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Catalogue
A catalogue of the tribe Sepidiini Eschscholtz, 1829 (Tenebrionidae, Pimeliinae) of the world
expand article infoMarcin J. Kamiński§, Kojun Kanda§, Ryan Lumen§, Jonah M. Ulmer|, Christopher C. Wirth§, Patrice Bouchard, Rolf Aalbu#, Noël Mal¤, Aaron D. Smith§
‡ Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
§ Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, United States of America
| Pennsylvania State University, University Park, United States of America
¶ Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Canada
# California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, United States of America
¤ Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels, Belgium
† Deceased author
Open Access

Abstract

This catalogue includes all valid family-group (six subtribes), genus-group (55 genera, 33 subgenera), and species-group names (1009 species and subspecies) of Sepidiini darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Pimeliinae), and their available synonyms. For each name, the author, year, and page number of the description are provided, with additional information (e.g., type species for genus-group names, author of synonymies for invalid taxa, notes) depending on the taxon rank. Verified distributional records (loci typici and data acquired from revisionary publications) for all the species are gathered. Distribution of the subtribes is illustrated and discussed.

Several new nomenclatural acts are included. The generic names Phanerotomea Koch, 1958 [= Ocnodes Fåhraeus, 1870] and Parmularia Koch, 1955 [= Psammodes Kirby, 1819] are new synonyms (valid names in square brackets).

The following new combinations are proposed: Ocnodes acuductus acuductus (Ancey, 1883), O. acuductus ufipanus (Koch, 1952), O. adamantinus (Koch, 1952), O. argenteofasciatus (Koch, 1953), O. arnoldi arnoldi (Koch, 1952), O. arnoldi sabianus (Koch, 1952), O. barbosai (Koch, 1952), O. basilewskyi (Koch, 1952), O. bellmarleyi (Koch, 1952), O. benguelensis (Koch, 1952), O. bertolonii (Guérin-Méneville, 1844), O. blandus (Koch, 1952), O. brevicornis (Haag-Rutenberg, 1875), O. brunnescens brunnescens (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871), O. brunnescens molestus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1875), O. buccinator (Koch, 1952), O. bushmanicus (Koch, 1952), O. carbonarius (Gerstaecker, 1854), O. cardiopterus (Fairmaire, 1888), O. cataractus (Koch, 1952), O. cinerarius (Koch, 1952), O. complanatus (Koch, 1952), O. confertus (Koch, 1952), O. congruens (Péringuey, 1899), O. cordiventris (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871), O. crocodilinus (Koch, 1952), O. dimorphus (Koch, 1952), O. distinctus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871), O. dolosus (Péringuey, 1899), O. dorsocostatus (Gebien, 1910), O. dubiosus (Péringuey, 1899), O. ejectus (Koch, 1952), O. epronoticus (Koch, 1952), O. erichsoni (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871), O. ferreirae ferreirae (Koch, 1952), O. ferreirae zulu (Koch, 1952), O. fettingi (Haag-Rutenberg, 1875), O. fistucans (Koch, 1952), O. fraternus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1875), O. freyi (Koch, 1952), O. freudei (Koch, 1952), O. fulgidus (Koch, 1952), O. funestus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871), O. gemmeulus (Koch, 1952), O. gibberosulus (Péringuey, 1908), O. gibbus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1879), O. globosus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871), O. granisterna (Koch, 1952), O. granulosicollis (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871), O. gridellii (Koch, 1960), O. guerini guerini (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871), O. guerini lawrencii (Koch, 1954), O. guerini mancus (Koch 1954), O. haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Koch, 1952), O. haemorrhoidalis salubris (Koch, 1952), O. heydeni (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871), O. humeralis (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871), O. humerangula (Koch, 1952), O. imbricatus (Koch, 1952), O. imitator imitator (Péringuey, 1899), O. imitator invadens (Koch, 1952), O. inflatus (Koch, 1952), O. janssensi (Koch, 1952), O. javeti (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871), O. junodi (Péringuey, 1899), O. kulzeri (Koch, 1952), O. lacustris (Koch, 1952), O. laevigatus (Olivier, 1795), O. lanceolatus (Koch, 1953), O. licitus (Peringey, 1899), O. luctuosus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871), O. luxurosus (Koch, 1952), O. maputoensis (Koch, 1952), O. marginicollis (Koch, 1952), O. martinsi (Koch, 1952), O. melleus (Koch, 1952), O. mendicus estermanni (Koch, 1952), O. mendicus mendicus (Péringuey, 1899), O. miles (Péringuey, 1908), O. mimeticus (Koch, 1952), O. misolampoides (Fairmaire, 1888), O. mixtus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871), O. monacha (Koch, 1952), O. montanus (Koch, 1952), O. mozambicus (Koch, 1952), O. muliebris curtus (Koch, 1952), O. muliebris muliebris (Koch, 1952), O. muliebris silvestris (Koch, 1952), O. nervosus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871), O. notatum (Thunberg, 1787), O. notaticollis (Koch, 1952), O. odorans (Koch, 1952), O. opacus (Solier, 1843), O. osbecki (Billberg, 1815), O. overlaeti (Koch, 1952), O. ovulus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871), O. pachysoma ornata (Koch, 1952), O. pachysoma pachysoma (Péringuey, 1892), O. papillosus (Koch, 1952), O. pedator (Fairmaire, 1888), O. perlucidus (Koch, 1952), O. planus (Koch, 1952), O. pretorianus (Koch, 1952), O. procursus (Péringuey, 1899), O. protectus (Koch, 1952), O. punctatissimus (Koch, 1952), O. puncticollis (Koch, 1952), O. punctipennis planisculptus (Koch, 1952), O. punctipennis punctipennis (Harold, 1878), O. punctipleura (Koch, 1952), O. rhodesianus (Koch, 1952), O. roriferus (Koch, 1952), O. rufipes (Harold, 1878), O. saltuarius (Koch, 1952), O. scabricollis (Gerstaecker, 1854), O. scopulipes (Koch, 1952), O. scrobicollis griqua (Koch, 1952), O. scrobicollis simulans (Koch, 1952), O. semirasus (Koch, 1952), O. semiscabrum (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871), O. sericicollis (Koch, 1952), O. similis (Péringuey, 1899), O. sjoestedti (Gebien, 1910), O. spatulipes (Koch, 1952), O. specularis (Péringuey, 1899), O. spinigerus (Koch, 1952), O. stevensoni (Koch, 1952), O. tarsocnoides (Koch, 1952), O. temulentus (Koch, 1952), O. tenebrosus melanarius (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871), O. tenebrosus tenebrosus (Erichson, 1843), O. tibialis (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871), O. torosus (Koch, 1952), O. transversicollis (Haag-Rutenberg, 1879), O. tumidus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871), O. umvumanus (Koch, 1952), O. vagus (Péringuey, 1899), O. vaticinus (Péringuey, 1899), O. verecundus (Péringuey, 1899), O. vetustus (Koch, 1952), O. vexator (Péringuey, 1899), O. virago (Koch, 1952), O. warmeloi (Koch, 1953), O. zanzibaricus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1875), Psammophanes antinorii (Gridelli, 1939), and P. mirei (Pierre, 1979).

The type species [placed in square brackets] of the following genus-group taxa are designated for the first time, Ocnodes Fåhraeus, 1870 [Ocnodes scrobicollis Fåhraeus, 1870], Psammodophysis Péringuey, 1899 [Psammodophysis probes Péringuey, 1899], and Trachynotidus Péringuey, 1899 [Psammodes thoreyi Haag-Rutenberg, 1871].

A lectotype is designated for Histrionotus omercooperi Koch, 1955 in order to fix its taxonomic status. Ulamus Kamiński is introduced here as a replacement name for Echinotus Marwick, 1935 [Type species. Avicula echinata Smith, 1817] (Mollusca: Pteriidae) to avoid homonymy with Echinotus Solier, 1843 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

Keywords

Africa, distribution, Molurini, new synonyms, new combinations, nomen novum, nomenclature, type species

Introduction

The Sepidiini Eschscholtz, 1829 are a diverse tribe of ground-dwelling darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) of the subfamily Pimeliinae Latreille, 1802 (Figs 1–45). The tribe is widely distributed throughout the Afrotropical Realm, with several species reaching the southern part of the Western Palaearctic (Koch 1955). Some Sepidiini (mainly Ocnodes Fåhraeus, 1870 and Psammodes Kirby, 1819) are commonly known for their tapping behaviour (sexual communication), which accounts for their vernacular name, the “toktokkies” (Lighton 1987, Matthews et al. 2010). The group also includes many large and/or morphologically remarkable species, e.g., Stridulomus sulcicollis (Péringuey, 1885), the largest (~ 80.0 mm) currently known tenebrionid species (Koch 1955, Matthews et al. 2010).

Figures 1–45. 

Morphology of representative species of the different subtribes of Sepidiini 1 Arturium dallastai (Molurina) 2 Psammophanes jockli (Molurina) 3 Phrynocolus dentatus (Molurina) 4 Euphrynus sexdentatus (Molurina) 5 Psammophanes raffrayi (Molurina) 6 Distretus mormocyle (Molurina) 7 Psammophanes poccilator (Molurina) 8 Euphrynus sexdentatus (Molurina) 9 Moluris nitida (Molurina) 10 Dichtha inflata (Molurina) 11 Psammorhyssus titanus (Phanerotomeina) 12 Dichtha cubica (Molurina) 13 Brachyphrynus petrosus (Molurina) 14 Echinotus spinicollis (Sepidiina) 15 Psammodes attenuata (Phanerotomeina) 16 Vieta muscosa (Sepidiina) 17 Sepidium bidentatum (Sepidiina) 18 Psammodes ponderosus (Phanerotomeina) 19 Sepidium cristatum (Sepidiina) 20 Ocnodes scabricollis (Phanerotomeina) 21 Sepidium hystryx (Sepidiina) 22 Vieta spiculosa (Sepidiina) 23 Amiantus picteti (Molurina) 24 Sepidiostenus compressus (Sepidiina) 25 Psammodes vialis (Phanerotomeina) 26 Dimoniacis jacksoni (Sepidiina) 27 Physophrynus haroldi (Molurina) 28 Tarsocnodes molossa (Phanerotomeina) 29 Tarsocnodes nielseni (Phanerotomeina) 30 Physophrynus bredoi (Molurina) 31 Psammodes fartus (Phanerotomeina) 32 Vietomorpha foveipennis (Sepidiina) 33 Ocnodes sp. (Phanerotomeina) 34 Physophrynus burdoi (Molurina) 35 Oxura setosa (Oxurina) 36 Ocnodes sp. (Phanerotomeina) 37 Somaticus aeneus (Trachynotina) 38 Trachynotus omercooperi (Trachynotina) 39 Ocnodes procrustes (Phanerotomeina) 40 Peringueyia dispar (Sepidiina) 41 Amiantus gibbosus (Molurina) 42 Sepidium crassicaudatum (Sepidiina) 43 Sepidiostenus ruspolii (Sepidiina) 44 Psammophanes sp. (Molurina) 45 Ocnodes guerini (Phanerotomeina).

From the morphological perspective, Sepidiini are defined by the following combination of characters (Koch 1955):

  1. cardo and stipes of maxillae and prelabium not covered by mentum (Fig. 46),
  2. anterior margin of postgenae with a maxillary ridge or emargination (Fig. 46),
  3. antennae with eleven segments (Fig. 47),
  4. mesocoxae, in vast majority of cases, with visible trochantin (reduced in Sepidiina and a few Molurina Solier, 1843) (Fig. 48),
  5. large scutellum, extending across entire width of mesothoracic peduncle (Fig. 49), and
  6. elytral base without vertical articulation face (the pronotum consequently freely movable on scutellum). Doyen (1994) also noted that in many Sepidiini the abdominal-sternal interlocking mechanism is different from all other Pimeliinae with the epipleural edge of the elytron overlapping the expanded sternite edge, rather than dovetailing into a groove.

The last comprehensive checklist of the species currently classified within Sepidiini was published by Gebien (1937a). At that time, 581 species were listed and divided over two separate tribes, Molurini and Sepidiini. No subtribal classification was proposed. After Gebien’s catalogue (1937a) more than 50 contributions were published on the taxonomy, nomenclature, and classification of today’s Sepidiini (see references). This includes descriptions of more than 400 species, reinterpretation of extremely diverse genera (e.g., Ocnodes, Psammodes, Somaticus Hope, 1840), fusion of the former tribes Molurini and Sepidiini (see Koch 1955, Doyen 1994), and finally, designation of the six currently recognised subtribes (see Bouchard et al. 2005, 2011).

From the strictly formal point of view, the validity of many names introduced after 1937 remained questionable (e.g., Histrionotus omercooperi Koch, 1955), since their unusual “descriptions” were incorporated in remarks concerning other taxa. Furthermore, the taxonomic affiliation of many genera and species is uncertain because of ambiguous remarks made by the contributors, see notes in the catalogue below.

The main aim of this work is to synthesise available nomenclatural, taxonomic, and distributional information concerning Sepidiini.

Figures 46–49. 

Characters proposed to define Sepidiini. 46 Ventral portion of head (Dichtha inflata) 47 11-segmented antenna (Ocnodes similis) 48 connection of pronotum and elytra (Ocnodes procrustes) 49 mesocoxa (Trachynotidus sp.). Abbreviations: cr - cardo; cx - coxa; gu - gula; me - mentum; mp - maxillary palp; pg - postgena; sc - scutellum; st - stipes; tn - trochantin; tr - trochanter.

Materials and methods

Nomenclatural data

All nomenclaturally available family-, genus-, and species-group names are included. The author, year, and page of the original description are provided for each scientific name. The type genus for each family-group name and the type species and type fixation for each genus-group name are included. Type species fixed by original designation were only accepted when an explicit statement (e.g., “Type species.”) was used in the original publication (see ICZN 1999, Articles 67.5, 68.2). The reference in which a given generic or specific name is first placed in synonymy with the current valid name is listed [e.g., “syn. by Penrith (1986: 11)”]. For every species-group name which was subsequently transferred to another genus, the original genus-group name is provided. The author which transferred a particular species-group name to a currently accepted subgenus is listed in square parentheses (e.g., vagecostatus (Fairmaire, 1882b) Psammodes [Koch 1953a] listed under Psammophanes (Psammophanes)): in this example, Koch (1953a) was the one to include this species under the subgenus Psammophanes. The subtribal classification follows Bouchard et al. (2011).

Type deposition data and the status of the name bearing types was primarily taken from the original publications. However, when authors provided the name of the entomological collection for the type deposition without referring to any public institutions the following publications were used in order to locate those collections:

Allard, Bates, Crotch, DeGeer, Desbrochers des Loges, Dohrn, Dupont, Gory, Hope, Klug, Pallas, Pascoe, Sahlberg, and Westwood collectionsBousquet (2016)

Banks collectionChambers (2000)

Fabricius collectionZimsen (1964), Copenhagen Museum (2019)

Gestro collectionConci and Poggi (1996)

Haag-Rutenberg collectionScherer (1992), Bousquet (2016)

Kocher collectionBezděk and Regalin (2015)

Kolbe collectionOhl (2012)

Spinola collectionEkis (1975), Generani and Scaramozzino (2000), and Bousquet (2016)

Type deposition information provided in this catalogue was verified against the databases originating from the Basel (Kulzer 1963), British, Brussels, Budapest (Merkl et al. 2015), Cape, Ditsong, Tervuren, Warsaw, and Windhoek (Irish 1985) museums.

The following format for deposition information was used throughout the catalogue:

Agricultural Institute Agricultural Institute in Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa

Barcelona Museum Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

Basel Museum Naturhistorisches Museum Basel, Basel, Switzerland

Berlin Museum Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany

Bloemfontein Museum Bloemfontein National Museum, Bloemfontein, South Africa

Bologna Museum Bologna Zoological Museum, Bologna, Italy

Bremen Museum Übersee Museum, Bremen, Germany

British Museum The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom

Brussels Museum Muséum des sciences naturelles de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium

Budapest Museum Magyar Természettudományi Múzeum, Budapest, Hungary

California Academy Museum of the California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, USA

Cambridge Museum Harvard Museum of Natural History, Cambridge, USA

Cape Museum Iziko South African Museum, Cape Town, South Africa

Companhia Diamantes Companhia de Diamantes de Angola, Luanda, Angola

Copenhagen Museum Statens Naturhistoriske Museum, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Cornell University Cornell University, Ithaca, USA

Ditsong Museum Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, Pretoria, South Africa

Dundo Museum Dundo Museum, Dundo, Angola

Durban Museum Durban Natural Science Museum, Durban, South Africa

Florence Museum Museo di Storia Naturale di Firenze, Florence, Italy

Frankfurt Museum Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Frankfurt, Germany

Geneva Museum Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland

Genoa Museum Civic Museum of Natural History Giacomo Doria, Genoa, Italy

Glasgow Museum Hunterian Zoology Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Hamburg University Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

Humboldt University Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany

Kenya Museum National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenia

Kiel Museum Zoologischen Museum Kiel, Kiel, Germany

Leiden Museum Naturalis Museum, Leiden, Holland

Lund University Zoological Museum, Lund University, Lund, Sweden

Madrid Museum Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain

Maputo Museum Centro de Investigação Científica Algodoeira, Maputo, Mozambique

Marseille Museum Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Marseille, Marseille, France

McGregor Museum McGregor Museum, Kimberley, South Africa

Milan Museum Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Milano, Italy

Monaco Museum Nouveau Musée National de Monaco, Monaco, Monaco

Munich Museum Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, Munich, Germany

Museo Civico Filangieri Museo Civico Filangieri, Naples, Italy

National Congo nstitute of the National Parks of Belgian Congo (temporarily preserved in Tervuren Museum)

Naturhistoriska riksmuseet Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm, Sweden

New York Museum American Museum New York, New York, USA

Ohio State Ohio State University, Columbus, USA

Oxford University Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford, United Kingdom

Paris Museum Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

Prague Museum Národní muzeum, Prague, Czech Republic

Pretoria University University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa

Rabat Institute d’Entomologie de l’Institut Scientifque Chérifen, Rabat, Morocco

Rhodes University Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa

Rhodesia Museum National Museum of Southern Rhodesia, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

South African National

Collection South African National Collection of Insects, Pretoria, South Africa

Stellenbosch University Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa

Stuttgart Museum Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany

Tervuren Museum Musée royal de l’Afrique centrale, Tervuren, Belgium

Torino Museum Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali di Torino, Turin, Italy

Trieste Museum Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Trieste, Italy

Uppsala University Uppsala universitet Evolutionsmuseet, Uppsala, Sweden

Vienna Museum Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Wien, Austria

Warsaw Museum Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii, Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw, Poland

Windhoek Museum National Museum of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia

Distribution data

The distribution of all subtribes was illustrated using Quantum GIS (QGIS) v. 2.4. All vector layers were downloaded from the Natural Earth webpage (http://www.naturalearthdata.com). The list of localities was built by consulting available literature and is available as an Suppl. material to this publication (Suppl. material 1). Because of the uncertain status of most of the listed species, and extreme difficulties with identification of the majority of Sepidiini representatives, only records acquired from original species descriptions or revisionary papers were included. Geographic data with low degrees of accuracy (e.g., countries or states) were not georeferenced, and therefore are absent on the maps and distributional sections of particular subtribes.

Results and remarks

A total of 1009 valid species and subspecies divided over 55 genera (33 subgenera) and six subtribes is listed in this catalogue. The subtribe Molurina is the most diverse with 382 valid species-group taxa, followed by the Trachynotina (218), Phanerotomeina (177), Sepidiina (124), Oxurina (63), and Hypomelina (45). In most cases, the species and subspecies diversity is not equally divided over the available genera (Fig. 50). This is most evident in the case of Phanerotomeina, where a single genus, Ocnodes, groups over 83% of currently accepted species and subspecies. A similar trend is seen in Molurina and Trachynotina, while in Sepidiina over 80% of known species and subspecies diversity is divided between Sepidium Fabricius, 1775 and Vieta Hope, 1840 (Fig. 50). This tendency was not reported for the most recently revised subtribes (Louw 1979, Penrith 1986), i.e., Hypomelina and Oxurina. In total, 11 monotypic genera are listed.

Although this publication focuses on the nomenclature and classification of Sepidiini, the examined references enabled to reveal the most urgent taxonomic problems within the tribe. According to Penrith (1986, 1987), the status of the majority of currently recognised subtribes should be tested. This strictly relies on the verification of monophyly of the most speciose genera, such as Ocnodes and Psammodes. The taxonomic history of theses taxa is complex (see catalogue below), resulting in taxonomic ambiguities at the higher classification levels. The other urgent taxonomic problem within Sepidiini concerns the verification of the status of many genera of Molurina. The available contributions to the taxonomy of molurines presented in several different publications (e.g., Gebien 1910a, Wilke 1921, Koch 1951, 1952, 1953b, 1954a, 1956, 1960, 1962a). The lack of a comprehensive revisions may cause taxonomic inflation, especially when alphataxonomic contributions prevail. Future efforts concerning Sepidiini should include phylogenetic and revisionary studies.

Figure 50. 

Summary of the generic and sub-/species diversity of the subtribes representing Sepidiini.

A database containing 2523 distributional records (857 not georeferenced) was created during this study (Fig. 51, Suppl. material 1). It needs to be highlighted that this list exclusively concerns loci typici and taxonomically revised data (acquired from generic revisions). However, because most Sepidiini species are known only from the type series, some basic remarks concerning distributional patterns of this tribe might be made.

According to the acquired data, Sepidiini are widely distributed throughout the Afrotropical Realm, except its northwestern parts (Fig. 51). Only Sepidiina has a distribution that extends into the Western Palaearctic (mainly Mediterranean Basin). However, the majority of the species of this subtribe were described from Somalia. Within the remaining subtribes, the presence of only Molurina and Phanerotomeina was revealed north of the equator. The former seems to be especially speciose in the Horn of Africa. Furthermore, Molurina is the only subtribe within Sepidiini with Malagasy representatives. The distribution of Hypomelina, Oxurina, and Trachynotina is limited to the southern part of the African continent. The majority of the species representing the Hypomelina were described from the Namibian coast (Fig. 51).

Figure 51. 

Revealed distributional patterns of Sepidiini. Selected outstanding records for particular subtribes were highlighted. Images were generated based on 1,666 records acquired from descriptive and revisionary papers.

Catalogue of the Sepidiini (Tenebrionidae: Pimeliinae) of the world

Tribe Sepidiini Eschscholtz, 1829: 4

Type genus. Sepidium Fabricius, 1775

Subtribes included. Hypomelina, Molurina, Oxurina, Phanerotomeina, Sepidiina, Trachynotina.

Distribution. Western Palaearctic (mainly Mediterranean Basin) and Afrotropical Realm (with exception of western Africa) (Fig. 51).

Subtribe Hypomelina Koch, 1955: 36

Type genus. Hypomelus Solier, 1843

Taxonomic diversity. (9 gen., 45 spp.): Argenticrinis (1 sp.), Bombocnodulus (6), Brinckia (8), Hypomelus (14), Iugidorsum (4), Sulcipectus (2), Trachynotidus (8), Triangulipenna (1), Uniungulum (1).

Distribution. Southern part of the Afrotropical Realm. Majority of species were described from the Namibian coast. A single genus, Bombocnodulus, reaching north to Central Africa (Fig. 51).

Genus Argenticrinis Louw, 1979: 100

Type species. Argenticrinis haackei Louw, 1979 (by original designation); syn. of Psammodes lossowi Koch, 1952)

lossowi (Koch, 1952: 339) Psammodes [Louw, 1980: 216]

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

= Argenticrinis haackei Louw, 1979: 101 [syn. by Louw (1980: 216)]

Type data. Holotype (Windhoek Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Windhoek Museum)

Genus Bombocnodulus Koch, 1955: 36

Type species. Psammodes crinicollis Haag-Rutenberg, 1879 (by monotypy)

Notes. Although the description is unusual, it meets the criteria of Art. 11 and 13 ICZN (1999).

Genus originally described under Phanerotomeina, and subsequently transferred to Hypomelina by Louw (1979).

crinicollis crinicollis (Haag-Rutenberg, 1879: 293) Psammodes [Koch, 1955: 36]

Type data. Holotype (British Museum)

= Psammodes inquinatus Péringuey, 1899: 292 [syn. by Penrith (1986: 59)]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

crinicollis fortuitus (Péringuey, 1899: 292) Psammodes [Penrith, 1986: 61]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

Notes. Penrith (1986) refers to a single specimen; however, the original description is based on more than one specimen. Péringuey (1899) does not designate a holotype in the text.

dollmani Penrith, 1986: 64

Type data. Holotype (British Museum) and paratype (Ditsong Museum)

longantennatus Penrith, 1986: 62

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratype (Windhoek Museum)

torridus Penrith, 1986: 62

Type data. Holotype (British Museum) and paratypes (British Museum, Ditsong Museum)

wittei Penrith, 1986: 66

Type data. Holotype (Brussels Museum) and paratypes (Brussels Museum, Ditsong Museum)

Genus Brinckia Koch, 1962b: 117

Type species. Psammodes debilis Péringuey, 1899 (by original designation)

australis Penrith, 1986: 81

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Windhoek Museum)

debilis (Péringuey, 1899: 277) Psammodes [Koch, 1962b: 121]

Type data. Lectotype, designated by Penrith (1986) (Cape Museum) and paralectotypes (Ditsong Museum)

delicata Penrith, 1986: 77

Type data. Holotype (Windhoek Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Windhoek Museum)

insularis (Péringuey, 1908: 410) Trachynotidus [Koch, 1962b: 121]

Type data. Lectotype, designated by Penrith (1986) (Ditsong Museum) and paralectotype (Cape Museum)

oblonga (Thunberg, 1787: 37) Sepidium [Ferrer, 2009: 114]

Type data. Holotype (Uppsala University)

oograbiensis Koch, 1962b: 118

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratype (Cape Museum)

serratina Koch, 1962b: 119

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum)

vaga (Péringuey, 1908: 411) Trachynotidus [Koch, 1962b: 122]

Type data. Lectotype, designated by Penrith (1986) (Cape Museum) and paralectotypes (Ditsong Museum, Windhoek Museum)

Genus Hypomelus Solier, 1843: 93

Type species. Hypomelus bicolor Solier, 1843 (by original designation); syn. of Helops peronatus Germar, 1823

Notes. Interpreted as a subgenus of Psammodes for a long time (e.g., Gebien 1937a) before being re-elevated to the generic level by Koch (1955).

The species composition mostly follows that in Gebien’s catalogue (1937a).

basalis (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 70, in key) Psammodes [Gebien, 1937a: 772]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Note. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 93).

inaequalis Solier, 1843: 98

Type data. Holotype (Torino Museum – Spinola coll.)

= Hypomelus flagrans Péringuey, 1899: 273 [homonym of Psammodes flagrans Péringuey, 1899: 295 published on the same date; Gebien 1910b acted as First Reviser when he proposed the replacement name Psammodes dentipennis for the species Hypomelus flagrans Péringuey, 1899: 273]

= Psammodes dentipennis Gebien 1910b: 155, replacement name [syn. by Gebien (1937a: 772)]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

interstitialis (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 70, in key) Psammodes [Gebien, 1937a: 772]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Note. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 94).

obliquatus Solier, 1843: 97

Type data. Holotype (Geneva Museum – Gory collection)

= Hypomelus sabulosus Solier, 1843: 308 [syn. by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 97)]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

obliteratus Solier, 1843: 96

Type data. Holotype (Geneva Museum – Gory collection)

peringueyi (Gebien 1910b: 158, replacement name) Psammodes [Gebien, 1937a: 772]

= Hypomelus plausibilis Péringuey, 1899: 295 [homonym of Psammodes plausibilis Péringuey, 1899: 271 published on the same date; Gebien 1910b acted as First Reviser when he proposed the replacement name Psammodes peringueyi for the species Hypomelus plausibilis Péringuey, 1899: 295]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

peronatus (Germar, 1823: 149) Helops [Gebien, 1937a: 771]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum, Paris Museum)

= Oxura psammodioides Guérin-Méneville, 1834: 20 [syn. by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 91)]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

= Hypomelus bicolor Solier, 1843: 100 [syn. by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 91)]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

profugus (Péringuey, 1899: 277) Psammodes [Koch 1955: caption to fig. 4]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

reflexicollis (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 70, in key) Psammodes [Gebien, 1937a: 772]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 97).

reflexus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 70, in key) Psammodes [Gebien, 1937a: 772]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 95).

servus Péringuey, 1899: 294

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

setosocostatus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 70, in key) Psammodes [Gebien, 1937a: 772]

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 99).

villosocostatus Solier, 1843: 98

Type data. Holotype (Torino Museum – Spinola coll.)

vulpinus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 45, replacement name) Psammodes [Gebien, 1937a: 772]

= Psammodes hirtipennis Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 92 [junior primary homonym of Psammodes hirtipennis Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 105]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

Genus Iugidorsum Louw, 1979: 102

Type species. Iugidorsum cumstriis Louw, 1979 (by original designation)

cumstriis cumstriis Louw, 1979: 106

Type data. Holotype (Windhoek Museum) and paratypes (Windhoek Museum and Ditsong Museum)

cumstriis magnum Louw, 1979: 106

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratype (Windhoek Museum)

cumstriis prominens Louw, 1979: 106

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Ditsong Museum)

sinestriis Louw, 1979: 107

Type data. Holotype and paratype (Windhoek Museum)

Genus Sulcipectus Louw, 1979: 109

Type species. Sulcipectus levis Louw, 1979 (by original designation)

cumcavus Louw, 1979: 113

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Windhoek Museum)

levis Louw, 1979: 110

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Windhoek Museum)

Genus Trachynotidus Péringuey, 1899: 296

Type species. Psammodes thoreyi Haag-Rutenberg, 1871 (here designated)

Péringuey (1899) designated both Clinocranion alstoni Péringuey, 1885 and Psammodes thoreyi Haag-Rutenberg, 1871 as type species. According to the regulations of ICZN (1999) this cannot be treated as valid fixation of type species. Therefore, to provide nomenclatural stability Psammodes thoreyi Haag-Rutenberg, 1871 is hereby designated as a type species of the genus Trachynotidus.

Notes. In 1904, Péringuey described a new species named damarinus under “Gen. Trachynotideus Péring”. The spelling “Trachynotideus” was generally treated as an incorrect subsequent spelling of Trachynotidus by subsequent authors (e.g., Gebien 1910b, 1937a) and is not in prevailing usage. This view is also adopted here. Judging from the context, Péringuey (1904) did not intend to describe “Trachynotideus” as a new genus as he stated “genus … nov” or “n. gen.” near the other newly introduced generic names, i.e., “DIESTESOMA, n. gen.”.

Koch (1955) provided a drawing of a species which he referred to as “Trachynotidus XXI-lineatus”. However, this description does not meet the criteria of Art. 13.1.1 of the ICZN (1999).

alstoni (Péringuey, 1885: 116) Clinocranion [Péringuey, 1899: 297]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

angulicollis (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 69, in key) Psammodes [Péringuey, 1904: 234]

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 88).

cognatus Péringuey, 1899: 297

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

cruentus Péringuey, 1908: 411

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

eximius Péringuey, 1899: 298

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Cape Museum)

gravis (Gemminger 1870: 122, replacement name) Psammodes [Gebien, 1937a: 771]

= Hypomelus grandis Solier, 1843: 101 [homonym of Phanerotoma grande Solier, 1843: 90 published on the same date; Gebien 1910b acted as First Reviser when he proposed the replacement name Psammodes gravis for the species Hypomelus grandis Solier, 1843: 101]

Type data. Holotype (Geneva Museum – Gory collection)

rufozonatus (Fairmaire, 1888a: 194) Trachynotus [Gebien, 1937a: 771]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

= Trachynotidus manifestus Péringuey, 1899: 297 [syn. by Péringuey (1904: 297)]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

thoreyi (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 104) Psammodes [Gebien, 1937a: 771]

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Genus Triangulipenna Louw, 1979: 114

Type species. Triangulipenna lacuna Louw, 1979 (by original designation)

lacuna Louw, 1979: 115

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum) and paratypes (Cape Museum, Windhoek Museum)

Genus Uniungulum Koch, 1962b: 113

Type species. Uniungulum hoeschi Koch, 1962 (by original designation)

hoeschi Koch, 1962b: 114

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

Subtribe Molurina Solier, 1843: 1

Type genus. Moluris Latreille, 1802

Taxonomic diversity. (15 gen., 382 spp.): Amiantus (15 sp.), Arturium (16), Brachyphrynus (11), Dichtha (5), Distretus (22), Euphrynus (4), Glyptophrynus (8), Melanolophus (11), Moluris (15), Phrynocolus (14), Phrynophanes (13), Physophrynus (8), Psammodes (169), Psammophanes (63), Psammotyria (8).

Distribution. With exception of western Africa, widely distributed in the Afrotropical Realm. Glyptophrynus is the only Malagasy representative of the whole tribe (Fig. 51).

Genus Amiantus Fåhraeus, 1870: 279

Type species. Amiantus gibbosus Fåhraeus, 1870 (by subsequent designation by Haag-Rutenberg (1871a: 45))

browni Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 47

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

connexus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 49

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum)

costipennis Kolbe, 1886: 292

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

decemcostatus (Gebien, 1910a: 156) Phrynocolus [Gebien 1937a: 757]

Type data. Holotype (Hamburg University)

gibbosus Fåhraeus, 1870: 280

Type data. Syntypes (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

globulipennis Péringuey, 1896: 167

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

= Amiantus multicostatus Fairmaire, 1899a: 181 [syn. by Gebien (1937a: 757)]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Paris Museum)

lobicollis Kolbe, 1886: 291

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

mechowi (Quedenfeldt, 1885: 6) Distretus [Gebien 1910b: 152]

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

octocostatus Péringuey, 1896: 167

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

octocristatus Fairmaire, 1899: 181

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

opacus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 49

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

pusillus Péringuey, 1904: 235

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

rusticus Fåhraeus, 1870: 280

Type data. Syntypes (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

scrobipennis Haag-Rutenberg, 1875: 68

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

undosus Distant, 1892: 199

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

Genus Arturium Koch, 1951: 83

Type species. Melanolophus ater Waterhouse, 1885 (by original designation)

absciri Koch, 1959: 7

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

ater (Waterhouse, 1885: 234) Melanolophus [Koch, 1951: 83]

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum)

Notes. Wilke (1921) suggested synonymy between Melanolophus ater Waterhouse, 1885 and M. tenuecostatus Gebien, 1910. However, this view was not accepted by Gebien (1937b, 1938) or subsequent authors (e.g., Koch (1951)).

auriculatus (Gebien, 1910a: 155) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 83]

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum)

benanum (Wilke, 1921: 167) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 83]

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum)

crispatus (Fairmaire, 1887: 184) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 83]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

= Phrynocolus undatocostatus Kolbe, 1891: 30 [syn. by Wilke (1921: 172)]

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

dallastai Ardoin, 1977: 811

Type data. Holotype and paratype (Tervuren Museum)

fiomicum (Wilke, 1921: 167) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 83]

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

fulleborni (Wilke, 1921: 167) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 83]

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

gebieni (Wilke, 1921: 168) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 83]

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum)

glauningi (Wilke, 1921: 167) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 83]

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

methneri (Wilke, 1921: 166) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 83]

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum)

parvulus (Gestro, 1895: 132) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 83]

Type data. Holotype (Genoa Museum)

pretiosum (Wilke, 1921: 167) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 83]

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum)

tenuecostatus (Gebien, 1910a: 155) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 83]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Berlin Museum)

undaticostis (Fairmaire, 1887: 183) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 83]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

wembericum (Wilke, 1921: 168) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 83]

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

Genus Brachyphrynus Fairmaire, 1882a: 71

Type species. Brachyphrynus spissicornis Fairmaire, 1882 (by monotypy)

abyssinicus abyssinicus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 39) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 85]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, British Museum)

Notes. Treated as a synonym of Psammophanes catenatus (Reiche, 1850) by Koch (1953a). However, this interpretation was not adopted by the subsequent authors (Kaszab 1963).

abyssinicus breuningi Kaszab, 1963: 348

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratypes (Budapest Museum, Tervuren Museum)

gallanus (Wilke, 1921: 163) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 85]

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

kuntzeni (Wikle, 1921: 163) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 85]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum)

petrosus erlangeri (Wilke, 1921: 164) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 85]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum)

petrosus petrosus (Gerstaecker, 1871: 59) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 85]

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

= Phrynocolus ikutanus Fairmaire, 1897: 113 [syn. by Wilke (1921: 171)]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

placidus (Kolbe, 1885: 112) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 85]

Type data. Holotype (Geneva Museum)

somalicus (Wilke, 1921: 164) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 85]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum)

spissicornis Fairmaire, 1882a: 72

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

subnodosus (Gebien, 1937b: 48) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 85]

Type data. Holotype (Trieste Museum) and paratype (Basel Museum)

wachei (Wilke, 1921: 163) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 85]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum)

Genus Dichtha Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 39

Type species. Cryptogenius inflatus Gerstacker, 1854 (by original designation)

Notes.Dichtha incantatoris / incantatoria Koch, 1952” is considered here as a nomen nudum, since no published record of this species-group name was found during the present work.

cubica (Guérin-Méneville, 1845: 285) Moluris [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 41]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

inflata (Gerstaecker, 1854: 532) Cryptogenius [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 41]

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

modesta Robiche, 2013: 159

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum) and paratypes (Paris Museum, Gérard Robiche collection)

transvalica Brancsik, 1914: 65

Type data. Syntypes (Budapest Museum)

quedenfeldti Kolbe, 1886: 293

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

Genus Distretus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 42

Type species. Moluris amplipennis Fåhraeus, 1870 (by subsequent designation by Rye (1873: 287))

Subgenus Distretus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 42

Type species. Moluris amplipennis Fåhraeus, 1870 (by subsequent designation by Rye (1873: 287))

amplipennis (Fåhraeus, 1870: 262) Moluris [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 43]

Type data. Syntypes (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

dissociatus (Péringuey, 1899: 274) Psammodes [Gebien, 1937a: 757]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

fahraei Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 43

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

inaequalis Fairmaire, 1894: 320

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum)

mashunus (Péringuey, 1896: 167) Amiantus [Gebien, 1937a: 757]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

undosus Kolbe, 1886: 291

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

undatus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1875: 69) Amiantus [Gebien, 1910b: 153]

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

variabilis Gebien, 1910a: 153

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Tervuren Musuem)

variolosus (Guérin-Méneville, 1854: 245) Moluris [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 44]

Type data. Holotype (Warsaw Museum – Dohrn coll.)

= Moluris pilicornis Fåhraeus, 1870: 263 [syn. by Fairmaire (1894: 320)]

Type data. Syntypes (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

vietus (Péringuey, 1899: 273) Psammodes [Gebien, 1937a: 757]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

Subgenus Perdistretus Koch, 1953b: 65

Type species. Distretus (Perdistretus) vilhenai Koch, 1953 (by original designation)

acutecostatus (Fairmaire, 1888b: 260) Dichtha [Koch, 1953: 65]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Leiden Museum)

angolanus Koch, 1953b: 72

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

angustipennis Péringuey, 1892: 52

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

Notes. Considered as a synonym of Perdistretus acutecostatus Fairmaire, 1888b by Gebien (1937a). However, this interpretation was not adopted by the subsequent authors (e.g., Koch 1953b: 68).

Originally described in combination with the generic name “Dichtrethus”, which is treated as an incorrect subsequent spelling of Distretus, not in prevailing usage.

auritus Koch, 1953b: 73

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

duartei Koch, 1953b: 70

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

gracilis Gebien, 1910a: 152

Type data. Syntypes (Tervuren Museum)

mormolyce Koch, 1953b: 68

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum) and paratype (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

seminitidus Quedenfeldt, 1888: 184

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

strioliceps Koch, 1953b: 71

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

schoutedeni Koch, 1954a: 435

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum)

upembensis Koch, 1954a: 437

Type data. Holotype (National Congo) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, National Congo)

vilhenai Koch, 1953b: 65

Type data. Holotype (Dundo Museum) and paratype (Ditsong Museum, Dundo Museum)

Genus Euphrynus Fairmaire, 1897: 114

Type species. Euphrynus spinithorax Fairmaire, 1897 (by monotypy)

carinatus (Fåhraeus, 1870: 281) Amiantus [Koch, 1952: 345]

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

= Amiantus costatus Péringuey, 1896: 168 [syn. by Gebien (1937a: 758)]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

jansei Koch, 1952: 343

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum)

sexdentatus Koch, 1952: 344

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratype (Basel Museum)

spinithorax Fairmaire, 1897: 114

Type data. Holotype (Geneva Museum)

Genus Glyptophrynus Fairmaire, 1899b: 532

Type species. Glyptophrynus tenuesculptus Fairmaire, 1899 (by monotypy)

Notes. Treated as a synonym of Phrynocolus by several authors (e.g., Gebien 1910b). However, this interpretation was not adopted in the more recent taxonomic works (i.e., Koch 1962a).

cordipennis Koch, 1962a: 12

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Ditsong Museum)

madecassus madecassus (Fairmaire, 1901: 183) Phrynocolus [Wilke, 1921: 174]

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum, British Museum)

madecassus pauliani Koch, 1962a: 15

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

ovipennis ovipennis (Fairmaire, 1899b: 533) Phrynocolus [Wilke, 1921: 174]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

ovipennis serricostatus Koch, 1962a: 17

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

tenuesculptus crassigranulatus Wilke, 1921: 174

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

tenuesculptus tenuesculptus Fairmaire, 1899b: 532

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Paris Museum)

voeltzkowi Wilke, 1921: 174

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

Genus Melanolophus Fairmaire, 1882a: 69

Type species. Melanolophus septemcostatus Fairmaire, 1882 (by monotypy)

Notes. Treated as a synonym of Amiantus by several authors (e.g., Fairmaire 1887, Gebien 1910b, 1937a). However, this interpretation was not adopted in the more recent taxonomic works (e.g., Koch 1956, 1960).

gridellii Koch, 1956: 170

Type data. Holotype (Trieste Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Trieste Museum)

lomianus Koch, 1956: 173

Type data. Holotype (Trieste Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Trieste Museum)

picteti picteti (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 46) Amiantus [Koch, 1960: 258]

Type data. Holotype (Geneva Museum)

picteti septemcostatus Fairmaire, 1882a: 70

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum)

Notes. Synonymised with the nominotypical form by Gestro (1883). However, this decision was not adopted by the subsequent authors (Koch 1960).

picteti splendidus Koch 1960: 257

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

praeplanatus Koch, 1960: 261

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

sexcostatus benardellii Koch, 1960: 258

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Geneva Museum, Munich Museum)

sexcostatus gibbithorax Koch, 1956: 175

Type data. Holotype (Trieste Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Trieste Museum)

sexcostatus hellardi Koch, 1960: 258

Type data. Holotype and paratype (Ditsong Museum)

sexcostatus sexcostatus (Gahan, 1900: 28) Amiantus [Koch, 1956: 175]

Type data. Holotype (British Museum)

sexcostatus tuberculatus Koch, 1960: 258

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Berlin Museum, Munich Museum, Milan Museum)

Genus Moluris Latreille, 1802: 169

Type species. Tenebrio gibbus Pallas, 1781 (by monotypy)

= Physodera Solier, 1843: 78 [junior subjective synonym proposed by Lacordaire (1859); junior homonym of Physodera Eschscholtz, 1829 (Coleoptera: Carabidae)]

Type species. Pimelia gibba Fabricius, 1787 (by original designation)

chevrolati Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 52

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

discoidea Guérin-Méneville, 1845: 286

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

Notes. According to Haag-Rutenberg (1871a), this species may be a member of Distretus.

ferrari Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 55

Type data. Holotype (Vienna Museum)

gibba (Pallas, 1781: 46) Tenebrio [Latreille, 1802: 169]

Type data. Syntypes (Humboldt University – Pallas collection)

= Pimelia planata Thunberg, 1787: 49 [syn. by Haag-Rutenberg (1871a: 53)]

Type data. Syntypes (Uppsala University)

= Pimelia gibba Fabricius, 1787: 24 [junior secondary homonym of Tenebrio gibba Pallas, 1781: 46]

Type data. Syntypes (Copenhagen Museum, Glasgow Museum, Kiel Museum)

= Pimelia bistriata Herbst, 1799: 50 [syn. by Haag-Rutenberg (1871a: 53)]

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

gibbicollis Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 107

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

gibbosa (Thunberg, 1787: 49) Pimelia [Solier, 1843: 79]

Type data. Syntypes (Uppsala University)

= Opatrum gibbosum Thunberg, 1821: 33 [syn. by Ferrer (2009: 116)]

Type data. Holotype (Uppsala University)

gibbosa globulicollis Solier, 1843: 80

Type data. Holotype (Torino Museum – Spinola coll.)

herbsti Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 54, replacement name

= Pimelia gibba Herbst, 1799: 48 [junior secondary homonym of Tenebrio gibba Pallas, 1781: 46]

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

nitida Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 52

Type data. Syntypes (Brussels Museum)

pseudonitida Péringuey, 1908: 406

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

redtenbacheri Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 56

Type data. Holotype (Vienna Museum)

rustica Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 54

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

semiscabra Solier, 1843: 81

Type data. Holotype (Torino Museum – Spinola coll.)

strigosa (Herbst, 1799: 49) Pimelia [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 55]

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

= Moluris rouleti Solier, 1843: 80 [syn. by Haag-Rutenberg (1871a: 55)]

Type data. Holotype (Geneva Museum – Gory collection)

tuberculata Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 107

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

Genus Phrynocolus Lacordaire, 1859: 201

Type species. Cryptogenius dentatus Solier, 1843 (by original designation)

Subgenus Phrynocolopsis Koch, 1951: 93

Type species. Phrynocolus frondosus Gerstacker, 1871 (original designation)

denhardti denhardti Wilke, 1921: 165 [Koch, 1951: 93]

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

denhardti fractus Koch, 1969: 13

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

denhardti humeralis Koch, 1969: 12

Type data. Holotype (Geneva Museum)

desaegeri Koch, 1969: 15

Type data. Holotype (Brussels Museum) and paratypes (Brussels Museum, Tervuren Museum)

frondosus Gerstaecker, 1871: 59 [Koch, 1951: 93]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

transversus Fairmaire, 1887: 183 [Koch, 1951: 93]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

subfrondosus Wilke, 1921: 166 [Koch, 1951: 93]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Berlin Museum)

Subgenus Phrynocolus Lacordaire, 1859: 201, replacement name

= Cryptogenius Solier, 1843: 37 [junior homonym of Cryptogenius Westwood, 1842 (Coleoptera: Hybosoridae)]

Type species. Cryptogenius dentatus Solier, 1843 (by original designation)

dentatus (Solier, 1843: 38) Cryptogenius [Lacordaire, 1859: 201]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum, Paris Museum)

felinus Koch, 1951: 89

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum)

spinolai spinolai (Solier, 1843: 39) Cryptogenius [Lacordaire, 1859: 201]

Type data. Holotype (Warsaw Museum – Dupont collection)

Notes. Koch (1951: 88) described “var. emarginatus”. He expressly gave it infrasubspecific rank since he also designated taxa at the subspecies level. Therefore, according to the art. 45.6.4. of the ICZN (1999) is should not be treated as an available subspecies.

= Phrynocolus niloticus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 38 [syn. by Koch (1951: 88)]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, British Museum)

= Phrynocolus cultratus Fairmaire, 1891a: 249 [syn. by Wilke (1921: 171)]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

spinolai wilkei Koch, 1951: 88

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Basel Museum)

theryi Koch, 1951: 89

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

Subgenus Spinophrynus Koch, 1951: 90

Type species. Phrynocolus spinipennis Gebien, 1910 (by original designation)

spinipennis Gebien, 1910a: 154

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum)

incertae sedis

menghallensis Wilke, 1922: 381

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

Notes. This species and Wilke’s (1922) publication were overlooked by Koch (1951) and therefore the correct placement of this species in one of the valid subgenera is uncertain.

Genus Phrynophanes Koch, 1951: 92

Type species. Moluris gredleri Haag-Rutenberg, 1877 (by original designation)

Notes. Originally described as a subgenus of Phrynocolus. Elevated to generic level by Koch (1960).

citernii (Gridelli, 1939b: 229) Psammodes [Koch, 1969: 21]

Type data. Holotype (Geneva Museum)

cryptisculptus Koch, 1969: 4

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

discoideus (Fairmaire, 1891b: CCXCIV) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1969: 17]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

gredleri (Haag-Rutenberg, 1877: 515) Moluris [Koch, 1951: 93]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

= Phrynocolus unicarinatus Wilke, 1921: 170 [syn. by Koch (1969: 18)]

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum)

humilis (Wilke, 1921: 170) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 93]

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

lateritius (Wilke, 1921: 169) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 93]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Berlin Museum)

neumanni (Wilke, 1921: 169) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1951: 93]

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum)

reticulatus Wilke, 1921: 169

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Berlin Museum)

schereri Koch, 1969: 20

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

scortecii Koch, 1969: 19

Type data. Holotype (Geneva Museum)

schoutedeni (Koch, 1951: 92) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1969: 24]

Type data. Holotype (Brussels Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Brussels Museum)

squamifer gridellianus Koch, 1960: 262

Type data. Holotype and paratype (Ditsong Museum)

squamifer squamifer (Gridelli, 1939b: 228) Psammodes [Koch, 1960: 262]

Type data. Syntypes (Geneva Museum, Trieste Museum)

Genus Physophrynus Fairmaire, 1882b: L

Type species. Physophrynus burdoi Fairmaire, 1882 (by monotypy)

bufo (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 48) Amiantus [Koch, 1953a: 177]

Type data. Holotype (Warsaw Museum – Dohrn coll.)

= Amiantus reichardi Kolbe, 1886: 228 [syn. by Koch (1953a: 177)]

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

burdoi Fairmaire, 1882b: L

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

bredoi Mal, 2005: 9

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Brussels Museum)

bufocrenatocostatus (Fairmaire, 1887: 181) Amiantus [Koch, 1953a: 177]

Type data. Holotype (Fairmaire collection)

haroldi (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 47) Amiantus [Koch, 1953a: 177]

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

kaszabi Koch, 1953a: 176

Type data. Holotype (Budapest Museum)

manicanus (Péringuey, 1899: 226) Amiantus [Koch, 1953a: 177]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

revoili Fairmaire, 1887: 182

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

Genus Psammodes Kirby, 1819: 412

Type species. Psammodes longicornis Kirby, 1819 (by monotypy)

= Piesomera Solier, 1843: 77 [junior subjective synonym proposed by Gebien (1937a: 759)]

Type species. Pimelia scabra Fabricius, 1775 (by monotypy)

= Psammodophysis Péringuey, 1899: 296 [junior subjective synonym proposed by Gebien (1910b: 154)]

Type species. Psammodophysis probes Péringuey, 1899 (here designated)

= Parmularia Koch, 1955: 35, syn. n. [homonym of Parmularia Macgillivray, 1887 (Bryozoa: Cheilostomida)]

Type species. Psammodes caffra Fåhraeus, 1870 (by monotypy)

Notes. Originally described as a monotypic subgenus of Psammodes. Interpreted here as a synonym of the nominal form, as sustaining a weakly defined and monotypic subgenus within present Psammodes seems to be unjustified.

algoensis Péringuey, 1899: 275

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

asperulipennis Fairmaire, 1888: 193

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

atratus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 73, in key

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 60).

basuto Koch, 1953c: 7

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Lund University, Munich Museum)

barbatus Fåhraeus, 1870: 268

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

= Psammodes praeliator Péringuey, 1899: 272 [syn. by Gebien (1937a: 765)]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

batesi Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 77

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. Treated as a synonym of Psammodes ponderosus Fåhraeus, 1870 by Péringuey (1904). However, this interpretation was not adopted by subsequent authors (Gebien 1937, Koch 1953c).

bennigseni Kraatz, 1897: 46

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

blapsoides Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 63, in key

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 43).

brunneus brunneus (Olivier, 1795: 14) Pimelia [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 42]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

brunneus rufocastaneus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 42

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

brunnipes Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 72, in key

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 54).

caelatus Péringuey, 1899: 281

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

caffra Fåhraeus, 1870: 265

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

caraboides Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 69, in key

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Cape Museum, Geneva Museum)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 50).

carinatus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 103

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

clarus Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 76

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

collaris Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 101

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

coloratus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 71, in key

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 57).

comatus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 106

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

comptus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 109

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

convexus (Solier, 1843: 91) Phanerotoma [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 61]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

coriaceus (Gerstaecker, 1854: 532) Phanerotoma [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 68]

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

= Psammodes manifestus Péringuey 1899: 274 [syn. by Gebien (1937a: 768)]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

costalis Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 97

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll., Royal Museum)

dejeani (Solier, 1843: 71) Moluris [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 92]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

depressicollis Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 72, in key

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 67).

devexus Fåhraeus, 1870: 266

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

diabolicus diabolicus Koch, 1952: 335

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratype (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

diabolicus tactilis Koch, 1962b: 123

Type data. Holotype and paratype (Ditsong Museum)

difficilis Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 73, in key

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Geneva Museum)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 61).

dilutus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 64, in key

Type data. Holotype (Warsaw Museum – Dohrn coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 80).

dimidiatus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 71, in key

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 88).

discrepans Péringuey, 1904: 230

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

dohrni Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 67, in key

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 36).

eberlanzi Koch, 1952: 337

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)and paratypes (British Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

egregius Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 74

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

ethologus Koch, 1953c: 10

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratype (Durban Museum)

expletus Quedenfeldt, 1885: 4

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

Notes. Type specimens of this species were unknown to Koch (1952); however, base on the original description he indicated this species to be a potential member of Ocnodes.

fartus Péringuey, 1904: 232

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

= Psammodes illotus Péringuey, 1904: 233 [syn. by Gebien 1937a: 764]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

Psammodes ferrugineus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 79

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum, Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

flagrans Péringuey, 1899: 273

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

fragilis Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 68, in key

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 32).

fritschi Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 103

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

funestus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 72, in key

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 79).

gariesus Péringuey, 1899: 282

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

gerstaeckeri Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 100

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

gibbus coelata (Solier, 1843: 64) Moluris [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 82]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

gibbus gibbus (Linnaeus, 1760: 226) Tenebrio [Ferrer & Holson, 2009: 30]

Type data. Lectotype, designated by Ferrer and Holson (2009) (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

= Pimelia striata Fabricius, 1775: 251 [syn. by Ferrer and Holson (2009: 34)]

Type data. Syntypes (Copenhagen Museum, Kiel Museum)

= Tenebrio glandiformis Pallas, 1781: 45 [syn. by Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 82]

Type data. Syntypes (Humboldt University – Pallas collection)

gibbus gravidus (Solier, 1843: 69) Moluris [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 85]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

gibbus hemisphaericus (Solier, 1843: 68) Moluris [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 85]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

gibbus nigrocostatus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 85

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum)

gibbus solieri Gebien, 1910b: 161, replacement name

= Moluris unicolor Solier, 1843: 64 [junior secondary homonym of Pimelia unicolor Fabricius, 1787: 316].

Type data. (Warsaw Museum – Dupont collection)

gibbus unicolor (Fabricius, 1787: 316) Pimelia [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 82]

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Kiel Museum, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

glaber Koch, 1953c: 10

Type data. Holotype (Lund University) and paratypes (Ditsong Musuem, Lund University)

glabratus bienus Koch, 1953b: 77

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

glabratus glabratus Harold, 1878: 106

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

grandis (Solier, 1843: 90) Phanerotoma [Gemminger, 1870: 122]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

= Psammodes lugubris Fåhraeus, 1870: 269 [syn. by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 58)]

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

granulatus (Solier, 1843: 87) Phanerotomea [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 53]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

granulifer Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 54

Type data. Syntypes (Geneva Museum)

guillarmodi Koch, 1952: 340

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

haagi Gebien, 1910b: 156, replacement name

= Psammodes obliteratus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 103 [junior secondary homonym of Hypomelus obliteratus Solier, 1843: 97]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

hirtipennis Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 105

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

hirtipes (Laporte, 1840: 198) Moluris [Gebien, 1910b: 159]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

= Moluris reichei Solier, 1843: 67 [syn. by Haag-Rutenberg (1871a: 78)]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

hirtus (Bertoloni, 1849: 399) Moluris [Gerstaecker, 1854: 532]

Type data. Holotype (Bologna Museum)

herculeanus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 68, in key

Type data. Syntypes (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 86).

herero Péringuey, 1908: 409

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

hottentottus Péringuey, 1899: 267

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

incongruens Péringuey, 1899: 281

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

infernalis Harold, 1878: 106

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum)

intermedius Péringuey, 1899: 272

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

janitor Koch, 1953c: 11

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum, Lund University, Rhodes University)

kamagasus Péringuey, 1908: 409

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

kirschi Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 102

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

kubub Péringuey, 1908: 408

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

kuisip Péringuey, 1908: 504

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

Notes. Originally described under the name Psammodes tuberculifer (intended redescription; page: 407). However, in erratum (page: 504), renamed kuisip.

lanuginosus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 105

Type data. Holotype (Warsaw Museum – Dohrn coll.)

lethargicus Péringuey, 1899: 284

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

laevicollis (Solier, 1843: 65) Moluris [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 78]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

longicornis Kirby, 1819: 480

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum)

= Phanerotoma ruficore Solier, 1843: 86 [syn. by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 45)]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

longipes Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 108

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

lucidus Fåhraeus, 1870: 267

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

mashunus Péringuey, 1899: 269

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

memnonius Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 50, in key

Type data. Holotype (British Museum)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 50).

mimipinguis Koch, 1953c: 9

Type data. Holotype (Lund University) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

moschleri Haag-Rutenberg, 1875: 73

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

muata Harold, 1878: 106

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum, Warsaw Museum)

mulleri Péringuey, 1899: 269

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

nigrisaxicola Koch, 1953b: 78

Type data. Holotype (British Museum)

nitens Fåhraeus, 1870: 267

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

nitidicollis Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 91

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

nitidipennis (Fairmaire, 1897: 114) Amiantus [Gebien, 1937a: 763]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

nitidissimus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 92

Type data. Holotype (Warsaw Museum – Dohrn coll.)

obsulcatus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 72, in key

Type data. Holotype (Geneva Museum)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 55).

ovatus (Solier, 1843: 90) Phanerotoma [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 62]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

ovipennis Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 102

Type data. Holotype (Warsaw Museum – Dohrn coll.)

perfidus Péringuey, 1899: 283

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

piceus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 67, in key

Type data. Syntype (Geneva Museum)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 33).

pilifer Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 69, in key

Type data. Holotype (British Museum – Bates coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 37).

pilosellus Haag-Rutenberg, 1875: 71

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum – Bates coll.)

pilosipennis Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 89

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

pilosus (Thunberg, 1787: 49) Pimelia [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 104]

Type data. Syntypes (Uppsala University)

pinguis (Solier, 1843: 70) Moluris [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 86]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

= Psammodes rotundipennis Péringuey, 1899: 268 [syn. by Gebien (1937a: 765)]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

placidus Péringuey, 1899: 280

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

plicatus (Solier, 1844: 72) Moluris [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 95]

Type data. Holotype (Marseille Museum)

plicipennis Gemminger, 1870: 1899, replacement name

= Phanerotoma plicatus Solier, 1844: 299 [homonym of Moluris plicatus Solier, 1844: 284 published on the same date; Gemminger (1870) acted as First Reviser when he proposed the replacement name Psammodes plicipennis for the species Phanerotoma plicatus Solier, 1844: 87]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

ponderosus Fåhraeus, 1870: 264

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

probes (Péringuey, 1899: 296) Psammodophysis [Gebien, 1910b: 159]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

procerus (Fåhraeus, 1870: 271) Hypomelus [Gebien, 1910b: 159]

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

procustes (Westwood, 1875: 224) Moluris [Gebien, 1910b: 159]

Type data. Holotype (Oxford University – Westwood coll.)

= Psammodes giganteus Haag-Rutenberg, 1879: 290 [syn. by Gebien (1937a: 768)]

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

productus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 101

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

profanus Péringuey, 1899: 271

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

propinquus Quedenfeldt, 1885: 5

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

protensus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 73, in key

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 62).

pubescens (Solier, 1843: 85) Phanerotomea [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 37]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

pustulifer Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 71, in key

Type data. Syntypes (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 52).

quadricostatus (Fåhraeus, 1870: 272) Hypomelus [Gebien, 1910b: 159]

Type data. Syntypes (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

raucus Haag-Rutenberg, 1875: 159

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

refleximargo (Gebien, 1920: 90) Trachynotidus [Gebien, 1937a: 771]

Type data. Holotype (Hamburg University – Michaelsen coll.)

retrospinosus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 61, in key

Type data. Syntypes (Geneva Museum, Warsaw Museum)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 29).

rotundicollis Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 69

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

rufofasciatus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 96

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum, Warsaw Museum)

rufonervosus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 96

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

rufostriatus Haag-Rutenberg, 1875: 70

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Cape Museum, Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

rugulosipennis Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 98

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

rugulosus (Solier, 1843: 93) Phanerotomea [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 49]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

= Psammodes exilis Péringuey, 1899: 280 [syn. by Péringuey (1904: 297)]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

Notes. Interpreted as a synonym of Psammodes caraboides Haag-Rutenberg, 1871 by Gebien (1937a); however, no justification was provided. It is unclear if Gebien (1937a) was aware of Péringuey’s (1904) interpretation. A detailed morphological investigation of the type material is needed to resolve the status of these species. Presently, this catalogue favours the older interpretation of Péringuey (1904).

rusticus Péringuey, 1899: 270

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

scaber (Fabricius, 1775: 251) Pimelia [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 109]

Type data. Holotype (British Museum)

scabratus scabratus (Solier, 1843: 74) Moluris [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 110]

Type data. Holotype (Warsaw Museum – Dupont collection)

scabratus gariepinus Koch, 1953c: 5

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum)

scabriusculus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 98

Type data. Syntypes (Brussels Museum)

schultzei Peinguey, 1908: 408

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

segnis Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 71, in key

Type data. Syntypes (Vienna Museum)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 49).

sellatus sellatus Haag-Rutenberg, 1875: 72

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

sellatus uriai Koch, 1953b: 75

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

semipilosus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 80

Type data. Syntypes (Geneva Museum)

= Psammodes approximans Péringuey, 1899: 270 [syn. by Gebien (1937a: 765)]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

semivillosus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 80

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

setipennis Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 107

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

solitarius Péringuey, 1899: 273

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

spiculosus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 111

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

= Psammodes karrooensis Péringuey, 1899: 267 [syn. by Gebien (1937a: 760)]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

spinosus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 62, in key

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 40).

splendens Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 73, in key

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 61).

steinhelli Haag-Rutenberg, 1878: 91

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

striatopilosus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 90

Type data. Syntypes (Geneva Museum)

subaeneus Harold, 1878: 106

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

subcostatus (Solier, 1843: 88) Phanerotomea [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 46]

Type data. Holotype (British Museum)

subgranulatus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 78

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum, Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

tenuipes (Fåhraeus, 1870: 273) Hypomelus [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 47]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

timarchoides Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 79

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

togatus Koch, 1953c: 10

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Lund University)

tomentosus (Solier, 1843: 73) Moluris [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 93]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

trachysceloides Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 72, in key

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 55).

transvaalensis Haag-Rutenberg, 1875: 81

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

=Psammodes laetulus Péringuey, 1899: 278 [syn. by Gebien (1937a: 766)]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

tricostatus (Fåhraeus, 1870: 273) Hypomelus [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 48]

Type data. Syntypes (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

= Psammodes mendax Péringuey, 1899: 283 [syn. by Gebien (1937a: 766)]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

= Psammodes praestans Péringuey, 1899: 282 [syn. by Péringuey (1904: 297)]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

Notes. Interpreted as a synonym of Hypomelus tenuipes Fåhraeus, 1870 by Gebien (1937a); however, no justification was provided. It is not clear if Gebien (1937a) was aware of Péringuey’s (1904) interpretation. A detailed morphological investigation of the type material of tenuipes, tricostatus, and its synonyms, is needed in order to resolve the status of these species. Presently, this catalogue favours the older interpretation of Péringuey (1904).

tristis Fåhraeus, 1870: 269

Type data. Syntypes (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

tuberculipennis Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 60, in key

Type data. Holotype (British Museum)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 31).

= Psammodes interventor Péringuey, 1908: 410 [syn. by Péringuey (1908: 504) in erratum of the original work]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

Notes. Gebien (1937a) treated tuberculipennis and interventor as two independent species; however, no comments were provided. It is possible that Gebien missed Péringuey’s (1908) erratum. A detailed investigation of the type specimens is needed to solve this taxonomic problem. Presently, this catalogue favours the older interpretation of Péringuey (1908).

tumidipennis Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 88

Type data. Syntypes (Geneva Museum, Warsaw Museum – Dohrn coll.)

undulatus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 102

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

uniformis uniformis Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 88

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

uniformis uniformis Koch, 1953c: 7

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Lund University, McGregor Museum, Rhodes University)

uniformis rugigaster Koch, 1953c: 7

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum) and paratypes (Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum, Stellenbosch University, Lund University)

validus Kratz, 1897: 48

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

velutinus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 87

Type data. Syntypes (Vienna Museum)

ventricosus Fåhraeus, 1870: 264

Type data. Syntypes (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

vialis tuberculifer Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 60, in key

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 31).

vialis vialis (Burchell, 1822: 305) Moluris [Gebien, 1937a: 760]

Type data. Syntypes (Oxford University – Burchell coll.)

= Moluris pierreti Amyot, 1835: 129 [syn. by Gebien (1937a: 760)]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

villosostriatus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 87

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

villosulus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 81

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

vittatus (Solier, 1843: 113) Trachynotus [Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 85]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

volvulus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 68, in key

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 37).

=Psammodes adventitus Péringuey, 1899: 299 [syn. by Péringuey, (1904: 297)]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

zschokkei Koch, 1953b: 84

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum)

Genus Psammophanes Lesne, 1922: 689

Type species. Moluris catenata Reiche, 1850 (by original designation)

Notes. Originally described as a subgenus of Psammodes, and elevated to the generic level by Koch (1953a).

Subgenus Psammolophus Koch, 1953a: 154

Type species. Psammodes acuticosta Fairmaire, 1884 (by original designation)

acuticosta (Fairmaire, 1884: LXXIV) Psammodes [Koch, 1953a: 155]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Cape Museum)

lomii (Gridelli, 1939b: 230) Psammodes [Koch, 1953a: 155]

Type data. Syntypes (Trieste Museum)

Subgenus Psammophanes Lesne, 1922: 689

Type species. Moluris catenata Reiche, 1850 (by original designation)

angulicauda (Lesne, 1922: 691) Psammodes [Lesne, 1922: 691]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

antinorii (Gridelli, 1939b: 234) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Trieste Museum)

Notes. This species was unknown to Koch (1953a). Included here within the subgenus Psammophanes based on its close affiliation to raffrayi (see Gridelli 1939b).

beccarii beccarii (Gridelli, 1939a: 105) Psammodes [Gridelli, 1939a: 105]

Type data. Holotype (Vienna Museum) and paratype (Monaco Museum)

beccarii sudanicus Koch, 1953a: 169

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

borosi Koch, 1953a: 173

Type data. Holotype (Brussels Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Brussels Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

castanopterus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1875: 69) Amiantus [Gebien 1937a: 763]

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

catenatus (Reiche, 1850: 366) Moluris [Lesne, 1922: 692]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

= Psammodes abyssinicus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 32 [syn. by Koch (1953a: 171)]

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum, Warsaw Museum)

camiadei Robiche, 2013: 157

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum) and paratypes (Paris Museum, Gérard Robiche collection)

densepunctatus Koch, 1953a: 158

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

duodecimcostatus (Lesne, 1922: 693) Psammodes [Lesne, 1922: 693]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

Notes. Originally described as a subspecies of catenatus; status elevated by Koch (1953a).

granuliger Koch, 1953a: 160

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum)

gridellii gridellii Koch, 1953a: 164

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

gridellii microsetosus Koch, 1953a: 165

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

gurannicus (Lesne, 1922: 694) Psammodes [Lesne, 1922: 694]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

impressiventris (Fairmaire, 1897: 115) Psammodes [Gebien, 1937a: 762]

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum)

kilimandjarus Koch, 1953a: 174

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum) and paratypes (Munich Museum)

leakeyi Koch, 1953a: 171

Type data. Holotype (Kenya Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum)

mirei (Pierre, 1979: 7) Psammodes comb. n.

Notes. Originally described as Psammodes (Psammophanes) mirei. According to the original description, this species is allied to Psammophanes (Psammophanes) naivashanus (Lesne, 1922). Based on this information, P. mirei is hereby included within subgenus Psammophanes.

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Paris Museum)

nairobiensis Koch, 1953a: 173

Type data. Holotype (Royan Brussels) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Brussels Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum, Kenya Museum)

naivashanus (Lesne, 1922: 690) Psammodes [Lesne, 1922: 690]

Type data. Syntypes (Budapest Museum, Paris Museum)

pilosiusculus ecostatus (Lesne, 1922: 691) Psammodes [Lesne, 1922: 691]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

pilosiusculus pilosiusculus (Gebien, 1913: 60) Psammodes [Gebien, 1937a: 763]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Munich Museum, Tervuren Museum)

pilosiusculus ruandanus Koch, 1953a: 168

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum)

plicatoides Koch, 1953a: 164

Type data. Holotype and paratype (Kenya Museum)

plicatus aethiopicus Koch, 1953a: 162

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

plicatus multilineatus Koch, 1953a: 161

Type data. Holotype (Kenya Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Munich Museum, Kenya Museum)

plicatus plicatus (Gerstaecker, 1871: 59) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1953a: 160]

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

plicatus sulcatus (Gebien 1910b, replacement name) Psammodes [Lesne, 1922: 694]

= Psammodes plicipennis Fairmaire, 1891b: CCXCIII [junior primary homonym of Psammodes plicipennis Gemminger, 1870: 1899]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

praetenuis praetenuis Koch, 1953a: 163

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

praetenuis subtomentosus Koch, 1953a: 163

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum) and paratypes (Budapest Museum, Munich Museum)

pyriformis (Gridelli, 1939b) Psammodes [Koch, 1953a: 171]

Type data. Syntypes (Trieste Museum)

raffrayi pseudocatenatus Koch, 1953a: 167

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

raffrayi raffrayi (Lesne, 1922: 694) Psammodes [Lesne, 1922: 694]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

rubrolineatus (Lesne, 1922: 693) Psammodes [Lesne, 1922: 693]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum)

sexcostatus (Gerstäcker, 1884: 54) Phrynocolus [Lesne, 1922: 691]

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

somalicus Koch, 1953a: 158

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum) and paratype (Disong Museum)

terrenus crassecostatus Koch, 1953a: 175

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

terrenus rugilineatus Koch, 1953a: 176

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratypes (National Museums of Kenya)

terrenus terrenus (Lesne, 1922: 694) Psammodes [Lesne, 1922: 694]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

vagecostatus (Fairmaire, 1882b: L) Psammodes [Koch 1953a: 169]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

Notes. Treated as a synonym of Amiantus castanopterus Haag-Rutenberg, 1875 by Gebien (1937a); however, this interpretation was not accepted by more recent reviewers (e.g., Koch 1953a: 169).

Subgenus Psammophrynopsis Koch, 1953a: 157

Type species. Phrynocolus frommi Wilke, 1921 (by original designation)

frommi (Wilke, 1921: 169) Phrynocolus [Koch, 1953a: 157]

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

Subgenus Psammophrynus Koch, 1953a: 146

Type species. Psammophanes (Psammophrynus) jokli Koch, 1953 (by original designation)

jokli Koch, 1953a: 152

Type data. Holotype (Brussels Museum) and paratypes (Budapest Museum, Brussels Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

penicillatus penicillatus Koch, 1953a: 153

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum)

penicillatus piacatus Koch, 1953a: 154

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum)

poccilator Koch, 1953a: 153

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum)

Subgenus Psammostretus Koch, 1953a: 145

Type species. Psammodes bisbicostatus Gebien, 1910 (by original designation)

bisbicostatus bisbicostatus (Gebien, 1910a: 153) Psammodes [Koch, 1953a: 147]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Tervuren Museum)

bisbicostatus leleupi Koch, 1953a: 148

Type data. Holotype (Brussels Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum)

circumscriptus Koch, 1953a: 151

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Brussels Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

erectepilosus erectepilosus Koch, 1953a: 150

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum)

erectepilosus tanganyikanus Koch, 1953a: 150

Type data. Holotype (Munchen Museum)

maculicollis Koch, 1953a: 150

Type data. Holotype (Brussels Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum)

neavei (Gebien, 1910a: 153) Psammodes [Koch, 1953a: 149]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Tervuren Museum)

punctipilus Koch, 1953a: 149

Type data. Holotype (Brussels Museum) and paratype (Tervuren Museum)

prosodoides (Gebien, 1910a: 153) Psammodes [Koch, 1953a: 151]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Cape Museum, Tervuren Museum)

Subgenus Psammotyriopsis Koch, 1953a: 144

Type species. Psammophanes (Psammotyriopsis) bredoi Koch, 1953 (by original designation)

bredoi Koch, 1953a: 144

Type data. Holotype (Budapest Museum) and paratype (Budapest Museum, Royal Brusseles)

Subgenus Somalarabes Koch, 1953a: 155

Type species. Psammodes gracilentus Fairmaire, 1882 (by original designation)

ahlmedoensis Koch, 1969: 31

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Munich Museum)

arabicus (Gebien, 1938: 58, in Schuster & Gebien, 1938) Psammodes [Koch, 1953a: 155]

Type data. Syntypes (Hamburg University)

benardellii Koch, 1965: 126

Type data. Holotype (Milan Museum)

gracilentus (Fairmaire, 1882a: 69) Psammodes [Koch, 1953a: 156]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

hemmingi Koch, 1969: 25

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum)

nogalus Koch, 1962c: 242

Type data. Holotype (Milan Museum)

Genus Psammotyria Koch, 1953a: 137

Type species. Psammodes ertli Kolbe, 1904 (by original designation)

Notes. Originally described as a subgenus of Psammodes. Elevated to generic level by Koch (1955).

attenuatus attenuatus (Fairmaire, 1887: 180) Moluris [Koch, 1953a: 142]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

= Moluris tentyrioides Fairmaire, 1891a: 249 [syn. by Koch 1953a: 142]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

attenuatus magnophthalmus (Koch, 1953a: 143) Psammodes [Koch, 1953a: 143]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

ertli ertli (Kolbe, 1904: 301) Psammodes [Koch, 1955]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Berlin Museum, Tervuren Museum)

ertli punctativentris (Koch, 1953a: 143) Psammodes [Koch, 1953a: 143]

Type data. Holotype (Budapest Museum)

ertli spinosocostatus (Kolbe, 1904: 302) Psammodes [Koch, 1955]

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

lateridens lateridens (Fairmaire, 1887: 179) Moluris [Koch, 1953a: 143]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

lateridens nyassicus (Koch, 1953a: 143) Psammodes [Koch, 1953a: 143]

Type data. Holotype (Budapest Museum)

quadriplicatus (Gebien, 1910b: 159, replacement name) Psammodes [Koch, 1953a: 141]

= Psammodes quadricostatus Fairmaire, 1891b: CCXCIII [junior secondary homonym of Hypomelus quadricostatus Fåhraeus, 1870: 272]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

Subtribe Oxurina Koch, 1955: 34

Type genus. Oxura Kirby, 1819

Taxonomic diversity. (8 gen., 63 spp.): Decoriplus (11 ssp.), Miripronotum (1), Namibomodes (4), Oxura (9), Palpomodes (4), Pterostichula (17), Stenethmus (11), Synhimba (6).

Distribution. The majority of species were described from Namibia. A small number of species of Stenethmus were described from the northern part of Tanzania, while some species of Decoriplus from Central Africa (Fig. 51).

Genus Decoriplus Louw, 1979: 120

Type species. Psammodes pictus Haag-Rutenberg, 1871 (by original designation)

aequabilis Louw, 1979: 125

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum and Windhoek Museum)

clavus Louw, 1979: 126

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Ditsong Museum)

convexus Louw, 1979: 127

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

costimargo Louw, 1979: 128

Type data. Holotype (Windhoek Museum) and paratypes (Budapest Museum, Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum, Windhoek Museum)

discicollis Louw, 1979: 130

Type data. Holotype and paratype (Ditsong Museum)

granulimargo Louw, 1979: 131

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Windhoek Museum)

hamatus Louw, 1979: 133

Type data. Holotype (British Museum) and paratypes (British Museum, New York Museum)

aequabilis hieroglyphicus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 69, in key) Psammodes [Louw, 1979: 134]

Type data. Lectotype, designated by Louw (1979) (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet) and paralectotypes (Ditsong Museum, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Warsaw Museum)

Notes.A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 81).

humerus Louw, 1979: 136

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (British Museum, Ditsong Museum, Paris Museum, Windhoek Museum)

pictus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 69, in key) Psammodes [Louw, 1979: 122]

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 80).

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

striatulus Louw, 1979: 138

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum, Paris Museum, Windhoek Museum)

Genus Miripronotum Louw, 1979: 118

Type species. Miripronotum prominoculatum Louw, 1979 (by original designation)

prominoculatum Louw, 1979: 119

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Windhoek Museum)

Genus Namibomodes Koch, 1952: 223

Type species. Psammodes serrimargo Gebien, 1938 (by original designation)

maculicollis Koch, 1962b: 111

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

rubra Koch, 1962b: 112

Type data. Holotype and paratype (Ditsong Museum)

serrimargo (Gebien, 1938a: 86) Psammodes [Koch, 1952: 221]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Bremen Museum, Cape Museum)

zarcoi Koch, 1962b: 110

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

Genus Oxura Kirby, 1819: 413

Type species. Oxura setosa Kirby, 1819 (by monotypy)

= Oxyura Agassiz, 1846: 267 [junior homonym of Oxyura Bonaparte, 1831 (Aves: Anatidae)]

Type species. Oxura setosa Kirby, 1819 (by monotypy)

Notes. Unjustified emendation of Oxura Kirby, 1819.

connexa (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 46, in key) Psammodes [Louw, 1979: 159]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum) and paratypes (Cape Museum, Paris Museum)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 35).

femoralis Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 111

Type data. Lectotype, designated by Louw (1979) and praralectotype (Munich Museum)

margoabsoluta margoabsoluta Louw, 1979: 164

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Windhoek)

margoabsoluta puncticollis Louw, 1979: 165

Type data. Holotype (Windhoek Museum) and paratypes (Pretoria University, Windhoek Museum)

punctipennis Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 111

Type data. Lectotype, designated by Louw (1979) (British Museum)

rufotibiata rufotibiata Louw, 1979: 167

Type data. Holotype (Windhoek Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum and Windhoek Museum)

rufotibiata planipennata Louw, 1979: 168

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Windhoek Museum)

setosa Kirby, 1819: 414

Type data. Lectotype, designated by Louw (1979) (Geneva Museum) and paralectotype (British Museum)

vestita Solier, 1843: 119

Type data. Holotype (Torino Museum)

Genus Palpomodes Koch, 1952: 223

Type species. Psammodes physopterus Gebien, 1920 (by monotypy)

Notes. Originally described as a subgenus of Namibomodes. Elevated to the generic level by Koch (1962b).

Subgenus Palpomodes Koch, 1952: 223

Type species. Psammodes physopterus Gebien, 1920 (by monotypy)

halophilus (Koch, 1958:57) Namibomodes [Koch, 1958: 58]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

physopterus angolensis (Koch, 1958: 58) (Namibomodes) [Koch, 1958: 58]

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

physopterus physopterus (Gebien, 1920) Psammodes [Koch, 1952: 223]

Type data. Holotype (Hamburg University – Michaelsen coll.)

Subgenus Pygmaeodes Koch, 1952: 223

Type species. Namibomodes rudebecki Koch, 1952 (by monotypy)

Notes. Originally described as a subgenus of Namibomodes.

rudebecki (Koch, 1952: 223) Namibomodes [Koch, 1952: 223]

Type data. Holotype (Lund University)

Genus Pterostichula Koch, 1952: 224

Type species. Pterostichula (Pterostichula) calathoides Koch, 1952 (by original designation)

Subgenus Pterostichula Koch, 1952: 224

Type species. Pterostichula (Pterostichula) calathoides Koch, 1952 (by original designation)

aridipaludis Louw, 1979: 146

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum) and paratype (Cape Museum, Windhoek)

broomoides Koch, 1952: 228

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum)

calathoides Koch, 1952: 227

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum) and paratypes (Agricultural Institute, Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum)

diaphana Louw, 1979: 145

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum, Windhoek Museum)

dubia Louw, 1979: 141

Type data. Holotype (Windhoek Museum) and paratype (Cape Museum, Windhoek Museum)

ellamariae Koch, 1952: 229

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

infuscata Koch, 1952: 227

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

kung Koch, 1952: 229

Type data. Holotype and paratype (Ditsong Museum)

namaqua Koch, 1952: 228

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

quarzophila Koch, 1952: 227

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

solitudo Louw, 1979: 147

Type data. Holotype (Windhoek Museum) and paratype (Cape Museum, Windhoek Museum)

Subgenus Ripicolodes Koch, 1952: 225

Type species. Pterostichula (Ripicolodes) misanthropa Koch, 1952 (by original designation)

arenicola Koch, 1952: 232

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

frontalis Koch, 1952: 232

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

misanthropa misanthropa Koch, 1952: 231

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

misanthropa kunenensis Koch, 1952: 231

Type data. Holotype and paratype (Ditsong Museum)

omurambestris Koch, 1952: 230

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

parvicollis Louw, 1979: 153

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum, Windhoek Museum)

Genus Stenethmus Gebien, 1937b: 41

Type species. Psammodes tentyriiniformis Hesse, 1935 (by original designation)

Notes. Classified within Tentyriini by Ferrer (2004b); however, no justification for this interpretation was proposed.

borealis Kaszab, 1972: 231

Type data. Holotype (Budapest Museum)

impuncticollis Gebien, 1937b: 42

Type data. Holotype and paratype (Basel Museum)

massaicus Kaszab, 1972: 231

Type data. Holotype (Budapest Museum)

orientalis Kaszab, 1972: 232

Type data. Holotype (Budapest Museum)

poggii Ferrer, 2004b: 513

Type data. Holotype (Geneva Museum)

punctipleuris Kaszab, 1972: 233

Type data. Holotype and paratype (Budapest Museum)

punctiventris Genien, 1937b: 43

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum)

rhodesianus Kaszab, 1972: 232

Type data. Holotype (Budapest Museum)

szunyoghyi Kaszab, 1972: 230

Type data. Holotype and paratype (Budapest Museum)

tentyriiniformis tentyriiniformis (Hesse, 1935: 546) Psammodes [Gebien, 1937b: 41]

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum)

tentyriiniformis septentrionalis Gebien, 1937b: 44

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum)

Genus Synhimba Koch, 1952: 216

Type species. Psammodes cordiformis Haag-Rutenberg, 1871 (by original designation)

cordiforme (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 62, in key) Psammodes [Koch, 1952: 219]

Type data. Syntypes (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 77).

hyalinum hyalinum Koch, 1952: 220

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, California Academy, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

hyalinum ovambo Koch, 1952: 220

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, California Academy, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

melancholica (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 69, in key) Psammodes [Koch, 1952: 218]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b:79).

pruinosum Koch, 1952: 219

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Barcelona Museum, Basel Museum, British Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

sculpturatum (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 62, in key) Psammodes [Koch, 1952: 219]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 78).

Subtribe Phanerotomeina Koch, 1958: 58

Type genus. Phanerotomea Koch, 1958 [junior objective synonym proposed of Ocnodes]

Taxonomic diversity. (5 gen., 177 spp.): Huilamus (1 sp.), Ocnodes (149), Psammoryssus (1), Stridulomus (1), Tarsocnodes (25).

Distribution. Widely distributed in the southern part of the Afrotropical Realm. Only two species, Ocnodes gridellii (Koch, 1960) and O. humerangula (Koch, 1952), were described north from the equator. None of the known species were reported from the Eastern Cape (Fig. 51).

Genus Huilamus Koch, 1953b: 79

Type species. Huilamus welwitschi Koch, 1953 (by original designation)

welwitschi Koch, 1953b: 80

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (British Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

Genus Ocnodes Fåhraeus, 1870: 270

Type species. Ocnodes scrobicollis Fåhraeus, 1870 (here designated)

Subgenus Chiliarchum Koch, 1954b: 263

Type species. Moluris (Phanerotoma) bertolonii Guérin-Méneville, 1844 (by original designation)

arnoldi arnoldi (Koch, 1952: 313) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Durban Museum, Rhodesia Museum)

arnoldi sabianus (Koch, 1952: 314) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

bertolonii (Guérin-Méneville, 1844: 148) Moluris [Koch, 1952: 314], comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

Notes. While describing this species, Guérin-Méneville (1844) used two forms of the name: bertolinii and bertolonii. Bertoloni (1849), the first reviewer, selected the second one.

freyi (Koch, 1952: 316) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

guerini guerini (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 71, in key) Psammodes [Koch, 1952: 314], comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Geneva Museum)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 82).

guerini lawrencii (Koch, 1954b: 265) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum) and paratypes (Cape Museum)

guerini mancus (Koch 1954b: 264) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Maputo Museum)

junodi (Péringuey, 1899: 275) Psammodes [Koch, 1952: 314], comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

= Psammodes junodi Fairmaire, 1899a: 179 [syn. by Péringuey (1904: 297)]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

Subgenus Ocnodes Fåhraeus, 1870: 270

Type species. Ocnodes scrobicollis Fåhraeus, 1870 (here designated)

Notes. This genus-group name was treated as a synonym of Psammodes (see Champion 1895: 81, Gebien 1910b: 154), and later as a subgenus of that genus (e.g., Gebien 1937a). Subsequently, Koch (1958) included the majority of Ocnodes (sensu Gebien, 1937a: 769) species (including the newly designated type species) within Phanerotomea. However, the synonymy between Ocnodes and Phanerotomea was never officially proposed.

= Phanerotoma Solier, 1843: 82 [junior homonym of Phanerotoma Wesmael 1838: 695 (Insecta: Hymenoptera)]

= Phanerotomea Koch, 1958: 58, syn. n., replacement name

Type species. Phanerotoma elongatum Solier, 1843 (by original designation)

acuductus acuductus (Ancey, 1883: 118) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

acuductus ufipanus (Koch, 1952: 301) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum, Tervuren Museum)

adamantinus (Koch, 1952: 245) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

argenteofasciatus (Koch, 1953b: 82) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

barbosai (Koch, 1952: 317), comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Cape Museum, Maputo Museum)

basilewskyi (Koch, 1952: 308), comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum)

bellmarleyi (Koch, 1952: 305), comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, British Museum, Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum, Durban Museum)

benguelensis (Koch, 1952: 276) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum) and paratype (Basel Museum, Cape Museum)

blandus (Koch, 1952: 291) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum)

brevicornis (Haag-Rutenberg, 1875: 79) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

= Psammodes rugicollis Kolbe, 1883: 23 [syn. by Koch 1952: 295]

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

brunnescens brunnescens (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 72, in key) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum, Warsaw Museum, former Dohrn coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 65).

Type deposition information after Koch (1952).

brunnescens molestus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1875: 75) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

buccinator (Koch, 1952: 295) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Brussels Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Brussels Museum, Tervuren Museum)

bushmanicus (Koch, 1952: 257) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

carbonarius (Gerstaecker, 1854: 532) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

cardiopterus (Fairmaire, 1888b: 259) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Leiden Museum)

cataractus (Koch, 1952: 290) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Rhodesia Museum)

cinerarius (Koch, 1952: 272) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum) and paratype (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum)

complanatus (Koch, 1952: 299) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Royan Brussels) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Brussels Museum)

concinnus Fåhraeus, 1870

Type data. Syntypes (Geneva Museum)

Notes. Type deposition information after Haag-Rutenberg (1781b).

confertus (Koch, 1952: 275) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum, Royal Museum)

congruens (Péringuey, 1899: 281) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

cordiventris (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 74, in key) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 71).

crocodilinus (Koch, 1952: 311) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

dimorphus (Koch, 1952: 297) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum)

distinctus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 62, in key) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, British Museum)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 44).

dolosus (Péringuey, 1899: 291) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

dorsocostatus (Gebien, 1910a: 153) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Tervuren Museum)

dubiosus (Péringuey, 1899: 287) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

ejectus (Koch, 1952: 239) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Cornell University, Ditsong Museum)

epronoticus (Koch, 1952: 246) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

erichsoni (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 63) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

ferreirae ferreirae (Koch, 1952: 238) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Agricultural Institute, Basel Museum, British Museum, California Academy, Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum)

ferreirae zulu (Koch, 1952: 239) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Durban Museum, Munich Museum)

fettingi (Haag-Rutenberg, 1875: 77) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1952).

fistucans (Koch, 1952: 260) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

fraternus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1875: 80) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

freudei (Koch, 1952: 303) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum)

fulgidus (Koch, 1952: 294) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Brussels Museum) and paratype (Basel Museum, Brussels Museum, Ditsong Museum)

funestus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 72, in key) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 79).

gemmeulus (Koch, 1952: 287) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum)

gibberosulus (Péringuey, 1908: 407) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

gibbus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1879: 292) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

= Psammodes integer Péringuey 1899: 276 [syn. by Koch 1952: 309]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

globosus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 74, in key) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 73).

= Psammodes myrmidon Péringuey, 1899: 286 [syn. by Koch 1952: 255]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

granisterna (Koch, 1952: 266) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum)

granulosicollis (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 74, in key) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (British Museum)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 77).

gridellii (Koch, 1960: 263) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Ditsong Museum)

haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Koch, 1952: 310) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

haemorrhoidalis salubris (Koch, 1952: 311) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum, Tervuren Museum)

heydeni (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 62, in key) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 41).

humeralis (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 62, in key) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 39).

humerangula (Koch, 1952: 332) Tarsocnodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

imbricatus (Koch, 1952: 256) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum)

imitator imitator (Péringuey, 1899: 289) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

Notes. Koch (1952) designated a variety named “damara” of the subspecies imitator imitator, expressly giving it infrasubspecific rank. Therefore, according to art. 45.6.4. of the ICZN (1999) is should not be treated as a subspecies.

imitator invadens (Koch, 1952: 241) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum)

inflatus (Koch, 1952: 275) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Brussels Museum, Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum)

janssensi (Koch, 1952: 292) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Brussels Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Brussels Museum, Ditsong Museum)

javeti (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 74, in key) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 66).

kulzeri (Koch, 1952: 273) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

lacustris (Koch, 1952: 291) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Brussels Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum)

laevigatus (Olivier, 1795: 15) Pimelia comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

= Pimelia marginata Herbst, 1799: 54 [syn. by Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 59]

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

= Phanerotoma elongatum Solier, 1843: 89 [syn. by Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 59]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

lanceolatus (Koch, 1953a: 177) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Museum Budapest)

licitus (Peringuey, 1899: 290) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

luctuosus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 72, in key) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 66).

luxurosus (Koch, 1952: 276) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum), and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum)

maputoensis (Koch, 1952: 244) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Tervuren Museum)

marginicollis (Koch, 1952: 282) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum) and parartype (Ditsong Museum)

martinsi (Koch, 1952: 259) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

melleus (Koch, 1952: 248) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

mendicus estermanni (Koch, 1952: 259) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum)

mendicus mendicus (Péringuey, 1899: 299) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

miles (Péringuey, 1908: 408) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

mimeticus (Koch, 1952: 320) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

misolampoides (Fairmaire, 1888b: 258) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Leiden Museum)

mixtus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 74, in key) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 73).

monacha (Koch, 1952: 267) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum)

montanus (Koch, 1952: 283) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype and paratype (Tervuren Museum)

mozambicus (Koch, 1952: 251) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum)

muliebris curtus (Koch, 1952: 286) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum)

muliebris muliebris (Koch, 1952: 285) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, British Museum, Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

muliebris silvestris (Koch, 1952: 286) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

nervosus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 74, in key) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (British Museum – Bates coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 75).

notatum (Thunberg, 1787: 48) Sepidium comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Uppsala University)

notaticollis (Koch, 1952: 263) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum)

odorans (Koch, 1952: 321) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, British Museum, California Academy, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

opacus (Solier, 1843: 91) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Warsaw Museum – Dupont collection)

osbecki (Billberg, 1815: 281) Moluris comb. n.

Type data. Lectotype, designated by Ferrer (1991) (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

= Phanerotoma suturalis Solier, 1843: 92 [syn. by Gebien 1937a: 772]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

overlaeti (Koch, 1952: 274) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratype (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum)

ovulus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 73, in key) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Geneva Museum)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 75).

= Psammodes probus Péringuey, 1899: 283 [syn. by Koch (1952: 288)]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

= Psammodes consors Péringuey, 1899: 288 [syn. by Koch (1952: 288)]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

pachysoma ornata (Koch, 1952: 261) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotypes (Munich Museum)

pachysoma pachysoma (Péringuey, 1892: 52) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

papillosus (Koch, 1952: 302) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

pedator (Fairmaire, 1888b: 257), comb. nov. Psammodes

Type data. Syntypes (Leiden Museum)

perlucidus (Koch, 1952: 246) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum)

planus (Koch, 1952: 307) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum)

pretorianus (Koch, 1952: 279) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

procursus (Péringuey, 1899: 279) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

procrustes (Westwood, 1875: 224) Moluris [Westwood, 1875: 224]

Type data. Holotype (Oxford University – Westwood coll.)

protectus (Koch, 1952: 323) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, California Academy, Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum, Dundo Museum, Munich Museum)

punctatissimus (Koch, 1952: 304) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Brussels Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Brussels Museum, Ditsong Museum)

puncticollis (Koch, 1952: 264) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Brussels Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Brussels Museum, Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum)

punctipennis planisculptus (Koch, 1952: 265) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum)

punctipennis punctipennis (Harold, 1878: 106) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

punctipleura (Koch, 1952: 306) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum) and paratype (Ditsong Museum)

rhodesianus (Koch, 1952: 292) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratype (Basel Museum, Cape Museum)

roriferus (Koch, 1952: 253) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, California Academy, Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

rowleianus (Westwood, 1864: 8979) Moluris [Westwood, 1864: 8979]

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum)

= Psammodes zoutpansbergianus Péringuey, 1904: 231 [syn. Gebien 1937a: 768]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

rufipes (Harold, 1878: 106) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum)

= Psammodes congoanus Gebien, 1920b: 7 [syn. by Koch 1952: 262]

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum)

saltuarius (Koch, 1952: 250) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

scabricollis (Gerstaecker, 1854: 532) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

scopulipes (Koch, 1952: 319) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

scrobicollis griqua (Koch, 1952: 234) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum)

scrobicollis scrobicollis Fåhraeus, 1870: 270

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet) and paratypes (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Warsaw Museum)

scrobicollis simulans (Koch, 1952: 235) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Agricultural Institute, Basel Museum, Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum, Durban Museum, Munchen Museum, Pretoria University)

semirasus (Koch, 1952: 296) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum)

semiscabrum (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 73, in key) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1952). A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 76).

= Psammodes sperabilis Peinguey, 1899: 289 [syn. by Koch (1952: 240)]

Type data. Holotypes (Cape Museum)

sericicollis (Koch, 1952: 254) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

similis (Péringuey, 1899: 291) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

sjoestedti (Gebien, 1910b: 372) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

spatulipes (Koch, 1952: 318) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

specularis (Péringuey, 1899: 286) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum, Munich Museum)

spinigerus (Koch, 1952: 269) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (California Academy) and paratypes (Basel Museum, California Academy, Ditsong Museum)

stevensoni (Koch, 1952: 284) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratype (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum)

tarsocnoides (Koch, 1952: 267) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum)

temulentus (Koch, 1952: 284) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum) and paratype (Basel Museum, Cape Museum)

tenebrosus melanarius (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 71, in key) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Geneva Museum)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 64).

tenebrosus tenebrosus (Erichson, 1843: 242) Moluris comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Humboldt University)

tibialis (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 63, in key) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 44).

torosus (Koch, 1952: 235) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Agricultural Institute, Basel Museum, Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum, Pretoria University)

transversicollis (Haag-Rutenberg, 1879: 291) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

= Psammodes cinctipennis Fairmaire, 1899: 180 [syn. with P. valens by Péringuey 1904: 297]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

= Psammodes valens Péringuey, 1899: 276 [syn. by Koch (1952: 281)]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

tumidus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 73, in key) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Notes. A detailed morphological description was provided by Haag-Rutenberg (1871b: 72).

umvumanus (Koch, 1952: 280) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

vagus (Péringuey, 1899: 288) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

vaticinus (Péringuey, 1899: 279) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

verecundus (Péringuey, 1899: 286) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

vetustus (Koch, 1952: 263) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum)

vexator (Péringuey, 1899: 287) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

virago (Koch, 1952: 236) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Agricultural Institute, Basel Museum, California Academy of Sciences, Cape Museum, Cornell University, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum, Pretoria University, Rhodesia Museum)

warmeloi (Koch, 1953b: 86) Phanerotomea comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum)

zanzibaricus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1875: 78) Psammodes comb. n.

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

Genus Psammoryssus Kolbe, 1886: 289

Type species. Psammoryssus titanus Kolbe, 1886 (by monotypy)

titanus Kolbe, 1886: 290

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

Genus Stridulomus Koch, 1955: 37

Type species. Psammodes sulcicollis Péringuey, 1885 (by monotypy)

sulcicollis (Péringuey, 1885: 110) Psammodes [Koch, 1955: 37]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

= Psammodes rehbocki Kolbe, 1904: 299 [syn. by Péringuey (1908: 395)]

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

Genus Tarsocnodes Gebien, 1920: 82

Type species. Psammodes molossa Haag-Rutenberg, 1871 (by original designation)

albarenarum Penrith, 1987: 252

Type data. Holotype (Bloemfontein Museum) and paratypes (British Museum, Ditsong Museum, Pretoria University)

aquamontis Penrith, 1987: 249

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (British Museum, Ditsong Museum, Windhoek Museum)

brendelli Penrith, 1987: 240

Type data. Holotype (British Museum) and paratypes (British Museum, Ditsong Museum)

albarenarumcompressitarsis (Müller, 1887: 299) Psammodes [Gebien, 1920: 83]

Type data. Lectotype, designated by Penrith (1986: 258) (Leiden Museum, Munich Museum)

albarenarumdilaticollis (Muller, 1887: 298) Psammodes [Gebien, 1937a: 759]

Type data. Lectotype, designated by Penrith (1986: 241) (Leiden Museum, Munich Museum)

ephialtes Koch, 1952: 334

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, British Museum, Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

errans (Péringuey, 1892: 53) Psammodes [Gebien, 1920: 83]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

Notes. In his original description, Péringuey (1892) did not indicate a collection locality, and Penrith (1987) noted that the holotype did not have locality labels. However, in the original description, Péringuey gives a size range, implying multiple specimens, and Koch (1952) specified a specimen from “Nordliches Ovamboland” as the type.

= Tarsocnodes spectabilis Gebien, 1920: 84 [syn. by Penrith (1987: 258)]

Type data. Syntypes (Hamburg University)

Notes. Type deposition information after Penrith (1987).

finitima Koch, 1952: 331

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

gracilipes Koch, 1952: 332

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

Notes. Type deposition information after Penrith (1987).

granulicauda Penrith, 1987: 242

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and Paratypes (British Museum, Ditsong Museum, Windhoek Museum)

iflundi Koch, 1952: 335

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum, California Academy)

ephialteslaevipennis (Haag-Rutenberg, 1879: 291) Psammodes [Koch, 1962d: 334]

Type data. Lectotype, designated by Penrith (1986: 239) (British Museum) and paralectotype (Munich Museum)

madida Koch, 1952: 326

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

michaelis Penrith, 1986: 247

Type data. Holotype (Windhoek Museum) and parartypes (Ditsong Museum, Windhoek Museum)

molossa (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 83) Psammodes [Gebien, 1920: 83]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

= Moluris (Phanerotoma) gravida (Westwood, 1875: 223) [syn. by. Haag-Rutenberg (1879: 290)]

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum)

monasterialis Koch, 1952: 329

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Companhia Diamantes, Ditsong Museum, Dundo Museum)

= Tarsocnodes variabilis dissoluta Koch, 1952: 330 [syn. by Penrith (1987: 246)]

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museums) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum)

= Tarsocnodes variabilis variabilis Koch, 1952: 330 [syn. by Penrith (1987: 246)]

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum, Tervuren Museum)

nielseni Ferrer, Evanno & Evanno, 2010: 195

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet) and paratype (Ferrer collection)

praegrandis horribillis Koch, 1952: 328

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

praegrandis praegrandis Koch, 1952: 327

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Brussels Museum, Companhia Diamantes, Dundo Museum, Munich Museum, Tervuren Museum)

prozeskyorum Penrith, 1986: 254

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (British Museum, Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum)

rugicollis Gebien, 1920: 85

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Munich Museum)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1952).

tarsalis (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 52) Psammodes [Gebien, 1920: 83]

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

Notes. Type deposition information after Penrith (1986).

variolata Koch, 1952: 329

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum)

vernayi Koch, 1952: 250

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

whiteheadi Penrith, 1986: 239

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Windhoek Museum)

Subtribe Sepidiina Eschscholtz, 1829: 4

Type genus. Sepidium Fabricius, 1775

Taxonomic diversity. (8 gen., 124 spp.): Dimoniacis (3 ssp.), Echinotus (2), Peringueyia (1), Sepidiopsis (3), Sepidiostenus (7), Sepidium (51), Vieta (52), Vietomorpha (5).

Distribution. Widely distributed throughout the Mediterranean area and Sub-Saharan Africa, except its western part. Majority of the species were described form from the Horn of Africa. Vieta representatives are the only species, which were described from the area south from equator, while only Sepidium species have loci tipici north from Tropic of Cancer (Fig. 51). It needs to be noted that the distributional image presented here is probably biased due to adopted methodological approach (i.e., illustration of loci typici). For many of the analysed species the original distributional information is very general (country records) and was not georeferenced here.

Genus Dimoniacis Koch, 1958: 44

Type species. Dimoniacis jacksoni Koch, 1958 (by original designation)

jacksoni Koch, 1958: 44

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

lavranosi Ardoin, 1979: 60

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Paris Museum)

puccionii Ferrer, 1995: 27

Type data. Holotype (Florence Museum)

Genus Echinotus Solier, 1843: 30

Type species. Sepidium spinicollis Laporte, 1840 (by original designation)

Notes. During the compilation of this catalog, a junior homonym of Echinotus Solier, 1843 was found: Echinotus Marwick, 1935: 301 (Type species. Avicula echinata Smith, 1817; Mollusca: Pteriidae). Ulamus Kaminski, nom. nov. is introduced here as a replacement name for the above-mentioned pteriid genus. This newly introduced name honours Stanisław Marcin Ulam, Polish-American scientist, inventor of the Monte Carlo method of computation.

natalensis Chevrolat, 1874: 331

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

spinicollis (Laporte, 1840: 197) Sepidium [Solier, 1843: 31]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

Genus Peringueyia Koch, 1958: 44

Type species. Echinotus dispar Péringuey, 1899 (by monotypy)

dispar (Péringuey, 1899: 302) Echinotus [Koch, 1958: 44]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

Genus Sepidiopsis Gestro, 1892: 771

Type species. Sepidiopsis cornigera Gestro, 1892 (by original designation)

ardoini Ferrer, 1995: 26

Type data. Holotype (Florence Museum)

cornigera Gestro, 1892: 772

Type data. Holotype (Genoa Museum)

villosa Gestro, 1892: 773

Type data. Holotype (Genoa Museum)

Genus Sepidiostenus Fairmaire, 1884: LXXV

Type species. Sepidiostenus erinaceus Fairmaire, 1884 (by monotypy)

= Sepidiacis Fairmaire, 1884: CXLVI [junior subjective synonym proposed by Gestro (1892: 775)]

Type species. Sepidiacis compressa Fairmaire, 1884 (subsequent designation by Kirby (1885: 83))

Notes. This taxon was redescribed as new by Fairmaire (1887: 185).

compressus (Fairmaire, 1884: CXLVI) Sepidiacis

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

dolichopus Gestro, 1898: 517

Type data. Holotype (Genoa Museum)

erinaceus Fairmaire, 1887: 185

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

fairmairei Gestro, 1898: 512

Type data. Holotype (Genoa Museum)

longipennis Gestro, 1898: 516

Type data. Syntypes (Genoa Museum)

pradieri (Guérin-Méneville, 1858: 128) Sepidium [Gestro, 1892: 776]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

ruspolii Gestro, 1898: 514

Type data. Holotype (Genoa Museum)

Genus Sepidium Fabricius, 1775: 250

Type species. Sepidium tricuspidatum Fabricius, 1775 (by subsequent designation by Latreille (1810: 429))

= Espidium Rafinesque, 1815: 113

Notes. Unnecessary replacement name for Sepidium Fabricius, 1775

aitagiae Escalera, 1913: 41

Type data. Holotype (Madrid Museum)

aliferum Erichson, 1841: 178

Type data. Holotype (British Museum)

= Sepidium douei Solier, 1843: 18 [syn. by Erichson (1844: 343)]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

aper Fairmaire, 1884: LXXV

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

barbarum Solier, 1843: 23

Type data. Syntypes (Warsaw Museum – Dupont collection)

= Sepidium servillei Solier, 1843: 24 [syn. by Reitter (1914: 384)]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

= Sepidium pallens Allard, 1874: 137 [syn. by Reitter (1914: 384)]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

= Sepidium barbarum solieri Desbrochers des Loges, 1881: 101 [syn. by Reitter (1914: 384)]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

bicaudatum Fairmaire, 1871: 388

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

bidentatum Solier, 1843: 15

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

bilobatum Gahan, 1900: 30

Type data. Holotype (British Museum)

boranum Mal, 1986b: 151

Type data. Holotype (Trieste Museum) and paratypes (Berlin Museum, British Museum, Budapest Museum, Tervuren Museum, Trieste Museum)

bulbiferum Gerstaecker, 1884: 55

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

brevicaudatum Fairmaire, 1882b: LI

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

capricorne Desbrochers des Loges, 1881: 96

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

Notes. Species concept after Mal (1984).

crassicaudatum Gestro, 1878: 320

Type data. Holotype (Genoa Museum)

cristatum Fabricius, 1775: 250

Type data. Syntypes (Copenhagen Museum, Kiel Museum)

= Tenebrio notoceros Pallas, 1781: 59 [syn. by Allard (1874: 143)]

Type data. Syntypes (Humboldt University – Pallas collection)

cylindrigerum Fairmaire, 1882a: 75

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

cyrenaicum Schuster, 1928: 122

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum)

dathan Crotch, 1872: 268

Type data. Holotype (Cambridge Museum)

= Sepidium abiram Crotch, 1872: 268 [syn. by Gebien (1937a: 781)]

Type data. Holotype (Cambridge Museum)

= Sepidium vietaeformis Reitter, 1914: 385 [syn. by Gebien (1937a: 781)]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Vienna Museum)

fusiforme Kwieton, 1980: 17

Type data. Holotype and paratype (Budapest Museum)

gypsicola Escalera, 1913: 42

Type data. Syntypes (Madrid Museum)

hoseini Escalera, 1911: 301

Type data. Holotype (Madrid Museum)

hystryx desertica Espanol, 1944: 12

Type data. Holotype (Barcelona Museum)

hystryx hystryx Antoine, 1932: 185

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

hystryx ifniensis Escalera, 1940: 5

Type data. Syntypes (Madrid Museum)

Notes. Escalera (1940) designated a variety “subdesertica”, expressly giving it the infrasubspecific rank. Therefore, according to the Art. 45.6.4. of the ICZN (1999) is should not be treated as a subspecies.

inaequale Reitter, 1914: 386

Type data. Syntyptes (Budapest Museum)

kaszabi Mal, 1990: 64

Type data. Holotype and paratype (British Museum)

kelleri Fairmaire, 1893: 151

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

lusitanicum Kaszab & Pinheiro, 1972

Type data. Holotype (Budapest Museum) and paratype (Madrid Museum)

magnum Gahan, 1900: 29

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (British Museum)

mali Ferrer & Martínez, 2012, replacement name

= Sepidium elongatum Mal, 1984: 200 [junior primary homonym of Sepidium elongatus Olivier, 1795: 8]

Type data. Holotype (Brussels Museum) and paratypes (British Museum, Brussels Museum, Julio Ferrer collection)

marraquense Escalera, 1911: 302

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Madrid Museum)

mesopotamicum Reitter, 1914: 386

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Vienna Museum)

mskalicum Escalera, 1914: 307

Type data. Syntypes (Madrid Museum)

obtusangulum Fairmaire, 1882a: 73

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

pagesii Fairmaire, 1894: 321

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, British Museum, Budapest Museum)

penicilligerum Karsch, 1881: 49

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

perforatum Allard, 1874: 130

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

Notes. Species concept after Mal (1984).

peyerimhoffi Antoine, 1932: 183

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Paris Museum)

reichei Allard, 1870: 49

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

= Sepidium reichei bispinicollis Reitter, 1914: 389 [syn. by Kwieton 1980: 6]

Type data. Syntypes (Budapest Museum)

requieni Solier, 1843: 29

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

ruspolii ruspolii Fairmaire, 1893: 150

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum) and paratype (Basel Museum)

ruspolii spectabile Kulzer, 1960: 309

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum)

scebelianum Mal, 1986b: 153

Type data. Holotype (Trieste Museum) and paratypes (Berlin Museum, British Museum, Budapest Museum, Tervuren Museum, Trieste Museum)

siculum Solier, 1843: 19

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

= Sepidium genei Solier, 1843: 20 [syn. by Reitter 1914: 384]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

tricuspidatum korah Crotch, 1872: 268

Type data. Holotype (Cambridge Museum)

tricuspidatum mogadoricum Escalera, 1914: 306

Type data. Syntypes (Madrid Museum)

= Sepidium immundum Reitter, 1914: 388 [syn. by Kwieton 1980: 10]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum)

= Sepidium mogadoricum guisseri Kocher, 1958: 111 [syn. by Kwieton 1980: 10]

Type data. Syntypes (Rabat Institute)

= Sepidium mogadoricum schrammi Kocher, 1958: 110 [syn. by Kwieton 1980: 10]

Type data. Syntypes (Rabat Institute)

tricuspidatum multispinosum Solier, 1843: 26

Type data. Holotype (Marseille Museum)

= Sepidium laghoatense Baudi, 1875: 695 [syn. by Kwieton 1980: 11]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum)

tricuspidatum tomentosum Erichson, 1841: 179

Type data. Syntypes (Humboldt University)

= Sepidium barthelemyi Solier, 1843: 24 [syn. by Reitter (1914: 387)]

Type data. Syntypes (Marseille Museum)

= Sepidium maillei Solier, 1843: 27 [syn. by Reitter (1914: 387)]

Type data. Syntypes (Marseille Museum)

= Sepidium serratum Solier, 1843: 28 [syn. by Kwieton 1980: 11]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

= Sepidium serratum remotum Sahlberg, 1903: 50 [syn. By Reitter (1914: 387)]

Type data. Syntypes (Helsinki University)

tricuspidatum tricuspidatum Fabricius, 1775: 250

Type data. Syntypes (Copenhagen Museum, Kiel Museum)

= Tenebrio alexandrinus Forskål, 1775: 80 [Gmelin 1790: 2008]

Type data. Syntypes (Copenhagen Museum)

= Sepidium flexuosum Solier, 1843: 25 [syn. by Reitter (1914: 386)]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

= Sepidium tricuspidatum cerisyi Solier, 1843: 26 [syn. by Reitter (1914: 386)]

Type data. Syntypes (Marseille Museum)

Notes. Originally described as a variety of the nominotypical form.

tualensis Escalera, 1940: 9

Type data. Syntypes (Madrid Museum)

uncinatum Erichson, 1841: 178

Type data. Holotype (Humboldt University)

= Sepidium mittrei Solier, 1843: 16 [syn. by Reitter (1914: 385)]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

= Sepidium mittrei bicorne Solier, 1843: 17 [syn. by Reitter (1914: 385)]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

Notes. Originally described as a variety of the nominotypical form.

= Sepidium subcornutum Escalera, 1925: 376 [syn. by Kwieton 1980: 7]

Type data. Syntypes (Madrid Museum)

= Sepidium sefrense Rotrou, 1943: 235 [syn. by Kwieton 1980: 7]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

variegatum (Fabricius, 1792: 112) Tenebrio [Solier 1843: 21]

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Kiel Museum)

= Sepidium variegatum angustatum Solier, 1843: 21 [syn. by Reitter (1916: 383)]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

= Sepidium dufouri Solier, 1843: 21 [syn. by Reitter (1914: 383)]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

= Sepidium laterale Allard, 1874: 133 [syn. by Reitter (1914: 383)]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

= Sepidium variegatum dispar Desbrochers des Loges, 1881: 101 [syn. by Reitter (1916: 383)]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

= Sepidium variegatum integrum Desbrochers des Loges, 1881: 100 [syn. by Reitter (1914: 383)]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

= Sepidium variegatum subfurcatum Desbrochers des Loges, 1881: 100 [syn. by Gebien (1910b: 170)]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

wagneri Erichson, 1841: 179

Type data. Syntypes (Humboldt University)

= Sepidium wagneri confusum Allard, 1874: 140 [syn. by Reitter (1914: 388)]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

= Sepidium wagneri macrotys Antoine, 1951a: 94 [syn. by Kwieton 1980: 13]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

Genus Vieta Laporte, 1840: 196

Type species. Sepidium vestitum Guérin-Méneville, 1831 (designated by Hope (1841: 116))

= Dymonus Solier, 1843: 7 [junior subjective synonym proposed by Lesne (1922: 696)]

Type species. Sepidium vestitum Guérin-Méneville, 1831 (by original designation)

= Divieta Reitter, 1914: 390 [junior subjective synonym proposed by Lesne (1922: 696)]

Type species. Vieta costata Allard, 1874 (by subsequent designation by Löbl and Smetana (2008: 40))

algeriana Allard, 1870: 50

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

angolensis angolensis (Quedenfeldt, 1885: 7) Sepidium [Koch, 1958: 53]

Type data. Syntypes (Humboldt University, Paris Museum)

angolensis biena Koch, 1958: 53

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (California Academy)

angolensis eduardi Koch, 1958: 54

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (California Academy)

angolensis transversa (Fairmaire, 1888b: 262) Sepidium [Koch, 1958: 53]

Type data. Holotype (Leiden Museum)

= Sepidium ovampoense Péringuey, 1892: 55 [syn. by Koch (1958: 53)]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

angustula Lesne, 1922: 697

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

aper Fairmaire, 1887: 278

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

apicorne (Fairemaire, 1882: 75) Sepidium [Koch, 1958: 42]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

borana Gridelli, 1939a: 114

Type data. Syntypes (Trieste Museum)

bulbifera Fairmaire, 1897: 116

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

clypeata Gahan, 1896: 454

Type data. Holotype (British Museum)

cornutipennis Gebien, 1937b: 37

Type data. Holotype (Trieste Museum) and paratype (Basel Museum, Trieste Museum)

costata Allard, 1874: 149

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum)

crinita Allard, 1882: LXXXVII

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

= Sepidium zambezianum Péringuey, 1892: 123 [syn. by Koch (1958: 52)]

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum and Paris Museum)

deckerti Ferrer, 2004a: 217

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

erecticollis Ancey, 1881b: 461

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

erosa Allard, 1882: LXXXVII

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum)

furcifera (Gerstaecker, 1884: 55) Sepidium [Gebien, 1937b: 56]

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

gracilenta Ancey, 1881a: 397

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

grisea Gridelli, 1939a: 421

Type data. Syntypes (Trieste Museum)

grixonii Gestro, 1895: 375

Type data. Holotype (Genoa Museum)

hamaticollis (Fairmaire, 1887: 277) Sepidium [Koch, 1958: 43]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

holdhausi Reitter, 1914: 391

Type data. Holotype (Vienna Museum)

lacunosa Fairmaire, 1894: CCLII

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum)

longehirta (Fairmaire, 1887: 277) Sepidium [Koch, 1958: 43]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

longepilosa Fairmaire, 1891b: CCXCIV

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

luctuosa Fairmaire, 1894: 392

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

lutulenta Gestro, 1895: 143

Type data. Holotype (Genoa Museum)

luxorii Allard, 1874: 150

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

millingenii Kirchsberg, 1877: 203

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum)

montana Fairmaire, 1894: 392

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

muscosa (Gerstaecker, 1871: 60) Sepidium [Koch, 1958: 43]

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

ovalis Allard, 1874: 149

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, British Museum)

pallidicornis Koch, 1958: 219

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum) and paratypes (Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum)

protensa Fairmaire, 1891b: CCXCV

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

punctipennis Reitter, 1914: 390

Type data. Holotype (Vienna Museum)

ramosipilus Koch, 1958: 219

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum)

rendiliana Lesne, 1922: 696

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

robusta Lesne, 1922: 697

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

russoi Gebien, 1937b: 38

Type data. Holotype (Trieste Museum) and paratype (Basel Museum, Museo Civico Filangieri)

senegalensis dongolensis Laporte, 1840: 197

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

Notes. Taxonomic concept after Gebien (1937b: 56)

= Dymonus dufossei Solier, 1843: 10 [syn. by Baudi (1876: 32)]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

senegalensis senegalensis (Klug, 1835: 40)

Type data. Syntypes (Humboldt University)

= Sepidium vestitum Guérin-Méneville, 1831: 114 [syn. by Allard (1874: 145)]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

sexcornuta (Fairmaire, 1897: 115) Sepidium [Koch, 1958: 42]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

speculifera Gebien, 1910a: 158

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Tervuren Museum)

spiculosa (Gerstaecker, 1884: 55) Sepidium [Gebien, 1937b: 56]

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

subcaudata Lesne, 1922: 696

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

tuberculata (Solier, 1844: 11) Dymonus [Koch, 1958: 43]

Type data. Holotype (Torino Museum – Spinola coll.)

= Dymonus gibbicollis Solier, 1843: 12 [syn. by Reitter 1914: 390]

Type data. Holotype (Warsaw Museum – Dupont collection)

tuberosa Fairmaire, 1882a: 76

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

uncigera Ancey, 1881b: 461

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

vietomorphoides Kwieton, 1978: 11

Type data. Holotype (Prague Museum)

villosula (Fairmaire, 1882a: 74) Sepidium [Koch, 1958: 42]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

zavatartii Gridelli, 1939a: 110

Type data. Syntypes (Trieste Museum)

Genus Vietomorpha Fairmaire, 1887: 186

Type species. Vietomorpha foveipennis Fairmaire, 1887 (by monotypy)

abyssinica Mal, 1986a: 17

Type data. Holotype (Brussels Museum) and paratypes (British Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum, Ohio State, Tervuren Museum, Paris Museum)

bartolozzii Mal, 1986a: 19

Type data. Holotype and paratype (Florence Museum)

crassipes Mal, 1986a: 16

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (British Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum, Paris Museum)

foveipennis Fairmaire, 1887: 186

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum)

= Vietomorpha arabica Schuster & Gebien, 1938: 59 [syn. by Gridelli (1953: 44)]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum)

tuberosa (Fairmaire, 1882a: 76) Vieta [Mal, 1986a: 21]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

= Vieta senegalensis somalica Gebien, 1937b: 41 [syn. by Mal (1986a: 21)]

Type data. Syntypes (Genoa Museum)

Subtribe Trachynotina Koch, 1955: 34

Type genus. Trachynotus Latreille, 1828

Taxonomic diversity. (10 gen., 218 spp.): Cyrtoderes (5 ssp.), Epairopsis (4), Ethmus (30), Histrionotus (2), Microphligra (1), Ossiporis (11), Oxycerus (1), Somaticus (148), Trachynotus (15), Trichethmus (1).

Distribution. Widely distributed in the southern part of the Afrotropical Realm (south from equator) (Fig. 51).

Genus Cyrtoderes Dejean, 1834: 181

Type species. Sepidium lacunosum Thunberg, 1784 (by subsequent designation by Bousquet & Bouchard (2013: 45); syn of Tenebrio cristatus DeGeer, 1778)

= Phligra Laporte, 1840: 197 [junior objective synonym; see Bousquet & Bouchard (2013: 45)]

Type species. Phligra degeeri Laporte, 1840 (by monotypy); syn of Tenebrio cristatus DeGeer, 1778.

cristatus cristatus (DeGeer, 1778: 653) Tenebrio [Bousquet & Bouchard, 2013: 45]

Type data. Syntypes (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

= Sepidium lacunosum Thunberg, 1787: 48 [syn. by Haag-Rutenberg (1871a: 35)]

Type data. Syntypes (Uppsala University)

= Brachycerus cristatus Fabricius, 1798: 161 [syn. by Alonso-Zarazaga (2014: 73)]

Type data. Holotype (Lund University)

= Brachycerus areolatus Thunberg, 1799: 31 [syn. by Thunberg (1813: 399)]

Type data. Syntypes (Uppsala University)

= Phligra degeeri Laporte, 1840: 197 [syn. by Haag-Rutenberg (1871a: 35)]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

= Cyrtoderes curculioides Solier, 1843: 36 [syn. by Haag-Rutenberg (1871a: 35)]

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

cristatus nigritus Solier, 1843: 35

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

cristatus sinuosus Solier, 1843: 34

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

crucifera (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871a: 35) Phligra [Bousquet & Bouchard, 2013: 45]

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

hamaticollis (Péringuey, 1904: 235) Phligra [Bousquet & Bouchard, 2013: 45]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

Genus Epairopsis Koch, 1955: 47

Type species. Trachynotus frontalis Haag-Rutenberg, 1873 (by original designation)

deckerti Ferrer, 2004: 193

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

frontalis frontalis (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 43) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 47]

Type data. Syntypes (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Warsaw Museum)

= Epairops laevigata Péringuey, 1892: 55 [syn. by Gebien (1920: 99)]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

frontalis variegata (Péringuey, 1892: 55) Epairops [Gebien (1920: 99)]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

superbus Koch 1958: 217

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

Genus Ethmus Haag-Rutenberg-Rutenberg, 1873: 44

Type species. Ethmus maculatus Haag-Rutenberg, 1873 (by subsequent designation by Gebien (1937a: 778))

= Tynthlobia Fairmaire 1888b: 261 [junior subjective synonym proposed by Fairmaire (1891a: 250)]

Type species. Tynthlobia quadricostata Fairmaire, 1888 (by monotypy)

Subgenus Ethmomerus Koch, 1954b: 243

Type species. Ethmus (Ethmomerus) subcylindricus Koch, 1954 (by original designation)

brevis Koch, 1954b: 261

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) and paratypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum)

subcylindricus Koch, 1954b: 259

Type data. Holotype (British Museum) and paratypes (British Museum, Ditsong Museum)

Subgenus Ethmophobes Koch, 1954b: 244

Type species. Ethmus latus Haag-Rutenberg, 1873 (by original designation)

herero herero Koch, 1958: 32

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Ditsong Museum)

herero pronamibensis Koch, 1958: 32

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Ditsong Museum)

latus bisbicostatus Koch, 1958: 30

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

latus kaokoanus Koch, 1958: 30

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

latus latus Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 45 [Koch 1954b: 244]

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

paradisiacus angolanus Koch, 1958: 33

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Ditsong Museum)

paradisiacus formosus Koch, 1958: 33

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

paradisiacus paradisiacus Koch, 1958: 28

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

vernayi vernayi Koch, 1958: 26

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

vernayi reductus Koch, 1958: 28

Type data. Holotypes and paratypes (Ditsong Museum)

vernayi marginatus Koch, 1958: 28

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

Subgenus Ethmus Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 44

Type species. Ethmus maculatus Haag-Rutenberg, 1873 (by subsequent designation by Gebien (1937a: 778))

acinopoides Koch, 1954b: 247

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum) paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum)

analis Gebien, 1910a: 150

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum)

barbosai Koch, 1954b: 241

Type data. Holotype (Maputo Museum)

borgesi Koch, 1958: 21

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

cinereosparsus Gebien, 1910a: 151

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum)

dollmani Koch, 1954b: 248

Type data. Holotype (British Museum) and paratypes (British Museum, Ditsong Museum)

gedyei Koch, 1954b: 252

Type data. Holotype (British Museum) and paratypes (British Museum, Ditsong Museum)

maculatus Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 45

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum, Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

nyassicus Koch, 1954b: 249

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Munich Museum)

plicatus Müller, 1887: 300

Type data. Holotype (Leiden Museum)

pygidialis Koch, 1954b: 253

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

pustulatus Koch, 1954b: 257

Type data. Holotype (National Congo) and paratypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum, National Congo)

quadricostatus (Fairmaire, 1888b: 261) Tynthlobia [Koch 1954b: 254]

Type data. Holotype (Leyden Museum)

sculptus Koch, 1954b: 255

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

silvanus Koch, 1958: 22

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

tessellatus Koch, 1958: 24

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

incertae sedis

incostatus Gebien, 1910a: 150

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Tervuren Museum)

Notes. Species unknown to Koch (1954, 1958).

Genus Histrionotus Koch, 1955: 44

Type species. Trachynotus lightfooti Péringuey, 1892 (by original designation)

lightfooti (Péringuey, 1892: 122) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 44]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

omercooperi Koch, 1955: 43

Type data. Koch (1955) did not provide any details concerning the type series. Therefore, a lectotype designation is needed to fix the taxonomic status of the genus and the species. Lectotype, designated here, “Aus, Gt. Namaqualand. / 17.IX.1950 / C. Koch, G. van Son”. Paralectotypes (Basel Museum, British Museum, Tervuren Museum).

Notes. Although Koch (1955: 44) states that Histrionotus was described as a monotypical genus (for lightfooti) he intentionally describes Histrionotus omercooperi on the preceding page.

Genus Microphligra Koch, 1955: 47

Type species. Phligra minuta Péringuey, 1904: (by original designation)

Notes. In caption of plate 9 in his paper from 1955 Koch introduced the second representative of Microphligra: “Microphligra (Paraphligra) succulentium (subg. nov. in litt. sp. nov. in litt.)”. A habitus of this beetle is presented in the preceding page. However, Koch did not specify any characters separating this new entity from the Microphligra minuta, therefore this cannot be treated as a valid description according to the regulations of the ICZN (1999).

minuta (Péringuey 1904: 236) Phligra [Koch, 1955: 47]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

Genus Ossiporis Pascoe, 1866: 451

Type species. Ossiporis terrena Pascoe, 1866 (by monotypy)

= Epairops Fåhraeus, 1870: 282 [syn. by Gebien (1937b: 37)]

Type species. Epairops fragilis Fåhraeus, 1870 (by monotypy)

angolensis Koch, 1953b: 86

Type data. Holotype (British Museum) and paratype (Ditsong Museum)

capeneri Koch, 1953d: 7

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (British Museum)

crenulimargo Koch, 1953d: 26

Type data. Holotype (British Museum) and paratypes (British Museum, Brussels Museum, Ditsong Museum)

marshalli Koch, 1953d: 24

Type data. Holotype (British Museum)

taterae Koch, 1953d: 2

Type data. Holotype (Tervuren Museum)

terrena chubbi Koch, 1953d: 25

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Durban Museum)

terrena fragilis (Fåhraeus, 1870: 282) Epairops [Gebien, 1937b: 37]

Type data. Lectotype, designated by Ferrer (2004a) (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet) and paralectotypes (British Museum, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

terrena terrena Pascoe, 1866: 452

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum, British Museum)

terrena rhodesiana Koch, 1953d: 8

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (British Museum, Ditsong Museum, Rhodesia Museum)

terrena zoutpansbergensis Koch, 1953d: 28

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Ditsong Museum)

undulicostis Koch, 1953d: 6

Type data. Holotype (Rhodesia Museum)

Genus Oxycerus Koch, 1955:46

Type species. Trachynotus resolutus Péringuey, 1904 (by original designation)

resolutus (Péringuey, 1904: 234) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 46]

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

Genus Somaticus Hope, 1840: 117

Type species. Sepidium rugosum Fabricius, 1781 (by original designation)

Subgenus Acromaticus Koch, 1955: 143

Type species. Sepidium acuminatum Quensel, 1806 (by original designation); syn. of Sepidium striatum Thunberg, 1787

adventitus (Péringuey, 1899: 229) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 169]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

albanyensis Koch, 1955: 164

Type data. Holotype (British Museum)

algoensis Koch, 1955: 153

Type data. Syntypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

bisinuatus Koch, 1955: 155

Type data. Syntypes (Ditsong Museum)

caviventris Koch, 1955: 158

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

cohaerens Koch, 1955: 166

Type data. Syntypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

corallipes Koch, 1955: 157

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

dimorphus Koch, 1955: 172

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Cape Museum)

georgensis Koch, 1955: 166

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

hirundo Koch, 1955: 159

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum) and paratypes (Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum)

Notes. Koch (1955: 159) designated a variety named “rubripes”. The author expressly gave it infrasubspecific rank, since he also designated taxa at the subspecies level. Therefore, according to art. 45.6.4. of the ICZN (1999) is should not be treated as a subspecies.

karrooensis Koch, 1955: 164

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

licinoides (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 7) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 176]

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum)

= Trachynotus rusticus Péringuey, 1899: 300 [syn. by Gebien (1937a: 773)]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

malaisei Koch, 1955: 172

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, British Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

marlothi Koch, 1955: 17

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

moerens (Haag-Rutenberg, 1879: 294) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 162]

Type data. Holotype (British Museum)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1955).

namaquensis Koch, 1955: 170

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

nitens (Péringuey, 1899: 298) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 171]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

nollothensis Koch, 1955: 158

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

praephallatus frigidorae Koch, 1955: 162

Type data. Syntypes (Ditsong Museum)

praephallatus praephallatus Koch, 1955: 161

Type data. Holotype and paratype (Ditsong Museum)

punctiger (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 15) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 156]

Type data. Holotype (Museum Berlin)

purcelli Koch, 1955: 151

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

saxicola Koch, 1955: 177

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

scaber (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 15) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 175]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

striatus (Thunberg, 1787: 48) SepidiumSepidium [Ferrer, 2009: 114]

Type data. Holotype (Uppsala University)

= Sepidium acuminatus Quensel, 1806: 130 [syn. by Ferrer (2009: 114)]

Type data. Syntypes (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

suturalifer Koch, 1955: 151

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

transmontanus Koch, 1955: 167

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

vansonianus Koch, 1955: 154

Type data. Syntypes (Ditsong Museum)

Subgenus Bechuanitis Koch, 1955: 93

Type species. Trachynotus brucki Haag-Rutenberg, 1873 (by original designation)

Trachynotus bohemani bohemani (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 11) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 94]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum) and paratype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1955).

bohemani gaerdesi Koch, 1955: 95

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

bohemani scherzi Koch, 1955: 96

Type data. Syntypes (Ditsong Museum)

brucki brucki (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 13) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 93]

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1955).

brucki ovamboanus Koch, 1955: 104

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

brucki poweri (Hesse, 1935: 554) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 104]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1955).

cinctus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 12) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 97]

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1955).

geniculatus geniculatus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 21) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 99]

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Munich Museum)

geniculatus hessei Koch, 1955: 101

Type data. Syntypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

geniculatus pluricostatus Koch, 1955: 100

Type data. Syntypes (Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

hereroensis Koch, 1955: 99

Type data. Holotype (University Lund)

rugulosicollis (Hesse, 1935: 554) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 102]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum)

Subgenus Ceromelaephus Koch, 1955: 87

Type species. Trachynotus badeni Haag-Rutenberg, 1873 (by original designation)

badeni (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 10) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 87]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

= Trachynotus scrobiculatus Péringuey, 1885: 110 [syn. by Gebien (1937a: 773)]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

seminitidus Koch, 1955: 89

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Budapest Museum, Cape Museum, Naturhistoriska riksmuseum)

Trachynotus strangulatus arborarius Koch, 1955: 92

Type data. Syntypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

Trachynotus strangulatus auobensis Koch, 1955: 93

Type data. Holotype and paratypes (Ditsong Museum)

Trachynotus strangulatus patzelti Koch, 1955: 92

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratype (California Academy of Science)

Trachynotus strangulatus rehobothensis Koch, 1955: 92

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Cape Museum)

Trachynotus strangulatus strangulatus (Gebien, 1920: 92) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 90]

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum)

Trachynotus wahlbergi ausensis Koch, 1955: 90

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum) and paratype (Ditsong Museum)

Trachynotus wahlbergi wahlbergi (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 10) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 89]

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseum)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1955).

Subgenus Clinocranion Solier, 1843: 114

Notes. While describing this genus Solier (1843) used two following forms of the name, Clinocranion and Clynocranion. Koch (1955: 70), the first reviewer, selected the first one.

Treated as a subgenus of Trachynotus (e.g., Gebien 1920), while the current interpretation proposed by Koch (1955).

Type species. Clinocranion spinosum Solier, 1843 (by subsequent designation by Lucas (1920: 190))

planatus drukeri Koch, 1955: 73

Type data. Syntypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum)

planatus planatus (Solier, 1843: 116) Clinocranion [Koch, 1955: 72]

Type data. Holotype (Geneva Museum – Gory collection)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1955).

planatus subdamarensis Koch, 1955: 73

Type data. Holotypes and paratypes (Ditsong Museum)

spinosus (Solier, 1843: 115) Clinocranion [Koch, 1955: 71]

Type data. Holotype (Geneva Museum)

Subgenus Diacis Koch, 1955: 105

Type species. Trachynotus regalis Haag-Rutenberg, 1875 (original designation)

angustus (Péringuey, 1886: 125) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 106]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

distinctus (Péringuey, 1892: 54) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 105]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

regalis (Haag-Rutenberg, 1875: 82) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 106]

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

Subgenus Somaticus Hope, 1840: 117

Notes. Although the correct original spelling of this genus group name is Somaticum (Hope, 1840: 117 and errata), to our knowledge all subsequent authors have used the incorrect subsequent spelling Somaticus and that this incorrect subsequent spelling is in prevailing usage and attributed to the publication of the original spelling; therefore this genus-group name is to be preserved and deemed to be the correct original spelling (ICZN 1999, Art. 33.3.1).

Type species. Sepidium rugosum Fabricius, 1781 (by original designation)

= Gonopterus Solier, 1843: 101 [junior subjective synonym proposed by Gebien, 1910b: 163]

Type species. Sepidium rugosum Fabricius, 1781 (by monotypy)

aeneus (Solier, 1843: 111) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 82]

Type data. Syntypes (Geneva Museum)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1955).

bisbicostatus (Gebien, 1920: 93) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 86]

Type data. Neotype (Basel Museum), designated by Koch (1955: 86)

Notes. According to Koch (1955) the holotype was originally preserved in the Museum Hamburg, but was destroyed during the World War II.

decoratipes cisfluminis Koch, 1955: 81

Type data. Syntypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

decoratipes decoratipes Koch, 1955: 79

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum)

glabriventris Koch, 1955: 78

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Paris Museum)

rugosus rugosissimus Koch, 1955: 78

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

rugosus rugosus (Fabricius, 1781: 315) Sepidium [Koch, 1955: 76]

Type data. Holotype Copenhagen Museum) and paratypes (British Museum)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1955)

= Pimelia leucophrys Herbst, 1799: 115 [syn. by Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 8]

Type data. Holotype (Berlin Museum)

rugosus testaceipes Koch, 1955: 77

Type data. Syntypes (Ditsong Museum)

stali (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 18) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 85]

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

= Clinocranion latemarginatum Péringuey, 1885: 115 [syn. by Gebien (1910b: 165)]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

straminicornis Koch, 1955: 81

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

stridulatus Koch, 1955: 78

Type data. Syntypes (Budapest Museum, California Academy, Ditsong Museum, Stellenbosch University)

welwitschi Koch, 1955: 84

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum)

Subgenus Tracheloeum Hope, 1840: 116

Type species. Tracheloeum laticolle Hope, 1840 (by original designation)

carinatus cancellatus Koch, 1955: 200

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

carinatus carinatus (Solier, 1843: 109) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 199]

Type data. Holotype (Geneva Museum)

Notes. Type deposition information after Haag-Rutenberg (1871).

carinatus chevrolati (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 35) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 54]

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

contractus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 27) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 189]

Type data. Holotype (Museum Berlin)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1955).

dilatatus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 25) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 182]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

fahraeusi Koch, 1955: 185

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

Notes. Koch (1955) designates a variety “M-signatus”. Judging from the context, Koch expressively gave it the infrasubspecific rank. Therefore, according to art. 45.6.4. of the ICZN (1999) is should not be treated as a subspecies.

giganteus Koch, 1955: 194

Type data. Syntypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

hoffmanni (Haag-Rutenberg, 1878: 93) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 201]

Type data. Holotype (Stuttgart Museum)

impressicollis (Péringuey, 1885: 111) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 200]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

intermedius (Haag-Rutenberg, 1878: 92) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 195]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

laticollis (Hope, 1840: 116) Tracheloeum [Koch, 1955: 179]

Type data. Holotype (Oxford University – Hope coll.)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1955).

maculosus (Fåhraeus, 1870: 276) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 184]

Type data. Syntypes (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1955).

marginatus (Thunberg, 1787) Sepidium [Ferrer: 2009: 114]

Type data. Holotype (Uppsala University)

= Trachynotus laevis Fåhraeus, 1870: 275 [syn. by Ferrer, 2009: 114]

Type data. Syntypes (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Warsaw Museum)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1955).

= Trachnotus glaber Fåhraeus, 1870: 275 [syn. by Koch (1955: 181)]

Type data. Syntypes (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

pretorianus bushveldeus Koch, 1955: 183

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratype (Cape Museum)

pretorianus pretorianus Koch, 1955: 182

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

silphoides metallescens Koch, 1955: 194

Type data. Holotype (South African National Collection)

silphoides nigronitens Koch, 1955: 193

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum)

silphoides peringueyi Koch, 1955: 191, replacement name

= Trachynotus plicipennis Péringuey, 1899: 300 [junior primary homonym of Trachynotus plicipennis Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 38]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

silphoides silphoides (Fåhraeus, 1870: 274) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 191]

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1955).

silphoides swazicola Koch, 1955: 193

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum)

similis (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 35) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 196]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

transvaalensis Koch, 1955: 197

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum)

vittiger (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 22) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 187]

Type data. Holotype (British Museum)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1955).

Subgenus Trachyderes Koch, 1955: 112

Type species. Trachynotus bipunctatus Haag-Rutenberg, 1873 (by original designation)

albomaculatus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 41) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 142]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

= Trachynotus terrenus Péringuey, 1885: 114 [syn. by Gebien, 1937a: 773]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

barnardi Koch, 1955: 137

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

bipunctatus bipunctatus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 20) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 113]

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

bipunctatus pilosus (Péringuey, 1885: 112) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 121]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

braunsi Koch, 1955: 135

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, British Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum, Tervuren Museum)

cordipennis Koch, 1955: 136

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

dubius (Péringuey, 1885: 114) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 130]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

= Trachynotus sericeus Péringuey, 1886: 124 [syn. by Gebien, 1937a: 773]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

= Trachynotus dubius maculipennis Gebien, 1920: 99 [syn. by Koch 1955: 130]

Type data. Syntypes (Hamburg University)

dutoiti Koch, 1955: 118

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

eremicola Koch, 1955: 129

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum)

fitzsimonsi Koch, 1955: 126

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

goryi (Solier, 1843: 112) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 117]

Type data. Holotype (Geneva Museum)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1955).

gracilipes (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 19) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 128]

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

= Trachynotus attenuatus Péringuey 1886: 125 [syn. by Gebien, 1910b: 164]

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

gunvorae amnigenus Koch, 1955: 123

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

gunvorae cylindricollis Koch, 1955: 122

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

gunvorae gunvorae (Koch, 1953c: 12) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 121]

Type data. Holotype (Lund University) and paratypes (Ditsong Museum, Lund University)

haagi haagi (Péringuey, 1899: 299) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 114]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

haagi pilipeplus Koch, 1955: 116

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

incostatus (Gebien, 1920: 99) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 138]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum)

kungorum Koch, 1955: 140

Type data. Syntypes (Ditsong Museum)

plutus Koch, 1955: 134

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (California Academy, Ditsong Museum, Munich Museum)

pygmaeus (Fåhraeus, 1870: 279) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 141]

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

= Trachynotus tantillus Péringuey, 1899: 301 [syn. by Péringuey (1904: 297)]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

ratus Koch, 1955: 125

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

tentyrioides (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 24) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 124]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

= Trachynotus acuticostis Gebien 1920: 97 [syn. by Koch (1955: 124)]

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum)

tibialis (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 20) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 132]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

Notes. Koch (1955) designates a variety “nigripes”. Judging from the context, Koch expressively give it the infrasubspecific rank. Therefore, according to art. 45.6.4. of the ICZN (1999) is should not be treated as a subspecies.

zinni Koch, 1955: 133

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

Subgenus Trichotrachys Koch, 1955: 201

Type species. Trachynotus sordidus Gerstaecker, 1854 (by original designation)

angulatus (Fåhraeus, 1870: 277) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 206]

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1955).

darlingtoni Koch, 1955: 212

Type data. Syntypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

funestus (Fåhraeus, 1870: 278) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 227]

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1955).

griseus (Fåhraeus, 1870: 277) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 214]

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1955).

hispidus (Hesse, 1935: 555) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 225]

Type data. Syntype (Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum)

histrio Koch, 1955: 229

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

lutulentus lutulentus (Péringuey, 1899: 301) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 222]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

lutulentus montisdraconis Koch, 1955: 223

Type data. Syntypes (Durban Museum)

metropolis Koch, 1955: 227

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, British Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

newtoni Koch, 1955: 223

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

obscurus Koch, 1955: 208

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

schalkwykae Koch, 1955: 213

Type data. Syntypes (Pretoria University)

sinuatus Koch, 1955: 208

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum)

sordidus (Gerstaecker, 1854: 532) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 205]

Type data. Syntypes (Berlin Museum)

terricola setulosus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 31) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 216]

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum, Warsaw Museum)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1955).

terricola terricola (Fåhraeus, 1870: 278) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 215]

Type data. Syntypes (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

Notes. Type deposition information after Koch (1955).

testudo Koch, 1955: 220

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

varicollis brachythorax Koch, 1955: 211

Type data. Syntypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

varicollis disconnectus Koch, 1955: 212

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum) and paratypes (Cape Museum, Ditsong Museum)

varicollis varicollis Koch, 1955: 209

Type data. Syntypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

vestitus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 30) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 218]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

zumpti rhodesianus Koch, 1955: 220

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratype (Cape Museum)

zumpti zumpti Koch, 1955: 219

Type data. Syntypes (Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

Subgenus Trichotrichus Koch, 1955: 108

Type species. Trachynotus crinitus Haag-Rutenberg, 1873 (by original designation)

crinitus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 32) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 109]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

kraatzi kraatzi (Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 33) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 110]

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

kraatzi fulvohirtus Koch, 1955: 111

Type data. Syntypes (Basel Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

kraatzi orientalis Koch, 1955: 112

Type data. Holotype (Ditsong Museum) and paratypes (Stellenbosch University)

serratus (Péringuey, 1885: 112) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 112]

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

Subgenus Tropitrachys Koch, 1955: 229

Type species. Trachynotus peregrinator Koch, 1953a (by original designation)

peregrinator (Koch, 1953a: 179) Trachynotus [Koch, 1955: 230]

Type data. Holotype (British Museum) and paratypes (British Museum, Budapest Museum, Ditsong Museum)

tropicalis Koch, 1955: 231

Type data. Holotype (Frankfurt Museum)

incertae sedis

damarinus Péringuey, 1904: 233 [Ferrer 2000: 145]

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

Notes. Ferrer (2000) transferred this species to the genus Somaticus. However, he treated “Trachynotideus” as a valid generic name and interpreted it as a subgenus within Somaticus. This view is not shared here (see comments to the genus Trachynotidus) therefore damarinus is considered incertae sedis.

scutelliformis (Laporte, 1840: 197) Sepidium

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum)

Notes. See Koch (1955: 56) for details.

Genus Trachynotus Latreille, 1828: 579

Type species. Sepidium vittatus Fabricius, 1781 (here designated)

Notes. Trachynotus used to be attributed to Latreille (1829: 14). In that publication, Sepidium reticulatum was one of the originally included species and this species was later selected as the type species (see Hope 1840: 115). However, the present literature investigation revealed that the name Trachynotus was made available earlier (Latreille 1828). Three following species were originally included: acuminatus Quensel, 1806 (currently classified in Somaticus), clathratum (attributed to Fabricius), and vittatum Fabricius, 1781. In order to provide the nomenclatural stability the last taxon is hereby designated as a type species of Trachynotus.

= Hipomelus Dejean, 1834: 181 [junior objective synonym; see Bousquet & Bouchard (2013: 47)]

Type species. Sepidium vittatum Fabricius, 1781 (by subsequent designation by Hope (1840))

albulus Péringuey, 1886: 127

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

elongatus (Olivier, 1795: 8) Sepidium [Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 36]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

leucographus Solier, 1843: 107

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

lutosus Péringuey, 1885: 113

Type data. Syntypes (Cape Museum)

meracus Péringuey, 1899: 302

Type data. Holotype (Cape Museum)

ornatus Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 40

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

plicipennis Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 38

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

proximus Laporte, 1840: 197

Type data. Holotype (Paris Museum)

recurvus Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 38

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

reticulatus (De Geer, 1778: 651) Tenebrio [Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 2]

Type data. Holotype (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)

= Sepidium reticulatum Thunberg, 1791: 23 [syn. by Ferrer (2009: 116)]

Type data. Syntypes (Uppsala University)

sctulosus Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 31

Type data. Syntypes (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

tricostatus Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 23

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

variegatus Haag-Rutenberg, 1878: 94

Type data. Holotype (Munich Museum – Haag-Rutenberg coll.)

albulusvicinus (Haag-Rutenberg, 1871b: 51) Psammodes [Koch, 1955: 46]

Type data. Syntypes (Geneva Museum, Warsaw Museum)

vittatus (Fabricius, 1781: 315) Sepidium [Haag-Rutenberg, 1873: 5]

Type data. Syntypes (British Museum, Copenhagen Museum)

= Sepidium vittatum Thunberg, 1791: 24 [syn. by Ferrer (2009: 117)]

Type data. Syntypes (Uppsala University)

= Sepidium plicatus Wiedemann, 1823: 39 [syn. by Koch (1955: 46)]

Type data. Holotype (Humboldt University)

= Trachynotus lacunosus Solier, 1843: 110 [syn. by Haag-Rutenberg (1873: 39)]

Type data. Syntypes (Paris Museum)

Genus Trichethmus Gebien, 1937b: 45

Type species. Trichethmus lobicolis Gebien, 1937b: 45 (by monotypy)

lobicolis Gebien, 1937b: 46

Type data. Holotype (Basel Museum)

Acknowledgements

Funding for this study was provided by the NSF ARTS Program (DEB #1754630). Publication costs were covered by the funding from the Species File Group of the Illinois Natural History Survey. The authors would like to thank Yves Bousquet (Gatineau, Quebec, Canada) and Ottó Merkl (Budapest, Hungary) for providing useful nomenclatural information.

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