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ZooKeys 347: 1–474, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.347.6002
The Doryctinae (Braconidae) of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini
Paul M. Marsh 1,†, Alexander L. Wild 2,‡, James B. Whitfield 2,§
1 P. O. Box 384, North Newton, KS 67117
2 Department of Entomology, 320 Morrill Hall, 505 S. Goodwin Avenue, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801

Corresponding author: Paul M. Marsh (swampy@wildblue.net)

Academic editor: K. van Achterberg

received 22 June 2013 | accepted 24 October 2013 | Published 6 November 2013


(C) 2013 Paul M. Marsh. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC-BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


For reference, use of the paginated PDF or printed version of this article is recommended.

Citation: Marsh PM, Wild AL, Whitfield JB (2013) The Doryctinae (Braconidae) of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini. ZooKeys 347: 1–474. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.347.6002

Abstract

A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are described from Costa Rica: Paraheterospilus gen. n., P. ceciliaensis sp. n., P. eumekus sp. n., P. wilbotgardus sp. n., Heterospilus achi sp. n., H. achterbergi sp. n., H. aesculapius sp. n., H. agujas sp. n., H. agujasensis sp. n., H. alajuelus sp. n., H. albocoxalis sp. n., H. alejandroi sp. n., H. amuzgo sp. n., H. angelicae sp. n., H. angustus sp. n., H. aphrodite sp. n., H. apollo sp. n., H. arawak sp. n., H. areolatus sp. n., H. artemis sp. n., H. athena sp. n., H. attraholucus sp. n., H. aubreyae sp. n., H. austini sp. n., H. azofeifai sp. n., H. bacchus sp. n., H. barbalhoae sp. n., H. bennetti sp. n., H. bicolor sp. n., H. boharti sp. n., H. borucas sp. n., H. braeti sp. n., H. brethesi sp. n., H. breviarius sp. n., H. brevicornus sp. n., H. bribri sp. n., H. brullei sp. n., H. bruesi sp. n., H. cabecares sp. n., H. cacaoensis sp. n., H. cachiensis sp. n., H. cameroni sp. n., H. cangrejaensis sp. n., H. careonotaulus sp. n., H. caritus sp. n., H. carolinae sp. n., H. cartagoensis sp. n., H. catiensis sp. n., H. catorce sp. n., H. cero sp. n., H. chaoi sp. n., H. chilamatensis sp. n., H. chocho sp. n., H. chorotegus sp. n., H. chorti sp. n., H. cinco sp. n., H. cocopa sp. n., H. colliletus sp. n., H. colonensis sp. n., H. complanatus sp. n., H. conservatus sp. n., H. cora sp. n., H. corcovado sp. n., H. corrugatus sp. n., H. costaricensis sp. n., H. cressoni sp. n., H. cuatro sp. n., H. curtisi sp. n., H. cushmani sp. n., H. dani sp. n., H. demeter sp. n., H. dianae sp. n., H. diecinueve sp. n., H. dieciocho sp. n., H. dieciseis sp. n., H. diecisiete sp. n., H. diez sp. n., H. doce sp. n., H. dos sp. n., H. dulcus sp. n., H. eberhardi sp. n., H. ektorincon sp. n., H. emilius sp. n., H. empalmensis sp. n., H. enderleini sp. n., H. escazuensis sp. n., H. fahringeri sp. n., H. fischeri sp. n., H. flavidus sp. n., H. flavisoma sp. n., H. flavostigmus sp. n., H. foersteri sp. n., H. fonsecai sp. n., H. fournieri sp. n., H. gahani sp. n., H. garifuna sp. n., H. gauldi sp. n., H. golfodulcensis sp. n., H. gouleti sp. n., H. granulatus sp. n., H. grisselli sp. n., H. guanacastensis sp. n., H. guapilensis sp. n., H. hachaensis sp. n., H. halidayi sp. n., H. hansoni sp. n., H. hansonorum sp. n., H. haplocarinus sp. n., H. hedqvisti sp. n., H. hera sp. n., H. heredius sp. n., H. hespenheidei sp. n., H. holleyae sp. n., H. huddlestoni sp. n., H. huetares sp. n., H. hypermekus sp. n., H. itza sp. n., H. ixcatec sp. n., H. ixil sp. n., H. jabillosensis sp. n., H. jakaltek sp. n., H. janzeni sp. n., H. jennieae sp. n., H. jonmarshi sp. n., H. jupiter sp. n., H. kellieae sp. n., H. kiefferi sp. n., H. kikapu sp. n., H. kulai sp. n., H. kuna sp. n., H. lapierrei sp. n., H. lasalturus sp. n., H. laselvus sp. n., H. leenderti sp. n., H. leioenopus sp. n., H. leiponotaulus sp. n., H. lenca sp. n., H. levis sp. n., H. leviscutum sp. n., H. levitergum sp. n., H. limonensis sp. n., H. longinoi sp. n., H. longisulcus sp. n., H. longius sp. n., H. luteogaster sp. n., H. luteoscutum sp. n., H. luteus sp. n., H. macrocarinus sp. n., H. macrocaudatus sp. n., H. magnus sp. n., H. malaisei sp. n., H. mam sp. n., H. maritzaensis sp. n., H. mars sp. n., H. masneri sp. n., H. masoni sp. n., H. mellosus sp. n., H. menkei sp. n., H. mercury sp. n., H. milleri sp. n., H. miskito sp. n., H. mixtec sp. n., H. monteverde sp. n., H. mopanmaya sp. n., H. muertensis sp. n., H. muesebecki sp. n., H. nahua sp. n., H. neesi sp. n., H. nemestrinus sp. n., H. nephilim sp. n., H. nephus sp. n., H. nigracapitus sp. n., H. nigragonatus sp. n., H. nigricoxus sp. n., H. nixoni sp. n., H. noyesi sp. n., H. nueve sp. n., H. nunesi sp. n., H. once sp. n., H. orbitus sp. n., H. orosi sp. n., H. paloverde sp. n., H. pappi sp. n., H. parkeri sp. n., H. parvus sp. n., H. pech sp. n., H. penosa sp. n., H. petiolatus sp. n., H. petralbus sp. n., H. phaeocoxus sp. n., H. phaeoskelus sp. n., H. pharkidodus sp. n., H. phytorius sp. n., H. pitillaensis sp. n., H. poqomchi sp. n., H. poqomom sp. n., H. puertoviejoensis sp. n., H. puntarensis sp. n., H. qanjobal sp. n., H. quickei sp. n., H. quitirrisi sp. n., H. racostica sp. n., H. rama sp. n., H. ramirezi sp. n., H. ratzeburgi sp. n., H. reagani sp. n., H. reinhardi sp. n., H. retheospilus sp. n., H. rhabdotus sp. n., H. ricacosta sp. n., H. rinconensis sp. n., H. robbieae sp. n., H. rohweri sp. n., H. rojasi sp. n., H. romani sp. n., H. rugosus sp. n., H. sabrinae sp. n., H. saminae sp. n., H. sanjosensis sp. n., H. santarosensis sp. n., H. sanvitoensis sp. n., H. saturn sp. n., H. seis sp. n., H. sergeyi sp. n., H. sharkeyi sp. n., H. shawi sp. n., H. shenefelti sp. n., H. shonan sp. n., H. siete sp. n., H. similis sp. n., H. sinuatus sp. n., H. smithi sp. n., H. spiloheterus sp. n., H. staryi sp. n., H. stelfoxi sp. n., H. strazanaci sp. n., H. sumo sp. n., H. szepligeti sp. n., H. terrabas sp. n., H. thereospilus sp. n., H. tobiasi sp. n., H. tolupan sp. n., H. townesi sp. n., H. trece sp. n., H. tres sp. n., H. tricolor sp. n., H. trienta sp. n., H. tuberculatus sp. n., H. turrialbaensis sp. n., H. tzutujil sp. n., H. ugaldei sp. n., H. uno sp. n., H. variabilis sp. n., H. veinte sp. n., H. veintidos sp. n., H. veintitres sp. n., H. veintiuno sp. n., H. vierecki sp. n., H. villegasi sp. n., H. vittatus sp. n., H. vulcanus sp. n., H. wahli sp. n., H. warreni sp. n., H. washingtoni sp. n., H. wesmaeli sp. n., H. whartoni sp. n., H. whitfieldi sp. n., H. wildi sp. n., H. wilkinsoni sp. n., H. wrightae sp. n., H. xanthus sp. n., H. xerxes sp. n., H. xinca sp. n., H. yaqui sp. n., H. ypsilon sp. n., H. zapotec sp. n., H. zeus sp. n., H. zitaniae sp. n., H. zoque sp. n., H. zunigai sp. n., H. zurquiensis sp. n. One new combination is proposed, Pioscelus costaricensis (Marsh) comb. n.

Keywords

Parasitoid wasps, Braconidae, Doryctinae, Heterospilini, Heterospilus, Costa Rica

Introduction

This is the second part of a two-part study of the braconid subfamily Doryctinae from Costa Rica. The first part (Marsh 2002) dealt with 62 genera and 172 species excluding the genus Heterospilus Haliday. The present study represents a comprehensive taxonomic study of the four genera of the tribe Heterospilini. This tribe is represented almost entirely by the hyperdiverse genus Heterospilus which includes 280 species, and three smaller genera which include 6 species. An expanded discussion of the family Doryctinae, a brief history of biodiversity of Hymenoptera in Costa Rica and significance of these studies, can be found in Marsh (2002). In addition to the morphological study, an interactive key to the species of Heterospilus was prepared using Lucid Builder.

Of the 280 species of Heterospilus described in this study, 277 are new to science. Furthermore, nearly 25% of the new species are described from a single unique holotype.

If the numerous unplaced species in the unsorted specimens we have looked at are added to the above figures, the enormous diversity of this genus in such a small locality becomes obvious. We estimate that perhaps another 50–100 species could be added to the total.

Materials and methods

The morphological study is based on the examination of nearly 7, 000 specimens of the genus Heterospilus and nearly 100 specimens of the other genera of the tribe Heterospilini from Costa Rica and neighboring countries in Central America. The majority of the specimens were borrowed from the University of Wyoming and the Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio) in Costa Rica. Additional specimens were borrowed from the American Entomological Institute, the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, Texas A&M University, the Natural History Museum, London and the University of Costa Rica. Unfortunately, the specimens from INBio are not well mounted and it is difficult to see the characters on most of them. Thus, this study is based primarily on the material from the University of Wyoming. They are mostly from a long collaboration between Scott Shaw of the University of Wyoming and Paul Hanson of the University of Costa Rica and represent specimens collected over the past 30+ years by Paul as well as by Ian Gauld and Dan Janzen.

Below are the acronyms for the collections from which specimens were borrowed and where types have been deposited. Names of the responsible curators are indicated in brackets.

AEIC American Entomological Institute, Gainesville, FL [David Wahl]

ESUW Insect Museum, Ecosystem Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY [Scott Shaw]

FSAG Faculté Universitaire des Sciences Agronomiques, Gembloux, Belgium [Yves Braet]

INBC Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Santo Domingo, Costa Rica (frequently abbreviated as INBio) [Manuel Solís]

LEID National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, The Netherlands [Kees van Achterberg]

MICR Museo de Insectos, University of Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica [Paul Hanson]

NHML The Natural History Museum, London [Gavin Broad]

NMNH National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC [Robert Kula]

TAMU Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX [Robert Wharton]

The specimens in this study were examined using a Wild M5 binocular stereomicroscope and fluorescent illumination. The scanning electron micrographs were made on a Philips XL30 Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope. Most specimens were gold/palladium coated using a Denton Desk II TSC turbo-pumped sputter coater, but the numerous unique holotypes were examined uncoated. Light microscope colored images were captured with a 3 MP Leica video camera running Leica Application Suite software and mounted on a Leica MZ6 stereomicroscope. Still images from the stereomicroscope were focus-stacked using Combine ZP (Hadley 2010). Minor levels of adjustments to both SEM and light images were performed in Adobe Photoshop versions CS3 and CS4, and plates were prepared in the same program.

An interactive key to species of Heterospilus from Costa Rica was created using Lucid Builder 3.5; it can be accessed at www.lucidcentral.org. We included 49 discrete morphological characters and one continuous character, antennal segment number, that varied among species and were diagnostically useful. Where possible, ambiguities and polymorphisms in state were resolved conservatively as coded to multiple states. The Lucid character matrix was examined in a concurrent phylogenetic study where evolutionary rate of each character over a 5-locus molecular phylogeny is correlated to taxonomic utility as measured by Lucid’s “best” function (Wild et al. 2013).

Label data for holotypes and paratypes is listed exactly as indicated on the labels including misspellings, punctuation, abbreviations and absent spaces. Lines on each label are separated by a bracketed semi-colon [;].

Taxonomic decisions were the sole responsibility of PMM and authorship of all new taxa is attributed to PMM.

Heterospilus Character List and Definitions of Sculpturing

During this study, 49 discrete morphological characters for the 280 species of Heterospilus were used both in conjunction with the interactive key prepared with Lucid Builder (Wild et al. 2013) and in preparing the descriptions of the Heterospilus species and other Heterospilini genera provided here. An annotated discussion of these characters is provided below including illustrations of some surface sculpturing terms used in the descriptions. Most of the surface sculpturing terms follow Harris (1979) and Marsh (2002).

HEAD

Color. The head color is either entirely yellow, entirely light or medium brown, or entirely dark brown or black. Often the head is bicolored with the face and vertex of contrasting colors.

Flagellomere color. The antennal flagellomeres of the Costa Rican species can be divided into three distinct groups: (1) flagellomeres entirely yellow, brown or black; (2) brown with the apical 3-8 flagellomeres white, the last one sometimes dark; (3) and brown with a white annulus of 3-6 flagellomeres below the apex, with the apical 3-5 flagellomeres always dark. Although this character easily divides the species into three groups, it was not used as a major separating character in the dichotomous keys below because many species had the antennae missing. But the character was used in the descriptions and where practical in the keys.

Flagellomere number. Most species have longer antennae with 25 or more flagellomeres, but a few species have short antennae with fewer than 20 flagellomeres.

Scape color. The scape is either yellow or brown. On a number of species there is a longitudinal brown stripe along the lateral edge.

Vertex sculpture. The sculpture of the vertex divides the species of Heterospilus into three distinct groups: (1) smooth (Fig. 1C); (2) granulate (Fig. 1B); and (3) transversely striate or costate (Fig. 1A). Occasionally the sculpturing is costate-rugose (Fig. 1D) and often the granulate vertex will have more or less distinct transverse carinae behind the ocelli (Fig. 1E). While these characters are usually distinct, occasionally a smooth vertex will have a few weak carinae behind the ocelli in which case the species might be taken both ways through the keys.

Figure 1.

Examples of surface sculpturing in Heterospilus spp.

Frons sculpture. The frons is usually sculptured the same as the vertex, smooth, costate/striate or granulate. However, occasionally the frons will be sculptured differently than the vertex, such as costate while the vertex is smooth.

Face sculpturing. The face is most often smooth, but can be variously sculptured striate, rugose, granulate or areolate.

Malar space. The malar space is the shortest distance from the base of the eye to the base of the mandible. The important character for Heterospilus is the distance in relation to 1/4 of the eye height - greater than, equal to or less than 1/4 of the eye height. In a few rare cases the malar space is so short that it appears to be absent, the base of the eye nearly touching the base of the mandible.

Temple shape in dorsal view. The temple, when viewed dorsally, is either broad and somewhat bulging behind the eye (Fig. 1F) or narrow and sharply sloping toward the occipital carina (Fig. 2A). Occasionally the temple will be broad but not bulging and thus sloping behind the eye (Fig. 2B).

Figure 2.

Examples of surface sculpturing in Heterospilus spp.

Temple width. The width of the temple in relation to the eye width, in dorsal view, is important. The width is either greater than, equal to or less than 1/2 of the width of the eye.

Ocell-ocular distance. This is the shortest distance between the lateral ocellus and the edge of the eye and is compared to the diameter of the lateral ocellus. The ocell-ocular distance is 1.5 times or less, 1.5–2.5 times, or greater than 2.5 times the diameter of the lateral ocellus.

MESOSOMA

Color. Most species have the mesosoma concolorous yellow, light to medium brown, or dark brown to black. Occasionally the mesosoma is bicolored, such as the mesoscutum lighter than the remainder of the mesosoma, the propodeum darker than the remainder, or the mesosoma with lateral darker stripes.

Mesoscutal lobes sculpture. The mesoscutal lobes are usually smooth (Fig. 2D) or granulate (Fig. 2C). Occasionally the lateral lobes are partially costate or striate (Fig. 2E) and rarely rugose along the notauli (Fig. 2F).

Mesoscutal lobes pilosity. Most species have sparse setae along the notauli (Fig. 2C), but a few have the lateral lobes entirely sparsely or densely hairy (Fig. 3A).

Figure 3.

Examples of surface sculpturing in Heterospilus spp.

Notauli sculpture. The notauli for most species are entirely or sometimes partially scrobiculate (Fig. 2C). Occasionally they are smooth and unsculptured (Fig. 2D) or rarely weak or absent posteriorly (Fig. 3B).

Notauli posterior meeting. The notauli converge toward the midline of the mesoscutum and meet at the prescutellar furrow. This area where they meet is variously sculptured and is usually a triangular rugose (Fig. 3D), costate (Fig. 2C) or costate-rugose (Fig. 3E) area. Occasionally this is a wide rectangular rugose or costate area (Fig. 3C) or, rarely, an unsculptured area (Fig. 3F).

Prescutellar furrow. This furrow, sometimes called the scutellar sulcus (see Wharton et al. 1997: 34), is a broad transverse depression between the mesoscutum and scutellum and is divided by one median (Fig. 3B) or 3–5 (Figs 2C, 4A) cross carinae. Frequently there will be a distinct median cross carina and several weaker carinae on each side (Fig. 3F).

Figure 4.

Examples of surface sculpturing in Heterospilus spp.

Scutellum. The scutellum is either smooth or granulate, and rarely weakly rugose.

Mesopleuron sculpture. In most species the mesopleuron is smooth (Fig. 4E) or granulate (Fig. 4B). In a few species it is smooth just above the precoxal sulcus and costate dorsally (Fig. 4C). Rarely the mesopleuron is mostly costate.

Precoxal sulcus (previously called the sternaulus; see Wharton 2006). The precoxal sulcus is always scrobiculate (Fig. 4B) or smooth (Fig. 4C) and usually shorter than the width of the mesopleuron. Occasionally it is extended to the posterior margin of the mesopleuron by a groove or carinae (Fig. 4B).

Propodeum. The propodeum has a distinct pattern of carinae (Fig. 4F) that is important in species identification (see Marsh 2002, fig. 5, for definitions of carinae and areas). The carinae and areas are discussed below.

Propodeum - basal median area . The basal median areas of the propodeum are usually distinct and entirely margined by carinae (Fig. 2C) but often the carinae are not distinct or absent (Fig. 2E). The surface sculpturing of the areas can be smooth (Fig. 3A), granulate (Fig. 2C) or rugose (Fig. 2D).

Propodeum - basal median carina. When this carina is present and distinct it is either long (usually longer than median carina of the prescutellar furrow) (Fig. 5A) or shorter than the prescutellar carina (Fig. 5B). Often the basal median carina is absent, thus the anterior tip of the areola meets the basal margin of the propodeum (Fig. 3C).

Figure 5.

Examples of surface sculpturing in Heterospilus spp.

Areola. The areola is considered distinctly margined if it is enclosed anteriorly by the forked carinae at the apex of the basal median carina (sometimes referred to as the costulae) and posteriorly by converging carinae (Fig. 4F). It is considered not margined if the posterior carinae are absent (even if the costulae are present anteriorly) (Fig. 2C).

Areolar sculpture. This sculpturing is in the area within the areola, whether or not it is completely margined. The sculpturing is usually rugose (Fig. 2C) but often it is areolate (Fig. 5E) or areolate-rugose (Fig. 4A). Rarely this area is smooth (Fig. 3A).

Propodeum - lateral area. The propodeum laterally is usually entirely rugose (Fig. 5D) or rarely smooth. Often the lateral area is rugose posteriorly and granulate or smooth anteriorly (Fig. 5C).

Propodeum - apical lateral corners. Occasionally the apical-lateral corners of the propodeum are produced into a more or less distinct tubercle (Fig. 5F).

Propodeum - area just above hind coxae. Occasionally the carinae on the lateral-posterior area of the propodeum are produced into a raised tubercle just above the hind coxa (Fig. 6A).

Figure 6.

Examples of surface sculpturing in Heterospilus spp.

Venter of mesosoma. The venter of the mesosoma is granulate or smooth, usually similar to the sculpturing on the mesopleuron.

WINGS (Fig. 8A–B)

Fore wing - relative lengths of veins r and 3RSa. Fore wing vein r is usually shorter than vein 3RSa, but occasionally vein r is as long as or shorter than vein 3RSa.

Fore wing - position of vein 1cu-a. Vein 1cu-a is either interstitial with vein 1M or beyond vein 1M by a short distance.

Stigma color. The fore wing stigma is usually concolorous brown or yellow but is occasionally bicolored brown with yellow spot at apex and/or base.

Stigma width. The width of the stigma is usually greater than the length of vein r but occasionally it is equal or shorter than vein r.

Hind wing - vein SC+R. Vein SC+R is either present or absent. These two states are about equally divided among the species of Heterospilus in Costa Rica.

Hind wing – relative lengths of veins M+CU and 1M. These veins are usually about equal in length, but vein M+CU is occasionally shorter or longer than vein 1M.

LEGS

Leg color. The legs are usually concolorous yellow, brown or black. Frequently the femur and/or tibia are bicolored and occasionally the coxae are differently colored than the femur.

METASOMA

First tergum (petiole) - length relative to apical width. The length of the first tergum is usually equal to its apical width but often greater than the apical width or rarely less than the apical width.

First tergum - sculpture. The first tergum is nearly always longitudinally costate (Fig. 6B) or porcate (Fig. 6F (porcate is defined as with fewer broad ridges than in costate and with deep broad sulcations between ridges)). Occasionally it can be more or less rugose, at least medially (Fig. 6C) and often it can be granulate (Fig. 6D) or rugose (Fig. 6E) between the costae. Rarely the tergum is entirely granulate (Fig. 7E) or partially or entirely smooth (Fig. 7A).

Figure 7.

Examples of surface sculpturing in Heterospilus spp.

Figure 8.

Wings of Heterospilus showing relevant veins.

First tergum - color. The first tergum is nearly always concolorous yellow, brown or black. Rarely the apical edge is lighter or darker than the remainder of the tergum.

Second tergum - sculpture. The second tergum is usually longitudinally costate or striate (Fig. 6F) but occasionally it is entirely granulate or, rarely, smooth.

Second tergum - width. The width is usually three or less times median length (Fig. 6F) but often it is narrower and four or more times median length (Fig. 6E).

Second tergum - color. The color is usually concolorous yellow, brown or black. Frequently the tergum is bicolored.

Third tergum - sculpture. The third tergum is variously sculptured as follows: longitudinally costate entirely (Fig. 7C); granulate entirely (Fig. 6E); costate at base, smooth at apex (Fig. 6B); costate at base, granulate at apex (Fig. 7D); granulate at base, smooth at apex (Fig. 6C); smooth entirely.

Anterior and posterior transverse grooves. In the Heterospilus species from Costa Rica the fused metasomal terga 2+3 always have two transverse grooves (Fig. 7A). The anterior transverse groove separates the second and third terga whereas the posterior transverse groove is on the basal third or fourth of the third tergum. Both grooves are usually costate or scrobiculate (Fig. 7E) and often deeply pitted (Fig. 7F). Rarely, one or both of the grooves is absent. The grooves are usually straight, but the anterior groove is often more or less sinuate (Fig. 6E).

Metasomal terga 4-7 - sculpture. These terga are nearly always granulate or smooth but occasionally terga 4 and 5 will be costate or granulate only at the base, smooth apically.

Metasomal terga 4-7 - color. These terga are usually concolorous with the anterior terga, but often they are lighter and distinctly contrasting in color with the anterior terga.

Ovipositor length. This character refers to the exposed length of the ovipositor beyond the apex of the metasoma relative to the length of the metasoma. The states of this character are: shorter than first metasomal tergum; equal to length of first tergum; equal to length of terga 1 and 2 combined; equal to 1/2 metasoma length; equal to 3/4 metasomal length; equal to length of metasoma; longer than metasoma.

Taxonomy
Subfamily Doryctinae Foerster
Doryctinae Foerster, 1862: 227, 238 (as Doryctoidae).
Diagnosis

(taken from Marsh 2002). Cyclostome braconids with circular or oval mouth opening formed by concave apical margin of clypeus, mandibles (when closed) and concave labrum; occipital carina usually present, rarely absent; fore tibia with row or (rarely) cluster of stout, short spines along anterior edge distinct from regular setae; epicnemial carina present; double node at apex of dorsal valve of the ovipositor; flange at the apico-lateral corner of the propleuron just above the fore coxa and extending slightly over ventro-lateral corner of pronotum.

Species now included in the Doryctinae were first described by Linnaeus and Fabricius in the genus Ichneumon. Many of these species and subsequently described new species were transferred to the genus Bracon Fabricius (1804). In 1808, Spinola separated from this genus what he called the Bracon petiolatus group which was later described as the genus Spathius by Nees (1818). This is apparently the first genus to be later included in the Doryctinae.

Foerster, in his monumental study of braconid classification, divided the Braconidae into several groups which later became subfamilies, tribes and subtribes (Foerster 1862). He included doryctine genera in groups he called Doryctoidae, Euspathioidae and Hecaboloidae. Forester was the first to use the name Doryctinae (-oidae) and is considered the author of the subfamily name.

Tribe Heterospilini Fischer
Heterospilini Fischer, 1981: 47 (as subtribe Heterospilina).
Diagnosis.

Fore wing vein 2RS absent (Fig. 8A), at least partially, rarely indicated by infuscated line (nebulose vein) but not a distinct tubular vein; fore wing first subdiscal cell open at apex, vein 2cu-a absent (Fig. 8A); basal sternal plate (acrosternite) of first metasomal segment 1/4 length of tergum; hind coxa usually with antero-ventral tooth or tubercle at base (Fig. 10C), occasionally with weak tooth; hind wing of male usually with enlarged stigma near base.

The complete or near absence of the fore wing vein 2RS occurs in several other tribes of the Doryctinae. Belokobylskij (2006) presented a key to the World tribes and genera of Doryctinae with a reduced fore wing vein 2RS. A few apterous or brachypterous species of Heterospilus have been described including one from Costa Rica (Kula 2013) and two in the Nearctic Region (Kula 2011). In the present study of nearly 7, 000 specimens, no apterous or brachypterous forms were found. Most of the specimens were collected in Malaise traps or by sweep nets but the specimens that were described by Kula were collected in pan traps. Undoubtedly, if more collecting in Costa Rica were to be done using pan traps, more specimens of wingless species would be found.

In Costa Rica, the tribe Heterospilini is composed almost entirely of the speciose genus Heterospilus but also includes three smaller genera which can be identified by the key below.

Very little is known about the biology of the species in the Heterospilini. The genus Heterospilus has the most diverse host range within the Doryctinae. Where records are known, species in Heterospilus parasitize a very wide range of endophytic, mostly stem-boring, hosts. In the Coleoptera, Heterospilus parasitizes the families Anobiidae, Bostrichidae, Bruchidae, Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae, Languriidae, Mordellidae and Scolytidae; in the Lepidoptera, the families Gelechiidae, Incurvariidae, Pyralidae and Tortricidae are utilized; and two Mexican species were reared from the cotton boll weevil (Marsh 2002). In Costa Rica, even less is known about the hosts of Heterospilus relative to the large number of species. One species, Heterospilus microstigmi Richards, has been reared from larvae of pemphredonine sphecid wasps of the genus Microstigmus (Marsh and Melo 1999); another species, Heterospilus lapierrei sp. n., was reared from a weevil infesting Cecropia (Hespenheide and LaPierre 2006); and Heterospilus sinuatus sp. n. has been reared from several species of bruchids (Whitehead 1975). One record of Heterospilus attacking streblid bat flies needs to be confirmed (Shockley and Murray 2006).

Key to the Genera of Heterospilini from Costa Rica
1 Ovipositor curved up at apex and considerably modified (Fig. 9A) Neoheterospilus Beleokobylskij
Ovipositor straight at apex, not modified 2
2(1) Hind coxa without a distinct antero-ventral basal tubercle or tooth (Fig. 10D) Pioscelus Muesebeck & Walkley
Hind coxa with a distinct antero-ventral basal tubercle or tooth Fig. 10C) 3
3(2) Vertex sharply angled laterally near upper eye margin (Fig. 9B) Paraheterospilus Marsh, gen. n.
Vertex not sharply angled laterally near eye Heterospilus Haliday
Genus Neoheterospilus Belokobylskij

http://species-id.net/wiki/Neoheterospilus

Neoheterospilus Belokobylskij, 2006: 151.
Type species.

Heterospilus falcatus Marsh.

Diagnosis.

Small size, 2.5–3.0 mm; ovipositor curved up and modified apically with valves expanded and sickle-shaped and sheaths expanded; fore wing vein 2RS absent, vein r slightly longer than vein 3RSa, first subdiscal cell open at apex and bottom, vein 2-1A absent; hind wing vein SC+R absent, hind wing of male with stigma.

Distribution.

Neotropical, Palaearctic, Oriental, Australian and Afrotropical Regions.

Biology.

One species has been reared from Scolytidae.

Comments.

This genus is distinguished from all other heterospiline braconids by the unusual shape of the ovipositor that is curved up and sickle-shaped at the tip. Belokobylskij 2006 presents a key and descriptions to the world species and separates them into two subgenera. The Neotropical Region contains one described species occurring in Costa Rica (new record), Venezuela and Brazil.

Neoheterospilus (Harpoheterospilus) falcatus (Marsh)

http://species-id.net/wiki/Neoheterospilus_falcatus

Fig. 9A
Heterospilus falcatus Marsh, in Quicke and Marsh 1992: 563.
Neoheterospilus (Harpoheterospilus) falcatus (Marsh); Belokobylskij 2006: 175.
Female.

Body size: 2.5–3.0 mm. Color: body dark brown, apical metasomal terga slightly lighter; scape yellow, flagellum brown; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex weakly granulate; frons weakly granulate; face rugose-granulate; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, width less than 1/4 eye width; malar space about 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance 1.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 22–25 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting posteriorly in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with numerous cross carinae; mesopleuron weakly granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter weakly granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent, areola not margined, areolar area rugose, lateral area nearly entirely granulate. Wings: fore wing vein r slightly longer than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R absent, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate on basal half and smooth apically, occasionally entirely costate; anterior transverse groove very weak or absent; posterior transverse groove absent; third and following terga smooth; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Male.

Essentially as in female; hind wing with stigma.

Specimens examined.

Costa Rica: Alajuela [;] Est. San Ramon [;] Light trap UV/F in [;] clearing off main road [;] to station. 21.vi.1998 [;] Dadelahi & Zitani (ESUW). COSTA RICA: Alajuela [;] Chiles de Aquas [;] Zarcas Café, 300m [;] i.1990, R. Cespedes (SUW). COSTA RICA: Heredia [;] Pr: La Selva Biol. Sta. [;] 3km S. Pto. Viejo [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W [;] 19.v.1990 [;] H.A. Hespenheide [;] on dead Citrus (ESUW). Costa Rica: Heredia [;] 3km. S. Puerto Viejo [;] OTS - La Selva, 100m [;] 16–30.IX.1992 [;] P. Hanson (ESUW). Costa Rica, Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, 5km. [;] W. Piedras Blancas, 100m [;] I-1993, P. Hanson (ESUW). Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Pen. Osa, 5km. N. Pto. [;] Jimenez, 10m, iii-iv. [;] 1991, P. Hanson, Malaise (ESUW). PN.Manuel Antonio, 80m [;] Quepos, Prov. Puntarenas [;] Costa Rica, Nov 1992, [;] G. Varela [;] L-S 370900, 448800 (INBC). Playuelas, R.N.V.S. Caño Negro, Prov. [;] Alaju, COSTA RICA, 20m, 3-21 Ene 1994 [;] K. Martinez, L N 325900_454500 #2580 (INBC).

Biology.

Specimens of the type series from Venezuela were reared from Xyleborus ferrugineus (F.).

Figure 9.

A apex of ovipositor, Neoheterospilus falcatus (Marsh) B–D Paraheterospilus ceciliaensis Marsh, sp. n.

Type species.

Paraheterospilus ceciliaensis Marsh, sp. n.

Diagnosis.

Small size, 1.5–2.0 mm; vertex sharply angled dorso-laterally near dorsal eye margin (Fig. 9B); occipital carina meeting hypostomal carina; fore tibia with single row of short spines along anterior edge; hind coxa with small but distinct antero-ventral basal tooth; basal sternal plate of metasomal segment 1 short, less than 1/4 length of tergum, laterope indistinct; fore wing vein r-m present, vein 2RS absent; hind wing vein SC+R absent.

Distribution.

Know only from Costa Rica.

Biology.

Unknown.

Comments.

This genus is very similar to Heterospilus but is distinguished from this and all other Doryctinae genera by the unusual angled dorso-lateral corners of the vertex.

Etymology.

The generic name is from the Greek para, meaning near, in reference to its similarity with the genus Heterospilus. Gender is masculine.

Key to the species of Paraheterospilus in Costa Rica
1 Ovipositor longer than metasoma Paraheterospilus eumekus Marsh, sp. n.
Ovipositor shorter than metasoma 2
2(1) Width of metasomal tergum 2 about 4 times median length; propodeum sharply declivous posteriorly Paraheterospilus ceciliaensis Marsh, sp. n.
Width of metasomal tergum 2 about 3 times median length; propodeum horizontal, not declivous posteriorly Paraheterospilus wilbotgardus Marsh, sp. n.
Female.

Body size: 1.5 mm. Color: body dark brown, metasoma often partially or completely lighter brown; scape and pedicel yellow, flagellum brown; legs yellow; wing veins, including stigma, brown, stigma rarely yellow at apex. Head: vertex usually smooth, often weakly transversely striate behind ocelli, dorsal-lateral corners sharply angled at upper eye margin; frons smooth; face weakly striate; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space about 1/4 eye height; ocelli small, ocell-ocular distance about 4 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 15 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli shallow, scrobiculate, meeting posteriorly in small triangular costate area; scutellum usually smooth, occasionally weakly granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; mesopleuron weakly granulate, often smooth just above precoxal sulcus; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate or smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum sharply declivous posteriorly, dorsal surface short, basal median areas margined but short, granulate, basal median carina absent, areola not distinct, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r about 1/2 length of vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R absent, vein M+CU equal to or slightly shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first metasomal tergum longitudinally costate, raised median area margined, declivous anteriorly and transversely costate, length of tergum about equal to apical width; second metasomal tergum longitudinally costate, width about 4 times median length; anterior transverse groove slightly sinuate; posterior transverse groove very weak or absent; third and following terga smooth; ovipositor slightly less than 1/2 length of metasoma.

Male.

Essentially as in female; width of second metasomal tergum about 3 times apical width; hind wing with stigma.

Holotype female:

Top label (white, printed) - Est. Pitilia, 700m, 9km S [;] Sta. Cecilia, P.N.Guana- [;] caste, Prov. Guan. COSTA [;] RICA, D.Garcia, 4–14 nov [;] 1991, L.N.330200–880200; second label (white, printed) - INBio bar code; third label (red, printed) - HOLOTYPE [;] Paraheterospilus [;] ceciliaensis Marsh. Deposited in INBC.

Paratypes.

7 ♀♀, 4 ♂♂, same data as holotype with additional collectors P.Rios and C. Moraga, and dates Ago 1991, 23 set a 14 oct 1992, 10 a 17 jun, 31 mar a 15 abr 1992, 3–18 Oct 1991 and 4-25 Nov 1991 (INBC). 1 ♀, 2 ♂♂, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, 5km, [;] W. Piedras Blancas, 100m [;] vi-vii.1991, viii-ix.1991 and xi-xii.1991, P. Hanson [;] Malaise nr. second growth (ESUW). 1 ♂, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] P.N. Guanacaste [;] below Pitilia, 500m [;] 7–8.iii.1990, J.S. Noyes (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Heredia [;] Chilamate, 75m [;] 25/III/1989 [;] col. Hanson & Godoy (ESUW). 1 ♀, PANAMA: Colon Pr. [;] Rio Guanche, 5km [;] S Portobelo, el. 100 ft. [;] 9°30.202'N, 79°39.903'W [;] 18.vii.1999, J. Wooley (TAMU).

Comments.

This species differs from Paraheterospilus eumekus and Paraheterospilus wilbotgardus in its shorter and squat body, the shorter metasomal tergum 2 and the shorter antenna.

Etymology.

Named for the locality where most of the type series was collected, Cecilia Station in Guanacaste National Park.

Female.

Body size: 2.0 mm. Color: body dark brown; scape and pedicel yellow, flagellum brown; legs yellow; wing veins including stigma brown. Head: vertex smooth, dorsal-lateral corners sharply angled; frons smooth; face weakly striate or striate-granulate; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, with less than 1/2 eye height; malar space about 1/4 eye height; ocelli small, ocell-ocular distance nearly 4 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 16 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli shallow, scrobiculate, meeting posteriorly in small triangular costate area; scutellum usually smooth, occasionally weakly granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; mesopleuron weakly granulate, often smooth just above precoxal sulcus; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate or smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum sharply declivous posteriorly, dorsal surface short, basal median areas margined but short, granulate, basal median carina absent, areola not distinct, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a interstitial with or slightly beyond vein 1M, stigma short and broad, width more than twice length of vein r; hind wing vein SC+R absent, vein M+CU equal to or slightly shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length slightly greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate, width about 3 times median length; third tergum smooth, anterior and posterior grooves absent; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor longer than metasoma, often as long as body.

Male.

Unknown.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA, Prov. Puntarenas, [;] Est. Rio Bonito, 2.3Km ai O. del [;] Cerro la Gamba, 110m, 9–26 MAR [;] 1996, E. Fletes. [;] L_S_293900_547075 #8308; second label - INBio bar code; third label (red, printed) - HOLOTYPE [;] Paraheterospilus [;] eumekus Marsh. Deposited in INBC.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Est. Pitilia, 700m, 9km S [;] Sta. Cecilia, P.N. Guana- [;] caste, Prov. Guanacaste, [;] Costa Rica, 27 jui a 14 [;] ago 1992, P.Rios [;] L-N 830200, 380200 (INBC). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] A.C.O., Golfito, Reserva [;] Forestal Golfo Dulce [;] Est. Agujas, 250–350m; second label - 2–22 October 1999 [;] J. Azofeifa, Red de Golpe [;] L-S-276750–526550 #53491 (ESUW).

Comments.

The very long ovipositor, often as long as the body, will distinguish this species from the others in the genus.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the Greek eumekes, meaning of great length, in reference to the long ovipositor.

Female.

Body size: 1.5–2.0 mm. Color: body dark brown, apical metasomal terga often lighter; scape and pedicel yellow, flagellum brown; legs yellow; wing veins including stigma light yellow. Head: vertex weakly granulate, dorsal-lateral corners sharply angled; frons weakly granulate; face granulate; temple in dorsal view somewhat broad and not sloping behind eye, width equal to 1/2 eye width; malar space about 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 4 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 20 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting posteriorly in large triangular costate area; scutellum weakly granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus weakly smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum nearly horizontal, only gradually sloping posteriorly, basal median areas distinctly margined, granulate, basal median carina present, short, areola distinct, areolar area broadly areolate-rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, width of stigma slightly greater than length of vein r, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R absent, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first metasomal tergum longitudinally costate-granulate, length slightly greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinal costate, width about 3 times median length; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove absent; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor half as long as metasoma.

Male.

Unknown.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Las Cruces [;] Wilson Botanical Gardens [;] 18-22.iii.1990, 1150m [;] J.S. Noyes; second label (red, printed) - HOLOTYPE [;] Paraheterospilus [;] wilbotgardus Marsh. Deposited in (ESUW).

Paratypes.

1 ♀, same data as holotype (ESUW).

Comments.

This species is distinguished from the others in the genus by the more coarsely granulate head and mesosoma and the more horizontal propodeum.

Etymology.

The specific name is in reference to the type locality of the Wilson Botanical Gardens in Puntarenas Province.

Genus Pioscelus Muesebeck & Walkley

http://species-id.net/wiki/Pioscelus

Pioscelus Muesebeck & Walkley 1951: 180.
Amazondoryctes Barbalho & Penteado-Dias, in Barbalho et al. 1999: 142. Synonymized by Belokobylskij 2006: 150.
Type species.

Hedysomus wichitus Viereck.

Diagnosis

(taken from Marsh 2002). Body size: 2.5–4.5 mm; head cubicle; occipital carina meeting hypostomal carina; frons slightly excavated; mesoscutum declivous anteriorly; propodeum often horizontal and barely declivous posteriorly; precoxal sulcus usually as long as mesopleuron; fore tibia with single row of short spines along anterior edge; hind coxa without distinct tooth or tubercle at base (Fig. 10D) although smoothly angled; fore wing vein r-m present, vein 2RS absent or represented partially by weakly infuscate line, first subdiscal cell open at apex; hind wing vein M+CU equal to or shorter than vein 1M; first metasomal tergum longer then apical width; second metasomal tergum with either 2 converging median grooves which set off triangular area (Fig. 10A) or 2 median parallel carinae (Fig. 10B); basal sternal plate of first metasomal segment 0.25–0.33 length of tergum, dorsope distinct or weak.

Figure 10.

A Pioscelus sp. showing typical sculpturing on the second metasomal tergum B Pioscelus sp. showing the Amazondoryctes style of sculpturing on the second metasomal tergum C hind coxa of Heterospilus sp. D hind coxa of Pioscelus sp.

Distribution.

Nearctic and Neotropical Regions.

Biology.

Unknown.

Comments.

The genus Amazondoryctes was synonymized with Pioscelus by Belokobylskij (2006). In the molecular analysis (Wild et al. 2013) specimens identified as Amazondoryctes emerged basally within Heterospilus but no specimens identified as Pioscelus were available for analysis. Thus, the exact placement of these two genera within the Heterospilini is still in question.

Two species occur in Costa Rica, Pioscelus mesomphalus Marsh and Pioscelus costaricensis (Marsh), comb. n. Descriptions for each species can be found in Marsh 2002.

Genus Heterospilus Haliday

http://species-id.net/wiki/Heterospilus

Heterospilus Haliday, 1836: 40.
Telebolus Marshall, 1888: 202. Synonymized by Muesebeck and Walkley 1951.
Kareba Cameron, 1904: 50. Synonymized by Marsh 1973.
Anacatostigma Enderlein, 1920(1918): 131. Synonymized by Marsh 1973.
Harpagolaccus Enderlein, 1920(1918): 138. Synonymized by Belokobylskij 1992.
Type species.

Rogas (Heterospilus) quaestor Haliday.

Diagnosis

(taken from Marsh 2002). Small to median size, 2.0–5.0 mm; head usually cubical, malar space varying from 1/6 to 1/3 eye height; occipital carina meeting hypostomal carina; mesoscutum usually declivous anteriorly; propodeum usually with distinct basal median areas and areola; first metasomal tergum varying from wider at apex than length to length twice apical width, basal sternal plate of first tergum 1/4 length of tergum; ovipositor varying from barely visible to longer than body; fore tibia with single row of short stout spines along anterior edge; hind coxa with small but distinct basal tubercle or tooth; fore wing vein r-m present, vein 2RS usually absent, sometimes represented by infuscate line (nebulous vein) but not a distinct tubular vein, first subdiscal cell open at apex; hind wing vein M+CU varying from shorter to longer than vein 1M; hind wing of male always with a stigma.

Distribution.

The genus occurs worldwide but the preponderance of species are found in the Western Hemisphere.

Biology.

There is very little biological information about species of Heterospilus, but where records exist, species are recorded as parasitoids of wood-boring beetle larvae, particularly Scolytidae, but a few species have been reared from Bruchidae and Curculionidae as well as from stem-boring sawflies and moths. Several species have been reared from nests of Microstigmus (Sphecidae) in Costa Rica (Marsh and Melo 1999).

Comments.

The identification of the genus Heterospilus has been firm for many years but the exact location and recognition of the type specimen has long been in question. However, van Achterberg (1997) made an extensive review of the Haliday collection of Braconidae at the Irish National Museum in Dublin, Ireland in which he attempted to “...recognize types, to label them and to re-identify the taxa described by Haliday according to modern insights.” Thus, the type specimen of Heterospilus quaestor Haliday was identified and re-labeled in the collection. Although van Achterberg presented a re-description of the type specimen, I have also presented a description below.

Rogas (Heterospilus) quaestor Haliday

http://species-id.net/wiki/Rogas_quaestor

Description.

Description of female lectotype designated by van Achterberg 1997.

Borrowed from Irish National Museum, June 2010.

Body length: 3.5 mm. Color: head light honey yellow, mesosoma and metasoma dark honey yellow; scape light honey yellow, flagellum brown; legs light honey yellow, apical tarsomeres brown; stigma yellow, remainder if veins light brown. Head: vertex and frons transversely striate, face and temple smooth; malar space about 1/3 eye height; temple slightly less that eye width, sloping behind eye, not bulging; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 27 flagellomeres remain (incomplete). Mesosoma: propleuron smooth; pronotum with lateral groove scrobiculate and with distinct carina along lower edge, rugose below groove, granulate above groove; mesoscutal lobes granulate, notauli distinctly scrobiculate, meeting before scutellar groove in triangular rugose area; prescutellar furrow with 5 cross carinae; scutellum weakly granulate; mesopleuron smooth with weak striation dorsally, subalar groove strongly scrobiculate; episternal scrobe weak, precoxal suture (sternaulus) finely scrobiculate and about 23 length of mesopleuron; venter weakly granulate, median longitudinal groove narrow, scrobiculate; propodeum with basal median areas granulate and margined by distinct carinae, median basal carina distinct and about as long as first flagellomere, areola not distinctly margined, areola area rugose, lateral area entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r about 2/3 length of vein 3RSa, vein 2RS entirely spectral except for short stub at junction of r and 3RSa, vein 1cu-a distinctly beyond vein 1M by about 1/2 its length; hind wing vein SC+R present and complete, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Legs: hind coxa with distinct antero-ventral tubercle. Metasoma: first tergum with apical width about 2/3 length, longitudinally costate, raised median are distinct only at base and defined by 2 short lateral carinae; second tergum short, with width about 3 times length, longitudinally costate, anterior transverse groove distinct, scrobiculate; third tergum entirely longitudinally costate except smooth at apical edge, posterior transverse groove distinct; fourth and fifth terga costate on basal half, smooth on apical half; sixth and seventh terga smooth; ovipositor about half as long as metasoma.

Labels: first, “found in box 73, det C.v.Achterberg 1986”; second, red label “female Rogas (Heterospilus) quaestor Haliday, C. van Achterberg 1986, LECTOTYPE”; third, “Specimen figured, C.v.Achterberg 1986.” No locality labels.

Because the specimen did not have a locality label, a question remained as to how this specimen was picked as the holotype. Van Achterberg (per. comm.) stated - “It is based on circumstantial evidence; all the boxes of Haliday had a special arrangement. The Heterospilus was among other specimens from the same collection Haliday worked on. It was also the only Heterospilus in the collection and it is obviously not a European species. On the box was an indication of the origin, but this may be a later one...The locality St. Vincent is primarily based on the fit between specimen and description and the quote in the original description.” The locality indicated in Haliday’s description is “Insula Sti. Vincentii.” Thus, it seems reasonable that the specimen selected and designated as lectotype by van Achterberg is correct. I have studied several hundred specimens of Heterospilus from the Lesser Antilles Islands in the Caribbean but have not yet been able to find any specimens that fit the lectotype in order to select a homotype.

Keys to and Descriptions of Costa Rican species of Heterospilus

The genus Heterospilus is one of the most speciose braconid genera in the Western Hemisphere. In the present study 280 species are described, most for the first time. The immediate challenge for such a large group is finding a character or characters that will divide the group into manageable sub-groups. In a preliminary study of the altitudinal diversity of Costa Rican Heterospilus, van der Ent (1999) divided the genus into three groups based on whether the antennal flagellum was entirely brown, brown with an apical white annulus or brown with a sub-apical white annulus. This has proven to be a good character but, unfortunately, at least half of the specimens studied had the flagellum broken or missing. So the character was unreliable for sorting the genus into three groups. However, a nearly perfectly reliable character was found, namely the sculpturing of the vertex, whether it is transversely costate or striate, granulate or smooth.

Presented below are keys and descriptions to the 280 species of Costa Rican Heterospilus. Keys and descriptions are presented separately for the three groups based on sculpturing of the vertex. Although this is a very reliable character, in a few rare instances where sculpturing may be weak, the species are taken through both keys.

The following keys to species are based on females only. As is often the case in braconid taxonomy, the sexes are more or less dimorphic. In the case of Heterospilus, the males are not dramatically dissimilar to the females except for the presence of a distinct stigma in the hind wing. Because the length of the ovipositor and hind wing venation are important characters to distinguish females, it is not possible to include both males and females in one key to species. Because of the number of species being dealt with from the Costa Rican fauna it was decided to include only females in the keys and descriptions. For the future it is planned to associate as many males with females as possible and present keys to the males.

The following table provides the starting page number for each group.

Table for distinguishing species groups of Costa Rican Heterospilus
1 Species with transversely striate or costate vertex go to
2 Species with granulate vertex go to
3 Species with smooth vertex go to
Key to species of Costa Rican Heterospilus with striate or costate vertex
1 Mesopleural disc smooth, at least directly above precoxal sulcus 2
Mesopleural disc granulate, costate or strigate 50
2(1) Ovipositor longer than metasoma 3
Ovipositor equal to or shorter than metasoma 23
3(2) Apical width of first metasomal tergum equal to or greater than length 4
Apical width of first metasomal tergum less than length 11
4(3) Face distinctly areolate 5
Face rugose or striate, at least below antennae, granulate or smooth 6
5(4) Stigma of fore wing bicolored brown with basal third yellow; vertex rugose striate Heterospilus nigricoxus Marsh, sp. n.
Stigma brown; vertex transversely costate Heterospilus cushmani Marsh, sp. n.
6(4) Lateral mesoscutal lobes transversely costate Heterospilus cressoni Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
Lateral mesoscutal lobes granulate or smooth 7
7(6) Anterior transverse groove on metasomal terga 2+3 sinuate Heterospilus rhabdotus Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
Anterior transverse groove on metasomal terga 2+3 straight 8
8(7) Stigma of fore wing yellow; mesoscutal lobes smooth Heterospilus fonsecai Marsh, sp. n.
Stigma brown or bicolored; mesoscutal lobes granulate 9
9(8) Stigma of fore wing entirely brown Heterospilus vierecki Marsh, sp. n.
Stigma bicolored, brown with yellow apex 10
10(9) Metasomal terga 3-4 nearly entirely longitudinally costate Heterospilus puntarensis Marsh, sp. n.
Metasomal terga 3-4 smooth, costate only at base Heterospilus limonensis Marsh, sp. n.
11(3) Metasomal terga 4 and 5 granulate or costate-granulate, at least basally 12
Metasomal terga 4 and 5 smooth or weakly striate at extreme base 14
12(11) Head and mesosoma (except lower portion of propleuron) honey yellow Heterospilus azofeifai Marsh, sp. n.
Head and mesosoma dark brown or black 13
13(12) Notauli meeting posteriorly in triangular rugose area before scutellum; metasomal tergum 2 dark brown medially; flagellum entirely brown Heterospilus laselvus Marsh, sp. n.
Notauli meeting posteriorly in longitudinally costate are before scutellum; metasomal tergum 2 light brown or yellow medially; flagellum brown with apical 8-10 flagellomeres white Heterospilus kulai Marsh, sp. n.
14(11) Face sculptured, rugose, striate or granulate 15
Face more or less smooth 21
15(14) Anterior transverse groove of metasomal tergum 2 sinuate Heterospilus noyesi Marsh, sp. n.
Anterior transverse groove of metasomal tergum 2 straight 16
16(15) Propodeum laterally rugose above hind coxa, smooth or weakly granulate anteriorly Heterospilus hansoni Marsh, sp. n.
Propodeum entirely rugose laterally 17
17(16) Prescutellar furrow with 3-5 cross carinae 18
Prescutellar furrow with 1 median cross carinae 19
18(17) Scape yellow with weak lateral longitudinal brown stripe; basal median areas of propodeum smooth or weakly granulate Heterospilus cartagoensis Marsh, sp. n.
Scape entirely yellow; basal median areas of propodeum at least partially rugose Heterospilus wilkinsoni Marsh, sp. n.
19(17) Mesoscutum lighter brown than remainder of mesosoma; basal median areas of propodeum smooth Heterospilus rohweri Marsh, sp. n.
Mesosoma entirely black or dark brown; basal median areas of propodeum granulate 20
20(19) Basal flagellomeres bicolored, each flagellomere brown with lighter brown or yellow at base and apex Heterospilus guanacastensis Marsh, sp. n.
Flagellomeres uniformly brown Heterospilus foersteri Marsh, sp. n.
21(14) Mesoscutum without short transverse carinae along notauli; first metasomal tergum length distinctly longer than apical width Heterospilus alajuelus Marsh, sp. n.
Mesoscutum with short transverse carinae along notauli; first metasomal tergum length equal or very slightly greater than apical width 22
22(21) Mesoscutal lobes smooth Heterospilus menkei Marsh, sp. n.
Mesoscutal lobes granulate Heterospilus milleri Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
23(2) Anterior transverse groove on metasomal terga 2-3 sinuate 24
Anterior transverse groove on metasomal terga 2-3 straight or only slightly bent at extreme edges 29
24(23) Apical width of metasomal tergum 1 less than length 25
Apical width of metasomal tergum 1 nearly equal to or greater than length 26
25(24) Mesoscutum black or dark brown Heterospilus milleri Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
Mesoscutum honey yellow Heterospilus staryi Marsh, sp. n.
26(24) Body mostly yellow, often with lateral brown stripe along propodeum, upper mesopleuron and pronotum Heterospilus rhabdotus Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
Body usually mostly dark brown or black 27
27(26) Mesoscutal lobes smooth and polished Heterospilus brullei Marsh, sp. n.
Mesoscutal lobes granulate 28
28(27) Temple, in dorsal view, broad, not sloping inward behind eye, width greater than 1/2 eye width; hind femur yellow Heterospilus bruesi Marsh, sp. n.
Temple, in dorsal view, narrow, sloping inward behind eye, width less than 1/2 eye width; hind femur brown on apical 2/3, yellow on basal 1/3 Heterospilus stelfoxi Marsh, sp. n.
29(23) First metasomal tergum with apical width less than length 30
First metasomal tergum with apical width equal or greater than length 37
30(29) Metasomal terga 2+3 smooth beyond anterior transverse groove, only posterior transverse groove occasionally sculptured 31
Metasomal terga 2+3 granulate and/or striate or costate beyond anterior transverse groove 35
31(30) Fore wing vein r nearly on same line as vein 3RSa; area on propodeum just above hind coxa with distinct pointed tubercle Heterospilus costaricensis Marsh, sp. n.
Fore wing vein r at distinct angle with vein 3RSa; area on propodeum just above hind coxa without distinct tubercle 32
32(31) Head yellow; temple broad, not sloping behind eye; notauli bordered by dense long yellow setae Heterospilus muertensis Marsh, sp. n.
Head at least partially black; temple narrow and sloping behind eye; notauli bordered by sparse short white setae 33
33(32) Face striate Heterospilus reinhardi Marsh, sp. n.
Face smooth 34
34(33) Mesoscutal lobes smooth Heterospilus eberhardi Marsh, sp. n.
Mesoscutal lobes granulate Heterospilus nixoni Marsh, sp. n.
35(30) Lateral mesoscutal lobes smooth Heterospilus ratzeburgi Marsh, sp. n.
Lateral mesoscutal lobes granulate 36
36(35) Precoxal sulcus extending to posterior margin of mesopleuron by carinate groove; apical width of metasomal tergum 2 about 3 times length Heterospilus agujas Marsh, sp. n.
Precoxal sulcus shorter than mesopleuron, not extending to posterior margin of mesopleuron; apical width of metasomal tergum 2 about 4 times length Heterospilus zunigai Marsh, sp. n.
37(29) Mesoscutal lobes smooth and shining 38
Mesoscutal lobes granulate or striate 41
38(37) Face punctate or rugulose; notauli meeting at scutellum in broad rectangular rugose area Heterospilus gauldi Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
Face smooth or weakly striate; notauli meeting at scutellum in narrow triangular costate or rugose area 39
39(38) Hind wing vein SC+R absent Heterospilus paloverde Marsh, sp. n.
Hind wing vein SC+R present 40
40(39) Stigma brown, basal 1/4 yellow; flagellomeres with white band on apical 1/4; sides of propodeum smooth anteriorly Heterospilus variabilis Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
Stigma entirely brown; flagellomeres entirely brown; sides of propodeum entirely rugose Heterospilus janzeni Marsh, sp. n.
41(37) Lateral mesoscutal lobes rugose-granulate or transversely striate 42
Lateral mesoscutal lobes entirely granulate 43
42(41) Face coarsely areolate; metasomal terga entirely black, tergum 3 smooth, posterior transverse groove absent Heterospilus areolatus Marsh, sp. n.
Face weakly rugose or striate; metasomal tergum 2 brown with lateral orange stripes, tergum 3 orange medially Heterospilus cressoni Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
43(41) Prescutellar furrow with one distinct cross carina 44
Prescutellar furrow with 3-5 cross carinae 48
44(43) Mesosoma with dense white hair along notauli, on scutellum, at subalar area, along posterior mesopleural groove and laterally on propodeum Heterospilus whitfieldi Marsh, sp. n.
Mesosoma without dense hair in parts 45
45(44) Body entirely honey yellow, propodeum occasionally light brown, stigma yellow 46
Body brown or black, legs yellow, stigma brown 47
46(45) Face rugose; temple broad, not sloping behind eye; ocell-ocular distance less than twice diameter of lateral ocellus Heterospilus sinuatus Marsh, sp. n.
Face smooth; temple narrow, sloping behind eye; ocell-ocular distance twice or more diameter of lateral ocellus Heterospilus fournieri Marsh, sp. n.
47(45) Basal median carinae of propodeum as long as half the dorsal length of propodeum Heterospilus macrocarinus Marsh, sp. n.
Basal median carina of propodeum absent or very short Heterospilus cameroni Marsh, sp. n.
48(43) Face strongly rugose Heterospilus heredius Marsh, sp. n.
Face smooth or weakly striate 49
49(48) Notauli meeting before scutellum in wide rectangular rugose-costate area; metasomal tergum 2 with lateral converging yellow lines, brown medially Heterospilus neesi Marsh, sp. n.
Notauli meeting before scutellum in triangular narrow rugose area; metasomal tergum 2 uniformly light brown or black Heterospilus emelius Marsh, sp. n.
50(1) Mesopleuron costate or strigate Heterospilus alajuelus Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
Mesopleuron granulate 51
51(50) Anterior transverse groove of metasomal terga 2+3 distinctly curved or sinuate, median length of tergum greater than lateral length 52
Anterior transverse groove of metasomal terga 2+3 straight, median length of tergum nearly equal to lateral length 72
52(51) Apical width of first metasomal tergum less than length 53
Apical width of first metasomal tergum equal or greater than length 67
53(52) Third and following metasomal terga granulate, at least at base 54
Third and following terga smooth, at least at apex 59
54(53) Second metasomal tergum broad, median length more than half median length of third tergum, or nearly as long as third tergum 55
Second metasomal tergum narrow, median length less than half median length of third tergum 57
55(54) Body green, sometimes marked with brown Heterospilus shawi Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
Body dark brown or black or bicolored brown and yellow 56
56(54) Propodeum entirely dark brown or black Heterospilus granulatus Marsh, sp. n.
Propodeum with basal median areas and laterally yellow, areola brown Heterospilus vittatus Marsh, sp. n.
57(54) Base of hind tibia brown, remainder yellow Heterospilus nigragonatus Marsh, sp. n.
Hind tibia entirely yellow 58
58(57) Prescutellar furrow with one cross carina Heterospilus romani Marsh, sp. n.
Prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae Heterospilus bribri Marsh, sp. n.
59(53) Length of first metasomal tergum about twice apical width 60
Length of first metasomal tergum about 1.5 times apical width 61
60(59) Lateral mesoscutal lobes transversely costate Heterospilus gahani Marsh, sp. n.
Lateral mesoscutal lobes granulate Heterospilus petralbus Marsh, sp. n.
61(59) Prescutellar furrow with one cross carina Heterospilus corcovado Marsh, sp. n.
Prescutellar furrow with 3-5 cross carinae 62
62(61) Fore wing vein r nearly as long as vein 3RSa, at least more than 1/2 length 63
Fore wing vein r at most 1/3 length of vein 3RSa 64
63(62) Mesoscutum shining, weakly granulate; body dark brown or black Heterospilus lapierrei Marsh, sp. n.
Mesoscutum granulate and dull; body honey yellow marked with brown Heterospilus flavidus Marsh, sp. n.
64(62) Face smooth or weakly granulate, shining 65
Face rugose or rugose-areolate, dull 66
65(64) Hind tibia brown at extreme apex; flagellum entirely brown; notauli meeting at scutellum in broad rugose area Heterospilus wesmaeli Marsh, sp. n.
Hind tibia entirely yellow; flagellum brown with apical 3-8 flagellomeres white; notauli meeting at scutellum in narrow triangular costate area Heterospilus monteverde Marsh, sp. n.
66(64) Scutellum granulate Heterospilus boharti Marsh, sp. n.
Scutellum smooth and shining Heterospilus sanvitoensis Marsh, sp. n.
67(52) Face smooth or weakly granulate 68
Face rugose or striate 69
68(67) Metasomal terga 4-6 entirely smooth Heterospilus leioenopus Marsh, sp. n.
Metasomal terga 4-6 granulate at base Heterospilus nephus Marsh, sp. n.
69(67) Mesosoma unicolored dark brown or black 70
Mesoscutum lighter yellow than rest of mesosoma, or mesosoma entirely yellow or light brown 71
70(69) Ovipositor less than 1/2 length of metasoma; flagellum entirely brown Heterospilus shenefelti Marsh, sp. n.
Ovipositor greater than 1/2 length of metasoma; flagellum brown with apical 3-5 flagellomeres white Heterospilus angustus Marsh, sp. n.
71(69) Hind wing vein M+CU less than 1/2 length of vein 1M Heterospilus rhabdotus Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
Hind wing vein M+CU more than 1/2 length of vein 1M Heterospilus similis Marsh, sp. n.
72(51) Face smooth and shining, occasionally weakly striate just below antennal sockets 73
Face sculptured striate, granulate or rugose, sometimes weakly so 90
73(72) Prescutellar furrow with 1 cross carina 74
Prescutellar furrow with 3-5 cross carinae 78
74(73) Hind wing vein SC+R absent 75
Hind wing vein SC+R present 76
75(74) Ovipositor less than 1/2 length of metasoma Heterospilus garifuna Marsh, sp. n.
Ovipositor slightly longer than metasoma Heterospilus itza Marsh, sp. n.
76(74) Metasomal tergum 2 smooth; length of tergum 1 nearly twice apical width Heterospilus levis Marsh, sp. n.
Metasomal tergum 2 costate; length of tergum 1 nearly equal apical width 77
77(76) Ovipositor equal to length of metasomal 1-2 combined; flagellum with apical flagellomeres white Heterospilus tolupan Marsh, sp. n.
Ovipositor longer than metasomal terga 1-2 combined; flagellum entirely brown Heterospilus kuna Marsh, sp. n.
78(73) Hind wing vein SC+R absent 79
Hind wing vein SC+R present 80
79(78) Ovipositor longer than metasoma Heterospilus jakaltek Marsh, sp. n.
Ovipositor shorter than metasoma Heterospilus longius Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
80(78) Metasomal tergum 2 short, greatest width 4 times median length 81
Metasomal tergum 2 longer, greatest width 3 times or less length 84
81(80) Median basal carina of propodeum distinct 82
Median basal carina of propodeum absent, areola meeting anterior edge of propodeum 83
82(81) Body honey yellow, legs yellow, flagellomeres brown Heterospilus mellosus Marsh, sp. n.
Body dark brown, legs yellow, apical 4-5 flagellomeres white Heterospilus szepligetii Marsh, sp. n.
83(81) Tegula yellow; metasomal terga beyond second brown or light brown Heterospilus masoni Marsh, sp. n.
Tegula dark brown; metasomal terga entirely brown Heterospilus golfodulcensis Marsh, sp. n.
84(80) Propodeum with distinct tubercle laterally on each side of base of metasomal tergum 1, above hind coxa 85
Propodeum without such tubercle 86
85(84) Lateral mesoscutal lobes entirely granulate; temple narrow, sloping behind eye; apical 8–10 flagellomeres white; stigma brown Heterospilus gouleti Marsh, sp. n.
Lateral mesoscutal lobes partially smooth; temple broader, not sloping behind eyes; flagellum with white annulus but apical 5-6 brown; stigma yellow Heterospilus kiefferi Marsh, sp. n.
86(84) Metasomal tergum 1 with apical width 1/2 or less than length 87
Metasomal tergum 1 with apical width about equal to length, rarely slightly greater but at least more than 1/2 length 88
87(86) Fore wing vein r less than 1/2 length of vein 3RSa Heterospilus halidayi Marsh, sp. n.
Fore wing vein r greater than 1/2 length of vein 3RSa, often nearly equal Heterospilus cachiensis Marsh, sp. n.
88(86) Hind coxa granulate dorsally; apical lateral corners of propodeum produced into small tubercle Heterospilus fischeri Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
Hind coxa costate dorsally; apical lateral corner of propodeum not produced into a tubercle 89
89(88) Metasomal terga 4 distinctly and 5 weakly longitudinally striate at base Heterospilus nigrescens Ashmead
Metasomal terga 4-5 entirely smooth Heterospilus escazuensis Marsh, sp. n.
90(72) Body green, sometimes marked with brown Heterospilus shawi Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
Body dark brown or black or bicolored brown and yellow 91
91(72) Hind wing vein SC+R absent 92
Hind wing vein SC+R present 99
92(91) Apical-lateral corners of propodeum produced into blunt tubercle 93
Apical-lateral corners of propodeum not produced into tubercles 94
93(92) Ovipositor about as long as metasomal terga 1-3; fore wing vein r longer than vein 3RSa Heterospilus longius Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
Ovipositor only as long as metasomal tergum 1 Heterospilus enderleini Marsh, sp. n.
94(92) Ocell-ocular distance twice or more diameter of lateral ocellus 95
Ocell-ocular distance at most 1.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus 96
95(94) Prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; flagellum entirely brown apically, without white flagellomeres Heterospilus grisselli Marsh, sp. n.
Prescutellar furrow with 1 median cross carina; flagellum brown with apical 3-5 flagellomeres white Heterospilus quickei Marsh, sp. n.
96(94) Scutellum and basal median areas of propodeum rugose Heterospilus rugosus Marsh, sp. n.
Scutellum and basal median areas of propodeum granulate 97
97(96) Fore wing vein r longer than vein 3RSa Heterospilus tobiasi Marsh, sp. n.
Fore wing vein r equal to or shorter than vein 3RSa 98
98(97) Ovipositor nearly as long as metasoma Heterospilus ramirezi Marsh, sp. n.
Ovipositor about as long as metasomal terga 2+3 Heterospilus muesebecki Marsh, sp. n.
99(91) Metasomal tergum 1 narrow, apical width equal to or less than 1/2 length and only slightly greater than basal width Heterospilus turrialbaensis Marsh, sp. n.
Metasomal tergum 1 shorter and broader, apical width greater than 1/2 length, often equal to length and nearly twice basal width 100
100(99) Metasomal terga 3 and 4 granulate at apex 101
Metasomal terga 3 and 4 usually smooth at apex, occasionally costate to apex 104
101(100) Mesoscutal lobes rugose-granulate Heterospilus corrugatus Marsh, sp. n.
Mesoscutal lobes granulate 102
102(101) Prescutellar furrow with one median cross carina Heterospilus haplocarinus Marsh, sp. n.
Prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae 103
103(102) Mesoscutum evenly brown; flagellum brown; basal median carina of propodeum absent, areola meeting basal margin of propodeum Heterospilus miskito Marsh, sp. n.
Mesoscutal lobes dark brown, yellow along notauli; apical 4-6 flagellomeres white; basal median carina present, short, areola not meeting basal margin of propodeum Heterospilus rinconensis Marsh, sp. n.
104(100) Vertex and frons strongly circularly costate around ocelli 105
Vertex and usually frons transversely striate or costate, often weakly 106
105(104) Vertex and frons yellow; scutellum granulate Heterospilus orbitus Marsh, sp. n.
Vertex and frons dark brown; scutellum smooth Heterospilus whartoni Marsh, sp. n.
106(104) Mesoscutal lobes granulate, rugose at least along notauli, occasionally lateral lobes nearly entirely rugose 107
Mesoscutal lobes entirely granulate 108
107(106) Apical width of metasomal tergum 1 slightly greater than length; median mesoscutal lobe with median longitudinal scrobiculate groove anteriorly Heterospilus santarosensis Marsh, sp. n.
Apical width of metasomal tergum 1 slightly to distinctly less than length; median mesoscutal lobe with median longitudinal raised ridge anteriorly Heterospilus maritzaensis Marsh, sp. n.
108(106) Ovipositor longer than or equal to metasoma 109
Ovipositor shorter than metasoma 113
109(108) Temple in dorsal view broad, not sloping behind eye, width equal to or greater than 1/2 eye width 110
Temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, width less than 1/2 eye width 111
110(109) Ovipositor longer than metasoma; length of metasomal tergum 1 greater than apical width Heterospilus chaoi Marsh, sp. n.
Ovipositor as long as metasoma; length of metasomal tergum 1 equal to apical width Heterospilus jenniae Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
111(109) Coxae and trochanters white, remainder of legs yellow Heterospilus albocoxalis Marsh, sp. n.
Legs entirely yellow 112
112(111) Eye large, malar space about 1/6 eye height, ocell-ocular distance about equal to diameter of lateral ocellus; flagellomeres brown Heterospilus magnus Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
Eye smaller, malar space about 1/4 eye height, ocell-ocular distance greater than diameter of lateral ocellus; apical flagellomeres white Heterospilus mixtec Marsh, sp. n.
113(108) Lateral ocelli large, ocell-ocular distance 1.5 times or less diameter of lateral ocellus 114
Lateral ocelli smaller, ocell-ocular distance at least twice diameter of lateral ocellus 115
114(113) Body entirely yellow or honey yellow, stigma yellow Heterospilus xanthus Marsh, sp. n.
Body dark brown or black, legs yellow, stigma brown Heterospilus huddlestoni Marsh, sp. n.
115(113) Scape yellow or light brown, with longitudinal brown stripe on lateral (outside) edge 116
Scape yellow, without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, or entirely brown 118
116(115) Prescutellar furrow with one distinct median cross carina Heterospilus cacaoensis Marsh, sp. n.
Prescutellar furrow with 3-5 cross carinae 117
117(116) Head mostly yellow, mesosoma and metasoma brown Heterospilus yaqui Marsh, sp. n.
Body unicolored brown or dark brown Heterospilus townesi Marsh, sp. n.
118(115) Transverse grooves on metasomal terga 2-3 absent, anterior groove rarely weakly indicated, posterior groove always absent 119
Both transverse grooves on metasomal terga 2-3 present, sometimes somewhat weakly so 120
119(118) Apical flagellomeres white; coxae and trochanters often white Heterospilus curtisi Marsh, sp. n.
Flagellomeres entirely brown; coxae and trochanters yellow Heterospilus fahringeri Marsh, sp. n.
120(118) Stigma yellow; ovipositor as long as metasomal tergum 1 Heterospilus hedqvisti Marsh, sp. n.
Stigma brown; ovipositor longer than metasomal tergum 1 121
121(120) Body dark brown; flagellum brown, apical 5-8 flagellomeres white Heterospilus brethesi Marsh, sp. n.
Body brown with face, mesoscutum and metasomal terga honey yellow or lighter brown; flagellum brown Heterospilus pappi Marsh, sp. n.
Female.

Body size: 3.5 mm. Color: entire body dark brown, metasomal terga 4-7 lighter brown; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 5–8 flagellomeres white; legs with coxae and trochanters yellow, femora, tibiae and tarsi light brown to brown; wing veins including stigma brown. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face smooth medially, striate below antennae and on malar space; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 24 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate-rugose area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate, extending to posterior margin of mesopleuron by carinate groove; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined and granulate, basal median carina present, short, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, smooth anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate, width about 3 times length; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum granulate basally, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor equal to length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Puntarenas, ACO [;] Golfito, P.N. Corcovado [sic], 745m [;] Est. Agujas, Cerro Rincon [;] 15.v–15.vi.1999. J. Azofeifa [;] L.S. 276900-521500 #52744 [;] Malaise trap; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] agujas [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the precoxal sulcus being as long as the mesopleuron, extending to the posterior margin of the mesopleuron by distinct carinate groove, by the ovipositor as long as the metasoma and by the length of the first metasomal tergum nearly twice the apical width.

Etymology.

Named for the collecting locality of Estacion Agujas.

Figure 11.

Heterospilus agujas Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0–4.0 mm. Color: head yellow to light brown; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 3–5 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown with mesoscutum and venter usually yellow or honey yellow; legs yellow; wing veins including stigma brown; metasomal tergum 1 dark brown, tergum 2 brown laterally, yellow medially and apically; tergum 3 brown, yellow basally, terga 4–6 yellow, brown at basal edge. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face smooth, occasionally weakly striate below eyes; temple in dorsal view somewhat broad but sloping behind eye, width equal to 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 22–27 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting posteriorly in triangular rugose area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth, occasionally costate dorsally or entirely; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas margined, smooth, basal median carina present, areola margined, areolar area broadly rugose or areolate, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove weak, sometimes absent, straight; posterior transverse groove weak or sometimes absent; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Alajuela [;] 5km W San Ramon [;] 1200m, iv.1997 [;] O.Castro & P.Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] alajuelus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, same data as holotype (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Alajuela [;] R. B. A. Brenes [;] San Ramon, 900m [;] ii-iii.2000, P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste Prov. [;] Guanacaste Conservation Area [;] below Cacao, 400-600m el. [;] 3 March 1990, J.S. Noyes (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Limon [;] 30km N Carari, 100m [;] Sector Cocori, Malaise [;] iii.1995, E. Rojas #4524 [;] L.N. 286000-567500 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Estac. Biol. [;] Las Alturas, 1500m [;] v.1992, Forest border, [;] Malaise, Paul Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Puntarenas [;] Monteverde, 1400m [;] 30-IV-89 Col. Hanson (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, Est. Cacao, 1000-1400m, [;] Lado SO Vol. Cacao, [;] P.N.G., Prov. Guan. [;] COSTA RICA, C. [;] Chaves, Abr 1991. [;] L-N-323300, 375700 (INBC).

Comments.

The smooth face, smooth mesopleuron and white tip of the flagellum are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the type locality located in Alajuela Province.

Figure 12.

Heterospilus alajuelus Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0 mm. Color: head brown; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 3–5 flagellomeres white; mesosoma brown, propleuron honey yellow; metasomal tergum 1 dark brown, tergum 2 yellow, terga 3–7 brown to dark brown; wing veins including stigma brown; coxae and trochanters white, remainder of legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face striate; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance greater than 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 23 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum weakly granulate; prescutellar furrow with 1 cross carina; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width less than length; second tergum granulate-rugulose; anterior transverse groove weak or absent; posterior transverse groove weak or absent; third tergum granulate at base, smooth at apex; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Prov. Puntarenas [;] ACO, Golfito, PN Corcovado [;] Est. Agujas, Cerro Rincon, 745m [;] 17.iv–16.v.1999, J. Azofeifa [;] L.S. 276900-521500 #52781; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] albocoxalis [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

The white coxae and trochanters are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the Latin albus meaning white in reference to the white coxae.

Figure 13.

Heterospilus albocoxalis Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5 mm. Color: head honey yellow; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 3–5 flagellomeres white; mesosoma brown, somewhat lighter along notauli; metasomal terga 1–4 brown, tergum 2 slightly lighter, terga 5–7 yellow; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex costate; frons costate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/3 eye width; malar space equal to 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular slightly less than 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 19 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent, areola not margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate, width about 4 times length; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor about 3/4 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Cartago [;] Braulio Carillo N.P. [;] 600m, 25.iii.1990 [;] J. S. Noyes, coll.; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] angustus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

The very narrow temple is distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the Latin angustus meaning narrow in reference to the extremely narrow temple.

Figure 14.

Heterospilus angustus Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5 mm. Color: body dark brown or black; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown; legs yellow; wing veins including stigma brown. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face coarsely areolate; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, width equal to eye width; malar space greater than eye 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance slightly greater than twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 24 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes coarsely rugose-granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in wide rugose area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas not margined, rugose, basal median carina absent, areola not margined, areolar area areolate-rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r nearly as long as vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU distinctly longer than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum apical width slightly greater than length, longitudinally costate, raised median triangular area distinctly margined and with basal cross carinae; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove absent; posterior transverse groove absent; third tergum entirely smooth; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor equal in length to metasomal terga 1–2.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Puntarenas, ACO [;] Golfito, Est. Agujas, 375m [;] Res. Ftal. Golfo Dulce [;] 16.iv–16.v.1999, J. Azofeifa [;] L.S. 276551-526423 #52775 [;] Malaise trap; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] areolatus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

The species is distinguished by its coarsely areolate face and long hind wing vein M+CU.

Etymology.

The specific name is in reference to the very distinctly areolate face.

Figure 15.

Heterospilus areolatus Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Figure 16.

Heterospilus areolatus Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 4.5 mm. Color: head honey yellow; scape light brown without distinct lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown (broken); mesosoma honey yellow, pronotum, mesopleuron dorsally and propodeum laterally brown; metasoma honey yellow, terga 1-2 brown laterally, terga 6-7 brown; legs yellow, base of hind tibia brown; wing veins including stigma brown. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face weakly granulate; temple in dorsal view narrow and sloping behind eye, less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 1.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; ? flagellomeres (broken). Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum weakly granulate; prescutellar furrow with 1 distinct median cross carinae and 2 lateral weak carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined, smooth, basal median carina present, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, smooth or granulate anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum costate, longer than apical width; second tergum costate, narrow with width about 4 times length; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove absent; third tergum costate at base, granulate apically; terga 4–7 granulate; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] ACO, Golfito, RF Golfo Dulce [;] Est. Agujas, 250-300m [;] 3–24.vi.1999. J. Azofeifa [;] L.S. 276750-526550 #52840 [;] Red de Golpe; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] azofeifai [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the long ovipositor, yellow body and granulate apical metasomal terga.

Etymology.

Named for the collector of the holotype, J. Azofeifa.

Figure 17.

Heterospilus azofeifai Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5–4.0 mm. Color: head dark brown, face sometimes lighter brown than vertex; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 5–8 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown; metasomal terga dark brown, apical terga often lighter brown; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow, hind femur yellow on basal half, brown on apical half. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face rugose or rugose-areolate; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 25–27 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, extending to posterior edge of mesopleuron by costate line; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate-rugose, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate-rugose; second tergum longitudinally costate-granulate; anterior transverse groove present, slightly sinuate; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor as long as metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA, Puntar. [;] Golfo Dulce, 3Km S [;] Rincon, 10m [;] III-V/1989, Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] boharti [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratype.

1 ♀, Costa Rica: Limon [;] Sector Cocori, 100m [;] 30km N Cariari, i.1995 [;] E. Rojas, Malaise, #4526 [;] L.N. 286000-567500 (ESUW).

Comments.

The rugose and dull face is distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the late Richard M. Bohart, who guided me as a graduate student at the University of California, Davis.

Figure 18.

Heterospilus boharti Marsh, sp. n., paratype.

Figure 19.

Heterospilus boharti Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0 mm. Color: head brown to light brown; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 3–5 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown; metasoma dark brown, apical terga slightly lighter brown; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face granulate; temple in dorsal view somewhat broad, width about 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 21–23 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent or, if present, very short, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor equal to 3/4 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Limon [;] 30km N Cariari, 100m [;] Sector Cocori, Malaise [;] iii.1995, E. Rojas #4524 [;] L.N. 286000-567500; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] brethesi [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratype.

1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Las Cruces [;] Wilson Botanical Gardens [;] 18-22.iii.1990, 1150m [;] J.S. Noyes (ESUW).

Comments.

The dark brown body and the white apical flagellomeres are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the Argentinean hymenopterist, J. Brèthes.

Figure 20.

Heterospilus brethesi Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5–3.5 mm. Color: head with vertex and frons brown, face and eye orbits yellow; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown; mesosoma brown, pronotum often light brown; metasomal tergum 1 dark brown, tergum 2 brown to honey yellow, terga 3–6 dark brown basally, yellow apically, tergum 7 yellow; wing veins brown, stigma bicolored brown with yellow apex; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 26–31 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate-rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate or smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely granulate. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a interstitial or very slightly beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum costate, apical width less than length; second tergum costate-granulate, width about 4 times length; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove weakly indicated or absent; third tergum entirely granulate; terga 4-7 granulate at base, smooth apically; ovipositor as long as metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA: [;] Puntar. Golfo Dulce [;] 24km W Piedras Blancas [;] 200m, vi-viii 1989 [;] Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] bribri [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas, [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, 5km. [;] W. Piedras Blancas, 100m [;] xi–xii.1991, P. Hanson, [;] Malaise nr. second growth (ESUW). 4 ♀♀, COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W, 100m [;] Canopy fogging 19, 31 and 32 [;] 8.x.1994, 2.xi.1994 and 3.xi.1994 [;] Project ALAS (FCK19, 31 and 32) (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Heredia [;] 3km. S. Puerto Viejo [;] OTS, La Selva, 100m [;] xi.1992, P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste, ACT [;] Bagaces, P.N. Palo Verde, 212m [;] Sec. Palo Verde, Cerro Guayacan [;] 13.ix–13.x.1999, I. Jimenez, Malaise [;] L.N. 259350-389600 #53499 (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: blank [;] Dates: 14.viii–6.ix.1986 and 7-28.xii.1985 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: 10 [;] Dates: 26.x–16.xi.1985 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise SE-6-C [;] Bosque San Emilio, [;] deciduous forest [;] 50yr. old, Ian Gauld [;] 5.vii.1986, full shade (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] RF Golfo Dulce, el 200m [;] 24km W Piedras Blancas [;] P. Hanson vii and ix.1992 (TAMU). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Puntar. [;] Golfo Dulce, 3km [;] SW. Rincon, 10m [;] III-VI 1990, Hanson (MICR). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Puntar. [;] Golfo Dulce, 24km W. [;] PiedrasBlancas, 200m [;] XII.89-III.90 Hanson (MICR). 1 ♀, Sirena, Osa Pen. [;] VII.77 Cos. Rica [;] D. H. Janzen (AEIC). 5 ♀♀, S.RosaPark, Guan. [;] C. Rica. 25 Jun 77, 15 Jun 77, 16 Nov. 77, 14 Nov 77 and 20 Nov 77 [;] D.H. Janzen [;] Riparian and Dry Hill (AEIC).

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the 3 cross carinae in the prescutellar furrow and the granulate metasomal terga.

Etymology.

Named for the Bribri, an indigenous people group of Costa Rica.

Figure 21.

Heterospilus bribri Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0 mm. Color: head with vertex and frons brown, face and temple yellow; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown (broken); mesosoma dark brown; metasomal terga 1–4 dark brown, terga 5–7 yellow; legs yellow; wing veins including stigma brown. Head: vertex weakly transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face striate; temple in dorsal view broad, not sloping inward behind eye, width greater than 1/2 eye width; malar space less than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance slightly less than 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; ? flagellomeres (broken). Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas granulate, distinctly margined, basal median carina absent, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU equal in length to vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length equal to apical width; second tergum costate, about 4 times as wide as long; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove absent; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor about 3/4 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA - Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W, 100m [;] Malaise trap 12, #397 [;] 30.vi.1995 [;] Project ALAS (M.12.397); second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] bruesi [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

The broad temple and sinuate anterior transverse groove of metasomal tergum 2 will distinguish this species.

Etymology.

Named for C. T. Brues who described many Braconidae in the early 1900s.

Figure 22 A-E.

Heterospilus bruesi Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5 mm. Color: head dark brown, face light brown; scape yellow with lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown, apical flagellomeres white except last 3–5 brown; mesosoma entirely dark brown except propleuron occasionally lighter; metasoma dark brown to black, tergum 6 yellow, tergum 7 light brown; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons weakly striate; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, not bulging beyond eye, less than 1/2 eye width; malar space equal to 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 32 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes smooth and shining; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in broadly triangular costate area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined, rugose or costate, basal median carina short but distinct, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose or costate. Wings: fore wing vein r only slightly shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum costate, apical width about equal to length; second tergum costate, narrow with apical width about 4 times length; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, granulate apically; terga 4–7 weakly granulate; ovipositor equal to length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top Label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: (blank) [;] Dates: 14.viii–6.ix.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 30yr old deciduous forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] brullei [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, same data as holotype, dates of 16.xi–7.xii.1985 (ESUW). 4 ♀♀, S.RosaPark, Guan, Guan. [;] C. Rica, 6 Jul 77, 11 Jul 77, 25 Jul 77 and 4 Dec 77 [;] D.H. Janzen [;] Riparian and Dry Hill (AEIC).

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the smooth and shining mesoscutal lobes, the costate junction of the notauli and the rugose or costate basal median areas of the propodeum.

Etymology.

Named for A. Brullé who described a few Braconidae in the early 1800s.

Figure 23.

Heterospilus brullei Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5–4.0 mm. Color: head dark brown, eye orbits usually and face partially marked with honey yellow; scape brown with lateral longitudinal dark brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 8–10 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown, propleuron and venter usually lighter brown; metasoma dark brown, terga 5–7 yellow; wing veins brown, stigma brown with yellow at extreme apex; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face striate; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 30-31 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in with 2 converging carinae; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 1 cross carina; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, short, areola distinctly margined, areolar area areolate-rugose, lateral areas rugose apically, granulate basally, small but distinct tubercle on propodeum just above hind coxa. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor equal to 1/2 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Est. Cacao, 1000–1150m [;] ix.1996, I. Villegas, Malaise [;] L.N. 323150-375500 #47559; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] cacaoensis [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

2 ♀♀, same data as holotype with dates of vii.1996, viii.1996 (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntar [;] Golfo Dulce 24km W [;] Piedras Blancas [;] 200m, vii-ix.1990 [;] Col. Paul Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Cartago [;] Turrialba, CATE [;] 14-15 March 1990 [;] 700m, J.S. Noyes (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] W. side Volcan Orosi [;] Estac. Maritza, 600m; second label - GNP Biodiversity Survey [;] 1989, Malaise trap [;] L-N-326900-373000 #6834 (ESUW).

Comments.

The single median cross carina in the prescutellar furrow, the white apical flagellomeres and the tubercles on the propodeum just above the hind coxa are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the locality where the holotype was collected, Cacao Station in Guanacaste Province.

Figure 24.

Heterospilus cacaoensis Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.0–2.5 mm. Color: head yellow; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 4-5 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown except mesoscutum light brown; metasomal terga 1–2 dark brown, terga 3–4 dark brown basally, yellow apically, terga 5–7 yellow; wing veins brown, stigma brown with yellow apex and base; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely striate medially, smooth near eyes; frons smooth; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 21 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, usually as long as mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r nearly equal to vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width 1/2 length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor equal to length of metasomal terga 1+2 combined.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Cartago [;] 2km. NE Cachi [;] 1200m, vii-ix.1995 [;] P. Hanson, Malaise; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] cachiensis [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, same data as holotype (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W, 100m [;] Malaise trap 14, #288 [;] 1.xii.1993 [;] Project ALAS (M, 14 28810) (ESUW).

Comments.

The long precoxal sulcus, which usually extends to posterior margin of the mesopleuron, is distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named after the type locality of Cachi in Cartago Province.

Figure 25.

Heterospilus cachiensis Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5–3.0 mm. Color: head with vertex and frons brown, face and eye orbits light brown; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown, basal 1–3 flagellomeres lighter; mesosoma dark brown; metasoma dark brown, apical terga 4–7 light brown; legs yellow; wing veins including stigma brown. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space short, equal to or less than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 1.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 21–25 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 1 cross carina; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth or weakly scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granular, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r slightly shorter or equal to length of vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU equal to length of vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor equal to 1/2 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W. 100m [;] Canopy fogging 34 [;] 10.xi.1994 [;] Project ALAS (FVK34); second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] cameroni [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Est. Biol. Maritza, 600m [;] i.1997, C. Zuniga, Malaise [;] L.N. 326900-373000 #47557 (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: H-1-O [;] Dates: 26.vii–14.viii.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [H] open regenerating [;] woodland <10 years old [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Limon, ACLAC [;] Central, R.B. Hitoy Cerere [;] Est. Hitoy Cerere, Send. [;] Catarata, 90m, Red de Golpe [;] 10.vii.1999, F. Umada [;] L.N. 184600-643400 #53857 (ESUW).

Comments.

The short malar space is distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for P. Cameron who described many tropical Braconidae in the late 1880s and early 1900s.

Figure 26.

Heterospilus cameroni Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0 mm. Color: head yellow; scape light brown, with weak lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown (broken); mesosoma with mesoscutum, mesopleuron and venter yellow, pronotum, upper portion of mesopleuron, and propodeum dark brown; metasomal tergum 1 dark brown, terga 2–5 brown medially, yellow laterally, terga 6–7 yellow; legs yellow; wing veins including stigma brown. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view slightly bulging, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; antennae broken. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter weakly granulate or smooth; propodeum with basal median areas granulate, distinctly margined, basal median carina distinct, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum costate, length longer than apical width; second tergum costate, width less than 3 times length; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove very weakly indicated medially only; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Cartago [;] Dulce Nombre, Vivero [;] Linda Vista, 1400m [;] vi-viii.1993, Hanson. Second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] cartagoensis [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

The yellow head and mesoscutum are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for Cartago Province where the holotype was collected.

Figure 27.

Heterospilus cartagoensis Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0–3.5 mm. Color: head yellow to light brown, occasionally vertex, frons and face light brown with eye orbits and malar space yellow; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe; flagellum brown, sometimes basal flagellomeres yellowish; mesosoma usually dark brown, often with mesoscutum, propleuron and venter lighter brown or honey yellow; metasomal terga 1–3 usually dark brown, remainder of terga lighter brown or honey yellow (one paratype has the body entirely honey yellow); wing veins brown, stigma brown with yellow apex; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view broad, not sloping behind eye, width greater than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance 2.0–2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 25–26 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 1 cross carina; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove weak or absent; third tergum granulate or costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: (blank) [;] Dates: 7–28.xii.1985 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] chaoi [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, same data as holotype with date of 26.xii.85–18.i.1986 (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W, 100m [;] Malaise trap 12, #382 [;] 15.iii.1994 [;] Project ALAS (M, 12, 382) (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 18.x–8.xi.1986 and 6–27.ix.1986; second label - Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous [;] forest, full shade (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - COSTA RICA, Heredia: [;] Est. Biol. La Selva, 50- [;] 150m, 10°26'N, 84°01'W [;] Apr 1998, INBio-OET; second label - 16 Abril 1998 [;] Bosque suampo [;] M/18/706 (INBC).

Comments.

The broad temple and long ovipositor are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the late Chinese braconidologist, Hsiu-Fu Chao in remembrance of my two enjoyable visits to his laboratory in Fujien, China.

Figure 28.

Heterospilus chaoi Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0–4.0 mm. Color: head brown to dark brown; scape honey yellow, usually with lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown, apical 8–11 flagellomeres white; mesosoma usually entirely dark brown or black, occasionally mesoscutal lobes and venter lighter brown; metasomal terga 1–4 dark brown or black, terga 5–7 yellow; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow, occasionally femora brown on apical half. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face smooth or occasionally weakly striate; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance slightly more than 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 29–35 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate or costate-rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 1 cross carina; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate anteriorly, area above hind coxa with distinct tubercle. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU slightly shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length about 1.5 times apical width; second tergum costate, about 4 times as wide as length; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove present, occasionally weak and partially absent; third tergum smooth entirely, rarely weakly granulate at base; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor as long as or longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Puntarenas, ACO [;] Golfito, P.N. Cordovado[sic], 745m [;] Est. Agujas, Cerro Rincon [;] 15.v–15.vi.1999, J. Azofeifa [;] L.S. 276900-521500 #52744 [;] Malaise trap; second label 9 red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] corcovado [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntar [;] Golfo Dulce 24km W [;] Piedras Blancas [;] 200m, vii-ix 1990 [;] Col. Paul Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Jardin Bot. [;] Las Cruces, VII-VIII/89 [;] 1200m, Col. P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Limon [;] 16km W. Guapiles [;] 400m, i-iv.1991 [;] col. Paul Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Limon, Sec. Cocori [;] 30Km al N> Cariari, 100m [;] xii.1994, E. Rojas, Malaise [;] L.N. 286000-567500 #4525 (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] RF Golfo Dulce, el 200m [;] 24km W Piedras Blancas [;] P. Hanson xii.1992 (TAMU). 1 ♀, Est. Cuatro Esquinas, 0m, [;] P.N. Tortuguero, Prov. [;] Limon, COSTA RICA. [;] R. Delgado, Nov 1991. [;] L-N-280000, 590500 (INBC).

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the single cross carina in the prescutellar furrow and the distinct tubercle postero-laterally on the propodeum just above the hind coxa.

Etymology.

Named for Corcovado National Park where the holotype was collected.

Figure 29.

Heterospilus corcovado Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0 mm. Color: head with vertex, frons and temple brown, face and eye orbits yellow; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum yellow basally to brown apically; mesosoma dark brown, propleuron and lower half of mesopleuron honey yellow; metasoma brown to dark brown; wing veins including stigma brown, fore wing with light brown band from stigma to posterior edge of wing; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 25 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes strongly rugose-granulate, entirely covered with sparse short setae; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum rugose; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate, nearly smooth; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, weakly granulate or smooth, basal median carina absent or extremely short, areola weakly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate-granulate length slightly greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove weakly present; third tergum costate at base, granulate apically; terga 4-7 granulate; ovipositor as long as metasomal terga 1 and 2 combined.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #:SE-7-O [;] Dates: 20.xii.86-10.i.1987 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [O] in clearing fully [;] isolated part of day; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] corrugatus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

3 ♀♀, S.RosaPark, Guan. [;] C. Rica 14 Sep 77, 16 Oct 77 and 19 Oct 77 [;] D.H. Janzen [;] Riparian (AEIC).

Comments.

The strongly rugose and granulate mesoscutum, the entirely hairy mesoscutal lobes and the granulate metasomal terga 3 and 4 are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

The species name is from the Latin corrugatus meaning wrinkled or ridged in reference to the rugose mesoscutum.

Figure 30.

Heterospilus corrugatus Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0–5.0 mm. Color: head yellow, temple and lower portion of face often brown; scape yellow with lateral longitudinal brown stripe; flagellum brown with apical 10–15 flagellomeres white; propleuron bicolored brown and yellow; pronotum dark brown, often lighter along dorsal edge; mesoscutum usually yellow, lateral lobes, meeting of notauli, and scutellum often brown; mesopleuron dark brown, venter usually yellow; propodeum dark brown; metasomal terga 1–3 dark brown, tergum 2 usually yellow medially, tergum 4 brown basally and yellow apically, terga 5–7 yellow with brown laterally; legs yellow, femora brown at apex and on dorsal swelling, tarsi brown; wing veins brown, stigma bicolored brown with yellow apex and base. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face striate; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space equal to 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 28–35 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in rugose triangular area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined, partially smooth and rugose, basal median carina short but distinct, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose, distinct tubercle present laterally just above hind coxa. Wings: fore wing vein r nearly equal to or slightly shorter than vein 3RSA, vein r and vein 3RSa nearly on same line, not at angle to each other, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinal costate, width less than 3 times length; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove absent or very weakly indicated by shallow line; third tergum entirely smooth; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor equal to length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA: Puntar. [;] Golfo Dulce, 3km [;] S.W. Rincon, 10m [;] IX-XI 1989. Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] costaricensis [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

6 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, [;] 3km SW. Rincon, 10m, [;] vi.1991, Oct. 1991 and ii.1992, Paul Hanson (ESUW). 5 ♀♀, COSTA RICA: Puntar [;] Golfo Dulce 3km SW [;] Rincon [;] 10m, vii-ix 1990, xii 1989-iii 1990 and iii-v 1989 [;] Col. Paul Hanson (ESUW). 6 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Res. Forestal Golfo Dulce [;] 3km. SW Rincon, 10m [;] xii.1992, iii.1993 and iv.1993, P. Hanson [;] Malaise, primary forest (ESUW). 3 ♀♀, COSTA RICA: [;] Puntar [;] Golfo Dulce, 3km [;] SW. Rincon, 10m [;] VI-VIII 1989, Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, 3km [;] SW Rincon, 10m [;] iii.1993, P. Hanson (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, COSTA RICA: Puntar. [;] Cerro Rincon, 200m [;] S. hito, 745m, ii. [;] 1991, Hanson/Godoy (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] R.F.Golfo Dulce, 3km [;] SW Rincon, 10m [;] Malaise-primary forest [;] viii.1991, P. Hanson (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] Reserva Forestal Golfo Dulce [;] 3km SW of Rincon, 10m [;] November 1992, P. Hanson [;] primary forest, Malaise trap (ESUW). 4 ♀♀, COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] Reserva Forestal Golfo Dulce [;] 3km southwest of Rincon [;] 10m, July 1991, P. Hanson [;] primary forest, Malaise trap (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] Reserva Forestal Golfo Dulce [;] 3km SW Rincon, 10m, primary [;] forest, xii 1992, P. Hanson (ESUW). 5 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, 24km. [;] W. Piedras Blancas, 200m [;] I.1993, VI-1991, VII-IX-1993 and ii.1993, P. Hanson (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, COSTA RICA: [;] Puntar. Golfo Dulce [;] 24km W Piedras Blancas [;] 200m, vi-viii 1989 [;] Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntar [;] Golfo Dulce, 10km W. [;] Piedras Blancas, 100m [;] VI-VIII 1989 (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, Costa Rica, Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, 5km. W. [;] Piedras Blancas, 100m [;] VI-VII-1993 and I-1993 (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, 5km. [;] W. Piedras Blancas, 100m [;] vi-vii.1991, P. Hanson [;] Malaise, second growth (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Pen. Osa, 23km. N. Pto. [;] Jimenez, La Pulma, 10m [;] VI-VIII-1993, P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Buenos Aires [;] Sendero Los Gigantes [;] Est. Altamira, 1450m; second label - 3-22 February 2000 [;] D. Rubi, Amarilla [;] LS 331700-572200 [;] #54808 (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Pe. Osa, 5km. N. Pto. [;] Jimenez, 10m, iii-iv. [;] 1991, P. Hanson, Malaise (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Buenos Aires, Est. Altamira [;] Send. Los Gigantes, 1450m [;] 3-22.ii.2000, D. Rubi, Amarilla [;] L.S.3317700-572200 #54808 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntar. [;] P.N. Corcovado [;] Est. Sirena, 50m [;] x-xii 1990 (ESUW). 3 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Estac. Biol. [;] Las Alturas, 1500m [;] xi.1991, xii.1991 and i.1992, Paul Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, Puntarenas [;] Pen. Osa, 5km. N. [;] Puerto Limenez, 10m [;] I-II-1993 P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Las Cruces [;] 1200msnm, VII-IX 1988 [;] Coll. P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Pen. Osa, Puerto [;] Jimenez, 10m [;] x.1990, Paul Hanson (ESUW). 3 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Las Cruces [;] Wilson Botanical Gardens [;] 18-22.iii.1990, 1150m [;] J.S. Noyes (ESUW). 4 ♀♀, COSTA RICA: San Jose [;] P.N. Braulio Carillo [;] 9.5km E tunnel, 1000m [;] vii-ix 1989, P. Hanson (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, COSTA RUCA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01W, 100m [;] Canopy fogging 20 and 21 [;] 9.x.1994 and 10.x.1994 [;] Project ALAS (FPM20 and FOT21) (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Heredia [;] 3km. S. Puerto Viejo, [;] OTS, La Selva, 100m [;] Oct. 1992 P. Hanson [;] Malaise trap (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, Heredia [;] 3km. S. Puerto Viejo [;])TS-La Selva, 100m [;] III-IV-1993, P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Limon, ACLAC [;] Central, R.B. Hitoy Cerere [;] Send. Espavel, 560m [;] 19.v–19.vi.1998, E. Rojas [;] L.S. 400702-570120 #52200 [;] Malaise trap (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Limon, ACLAC [;] Central, R.B. Hitoy Cerere [;] Est, Hitoy Cerere, Sendero [;] Bobocara, 640m, Malaise [;] 17.ix–10.x.1999, F. Umana [;] L.N. 184250-640500 #53496 (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Limón [;] 16km West Guapiles [;] 400m, April 1989 [;] P. Hanson IV-V (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: [;] Limon [;] 4km NE Bribri [;] 50m, iv-vi 1990 [;] Col. Paul Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Cartago [;] La Cangreja, 1950m [;] ix-xii.1992 [;] P. Hanson (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, Costa Rica. Carthago Pr. [;] La Cangreja, 1950m [;] 1991: xi, P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, Alajuela [;] Estacion Biologica [;] San Ramon, 900m [;] VII-VIII-1995 [;] P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Alajuela [;] 5km W San Ramon [;] 1200m, ii.1997 [;] O.Castro & P.Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: BH-9-O [;] Dates: 8.ii–2.iii.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 3 ♀♀, COSTA RICA, Puntar [;] Golfo Dulce, 3km [;] SW. Rincon, 10m [;] III-VI 1990, Hanson (MICR). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Guanac [;] Estac. Mengo, SW [;] Volcán Cacao, 1100m [;] 1988-1989 (MICR). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, 24kmW [;] Piedras Blancas, 200m [;] IV-V.1991 col. P. Hanson (MICR). 2 ♀♀, COSTA RICA, Puntar. [;] Golfo Dulce, 24km W. [;] PiedrasBlancas, 200m [;] IX-XI 1989, Hanson (MICR). 1 ♀, Est. Sirena, 0-100m, P.N. [;] Corcovado, Prov. Punt., [;] COSTA RICA, G. Fonseca [;] Jun 1991, [;] L-S-270500, 508300 (INBC). 1 ♀, top label - COSTA RICA, Heredia [;] Est. Biol. La Selva, 50- [;] 150m, 10°26'N, 84°01'W [;] Apr 1996, INBio-OET; second label - 15 Marzo 1996 [;] bosque secundario [;] M/02/049 (INBC). 2 ♀♀, COSTA RICA [;] 11 mi. from Turrialba [;] “los Esperales”, C.A.T.I.E. [;] 5-II-1995 [;] P. Stanley (TAMU). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] RF Golfo Dulce el 200m [;] 24km W Piedras Blancas [;] P. Hanson ix.1992 (TAMU).

Comments.

This species is distinct by fore wing veins r and 3RSa nearly on the same line, bicolored body, narrow temple and smooth metasomal tergum 3.

Etymology.

Named for the country of Costa Rica.

Figure 31.

Heterospilus costaricensis Marsh, sp. n., paratype.

Figure 32.

Heterospilus costaricensis Marsh, sp. n.: A–B holotype C paratype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5–4.0 mm. Color: head brown, face and eye orbits often lighter; scape and pedicel yellow, flagellum brown with apical 4–6 flagellomeres white; mesosoma brown, propodeum and mesopleuron dorsally dark brown; first metasomal tergum brown, second tergum brown medially and laterally with yellow longitudinal stripes laterally, third tergum yellow basally and medially, brown laterally, terga 4–6 yellow with anterior and posterior borders and laterally brown; wing vein brown, stigma brown with extreme base often yellow; legs with coxae and trochanters yellow, femora yellow on basal 1/4, light brown on apical 3/4, tibiae and tarsi brown. Head: vertex transversely striate, smooth near occipital carina; frons striate; temple smooth; face rugose-striate; temple in dorsal view bulging, about 1/2 eye width; malar space about 1/3 eye height; 26–31 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes striate-granulate, middle lobe with median longitudinal raised line; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at prescutellar furrow in wide rectangular rugose area; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, about 1/2 width of mesopleuron; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; venter of mesopleuron smooth; propodeum nearly entirely rugose dorsally and laterally, without margined basal median areas or areola, small smooth basal median areas present. Wings: fore wing vein r 1/3 length vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a distinctly beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum length equal to or slightly less than apical width, longitudinally costate-rugose medially, longitudinally costate laterally, granulate between costae; second tergum apical width less than 3 times median length, longitudinally costate, granulate between costae; anterior and posterior transverse groove distinct, anterior groove slightly sinuate; third tergum longitudinally costate between transverse grooves, smooth beyond posterior transverse groove; terga 4-6 smooth; ovipositor equal to or slightly longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m. ex. Malaise trap [;] Site # BH-12-C [;] Dates: 6-27.ix.1986 [;] I. D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white printed) - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] cressoni [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

2 ♀♀, same data as holotype except site # of H-4-C and dates of 23.iii - 13.iv.1986 and 4-24.v.1986 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Sirena, Osa Pen. [;] VII.77 Cos. Rica [;] D. H. Janzen (AEIC).

Comments.

This species is distinctive by the transversely costate mesoscutal lobes.

Etymology.

This species is named for E. T. Cresson who described many braconids during the late 1800s.

Figure 33.

Heterospilus cressoni Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5 mm. Color: head dark brown; scape brown, flagellomeres brown with apical 5–8 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown, metasoma dark brown; wing veins including stigma brown; legs light yellow or white, at least coxae and trochanters white. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view broad but sloping behind eye, width equal to 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance 2–2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 22–23 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli smooth posteriorly, weakly scrobiculate anteriorly, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 5 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, rugose-granulate, basal median carina absent, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose, propodeum with small but distinct tubercle just above hind coxa. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length slightly greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove absent; posterior transverse groove absent; third tergum entirely smooth; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor equal to 1/2 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Limon. ACLAC, 300m [;] Central Res. Biol. Hitoy Cerere [;] Est. Hitoy Cerere, Send. Bobocara [;] 8.x.1999, F. Umana, Red de Golpe [;] L.N. 184250-641800 #53498; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] curtisi [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, COSTA RICA: [;] Puntar. [;] Golfo Dulce, 3km [;] SW. Rincon, 10m [;] VI–VIII 1989, Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Sirena, Osa Pen. [;] VII.77 Cos. Rica [;] D. H. Janzen (AEIC). 1 ♀, S.RosaPark, Guan, Guan. [;] C. Rica 4 Aug 77 [;] D.H. Janzen [;] Understory (AEIC).

Comments.

The white coxae and white apical flagellomeres are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the British entomologist, J. Curtis.

Figure 34.

Heterospilus curtisi Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5 mm. Color: head dark brown, eye orbits and lower temple lighter brown; scape and pedicel yellow, flagellum yellow basally to brown apically; mesosoma dark brown; metasoma dark brown, apex of third tergum and following terga lighter brown; wing veins brown, stigma entirely brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex and frons transversely costate; face areolate or areolate-rugose; temple in dorsal view slightly less than half eye width; malar space about 1/3 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 19+ flagellomeres (broken). Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate, short white setae along notauli; notauli scrobiculate, meeting before prescutellar furrow in triangular rugose area; mesopleuron smooth, weakly costate dorsally; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate, about 3/4 length of mesopleuron; scutellum weakly granulate; prescutellar furrow with 5 cross carinae; venter of mesosoma smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinct and margined, basal median areas granulate, basal median carina absent, areola meeting anterior margin of propodeum, areola margined only apically, areola and propodeum laterally rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r about 3/4 length of vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a distinctly beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum length equal to apical width, longitudinally costate, raised basal median area slightly rugose; second tergum apical width less than 3 times length, longitudinally costate, granulate between costae; anterior transverse groove weak, posterior transverse groove very weak, only slightly indicated medially; third tergum weakly costate at extreme base, remainder smooth; terga 4-6 smooth; ovipositor longer than metasoma, as long as metasoma and half mesosoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m. ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: (blank) [;] Dates: 10–31.1987 (no month) [;] I. D. Gauld & D. Janzen. Second label (white, printed) - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolate part of day. Third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] cushmani [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

This species is similar to Heterospilus nigricoxus but differs in having the stigma entirely brown (bicolored in Heterospilus nigricoxus), the legs entirely yellow (hind coxa and femur brown in Heterospilus nigricoxus), and granulate mesoscutal lobes without being rugose along notauli (as in Heterospilus nigricoxus).

Etymology.

This species is named after R. A. Cushman who studied Braconidae in the early 1900s.

Figure 35.

Heterospilus cushmani Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5–4.0 mm. Color: head brown to dark brown; scape brown, without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 3–5 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown; metasoma with terga 1–2 dark brown, terga 3–5 dark brown basally, yellow apically, terga 6–7 yellow; legs bicolored, coxae and trochanters yellow, joint of trochanters 2 and femora brown, femora yellow on basal 1/4, brown on apical 3/4, tibiae and tarsi brown; wing veins including stigma brown. Head: vertex weakly transversely striate; frons smooth; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, slightly less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance slightly greater than 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 21–26 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes smooth; notauli weakly and broadly scrobiculate, sometimes appearing smooth, with 2 longitudinal carinae converging toward prescutellar furrow; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined, smooth, basal median carina present but short, areola usually distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum longitudinal costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor equal to 3/4 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: San Jose [;] San Antonio de Escazu [;] 1300m, yellow pan [;] xii.1995, W. Eberhard; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] eberhardi [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, same data as holotype (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: San Jose [;] San Antonio de Escazu [;] 1300m, vi.1997 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: San Jose [;] San Antonio de Escazu [;] 1300m, vi.1997 [;] W. Eberhard (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: San Jose [;] San Antonio de Escazu [;] 1300m, v-vi.1995 [;] W. Eberhard & P. Hanson. 3 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Cartago [;] Braulio Carillo N.P. [;] 600m, 25.iii.1990 [;] J. S. Noyes, coll. (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, Guanacaste [;] Tierras Morenas, Cerca de [;] Las Faldas del Volcan Tenorio [;] 1100m, 20.vii–20.viii.1996 [;] G. Rodriquez, Malaise trap [;] L.N. 289000-426500 #32630 (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Estac. Biol. [;] Los Alturas 1500m [;] iv.1992 P. Hanson (TAMU). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Heredia [;] Sta. Barbara, Café [;] 1100m, 15.x.1989 [;] Col. Paul Hanson (MICR).

Comments.

The smooth mesoscutal lobes and two distinct longitudinal carinae before the prescutellar groove are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for William Eberhard who collected several specimens of the type series.

Figure 36.

Heterospilus eberhardi Marsh, sp. n.: A–B paratype C–D holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5 mm. Color: head brown; scape yellow, flagellum brown; mesosoma dark brown; metasoma brown, terga 2–3 yellow medially; legs yellow; wing veins including stigma brown. Head: vertex weakly transversely striate; frons weakly striate, nearly smooth; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 17 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting posteriorly in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas granulate, distinctly margined, basal median carina present, short, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally striate; anterior transverse groove absent; posterior transverse groove absent; third tergum entirely smooth; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor length equal to length of metasomal terga 1+2.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: (blank) [;] Dates: 18.i–8.ii.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] emilius [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

The smooth mesopleuron, smooth face and short antennae are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the San Emilio Forest in Santa Rosa National Park where the type was collected.

Figure 37.

Heterospilus emilius Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5 mm. Color: head with vertex and frons brown, face and temple honey yellow; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum yellow basally to brown apically; mesosoma brown; metasoma brown to dark brown; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 16 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 5 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent, areola weakly margined, areolar area areolate-rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose, apical-lateral corners of propodeum produced into blunt tubercle. Wings: fore wing vein r as long as vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R absent, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove absent; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor equal to length of metasomal tergum 1.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] Reserva Forestal Golfo Dulce [;] 3km southwest of Rincon [;] 10m, July 1991, P. Hanson [;] primary forest, Malaise trap; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] enderleini [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

The tubercles on apical-lateral corners of the propodeum, the rugose face and the absence of hind wing vein SC+R are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for G. Enderlein who described numerous South American braconids in the early 1900s.

Figure 38.

Heterospilus enderleini Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5 mm. Color: head honey yellow; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum yellow basally to brown apically; mesosoma brown, propodeum somewhat darker; metasomal terga 1, 2 and base of 3 brown, apex of 3 and remainder of terga yellow; wing veins light brown, stigma yellow; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely costate, costae somewhat circular around ocelli; frons transversely costate; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; at least 18 flagellomeres (broken). Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate above precoxal sulcus, rugose-costate dorsally; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate-rugose, basal median carina distinct but short, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width slightly less than length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor as long as metasomal terga 1–2 combined.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: San Jose [;] San Antonio de Escazu [;] 1300m, ix.1998 [;] W. Eberhard; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] escazuensis [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, C. Rica: Escazú [;] May 21, 1987 [;] H.&M. Townes (AEIC).

Comments.

The granulate mesopleuron, the costae being somewhat circular around the ocelli and the brown or honey yellow body are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named after the type locality of San Antonio de Escazu in San Jose Province.

Figure 39.

Heterospilus escazuensis Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.0-2.5 mm. Color: body entirely dark brown; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum brown; wing veins including stigma brown; legs entirely yellow. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face granulate; temple in dorsal view narrow, broad but sloping behind eye, width equal to 1/2 eye width; malar space about equal to 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 17 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in small rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU slightly longer than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove weak but present; posterior transverse groove absent; third tergum smooth entirely; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor 1/2 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Estac. Biol. [;] Las Alturas, 1500m [;] xi.1991, Paul Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] fahringeri [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, S.RosaPark, Guan, Guan. [;] C. Rica 20.Dec.76 [;] D. H. Janzen [;] Riparian (AEIC).

Comments.

The granulate mesopleuron and face, the smooth third metasomal tergum and the absent posterior transverse groove on the metasoma are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the German entomologist, J. Fahringer, who described many braconids in the early 1900s.

Figure 40.

Heterospilus fahringeri Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.0–2.5 mm. Color: head with vertex and frons light brown, face and eye orbit honey yellow; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum brown; mesosoma brown to dark brown; metasomal tergum 1 dark brown, tergum 2 light brown or yellow medially, brown laterally, terga 3–7 light brown to honey yellow; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex weakly transversely striate, often nearly smooth; frons smooth; face smooth, sometimes with weak striations below antennae; temple in dorsal view narrow, less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance nearly 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 20–21 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular or nearly rectangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate anteriorly, apical lateral corners of propodeum produced into small tubercles. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate at base, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor equal to length of metasomal terga 1–2 combined, rarely equal to 1/2 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: BH-12-C [;] Dates: 8.ii–2.iii.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] fischeri [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

3 ♀♀, same data as holotype except dates of 8–29.xi.1986, 18.i–8.ii.1986 and second label [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW).

Comments.

The tubercles at the apical lateral corners of the propodeum are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the Austrian braconidologist, Max Fischer.

Figure 41.

Heterospilus fischeri Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0 mm. Color: head yellow; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum yellow at base to brown at apex; mesoscutum and propleuron yellow, propodeum and mesopleuron darker honey yellow; metasomal tergum 1 honey yellow medially, brown laterally, terga 2 and 3 yellow medially, brown laterally, tergum 4 at base yellow medially, brown laterally and yellow apically, terga 5–7 yellow; wing veins brown, stigma brown, yellow at apex and along anterior margin; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 26 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate and dull, lateral lobes covered with short yellow hair; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum weakly granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent, areola not margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r slightly shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width less than length; second tergum longitudinally costate, width about 4 times length; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate at base, smooth at apex; tergum 4 weakly costate at base, smooth apically, remainder of terga smooth; ovipositor as long as metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste, Santa [;] Rosa Nat’l. Park, Bosque San [;] Emilio, trap #7 in clearing, 300m [;] II/8-III/2/1986, I Gauld; second label (white, printed) - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] flavidus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

The yellow color of this species is distinctive.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the Latin flavidus meaning yellowish in reference to the body color.

Figure 42.

Heterospilus flavidus Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0–4.0 mm. Color: body entirely dark brown, metasomal terga 4–7 usually lighter brown, face and eye orbits occasionally yellow; scape yellow, without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown; legs yellow, femora light brown on apical half; wing veins brown, stigma brown. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face striate; temple in dorsal view broad, slightly bulging, width greater than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance nearly 3 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 23–29 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with one cross carinae, rarely with weak carinae on each side; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth or weakly scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined, granulate, rugose along apical carina, basal median carina distinct, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum length slightly greater than apical width, longitudinally costate-granulate; second tergum costate-granulate, width less than 3 times length; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate at base, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Golfo Dulce. 24km w. [;] Piedras Blancas, 200m [;] xii.1991. Paul Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] foersteri [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, same data as holotype except date of ii.1993 (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m. ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: (blank) [;] Dates: 2–23.iii.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m. ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: (blank) [;] Dates: 18.i–8.ii.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW).

Comments.

The dark brown body, single cross carina in prescutellar groove, and the granulate basal median areas of the propodeum are characteristic for this species.

Etymology.

Named for A. Foerster who presented the first subfamily classification of the Braconidae.

Figure 43.

Heterospilus foersteri Marsh, sp. n.: A–D paratype E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 4.0 mm. Color: head dark brown, face honey yellow; scape honey yellow, flagellum brown; mesosoma dark brown; metasoma dark brown, terga 5–7 lighter brown; wing veins brown, stigma yellow; legs yellow. Head: vertex weakly striate or entirely smooth, at least smooth near occipital carina; frons striate; face striate; temple smooth; temple in dorsal view less than 1/2 eye width, slightly bulging; malar space about 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 26–28 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes smooth; notauli scrobiculate, meeting before prescutellar furrow in triangular longitudinally costate area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, about 1/2 length of mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined, basal median areas smooth, basal median carina short but distinct, areola weakly margined, areolar area areolate-rugose, lateral areas areolate-rugose with small smooth area anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r about 1/2 length of vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M by about its own length; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU slightly shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum length about equal to apical width, longitudinally costate, granulate between costae; second tergum apical width less than 3 times median length, longitudinally costate, granulate between costae; anterior and posterior transverse grooves distinct; third tergum longitudinally costate at basal half, smooth on apical half; terga 4-7 smooth except costate at extreme base; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Est. Sirena (Parte Alta) [;] Send. Rio Claro, 1–100m [;] ix-xii.1991, G. Fonseca [;] L.S. 270500-508300 [;] #7453, Malaise trap; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] fonsecai [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Costa Rica - Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W 100m [;] Canopy fogging 32 [;] 3.xi.1994 [;] Project ALAS(FVK32) (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label -COSTA RICA, Heredia [;] Est. Biol. La Selva, 50- [;] 150m. 10°26'N, 81°01'W [;] Feb 1994, INBio-OET; second label - 1 Febrero 1994 [;] Bosque secundario [;] M/02/333 (ESUW).

Comments.

This species is distinct by its smooth mesoscutum and yellow stigma.

Etymology.

This species is named after the collector of the holotype, G. Fonseca.

Figure 44.

Heterospilus fonsecai Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.0–2.5 mm. Color: body entirely honey yellow or yellow, propodeum sometimes slightly darker; scape yellow; flagellum yellow basally to brown apically; legs yellow; wing veins brown, stigma yellow. Head: vertex weakly striate; frons weakly striate; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance greater than 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 11–17 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with one distinct median cross carina, rarely with weak carinae laterally; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU nearly as long as vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width about equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove weak, straight; posterior transverse groove weak; third tergum smooth; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor half as long as metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA: [;] San Jose [;] Ciudad Colon, 800m [;] xii 1989 - i 1990 [;] Luis Fournier; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] fournieri [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, top label, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 31.i–21.ii.1987; second label, Open regenerating [;] woodland less than [;] 10 yrs. old, sun; third label, H-1-O [;] 31.i–21.ii.87 (ESUW). 1 ♀, S.RosaPark, Guan, Guan. [;] C. Rica 8 Mar. 77 [;] D. H. Janzen [;] Dry Hill (AEIC).

Comments.

The yellow or honey yellow body, smooth mesopleuron and hind wing vein SC+R being present are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the collector of the holotype, Luis Fournier.

Figure 45.

Heterospilus fournieri Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 4.5 mm. Color: head honey yellow; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 3–5 flagellomeres white; mesoscutum and propleuron honey yellow, propodeum, mesopleuron and venter dark brown; metasomal tergum 1 dark brown, tergum 2 dark brown with lateral converging honey yellow stripes, tergum 3 honey yellow medially, dark brown laterally, terga 4–7 honey yellow; wing veins brown, stigma yellow with central brown spot; fore and mid legs with coxae and trochanters 1 white, trochanters 2 yellow basally, brown apically, femora yellow basally and light brown apically, tibiae yellow, tarsi brown; hind coxa brown, trochanter 1 yellow, trochanter 2 yellow basally, brown apically, femur yellow on basal 1/4, brown on apical 3/4, tibia yellow medially, brown at extreme base and on apical 1/2, tarsus brown. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face granulate; temple in dorsal view broad, not sloping behind eye, width equal to 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance slightly greater than 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 27 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate, costate along notauli; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in rectangular rugose area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; mesopleuron granular; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, rugose-granulate, basal median carina present and with attached short carinae at right angles, areola margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum costate laterally, rugose medially, apical width 1/2 length; second tergum costate; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum smooth, weakly striate antero-laterally; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor about 1/2 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: San Jose [;] Cerro de la Muerte [;] 2km W Empalme [;] 2300m, June 1995 [;] P. Hanson, Malaise; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] gahani [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

This species is distinctive by the long and narrow first metasomal tergum and the costate mesoscutal lobes.

Etymology.

Named for the American entomologist, A. B. Gahan, who described many New World Braconidae in the early 1900s.

Figure 46.

Heterospilus gahani Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5 mm. Color: head with vertex and frons brown, face honey yellow; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum yellow at base to brown at apex; mesosoma brown; metasomal terga brown to honey yellow, tergum 2 lighter than other terga; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex weakly striate medially, smooth near eyes; frons weakly striate near antennal bases; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 1.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 20 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 1 cross carina; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent or extremely short, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r equal to length of vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R absent, vein M+CU equal in length to vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum weakly costate at base, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor equal to length of metasomal terga 1-2 combined.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: (blank) [;] Dates: 13.iv–4.v.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] garifuna [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, S.RosaPark, Guan. [;] C. Rica 25 Oct 77 [;] D.H. Janzen [;] Riparian (AEIC).

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the granulate mesopleuron, smooth face, prescutellar furrow with one cross carinae and the absent hind wing vein SC+R.

Etymology.

Named for the Garifuna, an indigenous people of Belize and Honduras.

Figure 47.

Heterospilus garifuna Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0–4.0 mm. Color: Head with vertex and frons brown, face often and eye orbits always yellow; scape and flagellum brown; mesosoma brown or dark brown, propleuron, mesopleuron and notauli often lighter brown; metasomal tergum 1 brown, tergum 2 honey yellow, often brown medially and laterally, tergum 3 yellow medially, brown laterally, terga 4–7 honey yellow; legs yellow; wing veins brown, stigma bicolored brown with apex, base and anterior margin often yellow. Head: vertex weakly transversely striate or rarely smooth; frons weakly transversely striate; face striate; temple in dorsal view broad, not sloping behind eye, width 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance 2.0–2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 22–28 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes smooth; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in wide rectangular rugose area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas margined, partially smooth and rugose, basal median carina absent, areola not margined, areolar area rugose or areolate-rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r nearly equal to vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a distinctly beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum laterally longitudinally costate, medially with raised rugose area bordered by distinct converging carinae; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove weakly present or absent; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor about 1/2 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: SE-8-C [;] Dates: 24.v–14.vi.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] gauldi [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

4 ♀♀, same data as holotype, with dates of 31.i–21.ii.1987, 4–24.v.1986, 2–23.iii.1986 (ESUW). 5 ♀♀, same data as holotype, with dates of 13.iv–4.v.1986, 23.iii–13.iv.1986, 2–23.iii.1986, and second label - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 9 ♀♀, same data as holotype, with dates of 4–24.v.1986, 13.iv–4.v.1986, 24.v–14.vi.1986, and second label - [H] open regenerating [;] woodland <10 years old [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] shaded part of day (ESUW). 6 ♀♀, same data as holotype, with dates of 12.iv–4.v.1986, 6–27.xi.1986, 24.v–14.v.1986, 13.ix–4.x.1986, and second label - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous Forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 1 ♀, same data as holotype, with date of 23.iii–13.iv.1986, and second label - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 5 ♀♀, same data as holotype, with dates of 13.iv–4.v.1986, and second label - [H] open regenerating [;] woodland <10 years old [;] [C] more or less fully [;] isolated as possible (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 24.v–14.vi.1986; second label - Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous [;] forest. Sun (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste, GCA [;] Sector Santa Rosa, tropical [;] dry forest, open field nr. [;] road to Playa Naranjo, [;] malaise trap, 8-18 June 1995 [;] Dadelahi, Price, Zitani (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] ACO, Golfito, RF Golfo Dulce [;] Est. Agujas, 250–300m [;] 2-22.x.1999, J. Azofeifa [;] L.S. 276750-526550 #53490 [;] Amarilla (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Pen. Osa, 5km. N. Pto. [;] Jimenez, 10m, iii–iv.1991, P. Hanson, Malaise (ESUW). 25 ♀♀, S.RosaPark, Guan. [;] C. Rica, various dates from May 76 to May 78 [;] D.H. Janzen [;] Dry Hill and Riparian (AEIC).

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the short and broad metasomal tergum 1, smooth mesoscutal lobes and the rectangular area where the notauli meet before the scutellum.

Etymology.

Named for my friend and colleague, the late Ian Gauld, in recognition of his many years of support for the study of the biodiversity of the Hymenoptera of Costa Rica.

Figure 48.

Heterospilus gauldi Marsh, sp. n.: A, B, E paratype C, D holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0 mm. Color: head, mesosoma and metasoma dark brown or black; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum brown; wing veins including stigma brown, tegula dark brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons weakly striate; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance slightly more than twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 22 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent, areola weakly margined, areolar area areolate-rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU about as long as vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate, width nearly 4 times median length; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor 3/4 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce [;] 24km W. Piedras Blancas, [;] 200m [;] Feb. 1992, Paul Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] golfodulcensis [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

The dark brown or black metasomal terga and tegula are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the locality where the type was collected, the Golfo Dulce Forest Reserve.

Figure 49.

Heterospilus golfodulcensis Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5-4.0 mm. Color: head brown to dark brown; scape honey yellow with lateral longitudinal brown stripe; flagellum brown with apical 10-12 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown, mesoscutal lobes usually lighter brown; metasomal terga 1, 2 and base of 3 dark brown or black, apex or tergum 3, and all of terga 4-5 lighter brown, base of tergum 6 brown, apex yellow, tergum 7 yellow; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow, hind femur yellow on basal 1/4, brown of apical 3/4, hind tarsus often brown. Head: vertex weakly striate, often smooth near eyes; frons weakly striate or smooth; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, width less than 1/2 eye wide; malar space equal to or slightly greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 29-31 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 1 distinct median carina and 2 weaker carinae laterally; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, smooth or granulate anteriorly, distinct tubercle present laterally on each side of base of metasomal tergum 1 above hind coxa. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a slightly beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate or porcate, apical width less than length; second tergum longitudinally costate or porcate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate at base, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor as long as metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica, Heredia [;] Puerto Viejo, 100m [;] OTS-La Selva [;] III-1991 P. Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] gouleti [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, top label - COSTA RICA: Heredia [;] Pr: La Selva Biol. Sta. [;] 3km S Pto. Viejo [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W; second label - 27.VII.1992 [;] H.A. Hespenheide (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica-Heredia Prov. [;] Las Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W 100m [;] Malaise trap 13, #315 [;] 3.i.1994 [;] Project ALAS (M.13.315) (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, Puntarenas [;] R.F.Golfo Dulce, 5km. W. [;] Piedras Blancas, 100m [;] VI-VII-1993, P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Alajuela [;] Finca La Selva [;] NE Dos Rios, 400m [;] 27/III.88, Col. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Limon [;] Sector Cocori, 100m [;] 30km N Cariari, i.1995 [;] E. Rojas, Malaise #4526 [;] L.N. 268000-567500 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Limon, ACLAC [;] Central, R.B. Hitoy Cerere [;] Send. Espavel, 560m [;] 19.v–19.vi.1998, E. Rojas [;] L.S. 400702-570120 #52200 [;] Malaise Trap (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Guanac. [;] Estac. Pitilia, 9Km S [;] Santa Cecilia, 700m [;] IX/1988, I.Gauld (ESUW). 1 ♀, Rancho Quemado, 200m, [;] Peninsula de Osa, Prov. Punt. [;] COSTA RICA. Set 1991. F. [;] Quesada. L-S-292500-511000 (INBC). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA. Prov. Puntarenas, [;] Golfito, P.N. Corcovado, Send a [;] Sirena, 100m, 05 MAY 2001. J. Azofeifa Libre. L_S_276500_514200 (INBC).

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the tubercle on the propodeum just above the hind coxa, the strongly costate metasomal terga 1-2 and the brown flagellum with apical flagellomeres 10-12 being white.

Etymology.

Named for my friend and colleague Henri Goulet.

Figure 50.

Heterospilus gouleti Marsh, sp. n., paratype.

Figure 51.

Heterospilus gouleti Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 4.0 mm. Color: head with vertex, frons and face brown, malar space, temple and eye orbits yellow, scape light brown or honey yellow, without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown; mesosoma dark brown or black, mesoscutal lobes, lower portion of mesopleuron and venter light brown or honey yellow; metasomal tergum 1 dark brown or black, tergum 2 dark brown with honey yellow stripes laterally, remaining terga dark brown basally, lighter brown apically; legs yellow, femora, especially hind femur, brown; wing veins brown, stigma brown with yellow at apex. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face granulate; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 1.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 30–35 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in rugose triangular area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 1 distinct median cross carina and 2 weak carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined, granulate, basal median carina present and long, areola usually not margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum costate-granulate, apical width less than length; second tergum costate-granulate; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove weakly indicated; third tergum entirely granulate; terga 4-7 granulate; ovipositor 1/2 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, [;] 24km W. Piedras Blancas, [;] 200m, [;] Feb. 1992, Paul Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] granulatus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Costa Rica: Limon ACLAC [;] Central, R.B. Hitoy Cerere [;] Est. H. Cerere, 100-140m [;] Send. Toma de Agua, Malaise [;] 17.xi–17.xii.1999, F. Umana [;] L.N. 184600-643400 #54940 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Cerro Tortuguero, 0-120m, P.N. [;] Tortuguero, Prov. Limón, COSTA [;] RICA. Feb 1993. R. Delgado. [;] L-N-285000, 588000 (INBC). 1 ♀, top label - COSTA RICA, Heredia [;] Est. Biol. La Selva, 50- [;] 150m, 10°26'N, 84°01'W [;] Sep 1993, INBio-OET; second label - 01 Setiembre 1993 [;] M/03/194 [;] Bosque primario (INBC).

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the granulate metasomal terga and the yellow stripes laterally on metasomal tergum 2.

Etymology.

The specific name is in reference to the distinctly granulate metasomal terga.

Figure 52.

Heterospilus granulatus Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.0–3.0 mm. Color: head with vertex and frons brown, face and eye orbits yellow; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum yellow basally to brown apically; mesosoma and metasoma brown to dark brown; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance 2-2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 16-18 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3-5 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron and often with weak striae extending from sulcus to posterior margin of mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area areolate-rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R absent, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove usually weakly present, occasionally absent; third tergum costate at extreme base, remainder smooth; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor as long as metasomal tergum 1.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste, ACT [;] Bagaces, P. N. Palo Verde [;] Sec. P. Verde, 0-50m [;] Extremo E. Campo Aterrizaje [;] Malaise trap, #53260 [;] 17.viii–13.ix.1999, I. Jimenez [;] L.N. 260952-385020; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] grisselli [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

6 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: BH-12-C and blank [;] Dates: 8.ii–2.iii.1986, 18.i–8.ii.1986 and 16.xi–7.xii.1985; second label - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 4 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: 11, 9 and BH-9-O [;] Dates: 23.iii–13.iv.1986, 28.xii.85–18.i.1986, 8.ii–2.iii.1986 and 8–29.x.1986; second label - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: blank [;] Dates: 10–31.i.1987; second label - [H] open regenerating [;] woodland <10 years old [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: SE-7-O and blank [;] Dates: 8.ii–2.iii.1986 and 20.xii.86–10.i.1987; second label - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: blank [;] Dates: 8–29.xi.1986; second label - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Res. Forestal Golfo Dulce [;] 3km. SW Rincon, 10m [;] iv.1993, P. Hanson [;] Malaise, primary forest (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, [;] 3km SW. Rincon, 10m, [;] vi.1991, Paul Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce [;] 3km. SW Rincon, 10m, [;] iii.1993 Paul Hanson coll. [;] Malaise, primary forest (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, S.RosaPark, Guan. [;] C. Rica 27 Oct 77 and 30 Aug 77 [;] Riparian (AEIC).

Comments.

The granulate mesopleuron, rugose face and short ovipositor are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for my friend and long time colleague at the Systematic Entomology Lab., Eric Grissell.

Figure 53.

Heterospilus grisselli Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5–3.5 mm. Color: head with vertex and frons brown, eye orbits and face lighter brown to yellow; scape yellow, basal 2 flagellomeres yellow, next 8–10 flagellomeres bicolored brown with yellow at apex and base, remainder of flagellomeres brown except apical 3–5 white; mesosoma and metasoma dark brown; legs bicolored yellow with apical 3/4 of middle and hind femora brown; wing veins and stigma brown, wing membrane dusky along vein r. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face striate at least laterally, often smooth medially; temple in dorsal view narrow, usually less than eye width, occasionally equal; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 15–22 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at prescutellar furrow in triangular costate-rugose area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with one median distinct cross carina, occasionally weak cross carinae on each side; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate, extending posteriorly to margin of mesopleuron by distinct carinae; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas smooth, distinctly margined, basal median carina absent, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU nearly equal to vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove absent; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor usually longer than metasoma, occasionally only slightly longer and appearing equal in length.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m. ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: SE-7-0 [;] Dates: 4–24.v.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day; third label (red, partially printed and written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] guanacastensis [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, same data as holotype except: Site #: 13-IX; Dates: 4.x.1986 (ESUW). 8 ♀♀, same data as holotype except: Site #: SE-8-C and SE-6-C; Dates: 18.i–8.ii.1986, 14.iii.1986 and 24.v–14.vi.1986; second label - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste, Santa [;] Rosa Nat’l Park, Bosque San [;] Emilio, trap #5 in clearing. 300m. [;] XII/28/85–i/18/1986. I. Gauld, second label - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica, Guanacaste Pr. [;] Guan. Conservation Area [;] Santa Rosa Hdq., 200m [;] Malaise trap 27–30 VI 1997 [;] 3x day L.J. van der Ent (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise trap SE-6-C [;] Bosque San Emilio, [;] deciduous forest [;] 50yr. old, Ian Gauld [;] 5.vii.1986, full shade (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, S.RosaPark, Guan. [;] C. Rica 21 May 77 and 5 Jan 77 [;] D.H. Janzen [;] Riparian (AEIC).

Comments.

This species is distinguished from all other species in Costa Rica by the bicolored basal flagellomeres.

Etymology.

Named for the province of Guanacaste where all the type series was collected.

Figure 54.

Heterospilus guanacastensis Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5 mm. Color: head light honey yellow, vertex light brown behind ocelli; scape honey yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum brown; mesosoma dark brown except mesoscutum honey yellow; metasomal terga 1 dark brown, tergum dark brown or yellow medially and dark brown laterally, tergum 3 dark brown basally, honey yellow apically, terga 4–7 honey yellow; wing veins brown, stigma brown with yellow apex; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face smooth; temple in dorsal view broad, equal to 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance slightly greater than twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 23–27 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum smooth or weakly granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae, median one often more distinct; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r less than 1/2 length vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width 1/2 length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth, terga 4-5 with basal transverse scrobiculate groove; ovipositor as long as or longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: San Jose [;] Cerro de la Muerte [;] 6km. N. San Gerardo [;] 2800m, IV.1992 [;] P. Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] halidayi [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Costa Rica: Heredia [;] 3km. S. Puerto Viejo, [;] OTS, La Selva, 100m [;] xii.1992, P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: San Jose [;] Zurqui de Moravia [;] 1600m, P. Hanson [;] ix.1995 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, Cartago Pr. [;] Dulce Nombre, Vivero [;] Linda Vista, 1300m [;] 1993: viii-x, P. Hanson (ESUW).

Comments.

The narrow metasomal tergum 1, the short fore wing vein r and the yellow mesoscutum are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for Irish entomologist A. H. Haliday in recognition of his pioneering work on the classification of parasitic Hymenoptera.

Figure 55.

Heterospilus halidayi Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0–4.0 mm. Color: entire body dark brown; scape yellow, without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 8–12 flagellomeres white; legs yellow; wing veins brown, stigma entirely brown. Head: vertex costate; frons costate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view slightly bulging, equal to 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance slightly greater than 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 26–33 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with one cross carina; mesopleuron smooth or very weakly granulate; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined, basal median areas weakly granulate, basal median carina distinct but short, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose apically, smooth or granulate basally. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length slightly greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate, apical width less than 3 times length; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present, sometimes weakly indicated; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA: Puntar [;] Golfo Dulce. 10km W [;] Piedras Blancas, 100m [;] VI-VIII 1989, Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] hansoni [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Puntar [;] Golfo Dulce, 3KM [;] S. W. Rincon, 10m [;] IX-XI 1989, Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, [;] 3km SW. Rincon, 10m [;] vi.1991, Paul Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, [;] 3km. SW. Rincon, 10m. [;] iii.1993 Paul Hanson coll. [;] Malaise, primary forest (ESUW). 3 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Limon, ACLAC [;] Central, R.B. Hitoy Cerere [;] Send. Espavel, 560m [;] 19.v–19.vi.1998, E. Rojas [;] L.S. 400702–570120 #52200 [;] Malaise Trap (ESUW). 5 ♀♀, COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] Reserva Forestal Golfo Dulce [;] 3km SW of Rincon, 10m [;] November 1992, July 1991 & October 1992, P. Hanson [;] primary forest, Malaise trap (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Alajuela, ACA [;] San Carlos, R.F. Arenal [;] Sendero Pilon, 600m, Malaise [;] 26.x–22.xi.1999, G. Carballo [;] L>N> 269100–457900 #54376 (ESUW). 4 ♀♀, COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] Rd. to Rincon, 10km W. [;] of Pan-Amer. Hwy. 100m [;] III-V 1989, Hanson & Gauld (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntar [;] R.B. Carara, Estac. [;] Quebrada Bonita, 50m [;] viii-ix 1989, Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Res. Forestal Golfo Dulce [;] 3km. SW Rincon, 10m [;] ii.1993, P. Hanson [;] Malaise, Primary forest (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Alajuela, 650m [;] San Carlos, R.F. Arenal, Send. [;] Pilon, 1–26.x.1999. G. Carballo [;] L.N. 269200-458050 #53929 [;] Malaise trap (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W, 100m [;] Malaise trap 11, #357 [;] 15.ii.1994 [;] Project ALAS (M.11.357) (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Limon [;] 30km N. Cariari, 100m [;] Sector Cocoon, Malaise [;] iii.1995, E. Rojas #4524 [;] L.N. 286000-567500 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, Heredia Prov. [;] OTS. La Selva, 100m [;] 1993 II-III P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Limon, Central [;] R.B. Hitoy Cerere, Est Hitoy [;] Cerere, Send. Toma de Agua [;] 100-140m, Malaise trap [;] 11.x–11.xi.1999, F. Umana [;] L.N. 184600-643400 #54013 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, San Jose [;] Zurqui De Moravia [;] 1600m. VII-1996 [;] P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Limon [;] ACLAC, Central [;] Res. Biol. Hitoy Cerere [;] Est. Hitoy Cerere, 140m; second label - Sendero Toma de Agua [;] 17 Sept. - 10 Oct. 1999 [;] F. Umana, Malaise trap [;] LN 184600-643400 #53497 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, 5km [;] W. Piedras Blancas, 100m [;] I-1993, P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Alajuela [;] Jabillos, 100m [;] 24/III/1989 [;] col. Paul Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Heredia [;] 3km. S. Puerto Viejo [;] OTS - La Selva, 100m [;] 16-30.IX.1992 [;] P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Heredia [;] Puerto Viejo [;] OTS, La Selva, 100m [;] iv.1991, P. Hanson (ESUW). 5 ♀♀, COSTA RICA, Heredia: [;] Est. Biol. La Selva, 50- [;] 150m, 10°26'N, 84°01W [;] Nov 1995, Apr 1996 and May 1996, INBio-OET (INBC).

Comments.

The entirely dark body and the partially rugose lateral area of the propodeum are distinct for this species.

Etymology.

Named for Paul Hanson in recognition of his years of collecting parasitic wasps in Costa Rica.

Figure 56.

Heterospilus hansoni Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0–4.0 mm. Color: head brown, face often and eye orbits always honey yellow; scape yellow with lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 8–12 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown; metasomal terga 1–4 dark brown, tergum 5 brown at base, yellow apically, terga 6-7 yellow; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face granulate; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space equal to 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance nearly 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 28–30 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli weakly scrobiculate or nearly smooth, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with one median carina; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate anteriorly. Area just above hind coxa with small but distinct tubercle. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate-granulate, apical width slightly less than length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight, rarely slightly sinuate; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate at base, granulate at apex; terga 4-7 granulate; ovipositor about 3/4 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA: [;] Puntar [;] Golfo Dulce, 3km [;] SW. Rincon, 10m [;] VI-VIII 1989, Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] haplocarinus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

2 ♀♀, COSTA RICA, Guanac. [;] Estac. Pitilla. 9Km S [;] Santa Cecilia, 700m [;] IX/1988, I. Gauld (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntar [;] Golfo Dulce 24km W [;] Piedras Blancas [;] 200m, vii-ix 1990 [;] Col. Paul Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, 24km. W. [;] Piedras Blancas, 200m [;] VI-1991, P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, 3km [;] SW Rincon, 10m [;] Malaise-primary forest [;] viii.1991, P. Hanson (ESUW).

Comments.

The single cross carina in the prescutellar furrow and the costate area where the notauli meet are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the Greek haplos meaning single in reference to the single cross carina in the prescutellar furrow.

Figure 57.

Heterospilus haplocarinus Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5–3.0 mm. Color: head yellow; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum brown; mesosoma dark brown, venter slightly lighter; metasoma dark brown; wing vein brown to light brown, stigma yellow; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face striate; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 21–23 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: somewhat flattened dorso-ventrally; mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in wide rectangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r slightly shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU as long as vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor as long as metasomal tergum 1.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Est. Cacao, 1000–1400m [;] 2km SW de Cerro Cacao [;] 1–9.iii.1996, A. Masis [;] L.N. 323100-375800 #7477 [;] Malaise trap; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] hedqvisti [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Est. Biol. Maritza, 600m [;] i.1997, C. Zuniga, Malaise [;] L.N. 326900-373000 #47557 (ESUW).

Comments.

The yellow stigma and the short ovipositor are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the Swedish braconidologist, Karl-Johan Hedqvist.

Figure 58.

Heterospilus hedqvisti Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0–3.5 mm. Color: head light brown, often with vertex and frons darker brown; scape light brown, flagellum brown; mesosoma dark brown, occasionally with lighter spots laterally or along notauli; metasomal terga dark brown, apical terga slightly lighter brown; legs yellow; wing veins including stigma brown. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons weakly transversely striate; face distinctly rugose; temple in dorsal view broad, not sloping behind eye, width equal to 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 21–25 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove absent; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor length equal to length of terga 1+2.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W, 100m [;] Malaise trap 14, #260 [;] 1.xi.1993 [;] Project ALAS(M.14.260); second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] heredius [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, same data as holotype (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W, 100m [;] Malaise trap 01, #334 [;] 15.ii.1994 [;] Project ALAS(M.01.334) (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA, top label - Heredia [;] Est. Biol. La Selva, 50- [;] 150m, 10°26'N, 84°01'W [;] Oct 1993, INBio-OET; second label - 4 Octubre 1993 [;] Bosque secundario [;] M/14/232; third label - INBio bar code (ESUW).

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the coarsely rugose face.

Etymology.

Named after the Province of Heredia where the type series was collected.

Figure 59.

Heterospilus heredius Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0–3.5 mm. Color: head with vertex and frons brown, face and eye orbits honey yellow; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum brown; metasoma dark brown; metasomal terga dark brown, terga 4–7 occasionally lighter; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space equal to 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 1.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 20–25 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate, median lobe often with median longitudinal groove posteriorly and ridge anteriorly; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in wide rectangular costate area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3-5 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, rugose or rugose-granulate, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove weak, often absent; posterior transverse groove absent; third tergum smooth; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor equal to length of metasomal terga 1 and 2 combined.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W, 100m [;] Malaise trap 10, #388 [;] 4.iv.1994 [;] Project ALAS (M.10.388); second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] huddlestoni [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Costa Rica: Limon [;] 30km N Cariari, 100m [;] Sector Cocori, Malaise [;] iii.1995, E. Rojas #4524 [;] L.N. 286000-567500 (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 10–31.i.1987; second label - Bosque Humedo [;] mature dry forest [;] high proportion [;] evergreen species [;] sun; third label - BH-11-O [;] 10-31.i.87 (ESUW).

Comments.

The dark brown body and the wide costate area where the notauli meet are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the late British braconidologist, Tom Huddleston.

Figure 60.

Heterospilus huddlestoni Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.0 mm. Color: head brown; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown, first flagellomere lighter; mesosoma and metasoma dark brown; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex weakly striate, smooth near eyes; frons smooth; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, width about 1/2 eye width; malar space slightly greater than eye height; ocell-ocular distance 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 14 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 1 cross carina; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r slightly shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R absent, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove absent; third tergum costate at extreme base, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor slightly longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] Rd. to Rincon, 24km W. [;] of Pan-Amer. Hwy, 200m [;] II-III 1989, Hanson & Gauld; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] itza [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, S.RosaPark, Guan. [;] C. Rica 31 Oct 77 [;] D.H. Janzen [;] Riparian (AEIC).

Comments.

The granulate mesopleuron, single cross carina in the prescutellar furrow, smooth face, longer ovipositor and the absent hind wing vein SC+R are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the Itza, an indigenous Mayan people of Guatemala.

Figure 61.

Heterospilus itza Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.0 mm. Color: head brown; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown with basal flagellomere yellow; mesosoma dark brown; metasomal tergum 1 dark brown, terga 2-7 light brown; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex weakly striate medially, smooth near eyes; frons smooth; face smooth; temple in dorsal view broad, bulging behind eye, width slightly greater than 1/2 eye width; malar space equal to 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 14 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum weakly granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron weakly granulate; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R absent, vein M+CU shorter than 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate at base, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: (blank) [;] Dates: 7–28.xii.1985 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] jakaltek [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

The long ovipositor and absence of hind wing vein SC+R are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the Jakaltek, an indigenous Mayan people of Guatemala.

Figure 62.

Heterospilus jakaltek Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0–3.5 mm. Color: head dark brown; scape brown without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown; mesosoma dark brown; metasoma dark brown, apical terga sometimes slightly lighter; legs yellow, apical 3/4 of femora light brown; wing veins including stigma brown. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons weakly costate, often smooth; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, equal to 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 22–30 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes smooth; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum smooth, rarely weakly granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined, weakly rugose, basal median carina absent, rarely very short, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r about equal to length of vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate-rugose, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate at base, smooth at apex; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor as long as metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: BH-12-C [;] Dates: 18.x–8.xi.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] janzeni [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: SE-O-5 [;] Dates: 18.x–8.xi.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: 6 [;] Dates: 6-26.x.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 5 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste ACT [;] Bagaces, PN Palo Verde [;] Sec. Palo Verde, Cero [;] Guaycán, 212m, Malaise [;] 18.viii–14.ix.1999 and 13.ix–13.x.1999, I. Jimenez [;] L.N. 259350-389600 #53254 and 53499 (ESUW). 3 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 27.ix–18.x.1986; second label - Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr. old deciduous [;] forest, fully shade; third label, SE-8-C [;] 27.ix–18.x.86 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Pen. Osa, Puerto [;] Jimenez, 10m, December [;] 1990, P. Hanson, Malaise (ESUW). 1 ♀, S.RosaPark, Guan, Guan. [;] C. Rica 15 May, 76 [;] D. H. Janzen [;] Riparian (AEIC).

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the brown stigma and flagellum and the entirely rugose sides of the propodeum.

Etymology.

Named for Dan Janzen in recognition of his biodiversity studies in Costa Rica.

Figure 63.

Heterospilus janzeni Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 5.0 mm. Color: head brown to dark brown; scape honey yellow with lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown with white annulus of 4-5 flagellomeres behind apical 6 brown flagellomeres; wing veins brown, stigma yellow; legs yellow. Head: vertex weakly transversely striate; frons smooth; face smooth; temple in dorsal view brown and bulging behind eye, width equal to 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 28 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes weakly granulate, lateral lobes smooth laterally; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron weakly granulate dorsally, nearly smooth above precoxal sulcus; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter weakly granulate or smooth; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose, distinct tubercle present laterally on each side of base of metasomal tergum 1 above hind coxa. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length slightly greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor 3/4 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Cartago [;] 4km NE Canon [;] Genesis II, 2350m [;] viii.1996, P. Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] kiefferi [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

The tubercle on the propodeum just above the hind coxa, the partially smooth mesoscutal lobes and the broad temple distinguish this species.

Etymology.

Named for J. J. Kieffer who described some Braconidae in the late 1880s and early 1900s.

Figure 64.

Heterospilus kiefferi Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5–5.0 mm. Color: head dark brown; scape light brown, flagellum dark brown with apical 8-10 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown; metasoma dark brown, tergum 2 yellow or light brown medially, terga 4–7 brown, often yellow laterally and/or apically on each tergum; legs bicolored yellow and brown, femora brown medially, hind tibia dark brown at base, light brown on apical half, hind tarsus brown; wing veins, including stigma, brown. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face striate; temple narrow, not bulging behind eye, width equal to 1/2 eye width; malar space 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 33–42 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting before prescutellar furrow in wide longitudinally costate area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined, basal median areas smooth, basal median carina present, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose with smooth area apically. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than 1M. Metasoma: first tergum length greater than apical width, longitudinally costate, rugose baso-medially, lateral costae curving toward median line at apex of tergum; second tergum longitudinally costate, apical width less than 3 times length; anterior transverse groove present, very slightly sinuate; posterior transverse groove present but indistinct; third tergum costate basally, granulate apically; terga 4–7 costate at base, granulate apically; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA Puntarenas [;] Reserva Forestal Golfo Dulce [;] 3km SW Rincon. 10m. primary [;] forest, xii.1992, P. Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] kulai [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, same data as holotype (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Send. a Rio Clara, Est. Sirena [;] 1–100m, 17.vi–4.ix.1991 [;] J.C. Saborio & G. Fonseca [;] I. S. 270500-508300 #6883 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Limon, ACLAC [;] Central, R.B. Hitoy Cerere [;] Est. Hitoy Cerere [;] 140m. Malaise trap [;] 17.vi–17.vii.1999. F. Umana [;] L.N. 184600-643400 #52861 (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W 100m [;] Malaise trap 07, #392 [;] 30.vi.1995 [;] Project ALAS (M 07 392) (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] R. F. Golfo Dulce, 24km. W [;] Piedras Blancas, 200m [;] III.1993. P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Heredia [;] 3km. S. Puerto Viejo [;] OTS-La Selva, 100m [;] ii-iii.1993 P. Hanson (MICR).

Comments.

This species is similar to Heterospilus laselvus but is distinguished by the white apex of the flagellum and the costate area where the notauli meet.

Etymology.

Named for my good friend Robert Kula, braconidologist for the USDA’s Systematic Entomology Lab. at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, a chair that I kept warm for him for many years.

Figure 65.

Heterospilus kulai Marsh, sp. n.: A–B paratype C–D holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5 mm. Color: head with vertex and frons brown, face and temple honey yellow; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown; mesosoma dark brown, metasoma dark brown, apical terga slightly lighter; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex weakly striate medially, smooth near eyes; frons smooth; face smooth; temple in dorsal view somewhat bulging, width equal to 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance nearly 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 18 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 1 cross carina; mesopleuron granular; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor 3/4 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Limon [;] 30km N Cariari, 100m [;] Sector Cocori, Malaise [;] iii.1995, E. Rojas #4524 [;] L.N. 286000-567500; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] kuna [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

The granulate mesopleuron, smooth face, single cross carina in the prescutellar furrow and the presence of hind wing vein SC+R are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the Kuna, an indigenous people of Panama.

Figure 66.

Heterospilus kuna Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 4.0 mm. Color: body entirely dark brown or black; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown; wing vein brown, stigma bicolored brown with yellow apex; legs yellow. Head: vertex weakly striate behind antennae, smooth near eyes; frons smooth; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance greater than 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 31 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes weakly granulate and shining, nearly smooth; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron weakly granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter weakly granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r nearly as long as vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length about 1.5 times apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, slightly sinuate; posterior transverse groove weakly indicated as transverse indentation; third tergum costate at base, smooth at apex; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - COSTA RICA: Heredia [;] Est. Biol. La Selva, 50–150m, 10°26'N, 84°01'W [;] X.1999; second label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Coll. L. M. LaPierre [;] Host: Cecropia [;] obtusifolia, Zyg...? (hand writing not legible) [;] ID# 0099-1097; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] lapierrei [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Biology.

The holotype was reared from a weevil infesting Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol. Louis LaPierre (per. comm.) states that the host was identified as Pseudolechriops coleyae Hespenheide & LaPierre.

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the black body and nearly smooth and shining mesoscutum.

Etymology.

Named for the collector, L. M. LaPierre.

Figure 67.

Heterospilus lapierrei Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5–4.0 mm. Color: head dark brown, malar space, lower face and eye orbits usually yellow, face occasionally yellow; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum entirely brown; mesosoma dark brown; metasomal terga 1–2 dark brown, terga 3–6 brown at base, yellow at apex, tergum 7 brown; fore and middle legs yellow, hind coxa and trochanters yellow, hind femur yellow with middle half brown, hind tibia yellow with brown at base and on apical half, hind tarsus brown; wing veins brown, stigma entirely brown. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face striate; temple narrow, not bulging behind eye, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 30–40 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes weakly granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at prescutellar furrow in triangular rugose area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with one cross carina; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than length of mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined, basal median areas weakly granulate, basal median carina distinct, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, smooth or weakly granulate anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than 1M. Metasoma: first tergum rugose-costate, length greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate, apical width less than 3 times length; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove weak or nearly absent; third tergum costate at base, smooth at apex; terga 4–7 granulate at base, smooth at apex; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica, Heredia [;] 3km. S. Puerto Viejo [;] OTS-LaSelva. 100m [;] IV-V-1993. P. Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] laselvus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, same data as holotype except date of I-II-1993 (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - COSTA RICA, Heredia [;] Est. Biol. La Selva, 50- [;] 150m, 10°26'N, 84°01W [;] Mar 1993, INBio-OET; second label - 02 Marzo 1993 [;] M/03/018 [;] Bosque Primario (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - COSTA RICA: Heredia [;] Pr: La Selva Biol. Sta. [;] 3km S. Pto. Viejo [;] 10°26'N, 84°01W; second label - 23-26.V.1988 B.V. Broen [;] Malaise trap - SAT 100 [;] Secondary Forest (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: [;] Heredia, Chilamate [;] 75m, xii 89-iii 1990 [;] Hanson & Godoy (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Limon, ACLAC [;] Central, R.B. Hitoy Cerere, [;] Est. Hitoy Cerere, Send. Toma [;] de Agua, 100m, 17.iv–8.v.1999 [;] F. Umana, Malaise trap [;] L.N. 184600-643400 #52757 (ESUW). 3 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Limon, ACLAC [;] Central, R.B. Hitoy Cerere, [;] Send. Espavel, 560m [;] 19.v–16.vi.1998, E. Rojas [;] L.S. 400702-570120 #52200 [;] Malaise Trap (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, COSTA RICA, Limón [;] 4km NE Bribri [;] 50m, IX-XI 1989 [;] col. Paul Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, Carthago Pr. [;] Dulce Nombre, Vivero [;] Linda Vista, 1300m [;] 1993:viii-x, P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, 24km. W [;] Piedras Blancas, 200m [;] III.1993, P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: BH-9-O [;] Dates: 26.vii–14.viii.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Guanac. [;] Estac.Pitilla, 9Km S [;] Santa Cecilia, 700m [;] VI/1989, I. Gauld (MICR). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Limón [;] 4km NE Bribri [;] 50m, VII-IX-1990 [;] col. Paul Hanson (MICR).

Comments.

This species is similar to Heterospilus ashmeadi but is distinguished by the rugose area where the notauli meet and the dark brown flagellum.

Etymology.

Named after the biological station La Selva where several of the type series were collected.

Figure 68.

Heterospilus laselvus Marsh, sp. n.: A paratype B–C holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5–3.5 mm. Color: head usually brown, vertex sometimes darker than face; scape honey yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum entirely brown; mesosoma light brown to brown, often lighter along notauli; metasoma brown to light brown; wing veins brown, stigma bicolored brown with yellow at apex, base and along anterior edge; legs yellow. Head: vertex costate; frons costate; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space equal to eye height; ocell-ocular distance slightly greater than twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 21–26 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate or smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola usually not distinctly margined, occasionally weakly margined apically, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r slightly shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate, width about 4 times length; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate at base, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor equal in length to metasoma, rarely slightly longer.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: (blank) [;] Dates: 23.iii–13.iv.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [H] open regenerating [;] woodland <10 year old [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] leioenopus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

6 ♀♀, same data as holotype with dates of 13.iv–4.v.1986, 21.ii–14.iii.1987, 18.i–8.ii.1986 and 26.vii–14.viii.1986, and second labels [H] open regenerating [;] woodland <10yr old [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated pert of day, [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible, and [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 0yr old deciduous forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated pert of day (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, COSTA RICA: [;] San Jose [;] Ciudad Colon, 800m [;] xii.1989-i.1990 [;] Luis Fournier (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: [;] San Jose [;] Ciudad Colon [;] 800m, iii-iv 1990 [;] Col. Luis Fournier (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Est. Biol. Maritza, 600m [;] i.1997, C. Zuniga, Malaise [;] L.N. 326900-373000 #47557 (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, S.RosaPark, Guan. [;] C. Rica 3 Feb 78 and 24 Feb 78 [;] D.H. Janzen [;] Dry Hill (AEIC).

Comments.

The smooth face and the shorter metasomal tergum 1 are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the Greek leios meaning smooth and the Greek enope meaning face in reference to the smooth face.

Figure 69 A-E.

Heterospilus leioenopus Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0 mm. Color: head brown; scape yellow, flagellum brown with apical 10 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown; metasomal terga 1–5 dark brown, terga 6-7 yellow; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex weakly striate behind ocelli, smooth near eyes; frons weakly striate; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space slightly greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 28 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow usually with 1 cross carina, sometimes with weak carinae on each side of median carina; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose apically, smooth basally. Wings: fore wing vein r as long as vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width 1/2 length; second tergum smooth; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum smooth; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor about 1/2 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] Reserva Forestal Golfo Dulce [;] 3km southwest of Rincon [;] 10m, July 1991. P. Hanson [;] primary forest, Malaise trap; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] levis [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

2 ♀♀, COSTA RICA: Puntar [;] Golfo Dulce, 3km [;] S.W. Rincon, 10m [;] IX-XI 1989, Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntar [;] Golfo Dulce, 10km W [;] Piedras Blancas, 100m [;] VI-VIII 1989, Hanson (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas, ACO [;] Golfito, P.N. Corcovado, 745m [;] Est. Agujas, Cerro Rincon [;] 15.v–15.vi.1999, J. Azofeifa [;] L.S. 276900-521500 #52744 [;] Malaise trap (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Heredia, ACCVC [;] Sarapiqui, Zona Prot. La Selva [;] 3km. S. de Sarapiqui, 50–100m [;] 18.iv.1988m, H. A. Hespenheide [;] manual (red, libre). #54835 [;] L.N. 268800-535300 (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: San Jose [;] P.N. Braulio Carillo [;] 9.5km E tunnel, 1000m [;] x-xii 1989, P. Hanson (ESUW).

Comments.

The smooth metasomal terga 2-7 and the narrow tergum 1 are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the Latin levis meaning smooth in reference to the smooth metasomal terga.

Figure 70.

Heterospilus levis Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0–4.0 mm. Color: vertex brown, frons, face, temple and eye orbits yellow or honey yellow; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum entirely brown; mesosoma dark brown, mesoscutal lobes and venter light brown; metasomal terga 1–2 and basal half of 3 dark brown, apical half of tergum 3 and terga 4–7 honey yellow, darker laterally; legs yellow; wing veins brown, stigma bicolored brown with yellow apex. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face rugose or rugose-costate; temple in dorsal view narrow, less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 25–35 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting before scutellar furrow in triangular costate area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with one cross carina; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than length of mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinct and margined, basal median areas granulate, basal median carina distinct but short, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M present; hind wing vein SC+R, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum length about equal to apical width, longitudinally costate; second tergum longitudinally costate, apical width less than 3 times length; anterior transverse groove distinct, straight; posterior transverse groove distinct; third tergum longitudinally costate at base, smooth at apex; terga 4–7 smooth, tergum 4 costate at base; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Limon, ACLAC [;] Central, R. B. Hitoy Cerere [;] Est. H. Cerere, 100-140m. [;] Send. Toma de Agua, Malaise [;] 17.xi–17.xii.1999. F. Umana [;] L.N.184600-643400 #54940; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] limonensis [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Limon [;] 4km NE Bribri [;] 50m. IX-XI 1989 [;] col. Paul Hanson (ESUW).

Comments.

This species is similar to Heterospilus puntarensis but differs in the single cross carina in the prescutellar furrow, the fourth metasomal tergum being mostly smooth and the bicolored mesosoma.

Etymology.

Named for the locality of the type specimens, Limón Province.

Figure 71.

Heterospilus limonensis Marsh, sp. n.: A–C E holotype D paratype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0 mm. Color: head light brown or darker brown with face and eye orbits lighter; scape light brown without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum light brown basally to dark brown apically; mesosoma usually brown or dark brown, mesoscutum lighter brown, at least along notauli; metasomal tergum 1 dark brown, tergum 2 light brown medially, remainder of terga slightly lighter than tergum 1; legs yellow; wing veins including stigma brown. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face weakly striate, often smooth near eyes; temple in dorsal view broad, slightly bulging behind eye, width slightly greater than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 24–30 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 1 cross carina; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas large, square, distinctly margined, rugose, basal median carina distinct, as long as half dorsal length of propodeum, areola not margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width about equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum smooth or weakly costate medially at base, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor as long as metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: BH-12-C [;] Dates: 29.xi–20.xii.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] macrocarinus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, [;] 3km. SW. Rincon, 10m [;] iii.1993 Paul Hanson coll. [;] Malaise, primary forest (ESUW).

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the unusually long basal median carina on the propodeum.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the Greek makros meaning long in reference to the long basal median carina of the propodeum.

Figure 72.

Heterospilus macrocarinus Marsh, sp. n.: A–C, E holotype D paratype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5–4.0 mm. Color: head with vertex usually light brown, face yellow; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellomeres brown; mesosoma dark brown; metasomal terga 1–4 dark brown to brown, terga 5–7 yellow, tergum 7 brown at apex; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex weakly striate or occasionally smooth; frons weakly striate; face striate-granulate; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space 1/6–1/7 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about equal to diameter of lateral ocellus; 22–26 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow usually with 1 distinct cross carina, sometimes with weak carinae on each side of median carina; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width less than length; second tergum longitudinally costate, narrow with apical width about 4 times median length; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor equal to length of metasomal 1.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W, 100m [;] Canopy fogging 31 [;] 2.xi.1994 [;] Project ALAS (FPM31); second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] magnus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

3 ♀♀, same data as holotype with dates of 3.xi.1994, 2.xi.1994 and 24.x.1994 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Golfo Dulce, 24km W. [;] Piedras Blancas, 200m [;] iv.1993, Paul Hanson (ESUW).

Comments.

The large eyes and small malar space are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the Latin magnus, meaning large, in reference to the large eyes.

Figure 73.

Heterospilus magnus Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5 mm. Color: head dark brown with yellow eye orbits and yellow spot on malar space; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum brown; mesosoma dark brown; metasoma dark brown; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face areolate-rugose; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye; malar space equal to 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 24 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate, rugose along notauli, median lobe with median longitudinal raised ridge anteriorly; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate-rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas not distinctly margined, rugose, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area areolate-rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU equal to vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length slightly greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove weak or absent; posterior transverse groove weak or absent; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor equal to length of metasomal tergum 1.

Holotype female.

Top Label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Est. Biol. Maritza, 600m [;] i.1997, C. Zuniga, Malaise [;] L.N. 326900-373000 347557; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] maritzaensis [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

The raised ridge on the median mesoscutal lobe and the yellow spot on the malar space are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the type locality, the Maritza Biological Station in Guanacaste National Park.

Figure 74.

Heterospilus maritzaensis Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5–3.5 mm. Color: head brown to dark brown; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum brown; mesosoma dark brown, propodeum often lighter brown; metasomal tergum 1 dark brown, terga 2–4 yellow medially, dark brown laterally, terga 5–7 yellow; wing veins brown, stigma yellow; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons weakly transversely striate; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, width equal to 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance 2.5 or more times diameter of lateral ocellus; 19–20 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate-rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent or rarely extremely short, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r slightly shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width as least 4 times length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor equal to length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: SE-7-O [;] Dates: 4–24.v.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] masoni [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

3 ♀♀, same data as holotype except: Site #: 10, dates of 13.ix–4.x.1986, 8–9.xi.1986, and second label [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [C] more or lass fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 14.vi–5.vii.1986, second label, SE-7-O [;] 14.vi–5.vii.86, third label, Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr Old deciduous [;] forest SUN (ESUW).

Comments.

The narrow metasomal tergum 2, light brown metasomal terga and the yellow tegula are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the late Canadian braconidologist, W. R. M. (Bill) Mason in recognition of his numerous and important contributions to our knowledge of the Braconidae.

Figure 75.

Heterospilus masoni Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.0 mm. Color: head honey yellow or light brown; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum yellow basally to brown apically; mesosoma and metasoma honey yellow; wing veins brown, stigma yellow; legs yellow. Head: vertex weakly striate, often smooth near eyes; frons weakly striate or nearly smooth; face smooth; temple in dorsal view slightly bulging behind eye, width equal to 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 18–19 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate, nearly smooth just above precoxal sulcus; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU slightly shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate, greatest width about 4 times median length; anterior transverse groove weakly present and straight or partially absent; posterior transverse groove weakly present or partially absent; third tergum entirely smooth; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: (blank) [;] Dates: 31-I-21-II.1987 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] mellosus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, same data as holotype, with date of 8-29.xi.1986, and second label as [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 1 ♀, S.RosaPark, Guan. [;] C. Rica 8 Mar. 77 [;] D. H. Janzen [;] Dry Hill (AEIC).

Comments.

The yellow body color and the short metasomal tergum 2 are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the Latin mellosus meaning honey-colored in reference to the honey colored body.

Figure 76.

Heterospilus mellosus Marsh, sp. n.: A–D paratype E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 4.0 mm. Color: head dark brown to brown; scape honey yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 8-10 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown; metasoma dark brown, terga 5-7 yellow; legs yellow, hind tibia at extreme base and hind tarsus brown; wing veins including stigma brown. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, not bulging behind eye, less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 29-35 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes smooth, rugose along notauli; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than width of mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinct but not margined, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area areolate-rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate or porcate, length slightly greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate or porcate, width about 4 times median length; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate at base, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, [;] 24km W. Piedras Blancas [;] 200m [;] Feb. 1992, Paul Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] menkei [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, top label - COSTA RICA, Heredia [;] Est. Biol. La Selva, 50- [;] 150m, 10°26'N, 84°01'W [;] May 1993, INBio-OET; second label - 18 Mayo 1993 [;] Bosque secundario [;] M/04/099; third label - INBio bar code (ESUW).

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the mesoscutal lobes being rugose along the notauli and is similar to Heterospilus milleri but is separated by its smooth mesoscutal lobes rather than granulate in Heterospilus milleri.

Etymology.

Named for my longtime friend, colleague and college classmate Arnold Menke.

Figure 77.

Heterospilus menkei Marsh, sp. n.: A–D holotype E paratype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5 mm. Color: head dark to light brown; scape yellow with lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 8–10 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown; metasoma dark brown, terga 5–7 yellow; legs yellow, hind tibia at extreme base and hind tarsus brown; wing veins including stigma brown. Head: vertex transversely costate, occasionally weakly so or smooth; frons transversely costate; face smooth; temple in dorsal view broad but not bulging, about equal to eye width; malar space 1/2 eye height; ocell-ocular distance slightly greater than twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 25–32 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate, weakly rugose along notauli; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate-rugose area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than width of mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas smooth and indistinctly margined, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area areolate-rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate or porcate, slightly longer than apical width; second tergum costate, about 3.5 times wider than long; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate at base, smooth at apex; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor longer or slightly shorter than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] Golfo Dulce, [;] 15km W. Piedras Blancas, [;] 100m. [;] XI.1990, Paul Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] milleri [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: (blank) [;] Dates: 26.x–16.xi.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Est. Maritza, 600m [;] Malaise, ix.1996. C. Zuniga [;] L.N. 326900-373000- #47558 (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W, 100m [;] Canopy fogging 32 [;] 3.xi.1994 [;] Project ALAS (FVK32) (ESUW).

Comments.

This species is similar to Heterospilus menkei but is distinguished by its granulate mesoscutal lobes.

Etymology.

Named for my long time friend and research colleague at the USDA, Douglass Miller.

Figure 78.

Heterospilus milleri, Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0–3.5 mm. Color: head honey yellow; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum entirely brown; mesosoma brown with mesoscutum and lower portion of mesopleuron lighter brown to honey yellow; metasomal terga 1–4 brown to dark brown, terga 5–7 yellow; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 26–27 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width about equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate-granulate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove absent; third tergum weakly costate basally, granulate apically; terga 4-5 granulate; ovipositor as long as metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W, 100m [;] Malaise trap 14, #260 [;] 1.xi.1993 [;] Project ALAS (M.14.260); second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] miskito [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] P. N. Guanacaste [;] below Pitilia, 500m [;] 7–8.iii.1990, J. S. Noyes (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - COSTA RICA, Heredia: [;] Est. Biol. La Selva, 50- [;] 150m, 10°26'N, 84°01'W [;] Mar 1996, INBio-OET; second label - 15 Marzo 1996 [;] Bosque secundario [;] M/11/600 (INBC).

Comments.

The evenly brown mesoscutum and the absence of the basal median carina of the propodeum are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

The specific name refers to the Miskito, an indigenous people of Honduras and Nicaragua.

Figure 79.

Heterospilus miskito Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5 mm. Color: head with vertex and frons brown, face and eye orbits lighter; scape yellow with lateral longitudinal brown stripe; flagellum brown with apical 5–6 flagellomeres white except apical flagellomere brown; mesosoma dark brown; metasomal terga 1–3 dark brown, remainder of terga slightly lighter; wing veins brown, stigma brown with yellow at base; legs yellow. Head: vertex weakly striate behind ocelli, smooth near eyes; frons weakly striate; face granulate; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance 2.5 times or greater than diameter of lateral ocellus; 20 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, short, areola usually not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width about equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica, Heredia [;] 3km. S. Puerto Viejo [;] OTS-La Selva, 100m [;] IV-V-1993, P. Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] mixtec [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W, 100m [;] Malaise trap 05, #296 [;] 15.xii.1993 [;] Project ALAS (m.05.296) (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Heredia [;] Chilamate, 75m [;] VII-VIII/1989 [;] col. Paul Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - COSTA RICA, Heredia [;] Est. Biol. La Selva, 50- [;] 150m, 10°26'N, 84°01'W [;] Jun 1993 INBio-OET; second label - 14 Juno 1993 [;] Bosque secundario [;] M/13/135 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] P.N. Guanacaste [;] below Pitilia, 500m [;] 7–8.iii.1990, J. S. Noyes (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Limon, Central [;] R.B. Hitoy Cerere, Est. Hitoy [;] Cerere, Send. Toma de Agua [;] 100–140m, Malaise trap [;] 11.x–11.xi.1992, F. Umana [;] L.N.184600-643400 #54013 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, Limon [;] Sector Cocori, 100m [;] 30km N Cariari, i.1995 [;] E. Rojas, Malaise #4526 [;] L.N. 286000-567500 (ESUW).

Comments.

The smaller eyes and ocelli and the white apical flagellomeres are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the Mixtec, an indigenous people of Mexico.

Figure 80.

Heterospilus mixtec Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5 mm. Color: head brown; scape honey yellow with lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 5–8 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown, mesoscutal lobes honey yellow anteriorly, propleuron and venter honey yellow; metasomal terga 1–4 dark brown, tergum slightly lighter, tergum 5 brown basally, yellow apically, terga 6–7 yellow basally, light brown apically; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow, hind femur yellow on basal 1/4, brown on apical 3/4. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 24–26 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 1 median distinct cross carina plus 2 weaker carinae on each side; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate-granulate; second tergum costate-granulate; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove absent; third tergum entirely smooth; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor as long as metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA: [;] Puntarenas [;] Monteverde, [;] 1400m, [;] 26–28.iii.1991, yellow [;] pan, Col. Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] monteverde [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

The granulate mesopleuron, slightly sinuate anterior transverse groove on metasomal tergum 2 and the weak or absent posterior transverse groove of metasomal tergum 3.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the type locality, Monteverde in Puntarenas Province.

Figure 81.

Heterospilus monteverde Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0–4.0 mm. Color: head yellow; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum yellow basally to brown apically; mesosoma light brown, propleuron, pronotum, precoxal sulcus and propodeum laterally often darker brown; metasoma yellow or honey yellow, tergum 1 may be darker brown; legs yellow, extreme base of tibia often brown; wing veins brown, stigma somewhat bicolored, yellow basally and light brown apically. Head: vertex transversely striate-granulate; frons striate; face smooth; temple in dorsal view broad and bulging behind eye, width greater than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance slightly more than 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 20-25 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate, median lobe with median groove from middle to prescutellar furrow; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area, notauli bordered by dense long yellow setae; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3-5 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined, weakly granulate or nearly smooth, basal median carina distinct and long, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, both vein at nearly right angled with each other, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU slightly shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate, apical width less than 3 times length; anterior transverse groove straight, weak or nearly absent; posterior transverse groove weak or nearly absent; third tergum entirely smooth; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor equal to length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA San Jose [;] Cerro de la Muerte, 19km [;] S, 3 W, Empalme, 2600m [;] ii-iii.1993. Paul Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] muertensis [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Costa Rica: San Jose [;] Cerro de la Muerte [;] 6km. N. San Gerado [;] 2800m, November 1993 [;] P. Hanson, Malaise (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: San Jose [;] Cerro de la Muerte [;] 19km S 3 W Empalme [;] 2600m, November 1992 [;] P. Hanson, Malaise (ESUW).

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the broad temple, long yellow setae along the notauli, and the generally yellow body color.

Etymology.

Named for Cerro de la Muerte where the type series was collected.

Figure 82.

Heterospilus muertensis Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5–3.0 mm. Color: head yellow; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum yellow basally to brown apically; mesosoma brown to dark brown; metasoma brown, terga 1 and 2 often lighter brown; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view narrow, strongly sloping behind eye, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space equal to 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance usually about 1.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus, rarely about twice diameter; 18–22 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes coarsely granulate, median lobe often with median scrobiculate line; notauli strongly scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow usually with 3 cross carinae, rarely with 1 distinct median carina plus 2 weaker carinae on each side; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron but often with a carina extending from sulcus to posterior edge of mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r as long as or slightly shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R absent, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate with median raised area rugose between distinct carinae, apical width equal to or slightly less than length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present, often weakly so; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor equal to combined length of metasomal terga 1–2.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: BH-10-C [;] Dates: 7–28.xii.1985 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] muesebecki [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, same data as holotype (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: SE-7 and 5-O [;] Dates: 6–27.ix.1986 and 23.iii–13.iv.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [SE] Bosque San Emelio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 3 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: SE-6-C and blank [;] Dates: 7-28.xii.1985, 4–24.v.1986 and 3–24.viii.1985 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [SE] Bosque San Emelio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 3 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: BH-10 and 12-C and blank [;] Dates: 24.v–14vi.1986 and 18.i–8.ii.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: BH-9-O and blank [;] Dates: 20.xi.86–10.i.1097 and 29.xi–20.xii.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: H-1-O and blank [;] Dates: 10–31.i.1987 and 20.xii.86–10.i.1987 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [H] open regenerating [;] woodlands <10 year old [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: BH-10-C [;] Guanacaste Province [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Pk. [;] 300m, (dry season) [;] 10-31 January 1987; second label - Bosque Humedo, mature [;] dry forest with high [;] proportion evergreen [;] species, fully shaded [;] Townes style Malaise [;] Ian Gauld coll. (ESUW). 4 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] PN Guanacaste, 7km E HQ [;] near “small house” [;] 9.iii.1990, J. S. Noyes (ESUW). 3 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste Pr. [;] Guanacaste National Park [;] near Playa Naranja [;] 11 March 1990, J.S. Noyes; second label - PSYL#04 (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 10–31.i.1987; second label - mature dry forest [;] high proportion [;] evergreen species [;] Sun; third label - BH-11-O [;] 10-31.i.87 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste, ACT [;] Bagaces, P.N. Palo Verde [;] Sec. P. Verde, 0–50m [;] 2–12.xii.1999, I. Jimenez [;] L.N. 260932-385020 #54246 [;] Red de Golpe (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste, ACT [;] Bagaces, P.N. Palo Verde, 212m [;] Sec. Palo Verde, Cerro Guayacan [;] 13.ix–13.x.1999, I. Jimenez, Malaise [;] L.N. 259350-389600 #53499 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Peninsula Osa [;] Puerto Jimenez, 10m [;] i–ii.1992, Paul Hanson [;] grassy, weedy site (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, Puntarenas [;] Pen. Osa, Puerto Jimenez, [;] 10m. VIII-IX-1993 [;] P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Las Cruces [;] Wilson Botanical Gardens [;] 18–22.iii.1990, 1150m [;] J.S. Noyes (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Cartago [;] Braulio Carillo N.P. [;] 600m, 25.iii.1990 [;] J. S. Noyes, coll. (ESUW). 5 ♀♀, COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] RF Golfo Dulce 200m [;] 24km W Piedras Blancas [;] P. Hanson ix.1992 and vi.1993 (TAMU). 27 ♀♀, S.RosaPark, Guan. [;] C. Rica, various dates from June 1976 to January 1978 [;] D. H. Janzen [;] Riparian and Dry Hill (AEIC). 2 ♀♀, Turrialba, C.R. [;] IV-25-1957 [;] RDShenefelt [;] RDS 57-177 (AEIC). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Punt- [;] arenas. 7km SW Rincon [;] 31.v–7.vi.1998. B. Brown [;] & V. Berezovskiy, Mal. [;] Trp. #1; 2nd growth (AEIC).

Comments.

The large eyes and ocelli, strongly sculptured mesoscutum and the raised median area on metasomal tergum 1 are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the great North American hymenopterist, Carl F. W. Muesebeck, in recognition for the mentoring he gave me in my early days as a budding braconidologist in Washington.

Figure 83.

Heterospilus muesebecki Marsh, sp. n.: A–C, E paratype D holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0–3.5 mm. Color: head with vertex and frons brown, face and eye orbits light brown or yellow; scape yellow, flagellum brown; mesosoma dark brown, often with lower mesopleuron lighter; metasomal tergum 1 dark brown, tergum 2 dark brown with lateral converging yellow stripes, terga 3–4 dark brown, yellow medially, terga 5-7 lighter brown than tergum 1; legs yellow, apical half of hind femur and tibia brown; wing veins including stigma brown. Head: vertex weakly striate; frons smooth or very weakly striate; face smooth except for weak striae below antennae; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance slightly less than 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 24–30 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting posteriorly in wide rectangular rugose area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter weakly granulate; propodeum with basal median areas not distinctly margined, areolate-rugose, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area areolate-rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum costate-granulate; second tergum costate-granulate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor equal to length of terga 1+2.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: (blank) [;] Dates: 24.v–14.vi.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] neesi [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

2 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste, ACT [;] Bagaces, P.N. Palo Verde [;] Sec. P. Verde, 150 de la Est. [;] 0-50m, 17.viii–13.ix.1999 [;] I. Jimenez, Malaise #53257 [;] L.N. 260952-385020 (ESUW).

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the rectangular rugose area where the notauli meet posteriorly and the yellow markings on metasomal tergum 2.

Etymology.

Named for C. G. Ness ab Esenbeck who was one of the earliest workers on Hymenoptera in the early 1880s.

Figure 84.

Heterospilus neesi Marsh, sp. n.: A–C, E holotype D paratype.

Female.

Body size: 4.5–5.0 mm. Color: head entirely yellow; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown; mesosoma bicolored, mesoscutum, mesopleuron on lower half, venter and upper and lower margin of pronotum yellow, propleuron brown, pronotum medially, subalar area of mesopleuron, metanotum and propodeum dark brown; metasomal tergum 1 dark brown, tergum 2 dark brown medially, yellow laterally, tergum 3 dark brown basally, brown apically, yellow laterally, terga 4–6 dark brown basally, yellow apically and laterally, tergum 7 yellow; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face weakly granulate, often partially smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance 1.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 32-35 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate, rarely smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate-granulate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate-granulate, width nearly 4 times length; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove weakly indicated or absent; third tergum costate at base, granulate at apex; terga 4–7 granulate at base, smooth at apex; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W, 100m [;] Canopy fogging 32 [;] 3.xi.1994 [;] Project ALAS(FVK32); second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] nephus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

2 ♀♀, same data as holotype (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, same data as holotype with dates of 19.x.1994, 11.xi.1994 and Canopy fogging 26, 35 (ESUW). 1 ♀, same locality data as holotype, Malaise trap 09, #327 [;] 15.i.1994 [;] Project ALAS(M.09.327) (ESUW). 1 ♀, S.RosaPark, Guan, Guan. [;] C. Rica 20 Aug 77 [;] D.H. Janzen [;] Dry Hill (AEIC). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA. Prov. Limón. R.B. [;] Hitoy Cerere, Send. Espavel, 560m, 15 [;] MAR 2003, B. Gamboa, Red de Golpe. [;] L.S. 401200 569800 #73280 (INBC).

Comments.

The yellow mesoscutum and the granulate base of metasomal terga 4–6 are distinctive for this species. This species is similar to Heterospilus variegatus Ashmead from St. Vincent, West Indies, but the ovipositor is longer than the metasoma in Heterospilus nephus but shorter than the metasoma in Heterospilus variegatus.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the Greek Heterospilus nephos, meaning cloud, in reference to the type series being collected by canopy fogging at the La Selva Biological Station.

Figure 85.

Heterospilus nephus Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0–4.0 mm. Color: head yellow or honey yellow, temple just behind eye often brown; scape honey yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 5–7 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown, yellow along notauli, median mesoscutal lobe often light brown, mesopleuron along precoxal sulcus often light brown; metasomal tergum 1 dark brown, tergum 2 usually dark brown, often lighter, terga 3–7 dark brown basally, yellow apically; wing veins brown, stigma usually brown, often yellow at apex; legs yellow, hind tibia dark brown at base. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face weakly striate or granulate; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 28–32 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow usually with 3 cross carinae, rarely with 1 distinct median carina and 2 weaker carinae on each side; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate or smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width less than length; second tergum longitudinally costate, nearly 4 times as wide as long; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove weakly indicated; third tergum entirely granulate; terga 4–7 granulate; ovipositor as long as metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Heredia [;] Puerto Viejo [;] OTS, La Selva, 100m [;] iv.1991, P. Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] nigragonatus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

2 ♀♀, top label - COSTA RICA, Heredia [;] Est. Biol. La Selva, 50- [;] 150m, 10°26'N, 84°01W [;] Sep 1993, INBio-CET; second labels - 01 Setiembre 1993 [;] M/03/194 [;] Bosque primario and 16 Setiembre 1993 [;] Bosque secundario [;] M/09/215 (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - COSTA RICA, Heredia [;] Est. Biol. La Selva, 50- [;] 150m, 10°26'N, 84°01W [;] Feb 1994, INBio-CET; second label - 1 Febrero 1994 [;] Bosque secundario [;] M/09/339 (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - COSTA RICA, Heredia [;] Est. Biol. La Selva, 50- [;] 150m, 10°26'N, 84°01W [;] Jun 1993, INBio-CET; second label - 14 Junio 1993 [;] Bosque primario [;] M/03/126 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Alajuela [;] R. B. A. Brenes [;] San Ramon, 900m [;] ii–iii.2000, P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, [;] 3km. SW. Rincon, 10m, [;] iii.1993 Paul Hanson coll. [;] Malaise, primary forest (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntar [;] Golfo Dulce 3km SW [;] Rincon [;] 10m, vii-ix 1990 [;] Col. Paul Hanson (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, COSTA RICA: Limon [;] 16km West Guapiles [;] 400m, April 1989 and i–iv.1991 [;] P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Est. Biol. Maritza, 600m [;] i.1997, C. Zuniga, Malaise [;] L.N. 326900-373000 #47557 (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] W. side Volcan Orosi [;] Estac. Maritza, 600m; second label - GNP Biodiversity Survey [;] 1989, Malaise trap [;] L-N-326900-373000 #6834 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Est. Pitilia, 700m [;] 9km S Santa Cecilia [;] Malaise Sobre Tanque de Agua [;] viii.1995, C. Moraga, P. Rios [;] L>N> 329950-480450 #8542 {ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] P. N. Guanacaste [;] below Pitilia, 500m [;] 7–8.iii.1990, J. S. Noyes (ESUW).

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the granulate metasomal terga, the narrow second tergum and the dark brown knee of the hind tibia.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the Latin nigra meaning black and the Greek gonatus meaning knee in reference to the yellow hind tibia which is black at the joint with the femur.

Figure 86.

Heterospilus nigragonatus Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Heterospilus nigrescens Ashmead

http://species-id.net/wiki/Heterospilus_nigrescens

Figure 87
Heterospilus nigrescens Ashmead, 1894: 120.
Female.

Body size: 3.0–3.5 mm. Color: entire body dark brown; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum brown; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex weakly striate behind ocelli, smooth near eyes; frons usually striate, sometimes weakly so and nearly smooth; face smooth, often weakly striate below antennae; temple in dorsal view broad, width slightly less than 1/2 eye width; malar space about equal to 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance 2.5 or more times diameter of lateral ocellus; 21–25 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum weakly granulate to nearly smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate to nearly smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to or slightly shorter than length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum mostly longitudinally costate, smooth at extreme apex; terga 4-5 longitudinally costate on basal 1/2 to 3/4, terga 6–7 smooth; ovipositor as long as metasoma.

Distribution.

St. Vincent, West Indies and Costa Rica.

Specimens examined

. Holotype female: St. Vincent, W. I., H. H. Smith (NMNH). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste, ACT [;] Bagaces, P.N. Palo Verde [;] Sect. Catalina, 0–50m, do Luz [;] 8-12.xi.1999, I. Jimenez [;] L.N. 260952-85020 #53252 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas, ACT [;] Golfito, R.F. Golfo Dulce [;] Est. Agujas, 250–350m [;] 3–24.vii.1999, J. Azofeifa [;] L.S.276750-526550 #52840 [;] Red de Golpe (ESUW).

Comments.

The costate base of metasomal terga 4-5 is distinctive for this species.

Figure 87.

Heterospilus nigrescens Ashmead.

Female.

Body size: 2.5–3.5 mm. Color: head brown to honey yellow; scape and pedicel yellow, flagellum yellow basally to brown apically; mesosoma brown to dark brown or black, propodeum often lighter brown; metasoma brown to dark brown, apical terga often lighter than basal terga; wing veins brown, stigma bicolored, brown medially, yellow at base and apex; legs yellow, hind coxa and femur brown, hind tibia often light brown basally. Head: vertex transversely costate-rugose, frons rugose, face areolate or areolate-rugose; temple in dorsal view less than half eye width; malar space about half eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 18–26 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate, rugose or costate along notauli, long gold setae along notauli; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at prescutellar furrow in wide, rectangular rugose area; mesopleuron smooth above precoxal sulcus, rugose-costate dorsally; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, about half width of mesopleuron, often with costae extending from precoxal sulcus to posterior edge of mesopleuron; scutellum smooth, prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; venter of mesosoma smooth or partially weakly granulate; propodeum with basal median areas distinct and margined, basal median areas granulate or rugose-granulate, basal median carina absent, areola meeting anterior margin of propodeum, areola margined at least apically, areola and propodeum laterally areolate-rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r 2/3 length of vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a distinctly beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum length equal to apical width, longitudinally costate, granulate between costae, raised basal median area distinctly margined laterally and often with cross carinae near base; second tergum apical width less than 3 times length, longitudinally costate, granulate between costae; anterior and posterior transverse grooves weakly indicated; third tergum longitudinally costate between transverse grooves, smooth beyond posterior transverse groove; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor longer than metasoma, often nearly as long as entire body.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: SE-8-C [;] Dates: 2–23.iii.1986 [;] I. D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] nigricoxus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, same data as holotype (ESUW). 6 ♀♀, same data as holotype except site numbers of 6, SE.6.2, SE.7.0 and dates of 5–26.v.1985, 31.i–21-ii.1987, 2–23.iii.1986, 20.xii–10.i.1986/7, 14.vi–5.vii.1986, 10–31.i.1987 (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, same data as holotype except site number of 4, date of 10–31.i.1987 and second label [H] open regenerating [;] woodland <10 year old [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 6 ♀♀, same data as holotype except site numbers of H-3-0, H-2-0, dates of 10–31.i.1987, 18.i.1986, 31.i–21.ii.1987, 21.ii–14.iii.1987, 20.xii.1986–10.i.1987 and second label [H] open regenerating [;] woodland <10 years old [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day. 1 ♀, same data as holotype except date of 20.xii.1986–10.i.1987 and second label [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 4 ♀♀, same data as holotype except site number of SE.7.0, dates of 13.ix–4.x.1986, 10–31.i.1987, 2–23.iii.1986 and second label [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 30yr old deciduous forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, first label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pa. [;] 300m. Malaise. Ian Gauld [;] 10–31.i.1987; second label - Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous [;] forest [;] Full shade; third label - SE-8-C [;] 10–31.i.87 (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, first label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m. Malaise. Ian Gauld [;] 31.i–21.ii.87; second label - Bosque Humedo [;] Mature dry forest [;] high proportion [;] Evergreen species [;] Full Shade; third label - BH-10-C [;] 31.i–21.ii.87 (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, first label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m. Malaise. Ian Gauld [;] 31.i–21.ii.87; second label - Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous [;] forest. Full Shade; third label - SE-8-c [;] 31.i–21.ii.87 (ESUW). 1 ♀, first label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m. Malaise. Ian Gauld [;] 31.i–21.ii.87; second label - Open regenerating [;] woodland less than [;] 10yrs. Old. Sun; third label - H-1-0 [;] 31.i–21ii.87 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas, ACLAP [;] Coto Brus. Zona Prot. Las Tablas [;] Est. Biol. Las Alturas [;] 1550m. de Luz [;] 16–23.iii.1999, H. Mendez [;] L.S. 322800-591500 #52467 (ESUW). 5 ♀♀, S.RosaPark, Guan. [;] C. Rica 29 Jan 78 to 14 Feb 78 [;] D. H. Janzen [;] Riparian (AEIC).

Comments.

This species is similar to Heterospilus cushmani but differs by having the stigma bicolored (entirely brown in Heterospilus cushmani), the hind coxa and femur dark brown (yellow or very light brown in Heterospilus cushmani), and the mesoscutal lobes granulate but rugose along the notauli (entirely granulate in Heterospilus cushmani).

Etymology.

The specific name is from the Latin niger meaning dark and coxa meaning hip in reference to the dark colored hind coxa.

Figure 88.

Heterospilus nigricoxus Marsh, sp. n., paratype.

Figure 89.

Heterospilus nigricoxus Marsh, sp. n.: A, C, holotype; B, paratype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0–3.5 mm. Color: head bicolored with face and vertex usually brown and eye orbits and temple yellow or lighter brown; scape yellow or light brown, without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown, apical 3–5 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown, often lighter along notauli and on scutellum; metasoma dark brown, apical terga 3–7 often marked with yellow; legs yellow, all tibiae at extreme base and all tarsi brown; wing veins brown, stigma bicolored brown with yellow at base and apex. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, about equal to 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 20-26 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined, smooth, basal median carina distinct, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a slightly beyond or interstitial with vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove weakly present, straight; posterior transverse groove weakly present or absent, often represented by shallow scrobiculate line; third tergum entirely smooth; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor equal to 3/4 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA: San Jose, [;] Cerro de la Muerte, [;] 26km N San Isidro, 2100m, [;] ii-v.1991 [;] Paul Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] nixoni [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

2 ♀♀, same data as holotype (ESUW). 8 ♀♀, Costa Rica: San Jose [;] 26km. N. San Isidro [;] just S. of Division [;] 2100m, vi–vii.1992, viii–ix.1991, iv-v.1993, ii–iv.1993 and xi.1992–i.1993 [;] P. Hanson, Malaise [;] secondary growth (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, Costa Rica: San Jose [;] Cerro de la Muerte [;] 6km. N. San Gerardo [;] 2800m, iii–iv 1993 and November 1993 [;] P. Hanson, Malaise (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, Costa Rica: San Jose [;] Cerro de la Muerte [;] 2km W Empalme [;] 2300m, June 1995 [;] P. Hanson, Malaise (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: San Jose [;] 16km S. Empalme [;] 2600m, III-IV 1989 [;] P. Hanson & I. Gauld (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Cartago [;] 4km NE Cañon [;] Genesis II, 2350m [;] vi.1996, P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Estac. Biol. [;] Las Alturas, 1050m [;] ix-xi.1992, Paul Hanson, [;] ex. Malaise trap (ESUW).

Comments.

The species is distinguished from Heterospilus reinhardi by the smooth face.

Etymology.

Named for the British entomologist Gilbert E. J. Nixon who described many Old World Braconidae during the middle 1900s.

Figure 90.

Heterospilus nixoni Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5–4.0 mm. Color: head honey yellow or light brown; scape yellow, without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown (broken); mesosoma brown, mesoscutal lobes lighter honey yellow; metasoma brown to dark brown; legs yellow, femora with brown dorsal swelling and on apical half, hind tibia brown on apical half, hind tarsus dark brown; wing veins including stigma brown. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance nearly 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; ? flagellomeres (broken in holotype and paratype). Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes rugose, lateral lobes costate laterally; notauli scrobiculate, meeting in triangular rugose area before scutellum; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3-5 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, equal to width of mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas indistinct or weakly margined, basal median areas rugose, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area areolate-rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU equal in length to vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum costate-rugose, length greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate, apical width about 3 times length; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove present but weak; third tergum costate at base, smooth at apex; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Las Cruces [;] Wilson Botanical Gardens [;] 18-22.iii.1990, 1150m [;] J.S. Noyes; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] noyesi [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] 2km SW de Cerro Cacao [;] Est. Cacao, 1000-1400m [;] 21-28.v.1992, Curso Biod. [;] I.N. 323300-375700 #6900 (ESUW).

Comments.

This species is distinctive by the rugose face and mesoscutum.

Etymology.

Named for John Noyes who collected the holotype specimen.

Figure 91.

Heterospilus noyesi Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5–5.0 mm. Color: head with face and temple dark brown, vertex and frons yellow; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 10-12 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown, mesoscutum yellow, lateral lobes often partially brown; metasomal 1, 2 and base of 3 dark brown, apex of tergum 3 and remaining terga dark honey yellow; wing veins brown, stigma brown with yellow apex; legs yellow. Head: vertex and frons strongly circularly costate around ocelli; face granulate; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space equal to 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 27–32 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, weakly granular, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate or smooth anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a interstitial with vein 1M, rarely slightly beyond; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate, basal border with median raised smooth area; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, weakly granulate or smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor equal to 1/2 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Golfo Dulce, 24km W. [;] Piedras Blancas, 200m [;] ii.1993, Paul Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] orbitus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntar. [;] Cerro Rincon, 200m [;] S. hito, 745m, ii. [;] 1991, Hanson/Godoy (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Est. Sirena, 10100m [;] i-iii.1990, G. Fonesca [;] L.S. 270500-508300 [;] Malaise trap, #7450 (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Guanac. [;] Estac. Pitilia, 9Km S [;] Santa Cecilia, 700m [;] IX/1988, I. Gauld (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, COSTA RICA, Puntar. [;] Golfo Dulce, 24km W. [;] Piedras Blancas, 200m [;] XII-89-I-90 Hanson (MICR). 2 ♀♀, top label - COSTA RICA, Heredia: [;] Est. Biol. La Selva, 50- [;] 150m, 10°26'N, 84°01'W [;] Nov 1995 and April 1996, INBio-OET; second label - 01 Noviembre 1995 [;] M/08/489 [;] Bosque primario and 1 Abril 1996 [;] Bosque primario [;] M/08/608 (INBC). 2 ♀♀, COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Estac. Biol. [;] Los Alturas 1500m [;] iv.1992 P. Hanson (TAMU). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] RF Golfo Dulce, el 200m [;] 24km W Piedras Blancas [;] P. Hanson xii.1992 (TAMU).

Comments.

The costae of the frons and vertex being circularly around the ocelli and the yellow mesoscutum are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the Latin orbitus meaning circular in reference to the circular costae around the ocelli.

Figure 92.

Heterospilus orbitus Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5 mm. Color: head dark brown; scape yellow, flagellum brown with apical 4 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown with propleuron and pronotal collar yellow; metasomal tergum 1 brown, terga 2–4 honey yellow medially, brown laterally, terga 5–7 honey yellow; legs yellow; wing vein including stigma brown. Head: vertex weakly striate medially; frons weakly striate; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, width 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance slightly greater than 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 24 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes smooth; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area, short depression between carinae; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 1 cross carina; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a interstitial with vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R absent, vein M+CU shorter than 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length equal to apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor equal to 3/4 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste, ACT [;] Bagaces, P.N. Palo Verde [;] Sector Palo Verde [;] 500 NW de la Est., 40m [;] 4.vi–6.vii.1999, I. Jimenez [;] L.N. 260952-385020 #52849 [;] Malaise trap; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] paloverde [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

The dark mesosoma with the yellow propleuron and pronotal collar is distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for Palo Verde National Park where the holotype was collected.

Figure 93.

Heterospilus paloverde Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5–3.0 mm. Color: head with vertex and frons brown to light brown, face and eye orbits yellow; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum brown; mesosoma dark brown, often mesoscutum and venter honey yellow; metasomal tergum 1 dark brown, tergum 2 and usually 3 honey yellow medially, dark brown laterally, remainder of terga light brown to brown; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face granulate; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space equal to 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance 2–2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 19–25 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in wide rectangular costate-rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, sorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose, apical lateral corners of propodeum produced into small points or tubercle. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor about 3/4 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA: [;] Puntar [;] Golfo Dulce, 3km [;] SW Rincon, 10m [;] VI-VIII 1989, Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] pappi [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste, ACT [;] Bagaces, P.N. Palo Verde [;] Sec. P. Verde, 0–50m [;] 2–12.xii.1999, I. Jimenez [;] L.N. 260932-385020 #54246 [;] Red de Golpe (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: BH-12-C and blank [;] Dates: 18.x–8.xi.1986 and 13.i–8.ii.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day and [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, [;] 3km SW, Rincon, 10m [;] iii.1993 Paul Hanson Coll. [;] Malaise, primary forest (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, 3km [;] S.W. Rincon, 10m [;] I.1992, P. Hanson (ESUW).

Comments.

The bicolored body and the brown flagellum are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for my friend and colleague, the Hungarian braconidologist Jeno Papp.

Figure 94.

Heterospilus pappi Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.0–3.5 mm. Color: head usually brown, often with face lighter; scape yellow with weak lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 3–5 flagellomeres white; mesosoma usually dark brown, mesoscutal lobes often lighter or distinctly light brown, lower portion of mesopleuron and venter occasionally lighter brown; metasomal tergum 1 dark brown, tergum 2 usually dark brown with lateral converging yellow lines, sometimes tergum 2 nearly entirely brown, terga 3–7 brown basally, honey yellow apically; wing veins including stigma brown; legs bicolored yellow and brown, fore and mid legs yellow, hind coxa and trochanters yellow, hind femur yellow on basal 1/3, brown on apical 2/3, hind tibia brown at extreme base, yellow on basal 1/3, brown on apical 2/3, hind tarsus brown. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face rugose or rugose-areolate; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance slightly greater than 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 22–29 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose-costate area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate-rugose, basal median carina present, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate or smooth anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate-rugose, length greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum smooth, often striate antero-laterally; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor about as long as metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA: Puntar [;] Golfo Dulce, 10km W [;] Piedras Blancas, 100m [;] VI-VIII 1989, Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] petralbus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Golfo Dulce, 24km W. [;] Piedras Blancas, 200m [;] xii.1991, Paul Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: [;] 24km W Piedras Blancas [;] 200m, vi–viii 1989 [;] Hanson (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Buenos Aires [;] Sendero Los Gigantes [;] Est. Altamira, 1450m; second label - 3–22 February 2000 [;] D. Rubi, Amarilla [;] LS 331700-572200 [;] # 54808 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Las Cruces [;] Wilson Botanical Gardens [;] 18–22.iii.1990, 1150m [;] J.S. Noyes (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Limon, Sec. Cocori [;] 30Km al N, Cariari, 100m [;] xii.1994, E. Rojas, Malaise [;] L.N. 286000-567500 #4525 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Limon [;] 30km N Cariari, 100m [;] Sector Cocori, Malaise [;] iii.1995, E. Rojas #4524 [;] L.N. 286000-567500 (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01W, 100m [;] Malaise trap 05, #324 [;] 15.i.1994 [;] Project ALAS (M.05.324) (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - COSTA RICA: Heredia Pr.; ] La Selva Biol. Sta. [;] 3km S Pto. Viejo [;] 10°26'N, 84°01W; second label - 10.IV.1988 [;] H.A. Hespenheide (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Heredia [;] Braulio Carrillo N.P. [;] 250–500m IV.10.85 [;] Henri Goulet (AEIC). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Puntar. [;] Golfo Dulce, 24km W. [;] PiedrasBlancas, 200m [;] XII.89–III.90 Hanson (MICR). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] San Vito - Las Cruces [;] 5-VI-1988 1200m [;] P. Hanson (TAMU). 1 ♀, Est. Altamira, Buenos Aires, Prov. Punta. [;] COSTA RICA. 15 Set–14 Oct 1998. R. [;] Delgado, LS 572100_331700 #2370 (INBC). 1 ♀, Est. Biol. Las Alturas, [;] 1500m, Coto Brus, Prov. [;] Punt., COSTA RICA, [;] M.Zumbado, Ene 1992, [;] L-S-822500-591800 (INBC). 1 ♀, Est. Pitilia, 700m, 9km S [;] Sta. Cecilia, P.N.Guana- [;] caste, Prov.Guan. COSTA [;] RICA, C. Moraga, May [;] 1991, L-N-330200-380200 (INBC). 1 ♀, Quebrada Segundo, Tapanti, Prov. [;] Carta. COSTA RICA. 1150m. JUN [;] 1995, R.Delgado, Amarilla [;] L N 194000 559800 #5345 (INBC). 1 ♀, Est. La Casona, R.B. Monteverde, Prov. [;] Punta. COSTA RICA. 1520m. Jul 1993. N [;] Obando, L N 253250_449700 #2287 (INBC).

Comments.

This species is similar to Heterospilus gahani but is distinguished by the granulate mesoscutal lobes.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the Latin petra meaning rock and the Latin albus meaning white in reference to the locality of several of the type series being Piedras Blancas, meaning white stones.

Figure 95.

Heterospilus petralbus Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 4.0 mm. Color: head with vertex brown, remainder including eye orbits yellow; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum light brown basally to dark brown apically; mesosoma and metasoma dark brown, apical metasomal terga lighter; legs yellow; wing veins brown, stigma bicolored, brown with yellow apex. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face rugose; temple narrow, not bulging behind eye, width in dorsal view slightly less than eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 25–35 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting before prescutellar furrow in triangular costate area; scutellum weakly granulate, at least along sides; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth above precoxal sulcus, weakly striate dorsally; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, length about half length of mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas distinct but not margined, basal median areas granulate, basal median carina distinct but short, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum length equals apical width, longitudinally costate or costate-rugose, few cross carinae at extreme base; second tergum longitudinally costate, apical width less than 3 times length; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove distinct; third tergum longitudinally costate on basal 3/4, smooth on apical 1/4; tergum 4 longitudinally costate on basal 3/4, smooth on apical 1/4; terga 5–7 smooth; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] R. F. Golfo Dulce [;] 3km. SW. Rincon. 10m. [;] iii.1993 Paul Hanson coll. [;] Malaise. primary forest; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] puntarensis [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

The rugose propodeum with basal median areas not distinctly margined and the nearly entirely costate metasomal tergum 4 are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the type locality of Puntarenas Province.

Figure 96.

Heterospilus puntarensis Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5–3.0 mm. Color: head with vertex and frons brown, face and eye orbits yellow, frons sometimes yellow; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum yellow basally to brown apically with apical 3–5 flagellomeres white; mesosoma brown, lighter brown along notauli and often on pronotum; metasomal terga dark brown, tergum 2 usually honey yellow medially, brown laterally; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance 2.0–2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 16–19 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in rectangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 1 cross carina; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron, occasionally with striae extending from sulcus to posterior margin of mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent, rarely extremely short, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area areolate-rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R absent, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width usually equal to length, rarely slightly less; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor as long as metasomal terga 1–2 combined.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: BH-10-C [;] Dates: 8.ii–2.iii.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] quickei [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

3 ♀♀, same data as holotype with additional: Site #:BH-12-C; Dates: 20.xii.86–10.i.1987 and 14.viii–6.ix.1986 (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex, Malaise trap [;] Site #: BH-11-O and blank [;] Dates: 6–27.ix.1986 and 18.x–8.xi.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex, Malaise trap [;] Site #: H-4-C [;] Dates: 4–24.v.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [H] open regenerating [;] woodland <10 years old [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex, Malaise trap [;] Site #: H-2-O [;] Dates: 20.xii.86–10.i.1987 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [H] open regenerating [;] woodland <10 years old [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 5 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex, Malaise trap [;] Site #: SE-6-C and blank [;] Dates: 3-24.viii.1985, 14.viii–6.xi.1986 and 24.xi–20.xii.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex, Malaise trap [;] Site #: SE-&-O and blank [;] Dates: 8–24.xi.1986 and 29.xi–20.xii.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: BH-10-C [;] Guanacaste Province [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Pk. [;] 300m, (dry season) [;] 10-31 January 1987; second label - Bosque Humedo, mature [;] dry forest with high [;] proportion evergreen [;] species, fully shaded [;] Townes style Malaise [;] Ian Gauld, coll. (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 10–31.i.1987; second label - Bosque Humedo [;] Mature dry forest [;] high proportion [;] Evergreen species [;] Sun; third label - BH-9-O [;] 10–31.i.87 (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 31.i–21.ii.1987; second label - Bosque Humedo [;] Mature dry forest [;] high proportion [;] Evergreen species [;] Sun (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Res. Forestal Golfo Dulce [;] 3km. SW Rincon, 10m [;] ii and iv.1993, P. Hanson [;] Malaise, primary forest (ESW). 5 ♀♀, COSTA RICA: Puntar [;] Golfo Dulce, 3km SW [;] Rincon [;] 10m, iii-v 1989 [;] Col. Paul Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Puntar. [;] Golfo Dulce, 3Km S [;] Rincón. 10m [;] III-V/1989, Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Limon [;] 30km N Cariari, 100m [;] Sector Cocori, Malaise [;] iii.1995, E. Rojas #4524 [;] L.N. 286000-567500 (ESUW). 3 ♀♀, S.RosaPark, Guan. [;] C. Rica 17 Oct 77, 3 Oct 77 and 13 Jun 77 [;] D.H Janzen [;] Dry Hill (AEIC).

Comments.

The granulate mesopleuron, rugose face and absence of hind wing vein SC+R are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for my colleague and friend, the British braconidologist Donald Quicke.

Figure 97.

Heterospilus quickei Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5 mm. Color: head yellow; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum yellow basally to brown apically; mesosoma brown with mesoscutum honey yellow; metasomal tergum 1 dark brown, tergum 2–4 lighter brown, tergum 2 sometimes yellow, terga 5–7 honey yellow; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face granulate; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space equal to 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 1.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 20 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate, covered by sparse short setae; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area areolate-rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r nearly as long as vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R absent, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove weak or absent; third tergum costate at base, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor as long as metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W, 100m [;] Canopy fogging 31 [;] 2.vi.1994 [;] Project ALAS (FPM31); second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] ramirezi [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, COSTA RICA: [;] Guanacaste Prov. [;] Cerro el Hacha [;] NW Volcan Orosi [;] 300m, 1988 (ESUW).

Comments.

The light brown or honey yellow body color and the strongly rugose mesoscutum which is covered by sparse short hair are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for a good friend from Costa Rica, William Ramirez.

Figure 98.

Heterospilus ramirezi Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 4.0 mm. Color: head bicolored, vertex and frons dark brown, face and eye orbits honey yellow; scape light brown, without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown, apical 7 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown; metasoma dark brown, terga 5–7 yellow; legs yellow, hind tibia brown at extreme apex, hind tarsus brown; wing veins brown, stigma bicolored brown with yellow base and apex. Head: vertex weakly transversely costate; frons weakly transversely costate; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow and sloping behind eye, width about equal to 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 3 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 30 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes smooth, median lobe with transverse costae at apical corners; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas weakly margined, smooth, basal median carina absent, areola not margined, areolar area areolate-rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate, width about 4 times length; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate at base, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor equal in length to metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] R. F. Golfo Dulce, 3km [;] SW Rincon. 10m [;] Malaise-primary forest [;] viii.1991. P. Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] ratzeburgi [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

The smooth mesoscutal lobes and narrow metasomal tergum 2 are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the German entomologist, J. T. C. Ratzeburg who described many parasitic wasps in forest situations.

Figure 99.

Heterospilus ratzeburgi Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5–3.5 mm. Color: entire body brown, apical metasomal terga sometimes lighter; scape brown, without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum entirely brown; legs yellow; wing veins including stigma brown. Head: vertex weakly transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face striate; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 19–25 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose-costate area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined, weakly granulate, basal median carina distinct, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, smooth or granulate anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU nearly as long as vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate, width less than 3 times length; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove weak, often nearly absent; third tergum entirely smooth; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor 3/4 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Heredia [;] 3km. S. Puerto Viejo, [;] OTS, La Selva, 100m [;] Oct. 1992 P. Hanson, [;] Malaise trap; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] reinhardi [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Costa Rica, Alajuela [;] Estac. Biol. San Ramon [;] 900m, X-XII-1995 [;] P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] RF Golfo Dulce el. 200m [;] 24km W Piedras Blancas [;] P. Hanson vii.1992 (TAMU).

Comments.

This species is distinguished from Heterospilus nixoni by its striate face.

Etymology.

Name for the German entomologist H. Reinhard who described many braconids in the middle to late 1800s.

Figure 100.

Heterospilus reinhardi Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0–5.0 mm. Color: head yellow; scape yellow, flagellum entirely yellow or light brown; mesosoma yellow, usually with a dark brown stripe laterally from pronotum, along mesopleuron dorsally and dorso-laterally on propodeum, mesosoma occasionally entirely or mostly brown; metasoma yellow, terga 3–5 usually brown on posterior edge; wing veins brown, stigma usually bicolored yellow with brown center, occasionally entirely yellow or light brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex and frons transversely costate; face striate-granulate; temple smooth or weakly granulate; temple in dorsal view less than 1/2 eye width, narrow and sloping behind eye; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance 1.5–2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 27–37 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting before prescutellar furrow in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth at least just above precoxal sulcus, often costate or granulate dorsally; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, about 1/2 length of mesopleuron; venter smooth or weakly granulate; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined, basal median areas granulate, basal median carina distinct but short, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose entirely. Wings: fore wing vein r about 1/2 length of vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a distinctly beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum length equal to apical width, longitudinally costate-rugose, often granulate between costae, often with transverse costae at base; second tergum apical width slightly more than 3 times median length, longitudinally costate, often granulate between costae; anterior transverse groove distinct and sinuate, posterior groove weak or often absent; third tergum costate at base, smooth or weakly granulate at apex; terga 4-7 smooth or weakly granulate at base, smooth at apex; ovipositor equal to or longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and had written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Nat. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site # BH-9-0 [;] Dates: 20.xi.86–10.i.1987 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] rhabdotus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

10 ♀♀, same data as holotype except: Site #: BH-11-O; Dates: 18.i–8.ii.1986, 16.xi–3.xii.1985, 8.ii–2.iii.1986, 2–23.iii.1986, 29.xi–20.xii.1986 and 28.xii.85-18.i.1986 (ESUW). 8 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Nat. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site # SE-5-0, SE-7-O and blank [;] Dates: 13.ix–4.x.1986, 28.xii.85–18.i.1986, 31.i–21.ii.1987, 26.x–16.xi.1985, 10–31.i.1987 and 7–18.xii.1985 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen. second label - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 11 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Nat. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site # SE-8-C, SE-6-C and blank [;] Dates: 20.xii–10.i.1986/7, 8–29.xi.1986, 18.x–8.xi–1986, 29.xi–20.xii.1986, 2–23.iii.1986, 31.i–21.ii.1986, 7–28.xii.1985, 16.xi–7.xii.1985 and 8–26.x.1985 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen. second label - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 4 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Nat. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site # H-2–0 and blank [;] Dates: 28.xii.85–18.i.1986, 20.xii.86–10.i.1987, 21.ii–14.iii.1987 and 10–31.i.1987 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen. second label - [H] open regenerating [;] woodland <10 year old [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 7 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Nat. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site # BH-12-C, BH-10-C and blank [;] Dates: 18.i–8.ii.1986, 16.xi–7.xii.1985 and 8.ii–2.ii.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen. second label - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Nat. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site # H-2-C and blank [;] Dates: 18.i–8.ii.1986 and 31.i–21.ii.1987 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen. second label - [H] open regenerating [;] woodland <10 year old [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 3 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste, Santa [;] Rosa Nat'l Park, Bosque San [;] Emilio, trap #5 and 7 in clearing, 300m [;] XII/28/85-I/18/1986 and II/8-III/2/1986, I. Gauld; second label - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste, Santa [;] Rosa Nat'l Park, Bosque Humedo [;] trap #9 in clearing, 300m [;] XII/7–28/1985, I. Gauld; second label - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: BH-10-C [;] Guanacaste Province [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Pk. [;] 300m, (dry season) [;] 10–31 January 1987; second label - Bosque Humedo, mature [;] dry forest with high [;] proportion evergreen [;] species, fully shaded [;] Townes style Malaise [;] Ian Gauld coll. (ESUW). 8 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 10–31.i.1987; second label - Bosque Humedo [;] mature dry forest [;] high proportion [;] evergreen species [;] Sun; third label - BH-9-O [;] 10–31.i.87 (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 10–31.i.1987; second label - Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr Old deciduous [;] Forest [;] Full Shade; third label - SE-6 and 8-C (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 31.i–21.ii.1987; second label - Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr Old deciduous [;] Forest [;] Sun; third label - SE-7-O [;] 31.i–21.ii.87 (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 31.i–21.ii.1987; second label Bosque Humedo [;] mature dry forest [;] high proportion [;] evergreen species [;] Sun; third label - BH-9-O [;] 31.i–21.ii.87 (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 31.i–21.ii.1987; second label Bosque Humedo [;] mature dry forest [;] high proportion [;] evergreen species [;] Full Shade; third label - BH-10 and 12-C [;] 31.i–21.ii.87 (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 18.x–8.xi.1986; second label - Open regenerating [;] Woodland less than [;] 10 yrs. Old. Sun; third label - H-3-O [;] 18.x–8.xi.86 (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 18.x–8.xi.1986; second label -Bosque San Emilio [;] 50 yr. old deciduous [;] Forest. Sun; third label - SE-7-O [;] 18.i–8.ii.86 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste, ACT [;] Bagaces, P.N. Palo Verde [;] Sec. P. Verde, 0–50m [;] Extremo E Campo Aterrizaje [;] Malaise trap, #53260 [;] 17.viii–13.ix.1999. I. Jimenez [;] L.N. 560952–385020 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] blank [;] Dates: 23.iii–13.iv.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, Guanacaste Pr. [;] Guan. Conservation Area [;] Santa Rosa Hdq., 200m [;] Malaise trap 22–26 VII 1997 [;] 3x night L.J. van der Ent (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: [;] Guanacaste Prov. [;] Cerro el Hacha [;] NW Volcan Orosi 300m. 1988 (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, 24km. W [;] Piedras Blancas, 200m [;] I.1993 and II.1993, P. Hanson (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] Rd. to Rincon, 24km W. [;] Pan-Amer. Hwy, 200m [;] II-III 1989 and III-V 1989, Hanson & Gauld (ESUW). 3 ♀♀, COSTA RICA: [;] Puntar [;] Golfo Dulce, 3km [;] SW. Rincon, 10m [;] iii-v 1989 and VI-VIII 1989, Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Pen. Osa, Puerto Jimenez [;] 10m, July 1991, full sun, [;] grassy & weedy site [;] P. Hanson, ex. Malaise (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntar [;] Golfo Dulce, 10km W Piedras Blancas, 100m [;] VI-VIII 1989, Hanson (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, 5km. [;] W. Piedras Blancas, 100m I-1993, P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: [;] San Jose [;] Ciudad Colon [;] 800m, iii-iv 1990 [;] Col. Luis Fournier (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W, 100m [;] Canopy fogging 32 [;] 3.xi.1994 [;] Project ALAS (FVK32) (ESUW). 1 ♀, Estac. Santa Rosa, 300m. [;] Guanacaste Prov. COSTA [;] RICA, Jan 1989 [;] GNP Biodiversity Survey [;] w85 37'06", N10 50'15" (INBC). 1 ♀, VicinityEstac.Murcielago [;] 8km SW Cuajiniquil, [;] Guanacaste Prov. COSTA [;] RICA, 100m, Feb 1989 [;] GNP Biodiversity Survey [;] W85 43'59", N10 54'08" (INBC). 1 ♀, Los Almendros, P. N. Guanacaste, A. C. [;] Guanacaste, Prov. Guana. COSTA RICA [;] 300m. 8 Feb–1 Mar 1993, E. E. López, LN [;] 334800_369800 #2005 (INBC). 1 ♀, top label - COSTA RICA, Heredia: [;] Est. Biol. La Selva, 50- [;] 150m, 10°26'N, 84°01W [;] Feb 1998, INBio-OET; second label - 17 Febrero 1998 [;] Bosque secundario [;] L/15/318 (INBC). 23 ♀♀, S.RosaPark, Guan. [;] C. Rica, various dates from Dec, 1976 to March 1978 [;] D. H. Janzen [;] Riparian and Dry Hill (AEIC).

Comments.

The longitudinal brown stripe laterally on the mesosoma is characteristic for this species.

Etymology.

The species name is from the Greek rhabdotos meaning striped in reference to the brown stripe on the mesosoma.

Figure 101.

Heterospilus rhabdotus Marsh, sp. n.: A, B, D paratype C holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0–4.0 mm. Color: head with vertex and frons yellow, face and temple brown; scape yellow with lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 3–5 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown, mesoscutum with yellow along notauli, middle lobe often partially yellow; metasomal tergum 1 dark brown, tergum 2 dark brown or yellow medially with dark brown laterally, terga 3-4 dark brown basally, yellow apically, terga 5-6 yellow laterally and brown medially, tergum 7 brown; wing veins including stigma brown; legs with coxae and trochanters light yellow or white, fore and mid femora, tibiae and tarsi yellow, hind femur light brown basally, honey yellow apically, hind tibia yellow with dark brown at extreme base, hind tarsus brown. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face granulate; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than eye width; malar space equal to 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance at least 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 26–27 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus weakly scrobiculate or smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r much shorter than vein 3RSa and nearly on same line, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove weak or absent; third tergum granulate; terga 4-5 granulate, terga 6-7 smooth; ovipositor 3/4 length to equal to length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] 3km S. Rincon, 10m [;] II-III 1989 [;] P. Hanson & I. Gauld; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] rinconensis [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas, [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, 5km. [;] W. Piedras Blancas, 100m [;] viii-ix.1991, P. Hanson [;] Malaise nr. second growth (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas, ACO [;] Golfito, Est. Agujas, 250-350m [;] Res. Ftal. Golfo Dulce, Amarilla [;] 3–24.vii.1999, J. Azofeifa [;] L.S. 276750-526550 #52839 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, 24km. W. [;] Piedras Blancas, 200m [;] VI-1991, P. Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, [;] 24km W. Piedras Blancas, [;] 200m [;] Feb. 1992, Paul Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W, 100m [;] Malaise trap 13, #303 [;] 15.xii.1993 [;] Project ALAS (M.13.303) (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Limon [;] 30km N Cariari, 100m [;] Sector Cocori, Malaise [;] iii.1995, E. Rojas #4524 [;] L.N. 286000-567500 (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Punt- [;] arenas. 7km SW Rincon [;] 31.v–7.vi.1998; B. Brown [;] & V. Berezovskiy; Mal. [;] Trp. #5; 2nd growth (AEIC). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] RF Golfo Dulce, el 200m [;] 24km W Piedras Blancas [;] P. Hanson xi.1992 (TAMU). 1 ♀, Sector Cerro Cocori, Fca. de. E. [;] Rojas, 150m, Prov. Limón, [;] COSTA RICA. Mar 1993. E. Rojas [;] L-N-286000, 567500 (INBC). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA. Prov. Limón, R.B. [;] Hitoy Cerere, Send. Espavel. 560m, 15 [;] MAR 2003, R. Gamboa, Red de Golpe [;] L. S. 401200 569800 #73280 (INBC). 1 ♀, top label - COSTA RICA, Heredia [;] Est. Biol. La Selva, 50- [;] 150m, 10°26'N, 84°01W [;] Apr 1996, INBio-OET; second label - 1 Abril 1996 [;] Bosque primario [;] M/07/608 (INBC).

Comments.

The bicolored mesoscutum is distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the locality of the holotype, Rincon in Puntarenas Province.

Figure 102.

Heterospilus rinconensis Marsh, sp. n.: A–C, E paratype D holotype.

Female.

Body size: 4.0 mm. Color: head with vertex brown, eye orbits, frons and face honey yellow, scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum entirely brown; mesosoma dark brown except mesoscutum and scutellum lighter brown; metasoma with terga 1, 2, and base of 3 dark brown, tergum 3 apically and terga 4-7 honey yellow; legs yellow; wing veins brown, stigma brown. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view narrow, not bulging, less than 1/2 eye width; malar space equal to 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 31 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate-rugose area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with one cross carina; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined, smooth, basal median carina present, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA, Heredia [;] Est. Biol. La Selva, 50- [;] 150m. 10°26'N, 84°01W [;] Aug 1993, INBio-OET; second label (white, printed) - 03 Agosto 1993 [;] Bosque primario [;] M/04/167; third label - INBio bar code; fourth label (red, partially printed, hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] rohweri [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the lighter colored mesoscutum, longer ovipositor, and single cross carina in prescutellar furrow.

Etymology.

Named for S. A. Rohwer who described many Braconidae in the early 1900s.

Figure 103.

Heterospilus rohweri Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5 mm. Color: head dark brown, scape yellow with lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 5–8 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown; metasomal 1–4 dark brown, tergum 5 brown at base, yellow at apex, terga 6–7 yellow; wing veins brown, stigma brown with small yellow spot at apex; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face weakly granulate; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 27 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 1 cross carina; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate-granulate, apical width less than length; second tergum longitudinally costate-granulate, about 4 times as wide as long; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum granulate with smooth apex; terga 4-7 granulate at base; ovipositor about 3/4 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] ACO, R.F. Golfo Dulce [;] Golfito, Estacion Agujas [;] La Bonanza, 495m; second label (white, printed) - 15 Sept.-15 Oct. 1999 [;] J. Azofeifa, Malaise trap [;] L.S. 276000-526550 [;] # 53487; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] romani [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Puntar. [;] Golfo Dulce, 24km W. [;] PiedrasBlancas, 200m [;] III-VI-90 Hanson (MICR).

Comments.

The granulate metasomal terga, at least at base, and the single cross carina in the prescutellar furrow are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for A. Roman who described numerous Neotropical braconids in the early 1900s.

Figure 104.

Heterospilus romani Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5 mm. Color: head honey yellow; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum brown; mesosoma dark brown; metasomal terga dark brown, apical terga somewhat lighter; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space equal to 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 1.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 18 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate, rugose along notauli, lobes covered nearly entirely with sparse short yellow hair; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum rugose; prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas not distinctly margined, rugose or areolate-rugose, basal median carina absent, areola not margined, areolar area areolate, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r about equal in length to vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R absent, vein M+CU about equal to vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, median raised area prominent, apical width slightly greater than length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove absent; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor equal to combined lengths of metasomal terga 1–2.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W, 100m [;] Canopy fogging 21 [;] 10.x.1994 [;] Project ALAS (FOT21); second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] rugosus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

The strongly rugose scutellum, mesoscutum and propodeum are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the Latin rugosus meaning wrinkled in reference to the rugose mesosoma.

Figure 105.

Heterospilus rugosus Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0–4.0 mm. Color: head yellow; stigma yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum yellow basally to brown apically; mesosoma brown; metasomal terga 1–3 brown to light brown, terga 4–7 honey yellow; wing veins brown, stigma brown with yellow apex; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view narrow, width slightly less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 23–26 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate, rugose along notauli, covered by sparse setae; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate or granulate-rugose; prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, bordered below by distinct carina; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate-rugose, basal median carina present, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area areolate-rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width slightly greater than length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove weak or absent; posterior transverse groove weak or absent; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor equal to length of metasomal tergum 1.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: H-3-O [;] Dates: 2–23.iii.1986 [;] I. D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] santarosensis [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

4 ♀♀, same data as holotype, with additional dates of 23.iii–13.iv.1986, 13.ix–4.x.1986, 12.iv–4.v.1986, and second labels of [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible, [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day, [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise H-2-C4 [;] regenerating woodland [;] 10 yr. old. Ian Gauld [;] 4-24.v.1986, full shade (ESUW).

Comments.

The rugose mesoscutum and the short and broad metasomal tergum 1 are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the type locality of Santa Rosa National Park in Guanacaste Province.

Figure 106.

Heterospilus santarosensis Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5 mm. Color: body entirely dark brown; scape honey yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 3-5 flagellomeres white; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow, hind femur and tibia yellow on basal half, brown on apical half, hind tarsus brown. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face granulate-areolate; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 22 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangle rugose area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, rugose, basal median carina absent, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate anteriorly, with weak apical-lateral tubercle just above hind coxa. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a slightly beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width less than length; second tergum longitudinal costate; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove weakly indicated at least medially; third tergum smooth entirely; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor as long as metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Las Cruces [;] Wilson Botanical Gardens [;] 18-22.iii.1990, 1150m [;] J.S. Noyes; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] sanvitoensis [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Sirena, Osa Pen. [;] VII.77 Cos. Rica [;] D. H. Janzen (AEIC).

Comments.

The areolate-granulate face and the smooth scutellum are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the type locality of San Vito in Puntarenas Province.

Figure 107.

Heterospilus sanvitoensis Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5–5.0 mm. Color: head green, vertex often with longitudinal median brown stripe; scape yellow with lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown with white annulus of 5-8 flagellomeres behind apical 3–5 brown flagellomeres; mesosoma green, often with brown longitudinal median stripe from mesoscutum to propodeum; metasoma green, terga 1 and 2 often with brown longitudinal median stripe, terga 3 and 4 usually brown basally and apically, terga 5–7 often brown medially; wing veins including stigma brown; legs green, extreme base of hind tibia (knee) brown. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view broad, width about 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance 1.5–2.0 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 30–36 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate, often rugose along notauli, median lobe with median longitudinal scrobiculate line; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in wide rectangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3-5 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas not distinctly margined, rugose or rugose-granulate, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum costate-rugose, apical width less than length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, usually straight but often slightly sinuate; posterior transverse groove weak or absent; third tergum costate at base, granulate apically; terga 4–7 granulate; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Male.

Essentially as in female; 27-28 flagellomeres, white annulus on apical 3-4 flagellomeres behind apical 2 flagellomeres.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W, 100m [;] Canopy fogging 36 [;] 12.xi.1994 [;] Project ALAS (F)T36; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] shawi [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, 3 ♂♂, same data as holotype with dates of 10.x.1994, 8.x.1994 and 2.xi.1994. 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Limon [;] Sector Cocori, 100m [;] 30km N Cariari, i.1995 [;] E. Rojas, Malaise, #4526 [;] L.N. 286000-567500 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Monumento Nacional Guayabo, A.C.A.C. [;] Amistad, Prov. Cart. COSTA RICA. 1100 [;] m. Jul 1994, G. Fonseca, LN [;] 217400_570000 #3126 (INBIO). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Las Cruces [;] Wilson Botanical Gardens [;] 18-22.iii.1990, 1150m [;] J.S. Noyes (ESUW). 1 ♂, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Golfo Dulce, 24km W. [;] Piedras Blancas, 200m [;] ii.1993, Paul Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Pen. Osa, Rancho Quemado, [;] rio Riyito, 200m, xi-xii. [;] 1990, E. Quiros & P. Hanson, [;] ex. Malaise trap (ESUW). 1 ♀, Est Cacao, 1000-1400m, [;] Lado SO Vol. Cacao, [;] P.N.G., Prov. Guan. [;] COSTA RICA, Tp [;] Malaise, May-Jun 1991 [;] L-N-328800, 375700 (INBIO). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Prov. Puntarenas, [;] Golfito Estacion Agujas, 300m, 08-22 [;] DIC 2000. J. Azofeifa, Manual [;] L.S._526550_276750 #61873 (INBIO). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] Reserva Forestal Golfo Dulce [;] 3km SW of Rincon, 10m [;] November 1992, P. Hanson [;] primary forest, Malaise trap (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] RF Golfo Dulce, el 200m [;] 24km W Piedras Blancas [;] P. Hanson xii.1992 (TAMU). 2 ♀♀, PANAMA: Bocas del [;] Toro, 2km WSW [;] Chirqui Grande [;] 8°56'45"N, 82°08'13"W [;] 6.viii.1999, J. Woolley (TAMU). 1 ♀, Mexico: Veracruz [;] Los Toxilas, Darwin Trail [;] 120-130’, 19 June 1997 [;] JBWoolley, screen sweep (TAMU). 1 ♀, Guyane française, Montagne [;] de Kaw, Relais Patawa, [;] vi.2000 (Malaise) [;] A.E.I.guyane-J.Creda legs (FSAG). 1 ♂, top label - Museum Leiden [;] Canal Zone, 8km NW [;] Gamboa, Pipeline Rd. [;] 9°10'N, 79°45'W.; second label - From Luehea seemannii [;] (Tiliaecae), 4-1 [;] 26.vii.1976 [;] Y.Lubin & G. Montgomery (LEID).

Comments.

The unusual green color to the entire body of this species is distinctive as is the coarse rugose sculpture on the mesoscutum.

Etymology.

This species is named for my long time friend and colleague, Scott Shaw, in appreciation for his many years of support for this project and for the good memories of our two visits to Costa Rica and INBio.

Figure 108.

Heterospilus shawi Marsh, sp. n., paratype.

Figure 109.

Heterospilus shawi Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5–4.0 mm. Color: head with vertex and frons brown, face, temple and eye orbits light brown or honey yellow; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown; mesosoma dark brown; metasomal terga 1-4 dark brown, terga 5–7 yellow; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face striate; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 26–32 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate and dull; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in wide rectangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, short, areola usually not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate, width slightly less than 4 times length; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor as long as length of metasomal terga 1+2.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] R. F. Golfo Dulce, [;] 24km W. Piedras Blancas, [;] 200m [;] Feb. 1992, Paul Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] shenefelti [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Costa Rica: Limon [;] Sector Cocori, 100m [;] 30km N Cariari, i.1995 [;] E. Rojas, Malaise #4526 [;] L.N. 286000-567500 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Est. Biol. Maritza, 600m [;] i.1997, C. Zuniga, Malaise [;] L.N. 3269000-373000 #47557 (ESUW).

Comments.

The striate face and short ovipositor are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the late R. D. Shenefelt in recognition of his monumental work on braconid literature.

Figure 110.

Heterospilus shenefelti Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5–4.0 mm. Color: head yellow or honey yellow; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe; mesosoma brown to light brown, mesoscutum often lighter, sometimes with dark brown stripe along pronotum and mesopleuron; metasomal terga light brown to honey yellow; wing veins brown, stigma bicolored brown with apex and anterior edge yellow; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view broad, not sloping behind eye, width equal to 1/2 eye width; malar space equal to 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 22–28 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent or very short, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU greater than 1/2 vein 1M, often nearly as long. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate, width about 4 times length; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove weakly indicated or absent; third tergum costate at base, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor equal to 1/2 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: (blank) [;] Dates: 18.i–8.ii.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; third label (red, partially printed and written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] similis [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, same data as holotype with date of 4-24.v.1986 (ESUW). 4 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: SE-7-O and blank [;] Dates: 2–23.iii.1986 and 10–31.i.1987 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated pert of day (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: 10 [;] Dates: 8–29.xi.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: H-3-O [;] Dates: 10–31.i.1987 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [H] open regenerating [;] woodland <10 years old [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated pert of day (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 10–31.i.1987; second label - Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous [;] forest [;] Full Shade; third label - SE-6-C [;] 10-31.i.87 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, Guanacaste Pr. [;] Guan. Conservation Area [;] Santa Rosa Hdq., 200m [;] Malaise trap 22–26 VII 1997 [;] 3x night L.J. van der Ent (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Est. Biol. Maritza, 600m [;] i.1997, C. Zuniga, Malaise [;] L.N. 326900-373000 #47557 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste Pr. [;] Guanacaste National Park [;] near Headquarters [;] 1-10 March 1990, J.S. Noyes (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Pen. Osa, 5km. N. Pto. [;] Jimenez, 10m, iii–v. [;] 1991, P. Hanson, Malaise (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Pe. Osa, Puerto Jimenez [;] 10m, July 1991, full sun, [;] grassy & weedy site [;] P. Hanson, ex. Malaise (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W, 100m [;] Canopy fogging 31 [;] 2.xi.1994 [;] Project ALAS (FPM31) (ESUW). 4 ♀♀, S.RosaPark, Guan. [;] C. Rica 16 May, 76, 9 Mar. 77, 21 Feb. 77 and 27 Mar. 78 [;] D. H. Janzen [;] Dry Hill and Riparian (AEIC).

Comments.

This species is similar to Heterospilus rhabdotus by the color pattern but is separated by the longer hind wing vein M+SC.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the Latin similis meaning near in reference to the similarity of this species to Heterospilus rhabdotus.

Figure 111.

Heterospilus similis Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5–3.5 mm. Color: body entirely honey yellow; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum yellow basally to brown apically; legs yellow; wing veins brown, stigma yellow. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view broad, not sloping behind eye, width about 1/2 eye width; malar space less than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 1.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 19–25 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with one distinct cross carina; mesopleuron usually smooth, often weakly granulate; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r usually slightly shorter than vein 3RSa, occasionally equal, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M, vein RS+Ma distinctly curved or sinuate; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU equal in length to vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; tergum 4 costate basally, smooth apically; terga 5–7 smooth; ovipositor as long as terga 1+2 combined.

Male.

Essentially as in female; hind wing with small stigma at base.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: (blank) [;] Dates: 4–24.v.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] sinuatus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

7 ♀♀, same data as holotype, except dates of 23.iii–13.iv.1986, 13.iv–4.v.1986, 24.v–14.vi.1986, 23.vi–13.iv.1986, 28.xii.85–18.i.1986, 14.viii–6.ix.1986, 31.i–21.ii.1987, and second labels as follows: [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully isolated part of day; [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day; [H] open regenerating [;] woodland <10 years old [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; [H] open regenerating [;] woodland <10 year old [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated pert of day (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, Guanacaste Pr. [;] Guan. Conservation Area [;] Santa Rosa Hdq., 200m [;] Malaise trap 26-30-VI-1997 [;] 3x night L.J. van der Ent (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, Guanacaste Pr. [;] Guan. Conservation Area [;] Santa Rosa hdq., 200m [;] lighttrap, 7-VII-1997 [;] L.J. van der Ent (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, Guanacaste [;] PN Guanacaste, 7km E HQ [;] near “small house” [;] 9.iii.1990, J. S. Noyes. 1 ♀, top label, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 24.v–14.vi.1986; second label, Bosque san Emilio [;] 50yr Old deciduous [;] forest, sun (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂, top label - COSTA RICA [;] Guanacaste Prov. [;] D.H.Janzen et al. [;] #VI-20 - 1972.027 and 016; second label - Taboga, 16km. [;] SW. Canas, Savannah [;] grassland 27Jan1972 [;] Bauhinia pauletia; third label - Bruchids: [;] Gibbobruchus [;] guanacaste [;] G. cristicollis (NMNH). 1 ♀, 2 ♂♂, top label - COSTA RICA [;] Guanacaste Prov. [;] D.H.Janzen et al. [;] #VI-20 - 1972.027; second label - LaPacificaRanch ][;] 6km. N. Canas [;] Jan 20 1972; third label - Bauhinia glabra; fourth label - bruchids: [;] Caryedes [;] x-liturus [;] C. cavatus (NMNH). 1 ♀, top label - E.J.N., M. Ag.21km [;] S.Canas, Guanacaste, [;] Costa Rica, Malaise [;] Trap, VII-29-1990 (TAMU).

Biology.

Reared from Bauhinia pauletia and Bauhinia glabra invested with the bruchids Gibbobruchus guanacaste, Gibbobruchus cristicollis, Caryedes x-liturus and Caryedes cavatus.

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the distinctly curved or sinuate fore wing vein RS+Ma, the yellow body, prescutellar furrow with one cross carina and short ocell-ocular distance

Etymology.

The specific name is from the Latin sinuatus, meaning curved or bent, in reference to the distinctly curved fore wing vein RS+Ma.

Figure 112.

Heterospilus sinuatus Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5–4.0 mm. Color: head brown, eye orbits yellow; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 5-6 flagellomeres white; mesosoma with propleuron, pronotum, mesopleuron dorsally, scutellum and propodeum dark brown, mesoscutum, mesopleuron ventrally and venter honey yellow; metasomal terga dark brown, tergum 2 with basal u-shaped yellow mark, terga 6–7 yellow; legs yellow or light brown; wing veins and stigma brown. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face areolate; temple in dorsal view narrow, less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance 1.5–2 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 26–32 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined, areas smooth anteriorly and rugose posteriorly, basal median carina present but very short, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length greater than apical width; second tergum costate, width slightly more than 3 times length; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove absent; third tergum smooth; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor equal to length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica, Heredia [;] Puerto Viejo, 100m [;] OTS- La Selva [;] III-1991 P. Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] staryi [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, top label - COSTA RICA, Heredia [;] Est. Biol. La Selva, 50- [;] 150m. 10°26'N, 84°01W [;] Jun 1993 INBio-OET; second label - 2 Junio 1993 [;] Bosque secundario [;] M/16/122; third label, INBio bar code (ESUW).

Comments.

The species is distinguished by the u-shaped yellow mark at base of metasomal tergum 2.

Etymology.

Named for my colleague, Petr Stary.

Figure 113.

Heterospilus staryi Marsh, sp. n.: A–D holotype E paratype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0 mm. Color: head brown, face slightly lighter; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum entirely brown; mesosoma and metasoma dark brown or black, apical metasomal terga slightly lighter; legs yellow, hind femur yellow on basal 1/3, brown on apical 2/3; wing veins including stigma brown. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 21 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose-costate area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter weakly granulate; propodeum with basal median areas smooth, distinctly margined, basal median carina absent, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length equal to apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate, narrow, width about 4 times length; anterior transverse groove present, weakly sinuate; posterior transverse groove absent; third tergum costate at base, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor equal to length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W, 100m [;] Canopy fogging 27 [;] 20.x.1994 [;] Project ALAS (FVK27); second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] stelfoxi [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, S.RosaPark, Guan, Guan. [;] C. Rica, 12 Jul 77 [;] D.H. Janzen [;] Dry Hill (AEIC).

Comments.

The species is distinguished by the sinuate anterior transverse groove on metasomal tergum 2, absence of posterior transverse groove on tergum 3, and the narrow temple.

Etymology.

Named for the Irish entomologist A. W. Stelfox who described many Braconidae from Ireland and England.

Figure 114.

Heterospilus stelfoxi Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5 mm. Color: head brown; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 3–5 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown; metasomal terga 1–4 dark brown, tergum 2 lighter brown, tergum 5 brown with yellow apical edge, terga 6–7 yellow; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face smooth; temple in dorsal view somewhat narrow, width slightly less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 21 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli weakly scrobiculate or smooth, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width less than length; second tergum longitudinally costate, greatest width about 4 times median length; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove weakly indicated or absent; third tergum costate at base, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor as long as metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Cartago [;] Braulio Carillo N.P. [;] 600m, 25.iii.1990 [;] J. S. Noyes, coll.; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] szepligetii [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Costa Rica: Heredia [;] BraulioCarrillo N.P. [;] 250-500m IV.10.85 [;] Henri Goulet (AEIC).

Comments.

The narrow metasomal tergum 2 and the white apical flagellomeres are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for G. V. Szépligeti who described many braconids in the early 1900s.

Figure 115.

Heterospilus szepligetii Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5–3.0 mm. Color: head yellow, vertex often brown behind ocelli; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum yellow basally to brown apically; mesosoma brown, occasionally mesoscutum lighter brown or honey yellow; metasoma brown or dark brown, tergum 2 often lighter honey yellow medially; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely striate, sometimes weakly so only behind ocelli, smooth near eyes; frons transversely striate; face rugose or rugose-granulate; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space equal to 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance slightly less than 1.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 16 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate, covered with sparse short setae; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3-5 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area areolate-rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r longer than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R absent, vein M+CU equal in length to vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to or slightly less than length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove weak or absent; posterior transverse groove absent; third tergum entirely smooth; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor equal to combined lengths of metasomal terga 1-2.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 31.i–21.ii.1987; second label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous [;] forest, full shade; third label (white, printed) - SE-8-c [;] 31.i–21.ii.87; fourth label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] tobiasi [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: H-3-O [;] Dates: 21.ii–14.iii.1987 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [H] open regenerating [;] woodland <10 years old [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: (blank) [;] Dates: 10-31.i.1987 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [H] open regenerating [;] woodland <10 years old [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste Pr. [;] Guanacaste National Park [;] near Playa Naranja [;] 11 March 1990, J.S. Noyes (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, S.RosaPark, Guan. [;] C. Rica 6 June, 76 and 17 Dec. 76 [;] D. H. Janzen [;] Riparian and Dry Hill (AEIC).

Comments.

The fore wing vein r being longer than vein 3RSa is distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the late Russian braconidologist, V. I. Tobias.

Figure 116.

Heterospilus tobiasi Marsh, sp. n.: A–D paratype E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5 mm. Color: head, mesosoma and metasomal terga dark brown or black, apical terga slightly lighter; scape light brown without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 5–7 flagellomeres white; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex weakly striate; frons weakly striate or smooth; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, width 1/2 eye width; malar space equal to eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 23 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 1 cross carina; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola weakly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width about equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate at base, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor as long as metasomal terga 1–2 combined.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA, Alajuela [;] Finca San Gabriel [;] 2 0 Dos Rios, 600m [;] VIII/88, Col. Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] tolupan [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

The granulate mesopleuron, single distinct cross carina in the prescutellar furrow, hind wing vein SC+R present and the white apical flagellomeres are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the Tolupan, an indigenous people of Honduras.

Figure 117.

Heterospilus tolupan Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5 mm. Color: head dark brown, face and eye orbits sometimes lighter; scape honey yellow with brown lateral longitudinal stripe, flagellum brown with apical 3–4 flagellomeres before the apical 7–8 white; mesosoma dark brown, venter and propodeum often lighter; metasomal terga dark brown, terga 5–7 sometimes yellow; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space equal to 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 23 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes weakly granulate and shining; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; mesopleuron weakly granulate; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter weakly granulate; propodeum with basal median areas granulate and small, margined by carina and scrobiculate groove, basal median carina absent, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area areolate-rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose, propodeum with small but distinct tubercle just above hind coxa. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum nearly 4 times as wide as long, longitudinally costate; anterior and posterior transverse grooves present and indicated by row of distinct pits; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor equal to length of metasomal terga 1 and 2 combined.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Las Cruces [;] 1200msnm, VIII-IX 1988 [;] Coll. P. Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] townesi [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Rancho Montezuma [;] 3km SE Rio Naranjo [;] 490m, Malaise trap [;] x.1994, R. G. Allen [;] L.N. 298800-418800 #5511 (ESUW).

Comments.

The smooth scutellum and areolate-rugose propodeum are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for a long time friend and world famous ichneumonologist, the late Henry Townes.

Figure 118.

Heterospilus townesi Marsh, sp. n.: A–C paratype D–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.0–2.5 mm. Color: head brown to dark brown; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum yellow basally to brown apically, apical 3–5 flagellomeres white; mesosoma brown to dark brown; metasoma brown to dark brown; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face granulate; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance 2.5 times or greater than diameter of lateral ocellus; 20–23 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent or rarely very short, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width at most equal to 1/2 length, usually less; second tergum longitudinally costate-granulate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor equal to 1/2 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Cartago [;] Turrialba, CATIE [;] 14-15 March 1990 [;] 700m, J.S. Noyes; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] turrialbaensis [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, same data as holotype (ESUW). 4 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Cartago [;] Braulio Carillo N.P. [;] 600m, 25.iii.1990 [;] J. S. Noyes, coll. (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Alajuela [;] Res. Biol. San Ramon [;] 800m, iv–v.1999 [;] P. Hanson, Malaise (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: [;] 11mi. from Turrialba [;] “Los Esperales”, C.A.T.I.E. [;] 5-II-1985 [;] P. Stansly (TAMU). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: San Jose [;] Braulio Carillo N. P. [;] 8.2km E tunnel [;] 15-V-1988 P. Hanson (TAMU).

Comments.

The narrow metasomal tergum 1 is distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

The specific name is in reference to the collection locality of Turrialba for the holotype.

Figure 119.

Heterospilus turrialbaensis Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5–4.0 mm. Color: head dark brown, eye orbits lighter; scape honey yellow with lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown, apical flagellomeres white with apical 3–5 brown; mesosoma dark brown, rarely mesopleuron lighter; metasoma dark brown, apical terga sometimes lighter brown; legs bicolored with apex of femora and tarsi entirely brown; wing veins brown, stigma bicolored brown with yellow at base. Head: vertex weakly striate, often smooth; frons weakly striate, often smooth; face smooth, sometimes weakly striate below antennae; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, less than 1/2 eye width; malar space equal to 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 23–28 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes smooth; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined and smooth, basal median carina absent, areola not margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, smooth anteriorly, area just above hind coxa with small but distinct pointed tubercle. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum smooth except for costate transverse groove; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor equal to length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Limon [;] 30km N Cariari, 100m [;] Sector Cocori, Malaise [;] iii.1995, E. Rojas #4524 [;] L.N. 286000-567500; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] variabilis [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Limon [;] 16Km W Guápiles [;] 400m, III/1989 [;] col. Paul Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] R.F. Golfo Dulce, [;] 3km. SW. Rincon, 10m [;] Oct. 1991, Paul Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntar [;] Golfo Dulce, 3km [;] S.W. Rincon, 10m [;] IX-XI 1989, Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] ACO, Golfito, PN Corcovado [;] Est. Agujas, Charcos, 600m [;] 17.iv–16.v.1999, J. Azofeifa [;] L.S. 276350-523500 #52776 (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Estac. Biol. [;] Los Altures 1500m [;] iv.1992 P. Hanson (TAMU).

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the bicolored stigma and the white band on the apical flagellomeres.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the Latin variabilis in reference to the vertex sculpture being weakly striate or smooth.

Figure 120.

Heterospilus variabilis Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.0–3.5 mm. Color: head with vertex brown, face yellow, scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum mostly brown; mesosoma brown, middle mesoscutal lobe and propodeum lighter; metasomal terga 1 and 3 brown, 2 and 4–7 yellow; legs yellow; wing veins brown, stigma entirely brown. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face striate medially, often smooth near eyes; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater the 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 19–25 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes smooth or very weakly granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting before prescutellar furrow in triangular rugose area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron length; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined, basal median areas smooth or weakly granulate, basal median carina absent or very short, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU equal to or slightly shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum length equal to apical width, costate, sometimes rugose medially; second tergum apical width 3 or less times length; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present but often weak; third tergum costate at base, smooth at apex; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: H-1-O [;] Dates: 8–29.xi.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [H] open regenerating [;] woodland <10 years old [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] vierecki [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, same data as holotype except, first label, site # 8H-12-C, dates of 8.ii–2.iii.1986 and second label, [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 1 ♀, first label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise. Ian Gauld [;] 31.i–21ii.1987, second label - Bosque Humedo [;] mature proportion [;] evergreen species [;] Sun (ESUW). 8 ♀♀, S.RosaPark, Guan. [;] C. Rica, various date from September 77 to February 78 [;] D.H. Janzen [;] Dry Hill and Riparian (AEIC).

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the smooth scutellum, nearly smooth mesoscutal lobes, the ovipositor being longer than the metasoma and the brown antennae.

Etymology.

This species is named for H. L. Viereck who described many braconids in the early 1900s.

Figure 121.

Heterospilus vierecki Marsh, sp. n.: A–B paratype C–E holotype.

Female.

Body size: 4.5 mm. Color: head with vertex brown, frons, face, malar space and eye orbits honey yellow; scape honey yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown; mesosoma honey yellow with brown along notauli, along pronotal groove, on scutellum and metascutum, on propodeal areola, dorsally on mesopleuron and apical-laterally on propodeum; metasoma honey yellow, terga 1 and 2 brown medially, terga 3–6 brown basally; legs yellow; wing veins including stigma brown. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons costate; face granulate; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 33–37 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carina; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas granulate. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate-granulate; second tergum costate-granulate; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove weakly indicated; third tergum entirely granulate; terga 4–7 granulate; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA-Heredia Prov. [;] La Selva Biological Station [;] 10°26'N, 84°01'W, 100m [;] Canopy fogging 31 [;] 2.xi.1994 [;] Project ALAS(FPM31); second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] vittatus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

The color of this species is distinctive, honey yellow with lateral brown stripes along mesosoma and medially on metasomal terga 1–2.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the Latin vittatus meaning decorated with ribbons or stripes in reference to the brown stripes laterally on the mesosoma and medially on metasomal terga 1–2.

Figure 122.

Heterospilus vittatus Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5–4.0 mm. Color: head yellow; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown; mesosoma dark brown, light brown or yellow along notauli, propleuron and precoxal sulcus; metasomal tergum 1 dark brown, tergum 2 brown medially and laterally with yellow lines medio-laterally, sometimes yellow laterally, terga 3–4 brown, sometimes yellow laterally, terga 5–7 yellow or honey yellow; wing veins including stigma brown; legs yellow, hind tibia yellow with extreme base (knee) dark brown and apical half light brown, tarsus brown. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face smooth or weakly granulate; temple in dorsal view narrow, less than 1/2 eye width; malar space equal to eye height; ocell-ocular distance twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 26–28 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in wide rectangular rugose area; scutellum weakly granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3–5 cross carinae; mesopleuron weakly granulate, partially nearly smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter weakly granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU equal to or longer than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate-rugose, apical width about 3/4 length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, sinuate; posterior transverse groove absent; third tergum costate at base, smooth at apex; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor as long as metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: San Jose [;] Zurqui de Moravia [;] vi.1990, 1600m [;] Paul Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] wesmaeli [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Costa Rica, Carthago Pr. [;] La Cangreja, 1960m [;] 1991:x, P. Hanson (ESUW).

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the nearly smooth face, brown knee on the hind tibia and the wide rugose area where the notauli meet.

Etymology.

Named for C. Wesmael who provided some of the early studies of Braconidae in the early 1800s, particularly for Belgium.

Figure 123.

Heterospilus wesmaeli Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5–4.5 mm. Color: head dark brown; scape honey yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum brown with apical 10–12 flagellomeres white; mesosoma dark brown, occasionally mesoscutum lighter brown medially; metasoma usually dark brown, occasionally terga 4–7 lighter; wing veins brown, stigma honey yellow; legs yellow. Head: vertex and frons strongly circularly costate around ocelli; face granulate; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance usually 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus, occasionally greater; 26–30 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate, median lobe usually with median longitudinal shallow groove; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron weakly granular, often nearly smooth just above precoxal sulcus; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina present, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose posteriorly, granulate anteriorly. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate at base, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor equal to 1/2 length of metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Estac. Biol. [;] Las Alturas, 1500m [;] xi.1991, Paul Hanson; second label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] whartoni [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

4 ♀♀, same data as holotype with additional dates of i.1992 and 15-31 Oct. 1991 (ESUW). 11 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Estac. Biol. [;] Las Alturas, 1500m [;] iv.1992, v.1992 and vi.1992, Forest border and in the forest [;] Malaise, Paul Hanson (ESUW, TAMU). 2 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Estac. Biol. [;] Las Alturas, 1500m [;] vi.1992, traps #1 + #2, [;] Malaise, Paul Hanson (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] San Vito, Las Cruces [;] Wilson Botanical Gardens [;] 18–22.iii.1990, 1150m [;] J.S. Noyes (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Zona Protectora Las Tablas [;] 1Km NE de Sitio Portones [;] Camino a Tables, 1530m [;] 30.viii–5.ix.1995, M. Chinchilla [;] L.S. 320100-596800 #7458 [;] Malaise trap (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Send. ac. Pittier, 1800–2000m [;] 1Km N. de la Est. Malaise [;] 13.ix–13.x.1996. A.M. Maroto [;] L.S. 331800-577400 #44868 (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] W. side Volcan Orosi [;] Estac. Maritza, 600m; second label - GHP Biodiversity Survey [;] 1989, Malaise trap [;] L-N-326900-373000 #6834 (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Puntarenas [;] Buenos Aires [;] Sendero Los Gigantes [;] Est. Altamira, 1450m; second label - 3–22 February 2000 [;] D. Rubi, Amarilla [;] LS 331700-572200 [;] # 54808 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Est. Cacao, 1000-1150m [;] ix.1996, I. Villegas, Malaise [;] L.N. 323150-375500 #47559 (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - COSTA RICA, Heredia [;] Est. Biol. La Selva. 50- [;] 150m, 10°26'N, 84°01'W [;] Mar and May 1993, INBio-OET; second label - 15 Marzo and 18 Mayo 1993 [;] Bosque primario and secundario [;] M/05/100 and M/11/026 (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA: La Selva [;] 2.ii.1994 [;] J. Longino [;] (M.14.344) (ESUW). 1 ♀, COSTA RICA, Alajuela [;] Finca San Gabriel [;] 2 0 Dos Rios, 400m [;] VIII/88, Col. Hanson (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, COSTA RICA: Punt- [;] arenas, Las Alturas, [;] 1600m, 10–13[0].vi.1998 [;] Brown & Berezovskiy: [;] Mal. Trp. #2: for. Edge (AEIC). 1 ♀, Est. Altamira, Buenos Aires, Prov. Punta. [;] COSTA RICA. 15 Set–14 Oct 1993. R. [;] Delgado, L S 572100_331700 #2370 (INBC). 1 ♀, MUSEO DE INSECTOS UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA [;] COSTA RICA PROV: Alajuela [;] Faldas Volcan [;] Tenorio. [;] 700m, 17.iv.1988 [;] Gonzales - Soto (MICR).

Comments.

The circularly costate vertex, the dark brown vertex and the smooth scutellum are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for my long time friend and fellow braconidologist, Robert Wharton.

Figure 124.

Heterospilus whartoni Marsh, sp. n.: A–D paratype; E, holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.0–3.0 mm. Color: body usually brown to dark brown, vertex sometimes darker than face, apical metasomal terga often lighter than basal terga; scape and flagellum brown; legs yellow, hind coxa and femur brown; wing veins brown, stigma yellow. Head: vertex weakly striate, often striae present only behind ocelli; frons usually smooth, sometimes weakly striate; face smooth; temple in dorsal view broad, not sloping behind eye, width about equal to with of eye; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 19–25 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate, long yellow hair along notauli; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum smooth, often hairy; prescutellar furrow with one cross carina; mesopleuron smooth, densely hair at subalar area and along posterior edge; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined, smooth, basal median carina present, areola distinctly margined, areolar area weakly rugose or often unsculptured and smooth, lateral areas rugose, densely hairy. Wings: fore wing vein r slightly shorter or equal in length to vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU as long as vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum rugose or rugose-costate, apical width slightly greater than length, median raised area distinctly margined on each side; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor equal to length of terga 1+2.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] site #: (blank) [;] Dates: 12.iv–4.v.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] whitfieldi [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

4 ♀♀, same data as holotype with additional sites of SE-5-O and SE-7-O, and dates of 28.xii.85–18.i.1986, 6–29.ix.1986 and 7–28.xii.1985 (ESUW). 14 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: SE-6-C and SE-8-C [;] Dates: 5–26.x.1985, 7–28.xii.1985, 2–23.iii.1986, 31.i–21.ii.1987, 23.iii–13.iv.1986, 26.x–16.xi.1985, 29.xi–20.xii.1986 and 18.x–8.xi.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 13 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: H-1-O, H-3-O, H-2-O and blank [;] Dates: 23.iii–13.iv.1986, 21.ii–14.iii.1987, 14.viii–6.ix.1986, 14.vi–5.vii.1986, 26.x–16.xi.1985, 20.xii.86–10.i.1987, 2–23.iii.19864–24.v.198618.x–8.xi.1986 and 13.iv–4.v.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [H] open regenerating [;] woodland <10 years old [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 13 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: H-4-C, H-2-C and blank [;] Dates: 4–24.v.1986, 2–23.iii.1986, 18.x–8.xi.1986, 13.iv–4.v.1986, 5026.vii.1986, 14.viii–6.ix.1986, 23.iii–13.iv.1986 and 20.xii.86–10.i.1987 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [H] open regenerating [;] woodland <10 years old [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 23 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: BH-4-O, BH-9-O, BH-11-O and blank [;] Dates: 8.ii–2.iii.1986, 2–23.iii.1986, 4–24.v.1986, 18.i–8.ii.1986, 14.vi–5.vii.1986, 2–23.iii.1986, 18.i–8.11.1986, 24.v–14.vi.1986, 13.iv–4.v.1986, 29.xi–20.xii.1986 and 20.xi.86–10.i.1987 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day (ESUW). 30 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: BH-10-C, BH-12-C and blank [;] Dates: 24.v–14.vi.1986, 8.ii–2.iii.1986, 23.ii–13.iv.1986, 29.xi–20.xii.1986, 18.i–8.ii.1986, 18.x–8.xi.1986, 5–26.vii.1986, 14.vi–5.vii.1986, 2–23.iii.1986, 13.iv–4.v.1986, 16.xi-t.xii.1985, 6–27.ix.1986, 7–28.xii.1985 and 4–24.v.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 18.x–8.xi.1986; second label - Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr Old deciduous [;] Forest [;] Full Shade; third label - SE-8-C [;] 18.x–8.xi.86 (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 6–27.ix.1986; second label - Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr Old deciduous [;] Forest [;] Full Shade; third label - SE-8-C [;] 6–27.ix.86 (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 31.i–21.ii.1987; second label - Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr Old deciduous [;] Forest [;] Full Shade; third label - SE-8-C [;] 31.i–21.ii.87 (ESUW). 13 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 31.i–21.ii.1987; second label - Bosque Humedo [;] Mature dry forest [;] high proportion [;] Evergreen species [;] Full Shade; third label - BH-10-C [;] 31.i–21.ii.87 (ESUW). 3 ♀♀, top label - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa National Pk. [;] 300m, Malaise, Ian Gauld [;] 10–31.I.1987; second label - Bosque Humedo [;] Mature dry forest [;] high proportion [;] Evergreen species [;] Sun; third label - BH-11-O [;] 10–31.i.87 (ESUW). 1 ♀, top label - Costa Rica: BH-10-C [;] Guanacaste Province [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Pk. [;] 300m, (dry season) [;] 10–31 January 1987; second label - Bosque Humedo, mature [;] dry forest with high [;] proportion evergreen [;] species, fully shaded [;] Townes style Malaise [;] Ian Gauld coll. (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: 9 and SE-8-C [;] Dates: 4–24.v.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, Costa Rica, Guanacaste Pr. [;] Guan, Conservation Area [;] Santa Rosa Hdq., 200m [;] Malaise trap 22–26 VII 1997 and 3–8 VII 1987 [;] 3x night L.J. van der Ent (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste, ACT [;] Bagaces, P.N. Palo Verde [;] Sec. P. Verde, 0–50m [;] Extremo E. Campo Aterrizaje [;] Malaise trap #53259 [;] 16.vii–17.viii.1999, I. Jimenez [;] L.N. 260952–385020 (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste, ACT [;] Bagaces, P.N. Palo Verde [;] Sector Palo Verde [;] 500 NW de la Est, 40m [;] 4.vi–6.vii.1999, I. Jimenez [;] L.N. 260952–385020 #52849 [;] Malaise trap (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, COSTA RICA: [;] San Jose [;] Ciudad Colon, 800m [;] xii 1989–i.1990 [;] Luis Fournier (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: San Jose [;] Cerro de la Muerte [;] 19km s 3 W Empalme [;] 2600m, November 1992 [;] P. Hanson, Malaise (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, Costa Rica: San Jose [;] 2km. W. Empalme [;] 2300m, July 1995 [;] P. Hanson, Malaise (ESUW). 2 ♀♀, COSTA RICA: [;] San Jose [;] Ciudad Colon [;] 800m, iii-iv 1990 [;] Col. Luis Fournier (ESUW). 1 ♀. Costa Rica: San Jose [;] San Antonio de Escazu [;] 1300m, xii.1998 [;] W. Eberhard (ESUW). 7 ♀♀, S.RosaPark, Guan. [;] C. Rica, various dates from May 1977 to May 1978 [;] D.H. Janzen [;] Dry Hill and Riparian (AEIC). 1 ♀, C. Rica: Escazú [;] May 21, 1987 [;] H. & M. Townes (AEIC).

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the long dense hair along the notauli, subalar area of the mesopleuron and laterally on the propodeum.

Etymology.

Named for my colleague and friend, Jim Whitfield, in recognition of his interest and help in this project.

Figure 125.

Heterospilus whitfieldi Marsh, sp. n.: A–C, E paratype D holotype.

Female.

Body size: 4.0 mm. Color: head with vertex light brown, frons, face and eye orbits yellow; scape yellow, flagellum yellow at base to brown apically; mesosoma brown, yellow along notauli; metasoma honey yellow, tergum 1 and apex of tergum 3 light brown; legs yellow; wing veins brown, stigma bicolored brown with yellow apex. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face striate; temple in dorsal view slightly bulging, width equal to 1/2 eye width; malar space equal to 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; antennae broken. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carina; mesopleuron smooth above precoxal sulcus, granulate and costate dorsally; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas rugose, distinctly margined, basal median carina present, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum costate-granulate, length greater than apical width; second tergum costate-granulate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove distinct; third tergum costate-granulate at base, smooth apically; terga 4-7 smooth; ovipositor longer than metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: BH.10.C [;] Dates: 8.ii–7.iii.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [BH] Bosque Humedo [;] mature evergreen dry forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] wilkinsoni [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

This species is distinguished by the bicolored stigma, rugose basal median areas of the propodeum, and the honey yellow metasoma.

Etymology.

Named for the British entomologist, D. S. Wilkinson, who described many braconids in the early 1900s.

Figure 126.

Heterospilus wilkinsoni Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5–3.0 mm. Color: body entirely yellow or honey yellow; scape yellow without lateral brown stripe, flagellum yellow basally to brown apically; wing veins light brown to yellow, stigma yellow; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely costate; frons transversely costate; face rugose; temple in dorsal view narrow, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space less than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance equal to diameter of lateral ocellus; 17–22 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus scrobiculate, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, granulate, basal median carina absent, areola distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r equal in length to vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, apical width equal to length, median raised area with distinct lateral carinae; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor equal to length of metasomal terga 1 and 2 combined.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: 8 [;] Dates: 23.iii–13.iv.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible; third label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] xanthus [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

4 ♀♀, same data as holotype except: dates of 13.iv–4.v.1986, 10-31.i.1987, 2–23.iii.1986; second label, [H] open regenerating [;] woodland <10 year old [;] [C] more or less fully [;] shaded as possible (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, San Jose Pr. [;] San Pedro, university [;] sportfield, 1200m [;] lighttrap 17+20 1997 [;] L.J. van der Ent (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica, Guanacaste Pr. [;] Guan. Conservation Area [;] Santa Rosa hdq. 200m [;] lighttrap, 7-VII-1997 [;] L.J. van der Ent (ESUW). 3 ♀♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] PN Guanacaste, 7km E HQ [;] near “small house” [;] 9.iii.1990, J.S. Noyes (ESUW). 1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste Pr. [;] Guanacaste National Park [;] near Playa Naranja [;] 11 March 1990, J.S. Noyes (ESUW). 1 ♀, S.RosaPark, Guan. [;] C. Rica 27 Mar 78 [;] D. H. Janzen [;] Dry Hill (AEIC).

Comments.

The yellow body color and the large ocelli are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

The specific name is from the Greek xanthos, meaning yellow, in reference to the entirely yellow body.

Figure 127.

Heterospilus xanthus Marsh, sp. n., paratype.

Figure 128.

Heterospilus xanthus Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 3.5 mm. Color: head with vertex and frons brown, face, temple and eye orbits yellow; scape yellow with lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum brown; mesosoma dark brown; metasoma dark brown; wing veins light brown, stigma brown with yellow at base; legs yellow. Head: vertex weakly striate; frons weakly striate; face rugose-striate medially; temple in dorsal view broad but sloping behind eye, width equal to 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus; 23 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate area; scutellum smooth; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron granulate; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter granulate; propodeum with basal median areas margined, basal median carina absent, areola, not distinctly margined areolar area rugose, lateral areas rugose apically, granulate basally. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinally costate, length greater than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate; anterior transverse groove weakly present, straight; posterior transverse groove weakly present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor as long as metasomal terga 1 and 2 combined.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, printed) - COSTA RICA: Prov. [;] Heredia, F. La Selva [;] 3km S Pto. Viejo [;] 10°26'N, 84°01W; second label (white, printed) - at fallen branch of [;] Pentaclethra macroloba; third label (white, partially printed and hand written) - 9.iv.1984 [;] H.A. Hespenheide; fourth label (red, partially printed and hand written) - HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] yaqui [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

Known only from the holotype.

Comments.

The partially yellow head and the brown stripe laterally on the scape are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for the Yaqui, an indigenous people from Sonora, Mexico.

Figure 129.

Heterospilus yaqui Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Female.

Body size: 2.5 mm. Color: head with vertex and frons brown, face and eye orbits yellow or honey yellow; scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe, flagellum entirely brown; mesosoma brown, light brown along notauli, scutellum and metanotum; metasoma dark brown, terga 2 light brown, terga 5-7 yellow; wing veins brown, stigma brown medially, yellow at base, apex and along anterior margin; legs yellow. Head: vertex transversely striate; frons transversely striate; face smooth; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind eye, width less than 1/2 eye width; malar space greater than 1/4 eye height; ocell-ocular distance about twice diameter of lateral ocellus; 22–27 flagellomeres. Mesosoma: mesoscutal lobes granulate; notauli scrobiculate, meeting at scutellum in triangular costate-rugose area; scutellum granulate; prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesopleuron smooth; precoxal sulcus smooth, shorter than mesopleuron; venter smooth; propodeum with basal median areas distinctly margined, smooth, basal median carina present but short, areola not distinctly margined, areolar area rugose, lateral areas entirely rugose. Wings: fore wing vein r shorter than vein 3RSa, vein 1cu-a beyond vein 1M; hind wing vein SC+R present, vein M+CU shorter than vein 1M. Metasoma: first tergum longitudinal costate, length longer than apical width; second tergum longitudinally costate, width about 4 times length; anterior transverse groove present, straight; posterior transverse groove present; third tergum costate basally, smooth apically; terga 4–7 smooth; ovipositor about as long as metasoma.

Holotype female.

Top label (white, partially printed and hand written) - Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Santa Rosa Natl. Park [;] 300m, ex. Malaise trap [;] Site #: SE-5-O [;] Dates: 24.v–14.vi.1986 [;] I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen; second label (white, printed) - [SE] Bosque San Emilio [;] 50yr old deciduous forest [;] [O] in clearing, fully [;] isolated part of day; third label (red, partially printed and hand written )- HOLOTYPE [;] Heterospilus [;] zunigai [;] P. Marsh. Deposited in ESUW.

Paratypes.

1 ♀, Costa Rica: Guanacaste [;] Est. Biol. Maritza, 600m [;] i.1997. C. Zuniga. Malaise [;] L.N. 326900-373000 #47557 (ESUW).

Comments.

The smooth mesopleuron just above the precoxal sulcus, the granulate mesoscutum and the smooth face are distinctive for this species.

Etymology.

Named for C. Zuniga, one of the INBio parataxonomists.

Figure 130.

Heterospilus zunigai Marsh, sp. n., holotype.

Key to species of Costa Rican Heterospilus with granulate vertex
1 Hind wing vein SC+R present 2
Hind wing vein SC+R absent 42
2(1) Metasomal terga 3-6 granulate apically, rarely smooth medially but at least granulate laterally 3
Metasomal terga 3-6 smooth apically 15
3(2) Vertex granulate and usually with distinct transverse rugae behind ocelli, occasionally finely striate behind ocelli 4
Vertex evenly granulate behind ocelli 6
4(3) Face granulate; temple in dorsal view narrow, sloping behind, width less than 1/2 eye width Heterospilus ektorincon Marsh, sp. n.
Face rugose; temple in dorsal view broader, not distinctly sloping behind eye, width about 1/2 eye width 5
5(4) Head dark brown, usually with yellow eye orbits; flagellum brown with white annulus near apex Heterospilus rojasi Marsh, sp. n.
Head entirely brown or dark brown; flagellum entirely brown, without white annulus Heterospilus austini Marsh, sp. n.
6(4) Stigma of fore wing yellow or honey yellow 7
Stigma of fore wing brown or black, occasionally hyaline brown 9
7(6) Metasoma mostly yellow or honey yellow, head and mesosoma dark brown or black Heterospilus flavisoma Marsh, sp. n.
Metasoma with at most apical terga 6-7 lighter, remainder of terga dark brown, concolorous with mesosoma 8
8(7) Scape yellow with lateral longitudinal brown stripe Heterospilus achi Marsh, sp. n.
Scape entirely dark brown or black Heterospilus dianae Marsh, sp. n.
9(6) Ovipositor at most as long as metasomal tergum 1, usually shorter 10
Ovipositor longer than metasomal tergum 1 12
10(9) Metasomal tergum 1 distinctly wider at apex than length; flagellum entirely brown with white annulus near tip Heterospilus cora Marsh, sp. n.
Metasomal tergum 1 width equal to or less than length; flagellum with white annulus near tip 11
11(10) Body entirely black or dark brown Heterospilus barbalhoae Marsh, sp. n.
Head, mesoscutum, metasomal tergum 2 dorsally and apical metasomal terga honey yellow, remainder of body brown Heterospilus quitirrisi Marsh, sp. n.
12(9) Metasomal tergum 1 length equal to apical width 13
Metasomal tergum 1 length greater than width 14
13(12). Propodeum in dorsal view with small but distinct tubercles just above hind coxae; flagellum with white annulus near tip Heterospilus chorotegus Marsh, sp. n.
Propodeum without tubercles above hind coxae; flagellum entirely brown, without white annulus Heterospilus wrightae Marsh, sp. n.
14(12) Metasomal terga entirely brown Heterospilus carolinae Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
Metasomal terga 5-7 yellow, terga 1-4 brown Heterospilus zapotec Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
15(2) Body, including head, flattened dorso-ventrally Heterospilus complanatus Marsh, sp. n.
Body not flattened dorso-ventrally 16
16(15) Prescutellar furrow with one cross carina 17
Prescutellar furrow with 3-5 cross carinae 18
17(16) Hind coxa brown, fore and mid coxae yellow Heterospilus phaeocoxus Marsh, sp. n.
All coxae unicolorous yellow or light brown Heterospilus kikapu Marsh, sp. n.
18(16) Propodeum with median basal carina distinct and long, at least as long as median cross carina of prescutellar furrow, usually longer 19
Propodeum with median basal carina absent, if rarely a short carina apparently present, it is shorter than median cross carinae of prescutellar furrow, costulae of areola usually meeting at base of propodeum 24
19(18) Scape yellow or brown, without lateral longitudinal brown stripe 20
Scape yellow, with lateral longitudinal brown stripe 21
20(19) Fore wing vein r slightly less than 1/2 length of vein 3RSa; flagellum entirely brown; ocell-ocular distance 1.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus Heterospilus amuzgo Marsh, sp. n.
Fore wing vein r nearly as long as vein 3RSa; flagellum brown with apical flagellomeres white; ocell-ocular distance 2.5 times diameter of lateral ocellus Heterospilus zitaniae Marsh, sp. n.
21(19) Metasomal tergum 2 yellow or lighter than remainder of terga Heterospilus bicolor Marsh, sp. n.
Metasomal tergum 2 brown, concolorous with remainder of terga 22
22(21) Mesoscutum light brown or honey yellow Heterospilus cangrejaensis Marsh, sp. n.
Mesoscutum dark brown 23
23(22) Ovipositor as long as metasomal tergum 1 Heterospilus guapilensis Marsh, sp. n.
Ovipositor 3/4 length of metasoma Heterospilus chocho Marsh, sp. n.
24(18) Face smooth 25
Face sculptured, striate, granulate or areolate 26
25(24) Scutellum smooth Heterospilus pitillaensis Marsh, sp. n.
Scutellum granulate Heterospilus orosi Marsh, sp. n.
26(24) Notauli meeting posteriorly in triangular rugose area 27
Notauli meeting posteriorly in triangular costate or costate rugose area 32
27(26) Basal median areas of propodeum distinctly margined Heterospilus cocopa Marsh, sp. n.
Basal median areas of propodeum not margined, often small or absent 28
28(27) Ocell-ocular distance 2.5-3 times diameter of lateral ocellus 29
Ocell-ocular distance 2 times or less diameter of lateral ocellus 30
29(28) Fore wing vein r usually as long as, or rarely very slightly shorter than, vein 3RSa Heterospilus jonmarshi Marsh, sp. n.
Fore wing vein r distinctly shorter than vein 3RSa Heterospilus ixcatec Marsh, sp. n.
30(28) Propodeum with distinct tubercle or projection apico-laterally just above hind coxae Heterospilus sumo Marsh, sp. n.
Propodeum without tubercle or projection above hind coxae 31
31(30) Legs bicolored, hind femur yellow on basal half, brown on apical half; flagellum brown with white annulus near apex Heterospilus villegasi Marsh, sp. n.
Legs entirely yellow; flagellum entirely brown Heterospilus nemestrinus Marsh, sp. n.
32(26) Basal median areas of propodeum not distinctly margined 33
Basal median areas of propodeum distinctly margined 34
33(32) Body light brown to honey yellow; flagellum entirely brown Heterospilus achterbergi Marsh, sp. n.
Head and mesosoma dark brown, metasoma bicolored dark brown and yellow; flagellum brown with weak apical white annulus Heterospilus pech Marsh, sp. n.
34(32) Vertex with more or less distinct transverse rugae or costae behind ocelli 35
Vertex entirely granulate 38
35(34) Scape entirely brown or dark brown Heterospilus sharkeyi Marsh, sp. n.
Scape yellow with lateral longitudinal brown stripe 36
36(35) Head yellow Heterospilus ugaldei Marsh, sp. n.
Head dark brown 37
37(36) Mesoscutal lobes brown to light brown, lighter than remainder of mesosoma Heterospilus jennieae Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
Mesosoma entirely dark brown Heterospilus arawak Marsh, sp. n.
38(34) Scape brown or dark brown 39
Scape yellow with lateral longitudinal brown stripe 40
39(38) Stigma yellow Heterospilus puertoviejoensis Marsh, sp. n.
Stigma brown Heterospilus chilamatensis Marsh, sp. n.
40(38) Apical metasomal terga dark brown, concolorous with anterior terga Heterospilus carolinae Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
Apical metasomal terga yellow, remainder of terga dark brown, tergum 2 often with yellow spots laterally 41
41(40) Metasomal tergum 2 entirely dark brown Heterospilus zapotec Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
Metasomal tergum 2 brown with yellow spots laterally Heterospilus zoque Marsh, sp. n.
42(1) Metasomal terga 3-6 smooth apically 43
Metasomal terga 3-6 granulate apically 60
43(42) Ovipositor as long as or shorter than metasomal tergum 1 44
Ovipositor longer than metasomal tergum 1 51
44(43) Scape yellow or brown without lateral brown stripe 45
Scape yellow with more or less distinct lateral longitudinal brown stripe 46
45(44) Length of metasomal tergum 1 nearly twice apical width; mesoscutal lobes weakly granulate and shining Heterospilus nahua Marsh, sp. n.
Length of metasomal tergum 1 equal to apical width; mesoscutal lobes distinctly granulate and dull Heterospilus poqomam Marsh, sp. n.
46(44) Basal median areas of propodeum distinctly margined 47
Basal median area of propodeum not distinctly margined 49
47(46) Mesoscutal lobes weakly granulate and shining Heterospilus mam Marsh, sp. n.
Mesoscutal lobes distinctly granulate and dull 48
48(47) Length of metasomal tergum 1 at least 1.5 times apical width, often nearly twice as long Heterospilus strazanaci Marsh, sp. n.
Length of metasomal tergum 1 about equal to apical width Heterospilus aubreyae Marsh, sp. n.
49(46) Propodeum with distinct tubercle (raised carina) laterally just above hind coxa Heterospilus vulcanus Marsh, sp. n.
Propodeum without distinct tubercle laterally above hind coxa 50
50(49) Prescutellar furrow with 3 cross carinae; mesoscutal lobes weakly granulate and shining Heterospilus jabillosensis Marsh, sp. n.
Prescutellar furrow with 1 cross carina; mesoscutal lobes distinctly granulate and dull Heterospilus parkeri Marsh, sp. n.
51(43) Scape yellow without lateral longitudinal brown stripe; flagellum entirely brown 52
Scape yellow with lateral longitudinal brown stripe; flagellum with apical white annulus 54
52(51) Fore wing vein r at most half as long as vein 3RSa Heterospilus ixil Marsh, sp. n.
Fore wing vein r nearly as long as or equal to vein 3RSa 53
53(52) Body entirely yellow or honey yellow Heterospilus warreni Marsh, sp. n.
Body entirely dark brown Heterospilus longisulcus Marsh, sp. n.
54(51) Areola on propodeum with numerous distinct cross carinae or costae Heterospilus tzutujil Marsh, sp. n.
Areola on propodeum rugose or areolate-rugose 55
55(54) Mesosoma entirely dark brown or black 56
Mesosoma light brown or bicolored, at least mesoscutum partially light brown or yellow 58
56(55) Vertex granulate with weak but distinctive transverse rugae behind ocelli Heterospilus sergeyi Marsh, sp. n.
Vertex entirely granulate 57
57(56) Metasomal tergum 2 dark brown, light brown or honey yellow medially; ocell-ocular distance usually more than twice diameter of lateral ocellus Heterospilus bennetti Marsh, sp. n.
Metasomal tergum 2 entirely dark brown; ocell-ocular distance usually twice or less diameter of lateral ocellus Heterospilus spiloheterus Marsh, sp. n.
58(55) Notauli meeting at prescutellar furrow in unsculptured area Heterospilus lasalturus Marsh, sp. n.
Notauli meeting at prescutellar furrow in small triangular costate area 59
59(58) Temple in dorsal view strongly sloping behind eye Heterospilus robbieae Marsh, sp. n.
Temple somewhat bulging, not strongly sloping behind eye Heterospilus mopanmaya Marsh, sp. n.
60(42) Ovipositor as long as or shorter than metasomal tergum 1 61
Ovipositor longer than metasomal tergum 1 72
61(60) Metasomal tergum 2 bicolored brown or dark brown with median yellow or honey yellow spot 62
Metasomal tergum brown or yellow, concolorous with anterior and/or posterior terga 67
62(61) Mesoscutal lobes lighter in color than remainder of mesosoma Heterospilus tricolor Marsh, sp. n.
Mesosoma entirely brown, dark brown or black 63
63(62) Face smooth, rarely partially very weakly granulate 64
Face granulate or striate 65
64(63) Length of metasomal tergum 1 greater than apical width Heterospilus saminae Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
Length of metasomal tergum 1 equal to apical width Heterospilus dani Marsh, sp. n.
65(63) Mesoscutal lobes weakly granulate, shining Heterospilus aesculapius Marsh, sp. n.
Mesoscutal lobes distinctly granulate, dull 66
66(65) Propodeum with distinct tubercle laterally just above hind coxa Heterospilus sabrinae Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
Propodeum without lateral tubercle above hind coxa Heterospilus bacchus Marsh, sp. n.
67(61) Notauli weak or absent posteriorly Heterospilus caritus Marsh, sp. n.
Notauli complete and distinct posteriorly 68
68(67) Notauli meeting at prescutellar furrow in broadly rugose area Heterospilus longinoi Marsh, sp. n.
Notauli meeting at prescutellar in costate or unsculptured area 69
69(68) Face more or less smooth and shining Heterospilus saminae Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
Face granulate and dull 70
70(69) Apical metasomal terga bright yellow, distinctly contrasting with the dark brown anterior terga Heterospilus kellieae Marsh, sp. n.
Apical metasomal terga usually concolorous with anterior terga, rarely slightly lighter brown 71
71(70) Notauli deeply scrobiculate anteriorly, meeting at prescutellar furrow in deeply costate-rugose area Heterospilus agujasensis Marsh, sp. n.
Notauli shallow and weakly scrobiculate anteriorly, meeting at prescutellar furrow in weakly costate area Heterospilus sabrinae Marsh, sp. n. (in part)
72(60) Body entirely yellow, apical metasomal terga rarely darker Heterospilus microstigmi Richards
Body entirely brown or dark brown