, head in frontal view.

Figures 206–211.

Morphological characters. 206 Lampedona testacea Bechyné, head and pronotum in dorsal view 207 Lepialtica bicolor Scherer, head in frontal view 208 Longitarsus africanus Jacoby, hind leg in lateral view 209 Lypnea flaveola (Bryant), head and pronotum in dorsal view 210 Lypnea costatipennis (Jacoby), head and right antenna in dorsal view 211 Malvernia varicornis Jacoby, head and right antenna in dorsal view.

Figures 212–217.

Morphological characters. 212 Manobia africana Laboissière, head and pronotum in dorsal view 213 Metroserrapha sp., hind leg and elytral punctation 214 Montiaphthona gedyei (Bryant), head and pronotum in dorsal view 215 Ditto, elytra in sublateral view 216 Myrcina vandenplaasi Laboissiére, double apical spur of hind tibia 217 Nisotra aruwimiana Weise, head and pronotum in dorsal view.

Figures 218–223.

Morphological characters. 218 Nisotra sp., head and pronotum in dorsal view 219 Notomela viridipennis Bryant, head and pronotum in dorsal view 220 Ditto, elytra in lateral view 221 Ntaolaltica antennata Biondi & D’Alessandro, head and pronotum in dorsal view 222 Ditto, head and pronotum in lateral view 223 Ditto, head in frontal view.

Figures 224–229.

Morphological characters. 224 Nzerekorena filicornis Scherer & Boppré, head and right antenna in dorsal view 225 Orthocrepis kibonotensis (Weise), head and pronotum in lateral view 226 Ditto, head in frontal view 227 Paradibolia abdominalis (Jacoby), head in frontal view 228 Perichilona bicolor Weise, head in frontal view 229 Philopona sulcicollis (Jacoby), elytra in lateral view.

Figures 230–235.

Morphological characters. 230 Phygasia sulphuripennis Jacoby, head in frontal view 231 Phyllotreta natalensis Jacoby, head and pronotum in lateral view 232 Physodactyla rubiginosa (Gerstaecker), head and pronotum in lateral view 233 Physodactyla gerstaeckeri (Jacoby), elytra in lateral view 234 Physoma atripes (Fairmaire), head in sublateral view 235 Physoma costuliferum Bechyné, head in sublateral view.

Figures 236–241.

Morphological characters. 236 Physomandroya melanarthra (Fairmaire), head and pronotum in dorsal view 237 Ditto, hind tibia and metatarsus 238 Physomandroya punctulifera Bechyné, elytra in lateral view 239 Physonychis viridipennis (Dalman), head in frontal view 240 Polyclada smythi Bryant, left antenna in male in dorsal view 241 Ditto, left antenna in female in dorsal view.

Figures 242–247.

Morphological characters 242 Pratima vinsoni Bechyné, head in frontal view 243 Pseudadorium balyanum (Csiki), head and pronotum in dorsal view 244 Ditto, head in frontal view 245 Ditto, hind leg in sublateral view 246 Pseudophygasia analis (Harold), head and pronotum in dorsal view 247 Ditto, elytral punctation.

Figures 248–253.

Morphological characters. 248 Psylliodes teresae Biondi, apical part of hind tibia and preapical insertion of metatarsus 249 Sanckia sp., head in frontal view 250 Sanckia longicornis (Jacoby), hind leg 251 Serraphula grobbelaariae Biondi & D’Alessandro, hind leg and elytral punctation 252 Serraphula elongata Jacoby, hind leg 253 Serraphula audisiana Biondi & D’Alessandro, serrate apical spur of hind tibiae.

Figures 254–259.

Morphological characters. 254 Sesquiphaera mashonana (Jacoby), head and pronotum in dorsal view 255 Ditto, head and anterior margin of pronotum in subfrontal view 256 Sesquiphaera nigrosignata (Bryant), elytra in lateral view 257 Seychellaltica krishna (Maulik), head and pronotum in dorsal view 258 Ditto, hind tibia and metatarsus 259 Ditto, protarsus in dorsal view.

Figures 260–265.

Morphological characters. 260 Seychellaltica mahensis (Maulik), pro-, meso- and metasternum 261 Sjostedtinia fordi Bryant, head and pronotum in dorsal view 262 Ditto, hind leg and elytra in dorsal view 263 Sphaeroderma nigripennis Bryant, head and pronotum in dorsal view 264 Sphaeroderma iyengari Bechyné, elytra in lateral view 265 Stegnaspea trimeni Baly, basal part of elytra.

Figures 266–271.

Morphological characters. 266 Terpnochlorus perrieri Fairmaire, head in subfrontal view 267 Ditto, metatarsus in dorsal view 268 Trachytetra guineensis (Bechyné), head and pronotum in lateral view 269 Ditto, hind tibia, metatarsus and apical spur 270 Tritonaphthona longicornis (Laboissière), trifid apical spur of hind tibiae 271 Upembaltica scolytina Bechyné, head and right antenna in dorsal view.

Figures 272–277.

Morphological characters. 272 Upembaltica scolytina Bechyné, metatarsus in lateral (left) and dorsal (right) view 273 Xanthophysca perrieri Fairmaire, head and pronotum in dorsal view 274 Ditto, head in subfrontal view 275 Ditto, hind leg and elytral punctation 276 Yemenaltica scorteccii Scherer, hind leg and elytral punctation 277 Yemenaltica furthi Döberl, serrate apical spur of hind tibiae.

Figures 278–283.

Maps of distribution. 278 Abrarius Fairmaire 279 Afroaltica Biondi & D’Alessandro 280 Afrocrepis Bechyné 281 Afrorestia Bechyné 282 Alocypha Weise 283 Altica Geoffroy.

Figures 284–289.

Maps of distribution. 284 Amphimela Chapuis 285 Anaxerta Fairmaire 286 Angulaphthona Bechyné 287 Antanemora Bechyné 288 Aphthona Chevrolat 289 Argopistes Motschulsky.

Figures 290–295.

Maps of distribution. 290 Argopistoides Jacoby 291 Bangalaltica Bechyné 292 Bechuana Scherer 293 Bechynella Biondi & D’Alessandro 294 Bezdekaltica Döberl 295 Bikasha Maulik.

Figures 296–301.

Maps of distribution. 296 Biodontocnema Biondi 297 Blepharida Chevrolat 298 Carcharodis Weise 299 Celisaltica Biondi 300 Chabria Jacoby 301 Chaetocnema Stephens.

Figures 302–307.

Maps of distribution. 302 Chaillucola Bechyné 303 Chirodica Germar 304 Collartaltica Bechyné 305 Decaria Weise 306 Diamphidia Gerstaecker 307 Dibolia Latreille.

Figures 308–313.

Maps of distribution. 308 Dimonikaea Bechyné 309 Diphaulacosoma Jacoby 310 Djallonia Bechyné 311 Drakensbergianella Biondi & D’Alessandro 312 Dunbrodya Jacoby 313 Epitrix Foudras.

Figures 314–319.

Maps of distribution. 314 Eriotica Harold 315 Eurylegna Weise 316 Eutornus Clark 317 Gabonia Jacoby 318 Guilielmia Weise 319 Guinerestia Scherer.

Figures 320–325.

Maps of distribution. 320 Halticotropis Fairmaire 321 Hemipyxis Chevrolat 322 Hespera Weise 323 Hildebrandtina Weise 324 Homichloda Weise 325 Hyphasis Harold.

Figures 326–331.

Maps of distribution. 326 Jacobyana Maulik 327 Kanonga Bechyné 328 Kenialtica Bechyné 329 Kimongona Bechyné 330 Lampedona Weise 331 Lepialtica Scherer.

Figures 332–337.

Maps of distribution. 332 Longitarsus Berthold 333 Luperomorpha Weise 334 Lypnea Baly 335 Malvernia Jacoby. 336 Manobia Jacoby 337 Metroserrapha Bechyné.

Figures 338–343.

Maps of distribution. 338 Montiaphthona Scherer 339 Myrcina Chapuis 340 Neodera Duvivier 341 Nisotra Baly. 342 Notomela Jacoby 343 Ntaolaltica Biondi & D’Alessandro.

Figures 344–349.

Maps of distribution. 344 Nzerekorena Bechyné 345 Orthocrepis Weise 346 Paradibolia Baly 347 Perichilona Weise 348 Philopona Weise 349 Phygasia Chevrolat.

Figures 350–355.

Maps of distribution. 350 Phyllotreta Chevrolat 351 Physodactyla Chapuis 352  Physoma Clark 353 Physomandroya Bechyné 354 Physonychis Clark 355 Podagrica Chevrolat.

Figures 356–361.

Maps of distribution. 356 Polyclada Chevrolat 357 Pratima Maulik 358 Pseudadorium Fairmaire 359 Pseudophygasia Biondi & D’Alessandro, in press 360 Psylliodes Berthold 361 Sanckia Duvivier.

Figures 362–367.

Maps of distribution. 362 Serraphula Jacoby 363 Sesquiphaera Bechyné 364 Seychellaltica Biondi 365 Sjostedtinia Weise 366 Sphaeroderma Stephens 367 Stegnaspea Baly.

Figures 368–373.

Maps of distribution. 368 Stuckenbergiana Scherer 369 Terpnochlorus Fairmaire 370 Toxaria Weise 371 Trachytetra Sharp 372 Tritonaphthona Bechyné 373 Upembaltica Bechyné.

Figures 374–376.

Maps of distribution. 374 Xanthophysca Fairmaire 375 Yemenaltica Scherer 376 Zomba Bryant.

Figure 377.

Number of flea beetle genera occuring in the various areas of the Afrotropical region (CAF: Central Afrotropical; EAF: Eastern Afrotropical; MAD: Madagascar; MAS: Mascarene Islands; SAF: Southern Afrotropical; SEY: Seychelles Islands; WAF: Western Afrotropical.) (updated from Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a).

Figure 378.

Number of flea beetle genera endemic to the various areas of the Afrotropical region (CAF: Central Afrotropical; EAF: Eastern Afrotropical; MAD: Madagascar; MAS: Mascarene Islands; SAF: Southern Afrotropical; SEY: Seychelles Islands; SSA: Sub-Saharan Africa; WAF: Western Afrotropical.) (updated from Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a).

Figure 379.

Distribution of Afrotropical flea beetle genera in the different zoogeographical regions (AFR: Afrotropical; AUR: Australian; ORR: Oriental; NAR: Nearctic; NTR: Neotropical; PAR: Palaearctic) (updated from Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a).

Figure 380.

Percentage of flea beetle genera co-occuring in the Afrotropical and another zoogeographical region (AFR: Afrotropical; AUR: Australian; ORR: Oriental; NAR: Nearctic; NTR: Neotropical; PAR: Palaearctic) (updated from Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a).

Figure 381.

Faunistic similarities of the different areas of the Afrotropical region with those of other zoogeographical regions [Coincidence index and WPGMA clustering method (Weighted Pair Group Method using Arithmetic averaging) (cf. Biondi 2006)] (AFR: Afrotropical; AUR: Australian; CAF: Central Afrotropical; EAF: Eastern Afrotropical; ORR: Oriental; MAD: Madagascar; MAS: Mascarene Islands; NAR: Nearctic; NTR: Neotropical; PAR: Palaearctic; SAF: Southern Afrotropical; SEY: Seychelles Islands; SSA: Sub-Saharan Africa; WAF: Western Afrotropical) (modified from Biondi and D’Alessandro 2010a).

Acknowledgements

We are very grateful to all the colleagues who enabled us to study the valuable material preserved in their respective institutions. A special thank you to Elizabeth Grobbelaar (SANC) and David G. Furth (National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, USA) for his valuable suggestions and linguistic improvements, and to Fabrizia Urbani (University of L’Aquila, Italy) for the construction of the maps of distribution. This contribution was partially granted by the Italian PRIN 20085YJMTC (Research Programmes of National Interest).

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