Catalogue
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Catalogue
Annotated nomenclator of extant and fossil taxa of the Paludomidae (Caenogastropoda, Cerithioidea)
expand article infoMarco T. Neiber, Matthias Glaubrecht
‡ Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
Open Access

Abstract

This nomenclator provides bibliographic details on all names in the family-, genus-, and species-group of the the family Paludomidae. All nomenclaturally available names are discussed including junior homonyms and objective junior synonyms as well as unavailable names such as nomina nuda, infrasubspecific names and, to some extent, also incorrect subsequent spellings. In the family-group a total of 28 names are included in the nomenclator, of which 21 are available and seven unavailable names. Of the available names in the family-group, six are invalid for nomenclatural reasons. In the genus-group a total of 57 names are included in the catalogue. Of the available names in the genus-group, 11 are invalid for nomenclatural reasons. In the species-group a total of 499 names are included, of which 463 are available, but 21 are invalid for nomenclatural reasons. All names are given in their original combination and spelling (mandatory changes are discussed and corrected spellings are provided), along with the reference to the original publication. For each family- and genus-group name, the original classification and the type genus or type species, respectively, are given. For species-group taxa the type locality and type horizon (for fossil taxa) are provided, usually as given in the original publication. A new name, Cleopatra adami nom. nov., is proposed for the fossil Cleopatra cylindrica (Adam, 1957), which is a homonym of Cleopatra cridlandi cylindrica Mandahl-Barth, 1954, and a lectotype for Cleopatra dubia Adam, 1959 is designated. A new replacement name Leloupiella nom. nov. is proposed for Stormsia Leloup, 1953 which is a homonym of Stormsia Bourguignat, 1891.

Keywords

Freshwater snails, Gastropoda, nomenclature, taxonomy, www-references

Introduction

The Paludomidae Stoliczka, 1868 is currently understood as representing taxa with a general distribution including most of tropical sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar as well as South and Southeast Asia (see Neiber and Glaubrecht 2019b who summarize the results of phylogenetic analyses presented by West and Michel 2000; Michel 2004; Wilson et al. 2004; Glaubrecht and Strong 2007; Strong et al. 2011; for a recent compilation on the diversity of family-group names available for this group and recent classifications, see also Bouchet and Rocroi 2005; Bouchet et al. 2017).

Species in this family of freshwater cerithioideans show a high diversity with regard to shell shape and ornamentation. The endemic paludomids of Lake Tanganyika have especially attracted much attention by taxonomists, early biogeographers, and evolutionary biologists because of their thalassoid (Bourguignat 1885) appearance, i.e. their resemblance to various marine gastropod families (Glaubrecht 1996, 2008; see also Glaubrecht 2009, 2011 for reviews). A large number of names have been introduced for Tanganyikan paludomids by the French malacologists J.-R. Bourguignat, the head of the so called ‘Nouvelle École’ (Dance 1970), on the basis of differences of the shell that are often hardly perceptible (Bourguignat 1885, 1888). However, being among the first to work on the gastropod fauna of the lake, several names first introduced by this author are still in use to this day, although the far greater number certainly represent individual variations that do not merit to be accepted and are thus to a large extent a burden today for taxonomists, biogeographers, and evolutionary biologists working on the paludomid fauna of Lake Tanganyika.

Although several synoptical works covering the regional diversity of Paludomidae in Africa or Asia have been published (e.g. Preston 1915b; Pilsbry and Bequaert 1927; Leloup 1953; Brown 1994; West et al. 2003), Asian members of the family are still especially in need of revision. The basic prerequisite of any taxonomic work on a specific group of organisms is the historical perspective of what is already known, or from a nomenclatural point of view, which names have already been proposed for the group in question. However, a comprehensive annotated list of paludomid names is currently unavailable. Therefore, the nomenclator presented here aims at filling this gap by providing information on all names for Recent and fossil family-, genus-, and species-group taxa introduced for Paludomidae. In addition, the present contribution is intended to facilitate future taxonomic work on Paludomidae by providing direct internet links to many important older taxonomic publications following the general outlines of the nomenclators of other groups of freshwater snails presented by Haszprunar (2014) on valvatids and Neubauer (2016) on melanopsids.

Methods

The present nomenclator includes only taxa that are, from the current perspective, members of the Paludomidae Stoliczka, 1868 and with at least some degree of plausibility (based on shell morphology, geographical and/or stratigraphical distribution) assignable to this family. Not included are, following Glaubrecht (1996), taxa referred to the genus Pyrgulifera Meek, 1877 (see Meek 1871: 294) from Cretaceous deposits of North America and Europe, which have often been associated with thalassoid Paludomidae from Lake Tanganyika or that have sometimes been included in the genus Paludomus Swainson, 1840. In the works of Deshayes (1824–1837), Heer (1861), Morelet (1864), Sandberger (1870–1875), Neumayr (1883), Cossmann (1892, 1902), and Spijkerman et al. (2015) several fossils have been described in Paludomus or later attributed to Paludomus, which are not treated here because, in our opinion, they do not belong to the Paludomidae.

Nomenclaturally available as well as unavailable names (e.g., nomina nuda or infrasubspecific names) according to the rules of the fourth edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN 1999, hereafter in brief referred to as the “Code”) with subsequent amendments (see http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted-sites/iczn/code/index.jsp) are discussed following the general outline of the nomenclators of the Valvatidae Gray, 1840 (Turton and Gray 1840: 79) by Haszprunar (2014) and the Melanopsidae Adams & Adams, 1854 (Adams and Adams 1853–1854: 309) by Neubauer (2016).

The present nomenclator is divided into three parts that cover the family group, the genus group and the species group in the sense of the Code, respectively. All names in these three parts are listed in alphabetical order, except when the same family-, genus- or species-group name was introduced more than once. In this case names are ordered chronological or in cases of simultaneously published names by page precedence. The header of a section dealing with a name is the name of the taxon with mandatory changes as regulated by the Code (Art. 32 and 34). These are presented in the corrected version without mentioning. In cases where names were spelled incorrectly in the original publication, this spelling is given under ‘Original spelling’.

The status of a name that is unavailable is denoted in square brackets behind the taxon’s name. Behind a name that is either an objective junior synonym of an available name in the genus-group, an unjustified emendation or a junior homonym, its status as an objectively invalid name is denoted in square brackets. All remaining names are nomenclaturally available. However, depending on the taxonomic opinion of a researcher, such names may be taxonomically invalid names. A proposal whether a name is currently accepted or not is not made as this is, in our opinion, the task for future revisionary work. The original reference for a name is always provided. An authorship of a name deviating from the authorship of the work in which it was published, is only accepted in cases where clear evidence exists that person(s) other than the author(s) of the work, in which the name was published, were responsible for the name (Code Art. 50.1.1 and 50.1.3). In such cases, the name(s) of the person(s) responsible for the name is/are listed directly behind the name and the author(s) of the work, in which the name was published, is/are cited under ‘Original reference’. Information on type genera and type species, where relevant, are provided including references to the selection of type species (if subsequently designated). Names exclusively based on fossils are marked by a dagger. Information on type localities and type strata (for fossils only) are usually given exactly as provided in the original reference (in quotes); only in few cases also other sources are additionally provided. Additional information is given in square brackets (e.g., country, province). All other nomenclaturally relevant issues are discussed in the ‘Remarks’ under a name; however actions of a First Reviser in the sense of the Code are only discussed in cases where simultaneously published primary homonyms or different spellings of a name in the original publication are involved. Incorrect subsequent spellings are discussed under the respective correctly spelled names whenever these were noticed.

Part 1. Family-group names

In the family-group a total of 28 names are included in the nomenclator, of which 21 are available and seven unavailable names. Of the available names in the family-group, six are invalid for nomenclatural reasons.

Bathanaliidae Ancey, 1906

Original reference. Ancey (1906b: 245–246, 250).

Type genus. Bathanalia Moore, 1898.

Buccinopsidae Nicolas, 1899 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Nicolas (1899: 519, 525).

Original spelling. Buccinopsidæ Nicolas, 1899.

Remarks. The name is apparently not based on the genus Buccinopsis Conrad, 1857 (see Conrad 1857: 158) but (following Bouchet et al. 2017: 52) introduced as a descriptive name alluding to the resemblance of species from Lake Tanganyika to the Buccinidae Rafinesque, 1815 (see Rafinesque 1815: 145).

Cancellopsidae Nicolas, 1899 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Nicolas (1899: 519, 525).

Original spelling. Cancellopsidæ Nicolas, 1899.

Remarks. Unavailable because the name is not based on a genus-group name. It was established as a series within Tanganikidae Nourry, 1898. Following Bouchet et al. (2017: 58) the name is interpreted as descriptive alluding to the resemblance of species from Lake Tanganyika to the Cancellariidae Forbes & Hanley, 1851 (see Forbes and Hanley 1851: 360).

Cleopatrinae Pilsbry & Bequaert, 1927

Original reference. Pilsbry and Bequaert (1927: 249).

Original spelling. Cleopatrinæ Pilsbry & Bequaert, 1927.

Type genus. Cleopatra Troschel, 1857.

Remarks. Elevated to family rank by Germain (1933: 30).

Giraudidae Bourguignat, 1885 [Invalid]

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 11, 61).

Original spelling. Giraudidæ Bourguignat, 1885.

Type genus. Giraudia Bourguignat, 1885.

Remarks. Invalid (Code Art. 39) because the type genus Giraudia Bourguignat, 1885 is a junior homonym of Giraudia Foerster, 1868 (Hexapoda, see Foerster 1868: 184); see also the remarks by Bouchet et al. (2017: 113).

Hauttecoeuridae Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 10, 41).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuridæ Bourguignat, 1885.

Type genus. Hauttecoeuria Bourguignat, 1885.

Remarks. Used as the name of a subfamily (with the suffix –inae) and a tribe (with the suffix –ini) by Ponder and Bouchet (2005: 249); see also the remarks by Bouchet et al. (2017: 120).

Hilacanthidae Bourguignat, 1890 [Invalid]

Original reference. Bourguignat (1890: 125).

Original spelling. Hylacanthidae Bourguignat, 1890.

Type genus. Hilacantha Ancey, 1886.

Remarks. Originally spelled Hylacanthidae based on Hylacantha which is an unjustified emendation of Hilacantha Ancey, 1886 as indicated by the derivation of the name by Bourguignat (1890: 126, footnote on that page). The earlier use of Hylacantha by Bourguignat (1888: 23–24, pl. 9) is here interpreted as an incorrect subsequent spelling as there is no evidence of an intentional change of the name. The name was introduced as a replacement name of Tiphobiidae Bourguignat, 1886 based on Tiphobia Smith, 1880, which is unjustifiedly treated as a homonym of Typhobia Pascoe, 1869 (Hexapoda; see Pascoe 1869: 279) by Bourguignat (1890: 126) (see Bouchet and Rocroi 2005: 89).

Lavigeriidae Thiele, 1925

Original reference. Thiele (1925: 79).

Type genus. Lavigeria Bourguignat, 1888.

Remarks. Used as the name of a subfamily (with the suffix –inae) by Morrison (1954: 358); see also the remarks by Bouchet et al. (2017: 138).

Limnotrochidae Ancey, 1906

Original reference. Ancey (1906b: 245–246, 250).

Type genus. Limnotrochus Smith, 1880.

Littorinidopsidae Nicolas, 1899 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Nicolas (1899: 519, 525).

Original spelling. Littorinidopsidæ Nicolas, 1899.

Remarks. The name is not based on a genus-group name. It was established as a series within Tanganikidae Nourry, 1898 by Nicolas (1899) as Littorrinidopsidae on p. 519 and as Littorinidopsidae on p. 525. Following Bouchet and Rocroi (2005: 101) and Bouchet et al. (2017: 143; as Littoridinopsidae) the name is interpreted as descriptive alluding to the resemblance of species from Lake Tanganyika to the Littorinidae Children, 1834 (see Children 1834: 110).

Muricopsidae Nicolas, 1899 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Nicolas (1899: 519, 525).

Original spelling. Muricopsidæ Nicolas, 1899.

Remarks. The name is apparently not based on the genus Muricopsis Bucquoy & Dautzenberg, 1882 (see Bucquoy et al. 1882: 16, 19) but (following Bouchet and Rocroi 2005: 112) introduced as a descriptive name alluding to the resemblance of species from Lake Tanganyika to the Muricidae Rafinesque, 1815 (see Rafinesque 1815: 144).

Nassopsidae Nicolas, 1899 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Nicolas (1899: 519, 525).

Original spelling. Nassopsidæ Nicolas, 1899.

Remarks. The name is apparently not based on the genus-group name Nassopsis Smith, 1890. It was established as a series within Tanganikidae Nourry, 1898 and following Bouchet and Rocroi (2005: 113) the name is interpreted as descriptive alluding to the resemblance of species from Lake Tanganyika to the ‘Nassaidae’ Swainson, 1835 (= Nassariidae Iredale, 1916) (see Swainson 1835: 18, 20, Iredale 1916: 82); see also the remarks by Bouchet et al. (2017: 160).

Nassopsidae Kesteven, 1903

Original reference. Kesteven (1903: 621, 634).

Type genus. Nassopsis Smith, 1890.

Remarks. Following Bouchet and Rocroi (2005: 113) the name is not accepted to be available from Nicolas (1899). Used as the name of a tribe with ending –ini Bouchet and Strong in Bouchet and Rocroi (2005: 113).

Naticidopsidae Nicolas, 1899 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Nicolas (1899: 519, 525).

Original spelling. Naticidopsidæ Nicolas, 1899.

Remarks. The name is not based on a genus-group name. It was established as a series within Tanganikidae Nourry, 1898. Following Bouchet and Rocroi (2005: 113) the name is interpreted as descriptive alluding to the resemblance of species from Lake Tanganyika to the Naticidae Guilding, 1834 (see Guilding 1834: 29); see also the remarks by Bouchet et al. (2017: 160–161).

Neritopsidae Nicolas, 1899 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Nicolas (1899: 519, 525).

Original spelling. Neritopsidæ Nicolas, 1899.

Remarks. The name used by Nicolas (1899) is apparently not based on the genus-group name Neritopsis Grateloup, 1832 (see Grateloup 1832: 125–126) and interpreted as descriptive alluding to the resemblance of species from Lake Tanganyika to the Neritidae Rafinesque, 1815 (see Rafinesque 1815: 144). Not Neritopsidae Gray, 1847 (see Gray 1847: 150).

Paludominae Stoliczka, 1868

Original reference. Stoliczka (1868: 206–207).

Type genus. Paludomus Swainson, 1840.

Remarks. Elevated to family rank by Pilsbry and Bequaert (1927: 248); used as the name of a tribe (with the suffix –eae) by Wenz (1939: 703).

Paramelaniidae Moore, 1898

Original reference. Moore (1898c: 315).

Original spelling. Paramelanidae Moore, 1898.

Type genus. Paramelania Smith, 1881.

Remarks. Stem formation in the original spelling incorrect. Used as the name of a subfamily (with the suffix –inae) by Thiele (1925: 83) and as the name of a tribe (with the suffix –eae) by Thiele (1928: 400).

Philopotamidae Stache, 1889

Original reference. Stache (1889: 107).

Type genus. Philopotamis Layard, 1855.

Remarks. Established originally as a subfamily of Melaniidae Children, 1823 (see Children 1823: 243) despite the use of the suffix –idae (see Bouchet and Rocroi 2005: 131).

Pyramidellopsidae Nicolas, 1899 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Nicolas (1899: 519, 525).

Original spelling. Pyramidellopsidæ Nicolas, 1899.

Remarks. The name is not based on a genus-group name. It was established as a series within Tanganikidae Nourry, 1898. Following Bouchet and Rocroi (2005: 148) the name is interpreted as descriptive alluding to the resemblance of species from Lake Tanganyika to the Pyramidellidae Gray, 1840 (see Gray 1840: 117, 148); see also the remarks by Bouchet et al. (2017: 211).

Reymondiinae Bandel, 1998

Original reference. Bandel (1998: 273).

Type genus. Reymondia Bourguignat, 1885.

Rissopsidae Nicolas, 1899 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Nicolas (1899: 519, 525).

Original spelling. Rissopsidæ Nicolas, 1899.

Remarks. The name is not based on a genus-group name. It was established as a series within Tanganikidae Nourry, 1898. Following Bouchet and Rocroi (2005: 152) the name is interpreted as descriptive alluding to the resemblance of species from Lake Tanganyika to the Rissoidae Gray, 1847 (see Gray 1847: 152); see also the remarks by Bouchet et al. (2017: 217).

Rumellidae Ancey, 1906

Original reference. Ancey (1906b: 245–246).

Type genus. Rumella Bourguignat, 1885.

Remarks. Used as the name of a tribe (with the suffix –ini) by Ponder and Bouchet (2005: 249) and Bouchet and Strong in Bouchet and Rocroi (2005: 161).

Spekiidae Ancey, 1906

Original reference. Ancey (1906b: 246).

Type genus. Spekia Bourguignat, 1879.

Remarks. Used as the name of a tribe (with the suffix –ini) by Ponder and Bouchet (2005: 249) and Bouchet and Strong in Bouchet and Rocroi (2005: 153). A name Spekiinae was indicated as intentionally new by Bandel (1998: 265). This represents a subsequent use of Ancey’s name, the indication as new was in error.

Syrnolopsidae Bourguignat, 1890

Original reference. Bourguignat (1890: 139).

Original spelling. Syrnolopsidæ Nicolas, 1899.

Type genus. Syrnolopsis Smith, 1880.

Remarks. Used as the name of a subfamily (with the suffix –inae) by Thiele (1928: 380), as the name of a superfamily (with suffix –oidea) by Golikov and Starborogatov (1987: 27) and as the name of a tribe (with the suffix –ini) by Ponder and Bouchet (2005: 249) and Bouchet and Strong in Bouchet and Rocroi (2005: 166).

Tanganyiciidae Nourry, 1898

Original reference. Nourry (1898: 302).

Original spelling. Tanganyikidae Nourry, 1898.

Type genus. Tanganyikia Bourguignat, 1885.

Remarks. Corrected to Tanganyiciidae Nourry, 1898 under the Code Art. 35.4.1); interpreted here as being based (by inference) on Tanganikia Bourguignat, 1885 which is an unjustified emendation for Tanganyicia Crosse, 1881. The interpretation of Bouchet and Rocroi (2005: 167) is not followed here who attribute the name to Nicolas (1899) (with year 1898) and interpret it as not being based on a genus but rather being descriptive to include all prosobranch gastropods of Lake Tanganyika. Apparently Nicolas (1899) was aware of Nourry’s (1898) introduction of the name Tanganyikidae as evidenced by the statement ‘C’est à ce point de vue que s’était placé M. Nourry, pour mettre en évidence non seulement la nécessité de réunir toutes ces formes Thalassoïdes dans une même famille, mais encore pour faire ressortir la descendance marine de la plupart des gastéropodes du Tanganyika’ (Nicolas 1899: 511 and footnote 1 on that page) and should therefore not be regarded as responsible for the name. A name Tanganyiciinae was indicated as intentionally new by Bandel (1998: 277). This represents a subsequent use of Nourry’s name, the indication as new was in error.

Tiphobiidae Bourguignat, 1886

Original reference. Bourguignat (1886: 143).

Original spelling. Tiphobidae Bourguignat, 1886.

Type genus. Tiphobia Smith, 1880.

Remarks. Stem formation in the original spelling incorrect. Used as the name of a subfamily (with the suffix –inae) by Morrison (1954: 373) and as the name of a tribe (with the suffix –ini) by Ponder and Bouchet (2005: 249) and Bouchet and Strong in Bouchet and Rocroi (2005: 172); see also the remarks by Bouchet et al. (2017: 244). A name Typhobiidae was indicated as an intentionally new name by Moore (1898c: 202) based on Typhobia (as used by Moore 1898ac), which is an incorrect subsequent spelling of Tiphobia Smith, 1880. This is interpreted to represent a subsequent use of Bourguignat’s name here and therefore the indication as new was in error. Similarly, a name Tiphobiinae was indicated as intentionally new by Bandel (1998: 262). This also represents a subsequent use of Bourguignat’s name, the indication as new was in error.

Trochidopsidae Nicolas, 1899 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Nicolas (1899: 519, 525).

Original spelling. Trochidopsidæ Nicolas, 1899.

Remarks. The name is not based on a genus-group name. It was established as a series within Tanganikidae Nourry, 1898 (see Nicolas 1899). Following Bouchet and Rocroi (2005: 176) the name is interpreted as descriptive alluding to the resemblance of species from Lake Tanganyika to the Trochidae Rafinesque, 1815 (see Rafinesque 1815: 143); see also the remarks by Bouchet et al. (2017: 250–251).

Turbinidopsidae Nicolas, 1899 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Nicolas (1899: 525).

Original spelling. Turbinidopsidæ Nicolas, 1899.

Remarks. The name is not based on a genus-group name. It was established as a series within Tanganikidae Nourry, 1898 (see Nicolas 1899). The name is interpreted here as descriptive alluding to the resemblance of species from Lake Tanganyika to the Turbinidae Rafinesque, 1815 (see Rafinesque 1815: 144).

Part 2. Genus-group names

In the genus-group a total of 57 available names are included in the catalogue. Of the available names in the genus-group, 11 are invalid for nomenclatural reasons.

The genus-group name Tanalia Gray, 1847, type species Nerita aculeata Gmelin, 1791 by original designation, which has often been used as a genus-group name in Paludomidae Stoliczka, 1868, is not included in the nomenclator because its type species belongs to the Neritidae Rafinesque, 1815 (Neiber and Glaubrecht 2019a).

Anceya Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 10, 14–15).

Type species. Anceya giraudi Bourguignat, 1885, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: feminine.

Baizea Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 10, 33–34).

Type species. Baizea giraudi Bourguignat, 1885, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: feminine.

Bathanalia Moore, 1898

Original reference. Moore (1898a: 451–452, 454–455; 1898b: 165, 174; 1898c: 189, 192, 202–203).

Type species. Bathanalia howesii Moore, 1898, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: feminine. The name Bathanalia was published simultaneously (March 1898) in three separate works by J. E. S. Moore (1998a–c). In Moore (1898a) only the spelling Bathanalia was used. In Moore (1898b) aside from the spelling Bathanalia, also the spellings Bathyanalia (p. 166, 170) and Bathynalia (p. 171), and in Moore (1998c) aside from Bathanalia, also the spelling Batanalia. In a subsequent work by the author, Moore (1898d), only the name Bathanalia was used. Therefore, Moore (1898d) is deemed here as First Reviser under the Code Art. 24.2.4 of the simultaneously published spellings of Moore (1898ac) and Bathanalia is regarded as the correct original spelling.

Bourguignatia Giraud, 1885 [Invalid]

Original reference. Giraud (1885a: 193–194).

Type species. Bourguignatia imperialis Giraud, 1885, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: feminine. Junior homonym of Bourguignatia Brusina, 1884 (Gastropoda, Neritidae; see Brusina 1884: 72).

Bridouxia Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 10, 29).

Type species. Bridouxia giraudi Bourguignat, 1885, by subsequent designation (Pilsbry and Bequaert 1927: 314).

Remarks. Gender: feminine.

Burtonilla Smith, 1904

Original reference. Smith (1904: 97).

Type species. Turbonilla terebriformis Smith, 1890, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: feminine.

Bythoceras Moore, 1898

Original reference. Moore (1898a: 451–452; 1898b: 165–166, 171).

Type species. Bythoceras iridescens Moore, 1898, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: neuter (Code Art. 30.1.2). The name Bythoceras was published simultaneously (March 1898) in two separate works by J.E.S. Moore (see Moore 1998a–b). In Moore (1898a) aside from the spelling Bythoceras also the spelling Bathoceras was used on p. 455. In Moore (1898b), only the spelling Bythoceras was used. In a subsequent work by the author, Moore (1898d), only the name Bythoceras was used. Therefore, Moore (1898d) is deemed here as First Reviser under the Code Art. 24.2.4 of the simultaneously published spellings of Moore (1898a, b) and Bythoceras is regarded as the correct original spelling.

Cambieria Bourguignat, 1885 [Invalid]

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 42, 78).

Type species. Lithoglyphus rufofilosus Smith, 1880, by subsequent designation (Bourguignat 1890: 82).

Remarks. Gender: feminine. Introduced as a subgenus of Tanganikia Bourguignat, 1885. Objective junior synonym of Tanganyicia Crosse, 1881 (same type species).

Chytra Moore, 1898

Original reference. Moore (1898d: 307).

Type species. Limnotrochus kirkii Smith, 1880, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: feminine (Code Art. 30.1.2); from Greek χύτρα (= cooking pot). Chitra as used by Riedel (1993) is an incorrect subsequent spelling.

Cleopatra Troschel, 1857

Original reference. Troschel (1856–1863: 100–101).

Type species. Cyclostoma bulimoides Olivier, 1804, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: feminine. Introduced as a subgenus of Paludina Férussac, 1812 (see Férussac 1812).

Coodea Bourguignat, 1891

Original reference. Bourguignat and Servain (1891: 165).

Type species. Rissoa ponsonbyi Smith, 1889, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: feminine. Objective junior synonym of Horea Smith, 1889 (non Horea Bourguignat, 1888) and objective senior synonym of Lechaptoisia Ancey, 1894 (same type species).

Coulboisia Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 40, 78).

Type species. Stanleya giraudi Bourguignat, 1885, by subsequent designation (Baker 1923: 174).

Remarks. Gender: feminine.

Edgaria Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 34, 78).

Type species. Tiphobia nassa paucicostata Smith, 1881, by subsequent designation (Pilsbry and Bequaert 1927: 328).

Remarks. Gender: feminine.

Ellinoria Van Damme & Pickford, 2003

Original reference. Van Damme and Pickford (2003: 11, 19, 61–62, 66, 75, fig. 50).

Type species. Ellinoria michelae Van Damme & Pickford, 2003, by original designation.

Remarks. Gender: feminine.

Ganga Layard, 1855

Original reference. Layard (1855: 88).

Type species. Paludomus dilatata Reeve, 1852, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: feminine (Code Art. 30.2.3), from Sinhalese ගඟ (= river). Only the nominal species Paludomus dilatata Reeve 1852 was originally included in the new genus Ganga by Layard (1855: 88). The nominal species Paludomus neritoides Reeve 1847 and Paludomus olivacea Reeve 1847 are deemed not to be originally included under the Code Art. 67.2.5, because their assignment to the genus was doubtful as indicated by the question marks behind the names. Hence, Paludomus dilatata Reeve 1852 is the type species of Ganga Layard, 1855, by monotypy. Gauga as used by Cossmann (1909: 126) is an incorrect subsequent spelling.

Giraudia Bourguignat, 1885 [Invalid]

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 11, 61–62).

Type species. Giraudia praeclara Bourguignat, 1885, by subsequent designation (Pilsbry and Bequaert 1927: 311).

Remarks. Gender: feminine. A junior homonym of Giraudia Foerster, 1868 (Hexapoda, see Foerster 1868: 184). Girandia is an incorrect subsequent spelling by Smith (1889).

Hauttecoeuria Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 10, 46–48).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria Bourguignat, 1885.

Type species. Hauttecoeuria soluta Bourguignat, 1885, by subsequent designation (Germain 1908: 37).

Remarks. Gender: feminine.

Hemimitra Swainson, 1840

Original reference. Swainson (1840: 199–200, 202, 340).

Type species. Paludomus retusa Swainson 1840, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: feminine. Introduced as a subgenus of Paludomus Swainson 1840. See Neiber and Glaubrecht (2019a) for the identity of the type species.

Heteropoma Benson, 1856 [Invalid]

Original reference. Benson (1856: 494).

Type species. Paludomus sulcata Reeve, 1847, by subsequent designation (Neiber and Glaubrecht 2019a).

Remarks. Gender: neuter (Code Art. 30.1.2), from Greek ἕτερο- (= other, different) and πῶμα, neuter (= lid). Objective junior synonym of Philopotamis Layard, 1855 (same type species).

Heynderycxia Van Damme & Pickford, 2003

Original reference. Van Damme and Pickford (2003: 11, 19, 59–62, 66–67, 75, 77, figs 49a–d, 54e).

Type species. Heynderycxia columellaris Van Damme & Pickford, 2003, by original designation.

Remarks. Gender: feminine.

Hilacantha Ancey, 1886 [Invalid]

Original reference. Ancey (1886: 292–293).

Type species. Tiphobia horei Smith, 1880, by monotypy for the replaced name Tiphobia Smith, 1880.

Remarks. Gender: feminine (Code Art. 30.1.2), from Greek ὕλη- (= wooden) and ἄκανθα, feminine (= thorn, spine). Unnecessary nom. nov. pro Tiphobia Smith, 1880. Hylacantha (Bourguignat 1888: 23–24, pl. 9) is an incorrect subsequent spelling, Hylacantha (Bourguignat 1890: 126) is an unjustified emendation.

Hirthia Ancey, 1898

Original reference. Ancey (1898: 142).

Type species. Hirthia littorina Ancey, 1898, by subsequent designation (Pilsbry and Bequaert 1927: 328).

Remarks. Gender: feminine. Hirtia as used by Van Damme and Pickford (2003) is an incorrect subsequent spelling.

Horea Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 27–28).

Type species. Horea tanganikana Bourguignat, 1888, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: feminine.

Horea Smith, 1889 [Invalid]

Original reference. Smith (1889: 175).

Type species. Rissoa ponsonbyi Smith, 1889, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: feminine. Established as a subgenus of Rissoa Desmarest, 1814 (Desmarest 1814: 7). Invalid, junior homonym of Horea Bourguignat, 1888. The name Horea was introduced independently by Bourguignat (1888) and Smith (1889) for different taxa in honour of Captain Edward Coode Hore.

Hylacantha Bourguignat, 1890 [Invalid]

Original reference. Bourguignat (1890: 126).

Remarks. Gender: feminine, see Remarks under Hilacantha Ancey, 1886. Unjustified emendation of Hilacantha Ancey, 1886 as evidenced by the derivation of the name by Bourguignat (1890: 126, footnote on that page), see also Martens (1891: 7–8). The earlier use of Hylacantha by Bourguignat (1888: 23–24, pl. 9) is here interpreted as an incorrect subsequent spelling of Hilacantha Ancey, 1886 as there is no evidence of an intentional change of the name. Tylacanæha (Nicolas 1899: 512) is here also regarded as an incorrect subsequent spelling, although hardly recognizable anymore, of Hylacantha Bourguignat, 1890. The work of Nicolas (1899) contains numerous typesetting errors and apparently that author was aware of the name Tiphobia introduced by Smith (1880a) and its replacement name Hilacantha introduced by Ancey (1886) in the emendated form Hylacantha by Bourguignat (1890) as suggested by the statement “L’énumeration se continue par un genre des plus caracteristques, Tiphobia ou Tylacanæha, qui par l’opercule est une Melanidæ, tandis que l’absence d’épiderme l’en sépare, d’eû une grande indecision pour cette espèce” (Nicolas 1899: 512) in combination with the synonymous usage of the names Hylacantha longirostris and Tiphobia longirostris (Nicolas 1899: 515).

Joubertia Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 32, 78).

Type species. Paramelania baizeana Bourguignat, 1885, by subsequent designation (Pilsbry and Bequaert 1927: 324).

Remarks. Gender: feminine.

Lavigeria Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 31, 33–34, 78).

Type species. Tiphobia nassa grandis Smith, 1881, by subsequent designation (Pilsbry and Bequaert 1927: 324).

Remarks. Gender: feminine. Lavigieria is an incorrect subsequent spelling by Martens (1891: 9).

Lechaptoisia Ancey, 1894 [Invalid]

Original reference. Ancey (1894: 29).

Type species. Rissoa ponsonbyi Smith, 1889, by typification of replaced name.

Remarks. Gender: feminine. Nom. nov. pro Horea Smith, 1889. Objective junior synonym of Coodea Bourguignat, 1891 (same type species).

Leloupiella nom. nov

http://zoobank.org/17726764-61CF-4026-905E-7149C3B1E6EF

Type species. Giraudia minima Smith, 1908, by typification of the replaced name.

Remarks. New replacement name for the preoccupied name Stormsia Leloup, 1953 (not Stormsia Bourguignat, 1891). See also Remarks under Stormsia Bourguignat, 1891 and Stormsia Leloup, 1953.

Limnotrochus Smith, 1880

Original reference. Smith (1880b: 425).

Type species. Limnotrochus thomsoni Smith, 1880, by subsequent designation (Pilsbry and Bequaert 1927: 318).

Remarks. Gender: masculine.

Martelia Dautzenberg, 1908

Original reference. Dautzenberg (1908: 328).

Type species. Martelia tanganyicensis Dautzenberg, 1908, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: feminine.

Mysorelloides Leloup, 1953

Original reference. Leloup (1953: 25, 87–92, 115, 232, pI. 5, fig. 3, figs 11, 41, 42, 57K, 62, 72CC)

Type species. Bithynia multisulcata Bourguignat, 1888, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: feminine, originally combined with a feminine adjectival species-group name (Code Art. 30.1.4.4).

Nassopsidia Martens, 1897

Original reference. Martens (1897: 208).

Type species. Paramelania crassilabris Bourguignat, 1885, by subsequent designation (Pilsbry and Bequaert 1927: 328).

Remarks. Gender: feminine. Introduced as a subgenus of Paramelania Smith, 1881.

Nassopsis Smith, 1890 [Invalid]

Original reference. Smith (1890: 93).

Type species. Tiphobia nassa grandis Smith, 1881, by original designation.

Remarks. Gender: feminine (Code Art. 30.1.2), from Latin nassa, feminine (= weel) and Greek ὄψις, feminine (= appearance). Objective junior synonym of Lavigeria Bourguignat, 1888 (same type species).

Odontochasma Tomlin, 1930

Original reference. Tomlin (1930: 23).

Type species. Tanalia stomatodon Benson, 1862, by monotypy for the replaced name Stomatodon Benson, 1862.

Remarks. Gender: neuter (Code Art. 30.1.1). Nom. nov. pro Stomatodon Benson, 1862 (non Stomatodon Seeley, 1861).

Paludomus Swainson, 1840

Original reference. Swainson (1840: 198–201, 210, 340).

Type species. Melania conica Griffith & Pidgeon, 1833 in Griffith and Pidgeon (1833–1834) (non Melania conica Say, 1821, see Say 1821: 176–177), by subsequent designation (Gray 1847: 155).

Remarks. Gender: feminine (Code Art. 30.1.1), from Latin palus, feminine (= swamp) and domus, feminine (= house). Swainson (1840) also combined the name with feminine adjectival species-group names. Paludimus as used by Kobelt (1909) is an incorrect subsequent spelling.

Paramelania Smith, 1881

Original reference. Smith (1881b: 559).

Type species. Tiphobia damoni Smith, 1881, by subsequent designation (Bourguignat 1890: 162).

Remarks. Gender: feminine. Introduced as a subgenus of Tiphobia Smith, 1880. The subsequent designation of the same taxon as type species of Paramelania Smith, 1881 by Pilsbry and Bequaert (1927: 320) is invalid. Paramellania as used by Moore (1903) is an incorrect spelling.

Philopotamis Layard, 1855

Original reference. Layard (1855: 88–89).

Type species. Paludomus sulcata Reeve, 1847, by subsequent designation (Nevill 1884: 297).

Remarks. Gender: feminine (Code Art. 30.1.3). Cossmann (1909: 126) gave as type species Philopotamis regalis Layard, 1855; this act is invalid.

Ponsonbya Ancey, 1890

Original reference. Ancey (1890: 347).

Type species. Ponsonbya leucoraphe Ancey, 1890, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: feminine.

Potadomoides Leloup, 1953

Original reference. Leloup (1953: 102–105).

Type species. Potadomoides pelseneeri Leloup, 1953, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: masculine (Code Art. 30.1.4.4).

Pseudocleopatra Thiele, 1928

Original reference. Thiele (1928: 394).

Type species. Pseudocleopatra togoensis Thiele, 1928, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: feminine.

Randabelia Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 31, 78).

Type species. Paramelania hamyana Bourguignat, 1885, by subsequent designation (Pilsbry and Bequaert 1927: 327).

Remarks. Gender: feminine.

Reymondia Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 11, 61–62).

Type species. Melania horei Smith, 1880, by subsequent designation (Pilsbry and Bequaert 1927: 312).

Remarks. Gender: feminine. Attributed to Giraud, in litt. but J.-R. Bourguignat alone was responsible for the name.

Rivulina Lea & Lea, 1851

Original reference. Lea and Lea (1851: 196–197).

Type species. Melania modicella Lea & Lea, 1851, by subsequent designation (Neiber and Glaubrecht 2019a).

Remarks. Gender: feminine.

Rumella Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 11, 89–90).

Type species. Rumella giraudi Bourguignat, 1885, by subsequent designation (Baker 1923: 174).

Remarks. Gender: feminine.

Spekia Bourguignat, 1879

Original reference. Bourguignat (1879: 27–28).

Type species. Lithoglyphus zonatus Woodward, 1859, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: feminine. Spekea as used by Hoyle (1886: 88) and Martens (1891: 8) are incorrect subsequent spellings.

Stanleya Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 11, 86–87).

Type species. Lithoglyphus neritinoides Smith, 1880, by original designation.

Remarks. Gender: feminine. The name Stanleya neritoides as used by Bourguignat (1885, 1888) has to be interpreted as an incorrect subsequent spelling of the name of the nominal taxon Lithoglyphus neritinoides Smith, 1880 and should not be regarded (as e.g. by Ancey 1906b: 254 or Baker 1923: 174) as a newly introduced name by Bourguignat (1888) (although the author attributed the taxon to himself in that publication) because Bourguignat (1885: 87, footnote) explicitly referred to Smith (1880: 426) and Smith (1881: 287) and also used the misspelled name Lithoglyphus neritoides in the synonymy when first using the name Stanleya neritoides. Therefore, Stanleya is here interpreted as not having been introduced again by Bourguignat (1888) and the fixation of Stanleya neritoides with author Bourguignat (1888) by Baker (1923: 174) is not valid.

Stomatodon Benson, 1862 [Invalid]

Original reference. Benson (1862: 414).

Type species. Tanalia stomatodon Benson, 1862, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: masculine (Code Art. 30.1.2), from Greek στόμα, neuter (= mouth) and ὀδών, masculine (= tooth). The name Stomatodon Benson, 1862 was conditionally proposed by Benson (1862: 414). Benson (1862: 414) stated: “Unfortunately, all the specimens were deficient in the operculum, which, when examined, may possibly authorize its transfer to a new genus, in which case the specific name may fairly be employed to designate it.” And further below on the page and on the next page: “Stomatodon seems partly to supply one of the absent links, inasmuch as its operculum must necessarily be provided with a basal projection, while its constriction is also likely to be unguiculate.” Stomatodon Benson, 1862 is, however, a junior homonym of Stomatodon Seeley, 1861 (see Seeley 1861: 293; Gastropoda, Ringiculidae Philippi, 1853, see Philippi 1853: 190). It has been replaced by Odontochasma Tomlin, 1930 (see Tomlin 1930: 23 and Neiber and Glaubrecht 2019a).

Stormsia Bourguignat, 1891

Original reference. Bourguignat and Servain (1891: 165).

Type species. Syrnolopsis carinifera Smith, 1889, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: feminine. See also Remarks under Stormsia Leloup, 1953.

Stormsia Leloup, 1953 [Invalid]

Original reference. Leloup (1953: 217–219).

Type species. Giraudia minima Smith, 1908, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: feminine. Stormsia Leloup, 1953 is a junior homonym of Stormsia Bourguignat, 1891. Stormsia Bourguignat, 1891 was made available in a note in a biographic and bibliographic work (Servain and Bourguignat 1891) and has been overlooked by most subsequent authors. Although Stormsia Bourguignat, 1891 has, to our knowledge, not been used as an accepted name since its introduction, it had been mentioned by Pilsbry and Bequaert (1927) and Germain (1919b) in the synonymy of Syrnolopis Smith, 1880. Both, Bourguignat and Leloup apparently dedicated their generic names to Émile Pierre Joseph Storms who established a European presence in the Lake Tanganyika region. Leloup (1953) explicitly introduced Stormsia as a new generic name for the single nominal taxon Giraudia minima Smith, 1908, while Bourguignat in Bourguignat and Servain (1891) had introduced Stormsia for the nominal taxon Syrnolopsis carinifera Smith, 1889. The name Stormsia with direct reference to Leloup (1953) has been used by Brown (1980, 1994), Bandel (1998, 2006), West et al. (2003), Robertson (2007), Glaubrecht (2008), Wagner et al. (2009), and Neiber and Glaubrecht (2019b). The name Stormsia minima (Smith, 1908) has been used by Brown and Mandahl-Barth (1987), Glaubrecht (1994, 1996), Baillie and Groombridge (1996), Alin et al. (1999), Irvine and Donohue (1999), Allison et al. (2000), West and Michel (2000), Van Damme and Pickford (2003), Glaubrecht and Strong (2004), Wilson et al. (2004), Levêque et al. (2006), Strong and Glaubrecht (2007), Avanesyan (2008), Strong and Glaubrecht (2008), Fermon (2009), Nicayenzi et al. (2010), and Brown (2014), but the generic name was unfortunately not referenced by these authors and is therefore, although probable, not without doubt attributable to Leloup (1953). Thus, the conditions of the Code (Art 23.9.1.1 and Art. 23.9.1.2) are, in our opinion, not met. The new replacement name Leloupiella nom. nov. is therefore proposed to honour Eugène Leloup’s contributions to the systematics of the malacofauna of Lake Tanganyika; gender: feminine.

Syrnolopsis Smith, 1880

Original reference. Smith (1880b: 217–219).

Type species. Syrnolopsis lacustris Smith, 1880, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: feminine, see Remarks under Nassopsis Smith, 1890. Syznolopsis (Nicolas 1899: 510) is an incorrect subsequent spelling.

Taeniodomus Krause, 1897

Original reference. Krause (1887: 209, 213–214).

Type species. Taeniodomus gracilis Krause, 1897, by subsequent designation (Cossmann 1898: 105).

Remarks. Gender: feminine, see Remarks under Paludomus Swainson, 1840.

Tanganikia Bourguignat, 1885 [Invalid]

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 10, 41–42).

Remarks. Gender: feminine. Tanganikia Bourguignat, 1885 is an unjustified emendation of Tanganyicia Crosse, 1881. Tanganikea as used by Martens (1891: 8) is an incorrect subsequent spelling.

Tanganyicia Crosse, 1881

Original reference. Crosse (1881: 123–124).

Type species. Lithoglyphus rufofilosus Smith, 1880, by original designation.

Remarks. Gender: feminine. Tanganyikia as used by Moore (1899) and Germain (1908) are incorrect subsequent spellings.

Tiphobia Smith, 1880

Original reference. Smith (1880a: 348).

Type species. Tiphobia horei Smith, 1880, by monotypy.

Remarks. Gender: feminine. Typhobia is an incorrect subsequent spelling by Moore (1898ac) and Thiphobia by Riedel (1993).

Vinundu Michel, 2004

Original reference. Michel (2004: 2, 4).

Type species. Vinundu westae Michel, 2004, by original designation.

Remarks. Gender: feminine (Code Art. 30.2.2). Vinundu Michel & Todd, 2003 in West et al. (2003: 76–77) is unavailable because the work includes a disclaimer stating “this publication is not deemed to be valid for formal taxonomic/nomenclatural purposes”. The name was also used by Van Damme and Pickford (2003: 2) as a nomen nudum because no diagnosis, definition, or description was given.

Zanguebaria Fischer, 1881

Original reference. Fischer (1880–1887: 2, 4).

Type species. Melania amaena Morelet, 1851, by subsequent designation (Pilsbry and Bequaert 1927: 288).

Remarks. Gender: feminine.

Part 3. Species-group names

In the species-group a total of 499 names are included, of which 463 are available but 21 are invalid for nomenclatural reasons.

Paludomus abbreviata Reeve, 1852

Original reference. Reeve (1852: 127).

Original spelling. Paludomus abbreviatus Reeve, 1852.

Type locality. “Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Paludomus acuta Reeve, 1852

Original reference. Reeve (1852: 127).

Original spelling. Paludomus acutus Reeve, 1852.

Type locality. “Near Pondicherry” [India, near Puducherry].

Cleopatra adami nom. nov

http://zoobank.org/BE605896-D974-47AA-8C40-31CB9AF92C38

Type locality. “Rive du ravin de Nyakasia, 65 à 80 m sur lac” [Uganda, river of Nyakasia Ravine, 65 to 80 m above Lake Albert].

Type stratum. “Pleistocène inférieur, Série de Kaiso” [Lower Pleisocene, Kaiso Series].

Type material. Holotype, Musée royal de l’Afrique centrale, Tervuren MC 2780 (Adam 1957, pl. 4, fig. 1).

Remarks. The species was classified as Cleopatra cylindrica (Adam, 1957) by Van Damme and Pickford (2003). This name is a secondary junior homonym of Cleopatra cridlandi cylindrica Mandahl-Barth, 1954 and because no junior synonyms exist, the new replacement name Cleopatra adami nom. nov. is introduced here (see also Remarks under Viviparus cylindricus Adam, 1957). The replacement name is chosen in honor of William Adam, the former Director of the Malacology Department of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, who was the first to describe the species (Adam 1957).

Anceya admirabilis Bourguignat, 1889

Original reference. Bourguignat (1889: 119–120, pl. 7, figs 10, 11).

Type locality. “Entre Mpala et Mlilo” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, between Mpala and Mlilo (= Moliro), Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus adustus Brot, 1880 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Brot (1880: 25).

Remarks. Attributed to Swainson; published in the synonymy of Paludomus stephanus Benson, 1836; unavailable (Code Art. 11.6).

Melania aegyptiaca Reeve, 1860

Original reference. Reeve (1860: pl. 34 fig. 227 and explanation of the plate).

Original spelling. Melania Ægyptiaca Reeve, 1860.

Type locality. “Egypt”.

Bithynia bulimoides aegyptiaca Frauenfeld, 1864

Original reference. Frauenfeld (1864: 565, 583).

Original spelling. Bythinia bulimoides var. Aegyptiaca Frauenfeld, 1864.

Type locality. “Aegypten” [Egypt].

Remarks. Introduced by Frauenfeld (1864: 583) as a variety of Bithynia bulimoides (Olivier, 1804) and on p. 565 the name is mentioned with some descriptional terms, thus, satisfying the Code (Art. 12.1).

Paludomus aerea Reeve, 1852

Original reference. Reeve (1852: 128).

Original spelling. Melania æreus Reeve, 1852.

Type locality. “Mountain streams of Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Remarks. Tanalia aerens as used by Adams and Adams (1853–1854) is an incorrect subsequent spelling.

Paludomus africana Martens, 1878

Original reference. Martens (1878: 297, pl. 2, figs 11–13).

Original spelling. Paludomus Africana Martens, 1878.

Type locality. “Finboni” [Kenya, Finboni, near the coast, between Mombassa and Taita].

Paludomus ajanensis Morelet, 1860

Original reference. Morelet (1860b: 110, pl. 6, fig. 10).

Original spelling. Paludomus Ajanensis Morelet, 1860.

Type locality. “Dans les eaux saumâtres d’Hafoun (Raz Hhafoun), à trente lieues au sud du cap Guardafui” [Somalia, brackish waters at Hafun, south of Cape Guardafui ; but probably from the Seychelles].

Cleopatra alhiensis Verdcourt, 1957 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Verdcourt (1957: 9).

Remarks. Mentioned under Cleopatra athiensis Verdcourt, 1957 as a manuscript name attributed to H. B. Preston; unavailable (Code Art. 11.6).

Paramelania alphonsi Bourguignat, 1890

Original reference. Bourguignat (1890: 217–218).

Original spelling. Paramelania Alphonsi Bourguignat, 1890.

Type locality. “Sur la plage de Mlilo” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mlilo (= Moliro), Lake Tanganyika].

Melania amaena Morelet, 1851

Original reference. Morelet (1851a: 220–221).

Original spelling. Melania amæna Morelet, 1851.

Type locality. “Palustria ad orientem insulæ Madagascar” [Madagascar, swamps in the south of the island] (Morelet (1851a, b); subsequently stated to be “Zanzibar et des Séchelles” [Tanzania, Zansibar; Seychelles] (Morelet (1860b).

Remarks. Also published as a new species in Morelet (1851b: 192–193, pl. 5, fig. 9), which is considered here as a subsequent use.

Syrnolopsis anceyana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 20).

Type locality. “Sur la plage de Pambété” [Zambia, beach of Pambété, Lake Tanganyika].

Hylacantha anceyi Bourguignat, 1891

Original reference. Bourguignat and Servain (1891: 165).

Original spelling. Hylacantha Anceyi Bourguignat, 1891.

Type locality. Not given.

Syrnolopsis anceyi Germain, 1905 [Invalid]

Original reference. Germain (1905a: 259).

Original spelling. Syrnolopsis Anceyi Bourguignat, 1905.

Remarks. Unjustified emendation of Syrnolopsis anceyana Bourguignat, 1885. Germain (1905a) changed the suffix of several species-group names ending in -iana or -ana introduced by Bourguignat (1885, 1888). The names thus formed are to be treated as emendations of the original names (Code Art. 33.2.1) and are available and have as unjustified emendations their own author and date (Code Art. 33.2.2).

Paludomus andersoniana Nevill, 1877

Original reference. Nevill (1877: 35).

Original spelling. Paludomus Andersoniana Nevill, 1877.

Type locality. “Mandalay, Ava, Bhamô, Kabyuet, and Myadoung” [Myanmar, Mandalay, Ava, Bhamô, Kabuyet, Myadoung].

Cleopatra angulata Williamson, 1979

Original reference. Williamson (1979: 114, 227b, 238b, fig. 65t).

Type locality. “Area 110, east of lake Turkana, north Kenya”.

Type stratum. “Fauna 52, in the lower Member of the Koobi Fora Formation”.

Paludomus annandalei Preston, 1909

Original reference. Preston (1909: 277–278).

Type locality. “Tenmalai, W. Ghats (W. side), Travancore (rocky mountain stream)” [India, Kerala, Thenmala, Western Ghats, western side].

Cleopatra arambourgi Roger, 1944

Original reference. Roger (1944: 127–128, pl. 1, figs 15–17).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Arambourgi Roger, 1944.

Type locality. “De la surface du plateau, entre Kalam et Bourillé” [Ethiopia, Omo Plateau].

Type stratum. Not given.

Remarks. Attributed to L. Germain, but J. Roger alone was responsible for the description.

Paramelania arenarum Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 39–40, pl. 17, figs 3, 4).

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Cleopatra athiensis Verdcourt, 1957

Original reference. Verdcourt (1957: 8–9, fig. 2).

Type locality. “Kenya, Athi Plains”.

Cleopatra ferruginea attenuata Williamson, 1979

Original reference. Williamson (1979: 227b, 238a, pl. 2, figs 7–9).

Type locality. “Area 202, east of lake Turkana, north Kenya”.

Type stratum. “Fauna 12C, from between the upper and lower tuffs comprising the Suregei tuff complex, basal Koobi Fora Formation”.

Remarks. A potadomid species according to Van Bocxlaer et al. (2008).

Cleopatra aurocincta Martens, 1879

Original reference. Martens (1879: 103)

Type locality. “Bagamojo, gegenüber von Zanzibar” [Tanzania, Bagamoyo].

Paludomus baccula Reeve, 1852

Original reference. Reeve (1852: 128).

Type locality. “Branch of the Ganges” [India or Bangladesh, Ganges River].

Remarks. Paludomus bacula is an incorrect subsequent spelling by Layard (1855) and Adams and Adams (1853–1854).

Paramelania baizeana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 74).

Type locality. “Près de Kapampa, sur la côte sud-ouest du lac” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kapampa, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Anceya bella Pilsbry & Bequaert, 1927

Original reference. Pilsbry and Bequaert (1927: 238, figs 36, 37).

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Pseudocleopatra bennikei Mandahl-Barth, 1974

Original reference. Mandahl-Barth (1974: 355–356, fig. 2a).

Type locality. “River Zaire between Mimosa Island and Monkey Island, off Kinshasa” [Democratic Republic of the Congo].

Stomatodon bensoni Brot, 1880

Original reference. Brot (1880: 13–14, pl. 5, fig. 2, 2a, 2b).

Original spelling. Stomatodon Bensoni Brot, 1880.

Type locality. “Südliches Indien, Travancore (Benson), Malabar (Coll. Mea)” [India, Kerala, Travancore; Malabar].

Cleopatra bequaerti Dautzenberg & Germain, 1914

Original reference. Dautzenberg and Germain (1914: 59–60, pl. 4, figs 1–6).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Bequaerti Dautzenberg & Germain, 1914.

Type locality. “Kindu, Lualaba, 3° lat. S” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kindu, Lualaba River].

Cleopatra bulimoides bicarinata Pallary, 1924

Original reference. Pallary (1924: 33).

Original spelling. Cleopatra bulimoides var. bicarinata Pallary, 1924.

Type locality. “Égypte” [Egypt].

Paludomus bicincta Reeve, 1852

Original reference. Reeve (1852: 129).

Original spelling. Paludomus bicinctus Bourguignat, 1852.

Type locality. “Mountain streams of Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Paludomus bifasciatus Adams & Adams, 1854 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Adams and Adams (1853–1854: 340).

Remarks. Attributed to Reeve. Nomen nudum, introduced without description, definition, or indication (Code Art. 12.1).

Paludomus bilineata Troschel, 1857

Original reference. Troschel (1856–1863: 101, pl. 7, fig. 7).

Type locality. Not given.

Original spelling. Paludomus bilineatus Troschel, 1857.

Remarks. Troschel (1857) in Troschel (1856–1863: 101, pl. 7, fig. 7) described and figured a radula under the name Paludomus bilineatus, attributing the name to L. A. Reeve. However, Reeve (1847, 1852) did not introduce the name Paludomus bilineatus, but instead Paludomus bicinctus Reeve, 1852 with a similar meaning. Although the name P. bilineatus is probably the result of a lapsus memoriae, it is deemed available here.

Cleopatra bulimoides bilirata Germain, 1918

Original reference. Germain (1918: 444–445).

Original spelling. Cleopatra bulimoides variété bilirata Germain, 1918.

Type locality. “Rosières [= Rosaires = Abramat], sur le Nil Bleu” [Sudan, Er Roseires, Blue Nile].

Paludomus binaluanensis Thiele, 1928

Original reference. Thiele (1828: 392, pl. 8, fig. 17).

Type locality. “Von Binaluan auf Nord-Palawan” [Philippines, north Palawan, Binaluan].

Paludomus blanfordiana Nevill ,1877

Original reference. Nevill (1877: 37).

Original spelling. Paludomus Blanfordiana Nevill, 1877.

Type locality. “Ava” [Myanmar, Ava].

Paludomus borneensis Nevill, 1884

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 292).

Type locality. “Sadong, Sarawak” [Malaysia, Borneo, Sarawak, Sadong Jaya].

Paramelania bourguignati Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 73–74).

Type locality. “Plage de Kapampa” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, beach of Kapampa, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Remarks. Attributed to V. Giraud by Bourguignat (1885a: 73), but Bourguignat alone was responsible for the description. Therefore, Bourguignat is the author of the name (Code Art. 50.1).

Tiphobia bourguignati Bourguignat, 1886

Original reference. Bourguignat (1886: 148–150, pl. 6, figs 5–7).

Type locality. “Dans l’anse de Kamangu, un peu S.-O. des îlots Kilira Chakabala“ [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kamangu Bay, southwest of the Kilira Chakabala Islands]].

Remarks. Attributed to L. Joubert by Bourguignat (1886: 148) but Bourguignat alone was responsible for the description. Therefore, Bourguignat is the author of the name (Code Art. 50.1).

Bourguignatia bridouxi Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 29, pl. 12, figs 1–4).

Original spelling. Bourguignatia Bridouxi Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Sur les plages de la côte occidentale” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, western shores of Lake Tanganyika].

Vivipara bridouxiana Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 13–14, pl. 4, fig. 2).

Original spelling. Vivipara Bridouxiana Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “De la côte nord-occidentale du lac” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, north-western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Hauttecoeuria bridouxiana Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 21–22, pl. 8, figs 26–28).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria Bridouxiana Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Reymondia bridouxiana Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 27–28, pl. 11, figs 14, 15).

Original spelling. Reymondia Bridouxiana Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Vivipara brincatiana Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 13–14, pl. 4, fig. 1).

Original spelling. Vivipara Brincatiana Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “De la côte nord-occidentale du lac” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, north-western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Hauttecoeuria brincatiana Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 19, pl. 7, figs 20, 21).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria Brincatiana Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Cleopatra broecki Putzeys, 1899

Original reference. Putzeys (1899: 60, fig. 16).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Broecki Putzeys, 1899.

Type locality. “De la rivière Aruwimi, affluent du Congo” [Democratic Republic of the Cong, Aruwimi River, tributary of Congo River].

Paludomus broti Issel, 1874

Original reference. Issel (1874: 455–456, pl. 7, figs 19, 20).

Original spelling. Paludomus Broti Issel, 1874.

Type locality. “Sadong, Sarawak” [Malaysia, Borneo, Sarawak, Sadong Jaya].

Cyclostoma bulimoides Olivier, 1804

Original reference. Olivier (1804: 39, pl. 31, fig. 6).

Type locality. “Le Kalidje” [Egypt, Le Kalidje near Alexandria].

Paludomus burmanica Nevill, 1877

Original reference. Nevill (1877: 36).

Original spelling. Paludomus Burmanica Nevill, 1877.

Type locality. “Yaylaymaw and Mandalay” [Myanmar, Yaylaymaw and Mandalay].

Hauttecoeuria burtoni Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 19, pl. 7, figs 1–3).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria Burtoni Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paramelania bythiniformis Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 35–36, pl. 15, figs 26, 27).

Original spelling. Paramelania Bythiniformis Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Rumella callifera Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 39–40, pl. 17, figs 23–25).

Type locality. “De la côte occidentale” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lake Tanganyika, western shore].

Lavigeria callista Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 33–34, pl. 14, fig. 2).

Type locality. “Sur les rives nord et surtout occidentales du lac” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, northern and western shores of Lake Tanganyika].

Paramelania callopleuros Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 69–70).

Type locality. “Plage de Pambété” [Zambia, beach of Pambété, Lake Tanganyika].

Hauttecoeuria cambieri Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 56–57).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria cambieri Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Plage de Mpala” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, beach of Mpala].

Remarks. The name was attributed to V. Giraud by Bourguignat (1885a: 56) but Bourguignat alone was responsible for the description. Therefore, Bourguignat is the author of the name (Code Art. 50.1).

Cleopatra cameroni Bourguignat, 1879

Original reference. Bourguignat (1879: 21–22).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Cameroni Bourguignat, 1879.

Type locality. “Fleuve Kyngani, près de Bagamoyo” [Tanzania, Bagamoyo, Kyngani River].

Spekia cameroni Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 15, pl. 5, figs 13–15).

Original spelling. Spekia Cameroni Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Hauttecœuria cameroni Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 21–22, pl. 8, figs 15–17).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria Cameroni Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paramelania cameroniana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 80).

Type locality. “Sur la plage de Mlilo et sur celle de Kapampa, à l’ouest du lac” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, beach of Mlilo (= Moliro) and beach of Kapampa, Lake Tanganyika].

Edgaria nassa camerounensis Leloup, 1953 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Leloup (1953: 166).

Original spelling. Edgaria nassa f. camerounensis Leloup, 1953.

Remarks. Mentioned in the synonymy of Edgardia nassa forme typica; unavailable (Code Art. 11.6)

Cleopatra cara Pilsbry & Bequaert, 1927

Original reference. Pilsbry and Bequaert (1927: 294, fig. 53).

Type locality. “Stanleyville” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kisangani].

Pseudocleopatra carinata Van Damme & Pickford, 2003

Original reference. Van Damme and Pickford (2003: 10, 56–58, 63, 66, fig. 44).

Type locality. “Nkondo locality NK 120, Lake Albert, Uganda”.

Type stratum. “Nkondo Formation, Molluscan Association G3b, Terminal Miocene-Early Pliocene”.

Syrnolopsis carinifera Smith, 1889

Original reference. Smith (1889: 174).

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Cleopatra carinulata Dautzenberg, 1894

Original reference. Dautzenberg (1894: 105–106).

Type locality. “Ambohimarina, province Hova d’Antankara près Diego-Suarez” [Madagascar, Diana, Ambohimarina].

Randabelia catoxia Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 31, pl. 13, figs 1, 2).

Type locality. “Côtes occidentales et méridionales du lac” [Democratic Republic of the Congo/Zambia, western and southern shores of Lake Tanganyika].

Hauttecoeuria charmetanti Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 19, pl. 7, figs 15–17).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria Charmetanti Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus conica cherraensis Nevill, 1884

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 288).

Original spelling. Paludomus conica subvar. cherraensis Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “Teria Ghat” [India, Megalhaya, Khasi Hills, Teria Ghat].

Remarks. Nevill (1884) distinguished between ‘subspecies’, ‘var.’, and ‘subvar.’ Not every subvariety was referred to a subspecies or variety, however, but for example on p. 288 subvarieties were directly associated with a species without intermittent subspecies or variety. It seems that Nevill (1884) expressed by using the different terms to what extent a named taxon differed from the nominal species, with subspecies differing considerably, varieties slightly, and subvarieties only very slightly. Therefore, subspecific and varietal names are regarded here as subspecific names in accordance with the Code (Art. 45.6.4). The names denoted by ‘subvar.’ are, however, regarded as infrasubspecific. Made available by Kobelt in Pfeffer and Kobelt (1887: 422) (Code Art. 45.6.4.1).

Paludomus chilinoides Reeve, 1847

Original reference. Reeve (1847: pl. 2, fig. 7a, pl. 3, fig. 7b, c).

Original spelling. Paludomus Chilinoides Reeve, 1847.

Type locality. “Bed of the Mahawelle Ganga, near Kandy, Ceylon” [Sri Lanka, Kandy, Mahawelle River].

Paludomus conica chittagongensis Nevill, 1884

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 288).

Original spelling. Paludomus conica subvar. chittagongensis Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “Chittagong” [Bangladesh, Chittagong].

Remarks. See Remarks under Paludomus conica cherraensis Nevill, 1884. Made available by Kobelt in Pfeffer and Kobelt (1887: 422) (Code Art. 45.6.4.1).

Paludomus cincta Liu, Zhang & Duan, 1994

Original reference. Liu et al. (1994: 30, 35).

Original spelling. Paludomus cinctus Liu, Zhang & Duan, 1994.

Type locality. “Sinan (27.9°N, 108.2°E), Guizhou Province. On stones or rocks at the bottom of Wujiang River”.

Paludomus cingulata Martens, 1878

Original reference. Martens (1878: pl. 2, figs 14–16).

Type locality. “Finboni” [Kenya, Finboni, near the coast, between Mombassa and Taita].

Remarks. The names Paludomus exarata and Paludomus cingulata were established simultaneously by Martens (1878). On pl. 2 Martens (1878) used the name Paludomus cingulata, but in the text and explanation of the plates the name Paludomus exarata was used. Bourguignat (1885b: 29) used the name in the combination Cleopatra exarata as the valid name of the taxon and remarked in a footnote “Ce nom a été modifié en celui de Cingulata sur l’explication de la planche”. Acting as first reviser, Bourguignat (1885) thus established the precedence of Paludomus exarata Martens, 1878 over Paludomus cingulata Martens, 1878.

Edgaria cingulata Cox, 1939

Original reference. Cox (1939: 247–248, pl. 15, fig. 8).

Type locality. ”The Rungwa Sleeping Sickness Concentration Area, lies about eighty miles to the north-west of the present shore of the lake” [Tanzania, Rungwa].

Type stratum. “Quaternary deposits of Lake Rukwa”.

Paludomus clavata Reeve, 1852

Original reference. Reeve (1852: 129).

Original spelling. Paludomus clavatus Reeve, 1852.

Type locality. “Mountain streams of Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Paludina cleopatra Martens, 1860 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Martens (1860: 13).

Original spelling. Paludina bulimoides Olivier, 1804 (cleopatra Troschel)

Remarks. Published as a synonym of Paludina bulimoides (Olivier, 1804) and attributed to Troschel who introduced Cleopatra as a genus-group name in 1857. Treated by Frauenfeld (1864: 588) as an available name, but not in a way that satisfies it to be adopted (Code, Glossary), i.e. not satisfying the Code (Art. 12.1). Therefore, the name was not made available under the Code (Art. 11.6.1) by Frauenfeld (1864).

Spekia coheni Irvine & Donohue, 1999 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Irvine and Donohue (1999: 11).

Remarks. Introduced without description or definition (Code Art. 13.1.1). Mentioned also by Alin et al. (1999) as Spekia n. sp. “coheni” and by Allison et al. (2000) and Ngereza (2010) as Spekia coheni.

Paludina colbeaui Craven, 1880

Original reference. Craven (1880: 216, pl. 22, fig. 5).

Type locality. “Nossi-Bé Island, in a sluggish stream running through coffee-plantations” [Madagascar, Antsiranana, Nosy Be Island].

Heynderycxia columellaris Van Damme & Pickford, 2003

Original reference. Van Damme and Pickford (2003: 10, 60–61, 67, 77, figs 49a–d, 54c).

Type locality. “Nkondo locality NK 77, Lake Albert, Uganda”.

Type stratum. “Nkondo Formation, Molluscan Association G3b, Terminal Miocene to Early Pliocene”.

Lavigeria combsa Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 33–34, pl. 14, fig. 7).

Type locality. “Sur les rives nord et surtout occidentales du lac” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, northern and western shores of Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus sulcata compacta Nevill, 1884

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 299).

Original spelling. Paludomus [Philopotamis] sulcata var. compacta Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Remarks. See Remarks under Paludomus conica cherraensis Nevill, 1884.

Cleopatra congener Preston, 1913

Original reference. Preston (1913: 59, pl. 4, fig. 6).

Type locality. “Lake Baringo, British East Africa” [Kenya, Lake Baringo].

Melania conica Griffith & Pidgeon, 1833 [Invalid]

Original reference. Griffith and Pidgeon (1833–1834: pl. 14, fig. 5).

Type locality. “Ceylon” [Sri Lanka] (Griffith and Pidgeon 1833–1834: 598).

Remarks. Primary junior homonym of Melania conica Say, 1821. Although authorship is usually attributed to Gray (see Petit and Coan 2008), the requirements of the Code (Art. 50.1) are not fulfilled in our opinion. The authorship should therefore be attributed to Griffith and Pidgeon.

Paludomus constricta Reeve, 1852

Original reference. Reeve (1852: 129).

Original spelling. Paludomus constrictus Reeve, 1852.

Type locality. “Mountain streams of Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Paludomus sulcata contracta Nevill, 1884

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 299).

Original spelling. Paludomus [Philopotamis] sulcata var. contracta Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “Peradenia [and] Ambegammoa, Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Remarks. See Remarks under Paludomus conica cherraensis Nevill, 1884.

Cleopatra convexa Verdcourt, 1957

Original reference. Verdcourt (1957: 7–8, fig. 1).

Type locality. “Kenya, Turkana Province, Clay pan 7 miles S. E. Lodwar (subfossil)”.

Melania coronata von dem Busch, 1842

Original reference. Philippi (1842–1845: 2, pl. 1, figs 5, 6).

Type locality. “Bengalia” [India/Bangladesh].

Remarks. The entire text with descriptions of von dem Busch’s new Melania names was attributed to von dem Busch on p. 4 of Philippi’s (1842–1845) work.

Lavigeria coronata Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 31, pl. 13, figs 13, 14).

Type locality. “Sur les rives nord et surtout occidentales du lac” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, northern and western shores of Lake Tanganyika].

Bridouxia costata Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 31–32).

Type locality. “Environs de Kapampa” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, surroundings of Kapampa, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Cleopatra morelli costata Preston, 1905

Original reference. Preston (1905: 300–301, fig. 4).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Morelli var. costata Preston, 1905.

Type locality. “Victoria Falls, Zambesi River” [Zimbabwe, Zambesi River, Victoria Falls].

Melania crassa von dem Busch, 1842

Original reference. Philippi (1842–1845: 2–3, pl. 1, figs 10, 11).

Type locality. “Bengalia” [India/Bangladesh].

Remarks. The entire text with descriptions of von dem Busch’s new Melania names was attributed to von dem Busch on p. 4 of Philippi’s (1842–1845) work.

Taeniodomus crassa Krause, 1897

Original reference. Krause (1897: 214, 219, pl. 12, figs 2, 2a, 3).

Type locality. “Thonmergel vom Sungei Pinoh” [Indonesia, Borneo, Sungai Pinoh].

Type stratum. “α Eocaen (der Sandstein Etage) Verbeek‘s” [Eocene, Verbeek’s sandstone stage].

Paludomus crassicallosa Rao, 1929

Original reference. Rao (1929: 288–290).

Type locality. “Sankha, a large hill-stream between Kamaing and Mogaung” [Myanmar].

Tiphobia crassigranulata Smith, 1881

Original reference. Smith (1881b: 560).

Original spelling. Tiphobia (Paramelania) crassigranulata Smith, 1881.

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Remarks. Paramelania cranigranulata as used by Moore (1903) is an incorrect subsequent spelling.

Paramelania crassilabris Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 84–85).

Type locality. “Plage Mlilo” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mlilo (= Moliro), Lake Tanganyika].

Cleopatra cridlandi Mandahl-Barth, 1954

Original reference. Mandahl-Barth (1954: 61–62, fig. 27a, b).

Original spelling. Cleopatra cridlandi cridlandi Mandahl-Barth, 1954.

Type locality. “Lake Victoria, where it was dredged off Dagusi Island from a depth of 20 to 40 feet” [Uganda].

Paludomus cumingiana Dohrn, 1857

Original reference. Dohrn (1857: 124).

Original spelling. Paludomus Cumingianus Dohrn, 1857.

Type locality. “Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Remarks. The name Paludomus Cumingii as used by Brot (1862: 21) and Brot (1868: 2) is an incorrect subsequent spelling.

Limnotrochus cyclostoma Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 60–61).

Type locality. “Plage de Pambété” [Zambia, beach of Pambété, Lake Tanganyika].

Paludina cyclostomoides Küster, 1852

Original reference. Küster (1852: 32, pl. 7, figs 6–10).

Type locality. “In Aegypten” [Egypt].

Cleopatra cridlandi cylindrica Mandahl-Barth, 1954

Original reference. Mandahl-Barth (1954: 62, fig. 27c–d).

Type locality. “From a depth of 60 feet in Buvuma Channel” [Uganda, Buvuma District, Buvuma Channel].

Viviparus cylindricus Adam, 1957

Original reference. Adam (1957: 35–37, pl. 4, figs 1–5).

Type locality. “Rive du ravin de Nyakasia, 65 à 80 m sur lac” [Uganda, river of Nyakasia Ravine, 65 to 80 m above Lake Albert].

Type stratum. “Pleistocène inférieur, Série de Kaiso” [Lower Pleistocene, Kaiso Series].

Type material. Holotype, Musée royal de l’Afrique centrale, Tervuren MC 2780 (Adam 1957, pl. 4, fig. 1).

Remarks. The species was classified as Cleopatra cylindrica (Adam, 1957) by Van Damme and Pickford (2003) in their revision of Albertine Rift Valley freshwater Cerithioidea. By that taxonomic act, the taxon becomes a secondary junior homonym of the nominal taxon Cleopatra cridlandi cylindrica Mandahl-Barth, 1954 and as no junior synonyms exist, the new replacement name Cleopatra adami nom. nov. is proposed here (see also Remarks under that name above).

Tiphobia damoni Smith, 1881

Original reference. Smith (1881b: 559–560).

Original spelling. Tiphobia (Paramelania) damoni Smith, 1881.

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Pseudocleopatra dartevellei Mandahl-Barth, 1973

Original reference. Mandahl-Barth (1973: 280–281, fig. 3d–f, i).

Type locality. “River Congo at Matadi” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Matadi, Congo River].

Giraudia horei dautzenbergi Germain, 1905

Original reference. Germain (1905a: 259).

Original spelling. Giraudia Horei var. Dautzenbergi Germain, 1905.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Martelia dautzenbergi Dupuis, 1924

Original reference. Dupuis (1924: 20–21, 26, fig. 1).

Original spelling. Martelia Dautzenbergi Dupuis, 1924.

Type locality. “Tanganika”…”de la côte occidentale du Lac” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lake Tanganyika, western shore].

Cleopatra dautzenbergi Pilsbry & Bequaert, 1927

Original reference. Pilsbry and Bequaert (1927: 294–295, fig. 54).

Type locality. “Lovoi River, near Kikondja” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, near Kikondja, Lovoi River].

Paludomus decussata Reeve, 1852

Original reference. Reeve (1852: 127–128).

Original spelling. Paludomus decussatus Reeve, 1852.

Type locality. “Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Melania denticulata Benson, 1836

Original reference. Benson (1836b: 748).

Type locality. “From the north-east frontier of Bengal (Benson 1836a: 350)” [India/Bangladesh].

Remarks. The name was conditionally proposed.

Paludomus dhuma Rao, 1925

Original reference. Rao (1925: 97).

Type locality. “A stream near Thazi Railway Station” [Myanmar].

Lavigeria diademata Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 31, 34, pl. 13, figs 15–17).

Type locality. “Sur les rives nord et surtout occidentales du lac” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, northern and western shores of Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus conica dihiriensis Nevill, 1884

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 288).

Original spelling. Paludomus conica subvar. dihiriensis Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “Stream on the Dihiri Hill [Brahmaputra watershed]” [India, Assam].

Remarks. See Remarks under Paludomus conica cherraensis Nevill, 1884. Made available by Kobelt in Pfeffer and Kobelt (1887: 422) (Code Art. 45.6.4.1).

Paludomus dilatata Reeve, 1852

Original reference. Reeve (1852: 128–129).

Original spelling. Paludomus dilatatus Reeve, 1852.

Type locality. “Mountain streams of Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Paludomus distinguenda Dohrn, 1857

Original reference. Dohrn (1857: 124).

Original spelling. Paludomus distinguendus Dohrn, 1857.

Type locality. “Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Paludomus dromedarius Dohrn, 1857

Original reference. Dohrn (1857: 124).

Type locality. Ceylon [Sri Lanka].

Cleopatra dubia Adam, 1959

Original reference. Adam and Lepersonne (1959: 34–38, pl. 5, figs 1–3, pl. 6, figs 1, 2).

Type locality. “Nyamavi no 68, camp Nyamavi” through selection of lectotype [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nyamavi, near Lake Albert].

Remarks. The statement by Van Damme and Pickford (2003: 22) that the name Cleopatra dubia Adam, 1959 is a nomen nudum is incorrect because W. Adam in Adam and Lepersonne (1959: 34–38) correctly introduced it, although not explicitly selecting a holotype and a type locality. Furthermore, the type selection of Van Damme and Pickford (2003: 49–50) does not constitute a valid lectotype designation in accordance with the Code Art. 74.7.1 because the term lectotype or an exact translation of that term was used not by these authors but only the term type and holotype. To avoid further confusion and nomenclatural instability, we here select the specimen proposed as type/holotype by Van Damme and Pickford (2003), i.e. the specimen figured by Adam (1959: pl. 5, fig. 1a), leg. J. Lepersonne, Lep. 464 III (M.C. 2382) from Nyamavi no 68, camp Nyamavi, as lectotype of Cleopatra dubia Adam, 1959.

Hauttecoeuria duveyieri Germain, 1905 [Invalid]

Original reference. Germain (1905a: 258).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria Duveyieri Germain, 1905.

Remarks. Unjustified emendation of Hauttecœuria duveyrieriana Bourguignat, 1885. Germain (1905a) changed the suffix of several species-group names ending in -iana or -ana introduced by Bourguignat (1885, 1888). The names thus formed are to be treated as emendations of the original names (Code Art. 33.2.1) and are available and have as unjustified emendations their own author and date (Code Art. 33.2.2).

Spekia duveyieri Germain, 1906 [Invalid]

Original reference. Germain (1906: 578).

Original spelling. Spekia Duveyieri Germain, 1906.

Remarks. Unjustified emendation of Spekia duveyrieriana Bourguignat, 1885. Germain (1906) changed the suffix of several species-group names ending in -iana or -ana introduced by Bourguignat (1885). The names thus formed are to be treated as emendations of the original names (Code Art. 33.2.1) and are available and have as unjustified emendations their own author and date (Code Art. 33.2.2).

Spekia duveyrieriana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 37–38).

Type locality. “Mpala, dans le Marungu, sur la côte sud-ouest du lac” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mpala, Marungu region, at the south-western coast of Lake Tanganika].

Hauttecœuria duveyrieriana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 53).

Type locality. “Plage de Pambété” [Zambia, beach of Pambété, Lake Tanganyika].

Paramelania duveyrieriana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 79).

Type locality. “Plage de Mlilo” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mlilo (= Moliro), Lake Tanganyika].

Remarks. The name was attributed to V. Giraud by Bourguignat (1885a: 79) but Bourguignat alone was responsible for the description and is therefore the author of the name alone (Code 50.1).

Anceya giraudi ecarinata Leloup, 1953 [Unavailable]

Original spelling. Anceya giraudi var. ecarinata Leloup, 1953.

Original reference. Leloup (1953: 108, 111–112, fig. 55B).

Remarks. Mentioned in the synonymy of Anceya (Anceya) giraudi as a manuscript name of Dupuis; unavailable (Code Art. 11.6).

Paramelania egregia Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 81).

Type locality. “À Kapampa” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kapampa, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Remarks. The name was attributed to V. Giraud by Bourguignat (1885a: 81) but Bourguignat alone was responsible for the description and therefore is the author of the name (Code Art. 50.1).

Spekia zonata elata Germain, 1906

Original reference. Germain (1906: 579).

Original spelling. Spekia zonata var. elata Germain, 1906.

Type locality. “À Mpala, sur la côte ouest, ainsi qu’à Pambété, au sud du lac” as given in Bourguignat (1885a) [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mpala, western shore of Lake Tanganyika and Zambia, Pambété, southern shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Cleopatra pirothi elata Dautzenberg & Germain, 1914

Original reference. Dautzenberg and Germain (1914: 57–58).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Pirothi f. elata Dautzenberg & Germain, 1914.

Type locality. “Stn. 92, Bulongo (Bukama), 9° lat. S” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Bulongo (Bukama), near Lualaba River].

Spekia zonata elongata Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 14, pl. 4, fig. 23).

Original spelling. Spekia zonata var. elongata Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paramelania elongata Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 37–38, pl. 16, figs 9, 10).

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus emini Smith, 1888

Original reference. Smith (1888: 54).

Type locality. “Albert Nyanza” [Democratic Republic of the Congo/Uganda, Lake Albert].

Paludomus erinaceus Reeve, 1852

Original reference. Reeve (1852: 128).

Type locality. “Mountain streams of Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Remarks. Tanalia crinascens is an incorrect subsequent spelling by Layard (1855) and Tanalia crinacea is an incorrect subsequent spelling by Adams and Adams (1853–1854).

Paludomus erronea Nevill, 1884

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 300).

Original spelling. Paludomus [Philopotamis] erronea Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “Ceylon [and] Hackalle, Ceylon [at 5,500 ft]” [Sri Lanka].

Paludomus everetti Smith, 1894

Original reference. Smith (1894: 51).

Type locality. “Batang Lupar district, W. Sarawak, also Gomanton on the N.E. Coast at Sandakan Bay” [Malaysia/Indonesia, Borneo].

Paludomus exarata Martens, 1878

Original reference. Martens (1878: 297–298, pl. 2, figs 14–16).

Type locality. “Finboni” [Kenya, Finboni, near the coast, between Mombassa and Taita].

Hauttecoeuria eximia Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 55–56).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria eximia Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Plage de Mpala, à l’ouest du lac” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mpala, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Tanganikia fagoti Germain, 1908

Original reference. Germain (1908: 36).

Original spelling. Tanganikia Fagoti Germain, 1908.

Remarks. Unjustified emendation of Tanganikia fagotiana Bourguignat, 1885.

Tanganikia fagotiana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 43).

Original spelling. Tanganikia (Tanganikia) fagotiana Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Dans la partie septentrionale du lac” and “également dans sa partie méridionale […] sur la plage de Pambété” [Democratic Republic of the Congo or Burundi, northern part of Lake Tanganyika; Zambia, Pambété, southern shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Paludina fasciata Kobelt, 1909 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Kobelt (1909: 386).

Type locality. Not given.

Remarks. Published in the synonymy of Cleopatra bulimoides (Olivier, 1804); unavailable (Code Art. 11.6).

Melania ferruginea Lea & Lea, 1851

Original reference. Lea and Lea (1851: 182).

Type locality. “Zanzibar, East Africa” [Tanzania, Zanzibar].

Paramelania flexicosta Martens, 1895

Original reference. Martens (1895: 186–187).

Original spelling. Paramelania (Edgaria) flexicosta Martens, 1895.

Type locality. “Tanganyika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Helix fluviatilis Dillwyn, 1817

Original reference. Dillwyn (1817: 959).

Type locality. “Inhabits fresh water in Coromandel” [India, Coromandel].

Syrnolopsis foai Mabille, 1901

Original reference. Mabille (1901: 56).

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Assiminea foai Mabille, 1901

Original reference. Mabille (1901: 56–57).

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Remarks. Assiminea foas is an incorrect subsequent spelling by Pilsbry and Bequaert (1927).

Reymondia foai Mabille, 1901

Original reference. Mabille (1901: 57).

Original spelling. Reymondia Foai Mabille, 1901.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paramelania formosa Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 35–36, pl. 15, figs 9–11).

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus fulgurata Dohrn, 1857

Original reference. Dohrn (1857: 123).

Original spelling. Paludomus fulguratus Dohrn, 1857.

Type locality. “Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Paludomus funiculata Reeve, 1847

Original reference. Reeve (1847: pl. 3, fig. 13).

Original spelling. Paludomus funiculatus Reeve, 1847.

Type locality. “In a mountain stream at Ratnapoora, Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Paludomus futaii Gredler, 1889

Original reference. Gredler (1889: 159–160).

Original spelling. Paludomus Futaii Gredler, 1889.

Type locality. “Im Peho (Kuang-tung)” [China, Guangdong, Peho River].

Cyclostoma gaillardotii Bourguignat, 1855

Original reference. Bourguignat (1855: 333–334, pl. 8, figs 5–7).

Original spelling. Cyclostoma Gaillardotii Bourguignat, 1855.

Type locality. “Les environs de Sayda, en Syrie” [Syria, Sayda].

Paludomus gardneri Reeve, 1847

Original reference. Reeve (1847: pl. 2, fig. 9a, b).

Original spelling. Paludomus Gardneri Reeve, 1847.

Type locality. “In a stream at the foot of Adam’s Peak, Ceylon” [Sri Lanka, Adam’s Peak].

Anceya giraudi Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 15–16).

Type locality. “Evirons de Mlilo, sur la côte ouest du lac” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, surroundings of Mlilo (= Moliro), western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Syrnolopsis giraudi Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 20–21).

Type locality. “Plage de Pambété” [Zambia, beach of Pambété, Lake Tanganyika].

Bridouxia giraudi Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 30).

Type locality. “Plage de Kapampa, au sud-ouest du lac” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, beach of Kapampa, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Baizea giraudi Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 34–35).

Type locality. “Plage de Kapampa, au sud-ouest du lac, dans la region du Marungu“ [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Marungu region, Kapampa, south-western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Spekia giraudi Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 36).

Type locality. “À Mpala, sur la côte ouest, ainsi qu’à Pambété, au sud du lac” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mpala, western shore of Lake Tanganyika and Zambia, Pambété, southern shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Tanganikia giraudi Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 44).

Original spelling. Tanganikia (Tanganikia) giraudi Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Plage de Kapampa, à l’ouest du lac” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kapampa, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Hauttecoeuria giraudi Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 49–50).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria giraudi Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Sur la plage de Pambété” [Zambia, beach of Pambété, Lake Tanganyika].

Limnotrochus giraudi Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 59–60).

Type locality. “Plage de Pambété” [Zambia, beach of Pambété, Lake Tanganyika].

Reymondia giraudi Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 65–66).

Type locality. “Plage de Mlilo” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mlilo (= Moliro), Lake Tanganyika].

Paramelania giraudi Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 82).

Type locality. “Sur la plage de Mlilo” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mlilo (= Moliro), Lake Tanganyika].

Stanleya giraudi Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 88).

Type locality. “Plage de Mlilo” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mlilo (= Moliro), Lake Tanganyika].

Rumella giraudi Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 90–91).

Type locality. “Sur la plage de Mpala” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lake Tanganyika, beach of Mpala].

Pseudocleopatra glaubrechti Van Damme & Pickford, 2003

Original reference. Van Damme and Pickford (2003: 10–11, 57–59, fig. 47).

Type locality. “Kaiso locality A, Lake Albert, Uganda”.

Type stratum. “Kyeoro and Kaiso Village Formations, Molluscan Associations G5a and GX, Late Pliocene”.

Tanganikia globosa Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 46).

Original spelling. Tanganikia (Cambieria) globosa Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Plage de Kapampa” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, beach of Kapampa, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Rumella globosa Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 39–40, pl. 17, figs 20–22).

Type locality. “De la côte occidentale” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Hirthia globosa Ancey, 1898

Original reference. Ancey (1898: 144–145, pl. 9, fig. H).

Type locality. “Habitat in lacu Tanganika, ad partem meridionalem et orientalem «Ufipa» dictam” [Tanzania, Ufipa region, Lake Tanganyika, south-eastern shores].

Melania globulosa Griffith & Pidgeon, 1833

Original reference. Griffith and Pidgeon (1833–1834: pl. 14, fig. 6).

Type locality. Not given.

Remarks. See Remarks under Melania conica Griffith & Pidgeon, 1833

Paludomus gracilis Brot, 1880 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Brot (1880: 41).

Remarks. Attributed to Parreyss; published in the synonymy of Paludomus tanjoriensis Blanford, 1863; unavailable (Code Art. 11.6).

Taeniodomus gracilis Krause, 1897

Original reference. Krause (1897: 213–214, 219, pl. 12, figs 1, 1a, b).

Type locality. “Thonmergel vom Sungei Pinoh” [Indonesia, Borneo, Sungai Pinoh].

Type stratum. “α Eocaen (der Sandstein Etage) Verbeek‘s” [Eocene, Verbeek’s sandstone stage].

Syrnolopsis gracilis Pilsbry & Bequaert, 1927

Original reference. Pilsbry and Bequaert (1927: 234–235, figs 31a–c).

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Paludomus grandidieri Crosse & Fischer, 1872

Original reference. Crosse and Fischer (1872: 209–210).

Original spelling. Paludomus Grandidieri Crosse & Fischer, 1872.

Type locality. “Habitat in rivulis regionis orientalis insulæ Madagascar dictæ” [Madagascar, rivers in the eastern part of the island].

Syrnolopsis grandidieri Germain, 1905 [Invalid]

Original reference. Germain (1905a: 259).

Original spelling. Syrnolopsis Grandidieri Germain, 1905.

Remarks. Unjustified emendation of Syrnolopsis grandidieriana Bourguignat, 1885. Germain (1905a) changed the suffix of several species-group names ending in –iana or –ana introduced by Bourguignat (1885, 1888). The names thus formed are to be treated as emendations of the original names (Code Art. 33.2.1) and are available and have as unjustified emendations their own author and date (Code Art. 33.2.2).

Spekia grandidieri Germain, 1906 [Invalid]

Original reference. Germain (1906: 579).

Original spelling. Spekia Grandidieri Germain, 1906.

Remarks. Unjustified emendation of Spekia grandidieriana Bourguignat, 1885. Germain (1906) changed the suffix of several species-group names ending in –iana or –ana introduced by Bourguignat (1885). The names thus formed are to be treated as emendations of the original names (Code Art. 33.2.1) and are available and have as unjustified emendations their own author and date (Code Art. 33.2.2).

Syrnolopsis grandidieriana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 18–19).

Type locality. “Plage de Pambété” [Zambia, beach of Pambété, Lake Tanganyika].

Spekia grandidieriana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 40–41).

Type locality. “Sur les plages du Marungu, sur la côte sud-ouest du lac“ [Democratic Republic of the Congo, beaches of Marungu region, south-western shores of Lake Tanganyika].

Giraudia grandidieriana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 63–64).

Type locality. “Dans le sable d’une plage au nord de Mlilo” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, on a beach north of Mlilo (= Moliro), Lake Tanganyika].

Paramelania grandidieriana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 70–71).

Type locality. “Aux environs de Pambété” [Zambia, surroundings of Pambété, Lake Tanganyika].

Tiphobia nassa grandis Smith, 1881

Original reference. Smith (1881b: 561).

Original spelling. Tiphobia (Paramelania) nassa var. grandis Smith, 1881.

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Cleopatra guillemei Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885c: 6–8).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Guillemei Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Nyanza Oukéwéré, près de la Mission française”[Tanzania, Lake Victoria].

Cleopatra guillemeti Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 13–14, pl. 4, fig. 4).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Guillemeti Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “L’embouchure du Malagarazi” [Tanzania, Malagarasi Delta].

Nassopsis guillemei Martel & Dautzenberg, 1899

Original reference. Martel and Dautzenberg (1899: 172–173, pl. 8, figs 12, 13).

Original spelling. Nassopsis Guillemei Martel & Dautzenberg, 1899.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganyika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paramelania imperialis guillemei Martel & Dautzenberg, 1899

Original reference. Martel and Dautzenberg (1899: 178–180, pl. 8, fig. 23).

Original spelling. Paramelania imperialis var. Guillemei Martel & Dautzenberg, 1899.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganyika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Spekia hamyi Germain, 1906 [Invalid]

Original reference. Germain (1906: 580).

Original spelling. Spekia Hamyi Germain, 1906.

Remarks. Unjustified emendation of Spekia hamyana Bourguignat, 1885. Germain (1906) changed the suffix of several species-group names ending in –iana or –ana introduced by Bourguignat (1885). The names thus formed are to be treated as emendations of the original names (Code Art. 33.2.1) and are available and have as unjustified emendations their own author and date (Code Art. 33.2.2).

Syrnolopsis hamyana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 17–18).

Type locality. “Sur la plage de Pambété” [Zambia, beach of Pambété, Lake Tanganyika].

Spekia hamyana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 38–39).

Type locality. “Sur la plage de Mpala” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lake Tanganyika, beach of Mpala].

Hauttecoeuria hamyana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 48–49).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria hamyana Bourguignet, 1885.

Type locality. “Sur la plage de Pambété” [Zambia, beach of Pambété, Lake Tanganyika].

Paramelania hamyana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 71–72).

Type locality. “De la plage de Pambété, au sud du lac” [Zambia, beach of Pambété, southern shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus hanleyi Dohrn, 1858

Original reference. Dohrn (1858: 535).

Type locality. “Inhabitants of mountain-streams in Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Cleopatra hargeri Smith, 1908

Original reference. Smith (1908: 13).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Hargeri Smith, 1908.

Type locality. “Kalingwisi River, Lake Mweru” [Zambia].

Cleopatra hemmingi Verdcourt, 1956

Original reference. Hemming and Verdcourt (1956: 60–62, figs 3, 4e).

Type locality. “Italian Somaliland, 18 miles W. of Beles Cogani, frequent in the large shallow pools” [Somalia].

Paludomus hilberi Gredler, 1886

Original reference. Gredler (1886: 19–20).

Original spelling. Paludomus (?) Hilberi Gredler, 1886.

Type locality. “Aus Hensan, der Provinz Hunan” [China, Hunan].

Cleopatra hirta Dautzenberg & Germain, 1914

Original reference. Dautzenberg and Germain (1914: 59, pl. 4, figs 11–14).

Type locality. “Stn. 49, Nyangwe, Lualaba” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nyangwe, Lualaba River].

Tiphobia horei Smith, 1880

Original reference. Smith (1880a: 348–349, pl. 31, fig. 7).

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Melania horei Smith, 1880

Original reference. Smith (1880b: 427).

Original spelling. Melania (―?) Horei Smith, 1880.

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Bathanalia howesi Moore, 1898

Original reference. Moore (1898a: 452, fig. 2; 1898c: 192, 203, pl. 12, figs 29, 30).

Original spelling. Bathanalia Howesi Moore, 1898.

Type locality. “Near Mleroes, Tanganyika, at a depth of 950 ft” [Zambia, near Mleroes, southern shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Remarks. The name Bathanalia Howesi was published simultaneously (March 1898) in two separate works by J. E. S. Moore (1998a, c). In Moore (1898a) the name was spelled Bathanalia Howesii, and in Moore (1898b) it was spelled Bathanalia Howesi. Moore (1898d) used Bathanalia Howesii and Bathanalia Howsei, while in another subsequent work by the author, Moore (1898e), only the name Bathanalia Howesi was used. Therefore, Moore (1898e) is deemed here as First Reviser under the Code Art. 24.2.4 of the simultaneously published spellings of Moore (1898a, c) and Bathanalia howesi Moore, 1998 (including obligate corrections under the Code Art. 32.5.2.5) is regarded as the correct original spelling. Bathanalia Howsei is an incorrect subsequent spelling by Moore (1898d).

Bourguignatia imperialis Giraud, 1885

Original reference. Giraud (1885: 194).

Type locality. “Région du Marungu, sur la plage de Mpala (côte sud-ouest du Tanganika)“ [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lake Tanganyika, Marungu region, beach of Mpala, south-western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus inflata Brot, 1880

Original reference. Brot (1880: 44–45, pl. 5, fig. 10).

Original spelling. Paludomus inflatus Brot, 1880.

Type locality. “Travancore” and “Amerghat” [India, Kerala; Amerghat].

Paramelania infralirata Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 35–36, pl. 15, figs 4, 5).

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Bythoceras iridescens Moore, 1898

Original reference. Moore (1898a: 452, fig. 1).

Type locality. “Near Sumbu, Tanganyika, at a depth of 680 ft” [Zambia, near Sumbu, southern part of Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus isseli Brot, 1880

Original reference. Brot (1880: 31–32, pl. 7, figs 7, 7a, 8).

Original spelling. Paludomus Isseli Brot, 1880.

Type locality. “Sarawak auf Borneo” [Malaysia, Borneo, Sarawak].

Paludomus conica jaintiaca Nevill, 1884

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 289).

Original spelling. Paludomus conica var. jaintiaca Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “S. Jaintia Hills” [India, Meghalaya].

Remarks. See Remarks under Paludomus conica cherraensis Nevill, 1884.

Cleopatra johnstoni Smith, 1893

Original reference. Smith (1893: 637, pl. 59, fig. 9).

Type locality. “Lake Mweru” [Zambia/Democratic Republic of the Congo].

Tiphobia jouberti Bourguignat, 1886

Original reference. Bourguignat (1886: 146–148, 150, pl. 6, figs 11–13).

Type locality. “Sur les plages du Masanzé au N.-O. de la presqu’île Oubouari“ [Democratic Republic of the Congo, north-western part of the Ubwari Peninsula, beaches of Masanzé, Lake Tanganyika].

Cleopatra jouberti Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 13–14, pl. 4, fig. 3).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Jouberti Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “L’embouchure du Malagarazi” [Tanzania, Malagarasi Delta].

Cambieria jouberti Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 17–18, pl. 6, figs 15, 16).

Original spelling. Cambieria Jouberti Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Hauttecoeuria jouberti Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 19, pl. 7, figs 24, 25).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria Jouberti Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Reymondia jouberti Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 27–28, pl. 11, figs 5, 6).

Original spelling. Reymondia Jouberti Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Bourguignatia jouberti Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 29, pl. 12, figs 5–7).

Original spelling. Bourguignatia Jouberti Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Sur les plages de la côte occidentale” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Lavigeria jouberti Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 33–34, pl. 14, fig. 4).

Original spelling. Lavigeria Jouberti Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Sur les rives nord et surtout occidentales du lac” [Democratic Republic of the Conga, Lake Tanganyika, northern and western shores].

Rumella jouberti Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 40, pl. 17, figs 29–31).

Original spelling. Rumella Jouberti Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “De la côte occidentale” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus tanjoriensis kadapaensis Nevill, 1884

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 294).

Original spelling. Paludomus tanjoriensis var. kadapaensis Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “Kadapa District, Madras” [India, Tamil Nadu, Chennai].

Remarks. See Remarks under Paludomus conica cherraensis Nevill, 1884.

Cleopatra kaisoensis Van Damme & Pickford, 2003

Original reference. Van Damme and Pickford (2003: 11, 52–53, fig. 38).

Type locality. “Kaiso Village locality Kaiso A, Lake Albert, Uganda”.

Type stratum. “Kaiso Village Formation, Molluscan Associations GX, Late Pliocene”.

Paludomus kamaingia Rao, 1929

Original reference. Rao (1929: 290–292).

Type locality. “From a small rocky stream near Kamaing” [Myanmar, Kamaing].

Cleopatra nsendweensis katangana Pilsbry & Bequaert, 1927

Original reference. Pilsbry and Bequaert (1927: 296, fig. 55b).

Type locality. “Luvua River, between Kiambi and Ankoro” [Democratic Republic of the Congo].

Limnotrochus kirkii Smith, 1880

Original reference. Smith (1880b: 426).

Original spelling. Limnotrochus Kirkii Smith, 1880.

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Remarks. Limnotrochus kerkii as used by Moore (1903) is an incorrect spelling. The deliberate change by Smith (1881a: 286–287) to Limnotrochus kirki has also to be interpreted as an incorrect subsequent spelling (Code Art. 33.4).

Potadomoides kisegiensis Van Damme & Pickford, 2003

Original reference. Van Damme and Pickford (2003: 10, 17, 47–48, 62, fig. 34).

Type locality. “Kisegi locality KI 5, Lake Albert, Uganda”.

Type stratum. “Kakara Formation, Molluscan Association G1, Late Miocene”.

Paludomus conica kopiliensis Nevill, 1884

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 289).

Original spelling. Paludomus conica var. kopiliensis Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “Kopili River, North Assam [and] North Assam” [India, Meghalaya/Assam].

Remarks. See Remarks under Paludomus conica cherraensis Nevill, 1884.

Bithynia bulimoides kotschyana Frauenfeld, 1864 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Frauenfeld (1864: 583, 619).

Original spelling. Bythinia bulimoides var. Kotschyana Frauenfeld, 1864.

Remarks. Nomen nudum, name introduced without definition, description, or indication (Code Art. 12.1).

Paludomus kweichowensis Cheng, 1937

Original reference. Cheng (1937: 445–447, figs 1.3, 2.3).

Original spelling. Paludomus (Hemimitra) kweichowensis Cheng, 1937.

Type locality. “At Shih-men-kan, Kweichow Province, China” [China, Guizhou].

Cleopatra kynganica Bourguignat, 1879

Original reference. Bourguignat (1879: 21).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Kynganica Bourguignat, 1879.

Type locality. “Dans le fleuve Kyngani, près de Bagamoyo” [Tanzania, Bagamoyo, Kyngani River].

Remarks. Cleopatra Kinganica is an incorrect subsequent spelling by Bourguignat (1885b, c).

Paludomus labiosa Benson, 1856

Original reference. Benson (1856: 495–496).

Type locality. “Hab. in rivulis vallis Tenasserim” [Myanmar, rivers in the Tenasserim Valley].

Paludomus lacunoides Aldrich, 1889

Original reference. Aldrich (1889: 23–24, pl. 3, figs 1, 1a–c).

Type locality. “In the Kusan and Penggiron districts in Southeastern Borneo and from the Kinan and Kiwa Rivers” [Indonesia, Borneo].

Paramelania lacunosa Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 37–38, pl. 16, figs 5, 6).

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Syrnolopsis lacustris Smith, 1880

Original reference. Smith (1880b: 426–427).

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Paludomus laevis Layard, 1855

Original reference. Layard (1855: 89).

Original spelling. Paludomus lævis Layard, 1855.

Type locality. “Ceylon, in slow-running streams on the northern side of the mountain zone extending into the flat country beyond Anarajahpoora [and] in a paddy field in the south of the island, near the village of Heneratgodde” [Sri Lanka].

Cleopatra langi Pilsbry & Bequaert, 1927

Original reference. Pilsbry and Bequaert (1927: 293–294, figs 51a–d, 52).

Type locality. “Stanleyville” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kisangani].

Cleopatra laurenti Bourguignat, 1879

Original reference. Bourguignat (1879: 24).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Laurenti Bourguignat, 1879.

Type locality. “Sur les bords du Nil, au-dessus du Caire“ [Egypt, Nile River, upriver of Cairo].

Hauttecoeuria lavigeriana Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 19, pl. 7, figs 26–27).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria Lavigeriana Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Giraudia lavigeriana Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 27–28, pl. 11, figs 22–24).

Original spelling. Giraudia Lavigeriana Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Rumella lavigeriana Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 40, pl. 17, figs 32–34).

Original spelling. Rumella Lavigeriana Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “De la côte occidentale” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus layardi Reeve, 1852

Original reference. Reeve (1852: 128).

Original spelling. Paludomus Layardi Reeve, 1852.

Type locality. “Mountain streams of Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Lavigeria lechaptoisi Ancey, 1898

Original reference. Ancey (1898: 145–146, pl. 9, fig. I).

Original spelling. Lavigeria (?) lechaptoisi Ancey, 1898.

Type locality. “Habitat in ripa meridionali lacus Tanganika «Ufipa» dicta” [Tanzania, Ufipa region, Lake Tanganyika].

Paramelania ledoulxiana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 80–81).

Type locality. “Sur la plage Kapampa, à l’ouest du lac” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kapampa, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Remarks. The name was attributed to V. Giraud by Bourguignat (1885a: 80), but Bourguignat alone was responsible for the description and therefore is the author of the name (Code Art 50.1).

Viviparus lepersonnei Gautier, 1970

Original reference. Gautier & Charig (1970: 41, 95–96, figs 6a–d).

Original spelling. Viviparus ? lepersonnei Gautier, 1970.

Type locality. “Kaiso“ [Uganda, Kaiso].

Type stratum. Kaiso, Site 3.

Cleopatra lesnei Germain, 1935

Original reference. Germain (1935: 68–69).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Lesnei Germain, 1935.

Type locality. “Bas Sangadzé (Zambèse)” [Mozambique, Sofala].

Remarks. Type locality given erroneously; according to Brown and Mandahl-Barth (1989) a Paludomus Swainson, 1840 species.

Paramelania lessepsiana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 78–79).

Type locality. “Sur la plage de Mlilo” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mlilo (= Moliro), Lake Tanganyika].

Remarks. The name was attributed to V. Giraud by Bourguignat (1885a: 78), but Bourguignat alone was responsible for the description and therefore is the author of the name (Code Art 50.1).

Cleopatra letourneuxi Bourguignat, 1879

Original reference. Bourguignat (1879: 19–21).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Letourneuxi Bourguignat, 1879.

Type locality. “Fleuve Kyngani, près de Bagamoyo” [Tanzania, Bagamoyo, Kyngani River].

Ponsonbya leucoraphe Ancey, 1890

Original reference. Ancey (1890: 347).

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Hauttecoeuria levesquei Germain, 1905 [Invalid]

Original reference. Germain (1905a: 258).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria Levesquei Germain, 1905.

Remarks. Unjustified emendation of Hauttecœuria levesquiana Bourguignat, 1888. Germain (1905a) changed the suffix of several species-group names ending in –iana or –ana introduced by Bourguignat (1885, 1888). The names thus formed are to be treated as emendations of the original names (Code Art. 33.2.1) and are available and have as unjustified emendations their own author and date (Code Art. 33.2.2).

Hauttecoeuria levesquiana Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 21–22, pl. 8, figs 9–11).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria Levesquiana Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Cleopatra lhotellerii Bourguignat, 1879

Original reference. Bourguignat (1879: 25).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Lhotellerii Bourguignat, 1879.

Type locality. “Mandara, près d’Alexandrie” [Egypt, Mandara near Alexandria].

Pseudocleopatra likeae Van Damme & Pickford, 2003

Original reference. Van Damme and Pickford (2003: 10, 18, 54–55, 59, 63, figs 41a, 42).

Type locality. “Sinda-Mohari Gautier Site 13, Semliki Plain, Congo” [Democratic Republic of the Congo].

Type stratum. “Mohari and Kisegi Formations, Molluscan Association G0 & G1, Late and Middle Miocene”.

Syrnolopsis lacustris lilacina Dartevelle & Schwetz, 1948

Original reference. Dartevelle and Schwetz (1948: 30, 37, 39, 52, 59, 74, 85, pl. 1, fig. 14).

Original spelling. Syrnolopsis lacustris var. lilacina Dartevelle & Schwetz, 1948.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganilsa (?) (Stn. 2065)” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paramelania limnaea Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 39–40, pl. 17, figs 7, 8).

Original spelling. Paramelania Limnæa Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paludina lineata Menke, 1828 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Menke (1828: 23).

Remarks. Nomen nudum, introduced without description, definition, or indication (Code Art. 12.1). Only the name Helix tanschaurica Gmelin, 1791 was mentioned. Presented in the same way in Menke (1830: 41).

Edgaria littoralis Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 33–34, pl. 14, figs 14–16).

Type locality. “Çà et là sur tout le pourtour du lac” [Lake Tanganyika].

Hirthia littorina Ancey, 1898

Original reference. Ancey (1898: 142–144, pl. 9, fig. G).

Type locality. “Habitat in lacu Tanganika, ad partem meridionalem et orientalem «Ufipa» dictam” [Tanzania, Ufipa region, south-eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Paramelania livingstoniana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 85–86).

Type locality. “Plages de Pambété et de Kapampa ” [Zambia, beach of Pambété, and Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kapampa, Lake Tanganyika].

Remarks. The name was attributed to V. Giraud by Bourguignat (1885a: 85), but Bourguignat alone was responsible for the description and therefore is the author of the name (Code Art. 50.1).

Hauttecoeuria locardi Germain, 1905 [Invalid]

Original reference. Germain (1905a: 258).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria Locardi Germain, 1905.

Remarks. Unjustified emendation Hauttecœuria locardiana Bourguignat, 1888. Germain (1905a) changed the suffix of several species-group names ending in –iana or –ana introduced by Bourguignat (1885, 1888). The names thus formed are to be treated as emendations of the original names (Code Art. 33.2.1) and are available and have as unjustified emendations their own author and date (Code Art. 33.2.2).

Paramelania locardi Germain, 1905 [Invalid]

Original reference. Germain (1905a: 259).

Original spelling. Paramelania Locardi Germain, 1905.

Remarks. Unjustified emendation of Paramelania locardiana Bourguignat, 1885. Germain (1905a) changed the suffix of several species-group names ending in –iana or –ana introduced by Bourguignat (1885, 1888). The names thus formed are to be treated as emendations of the original names (Code Art. 33.2.1) and are available and have as unjustified emendations their own author and date (Code Art. 33.2.2).

Paramelania locardiana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 82–83).

Type locality. “Sur la plage de Pambété” [Zambia, beach of Pambété, Lake Tanganyika].

Hauttecœuria locardiana Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 21–22, pl. 8, figs 12–14).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria Locardiana Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Tiphobia longirostris Bourguignat, 1886

Original reference. Bourguignat (1886: 144–146, 150, pl. 6, figs 8–10).

Type locality. “Sur la plage de Kibanga, au sud de la presqu’île Oubouari” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kibanga, southern part of the Obwari Peninsula, Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus loricata Reeve, 1847

Original reference. Reeve (1847: pl. 1, figs 1a–c).

Original spelling. Paludomus loricatus Reeve, 1847.

Type locality. “In rapids flowing from Adam’s Peak, Ceylon” [Sri Lanka, near Adam’s Peak].

Cleopatra bulimoides lutea Pallary, 1909 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Pallary (1909: 64).

Original spelling. Cleopatra bulimoïdes var. ex colore lutea Pallary, 1909.

Remarks. Nomen nudum, introduced without description, definition, or indication (Code Art. 12.1).

Paludomus lutea Adams, 1874

Original reference. Adams (1874: 585–586, pl. 59, figs 5, 5a).

Original spelling. Paludomus luteus Adams, 1874.

Type locality. “Borneo”.

Paludina lutosa Souleyet, 1852

Original reference. Souleyet (1852: 550, pl. 31, figs 28–30).

Type locality. “Cette espèce provient du Gange” [India/Bangladesh, Ganges River].

Paramelania mabilliana Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 37–38, pl. 16, figs 17–18).

Original spelling. Paramelania Mabilliana Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Hauttecoeuria macrostoma Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 19, pl. 7, figs 10–11).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria macrostoma Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus maculata Lea, 1856

Original reference. Lea (1856: 110).

Type locality. “Ahmednugger, India” [India, Maharashtra].

Paludina madagascariensis Crosse & Fischer, 1872

Original reference. Crosse and Fischer (1872: 210).

Original spelling. Paludina Madagascariensis Crosse & Fischer, 1872.

Type locality. “Habitat in rivulis regionis orientalis insulæ Madagascar dictæ” [Madagascar, rivers in the eastern part of the island].

Paludomus madagascariensis Brot, 1880

Original reference. Brot (1880: 48, pl. 8, fig. 7).

Type locality. “Madagascar” [Madagascar].

Original spelling. Paludomus Madagascariensis Brot, 1880.

Paludomus hanleyi major Nevill, 1884

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 305).

Original spelling. Paludomus [Tanalia] hanleyi var. major Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Remarks. See Remarks under Paludomus conica cherraensis Nevill, 1884.

Paramelania stanleyana major Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 75).

Original spelling. Paramelania stanleyana var. major Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Plages de Pambété et de Mlilo“ [Zambia, beach of Pambété and Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mlilo (= Moliro), Lake Tanganyika].

Syrnolopsis minuta major Germain, 1905

Original reference. Germain (1905a: 260).

Original spelling. Syrnolopsis minuta var. major Germain, 1905.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika“ [Lake Tanganyika].

Cleopatra bulimoides major Dautzenberg & Germain, 1914

Original reference. Dautzenberg and Germain (1914: 56–57).

Original spelling. Cleopatra bulimoides f. major Dautzenberg & Germain, 1914.

Type locality. “Stn. 72, Kibombo, 4° lat. S“ [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kibombo].

Edgaria nassa major Leloup, 1953 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Leloup (1953: 166).

Original spelling. Edgaria nassa f. major Leloup, 1953.

Remarks. Mentioned in the synonymy of Edgardia nassa forme typica; unavailable (Code Art. 11.6).

Edgaria locardiana major Leloup, 1953 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Leloup (1953: 167).

Original spelling. Edgaria locardiana f. major Leloup, 1953.

Remarks. Mentioned in the synonymy of Edgardia nassa forme giraudi; unavailable (Code Art. 11.6).

Paludomus tanjoriensis malabarica Nevill, 1884

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 294–295).

Original spelling. Paludomus tanjoriensis var. malabarica Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “Travancore [and] Pulney Hills” [India, Kerala, Pulney Hills].

Remarks. See Remarks under Paludomus conica cherraensis Nevill, 1884.

Cleopatra mangoroensis Ancey, 1890

Original reference. Ancey (1890: 344–345).

Type locality. “Fleuve Mangoro, de Tananarive à la côte orientale de Madagascar, à 700 m” [Madagascar, from Antananarivo to the eastern coast, at 700 m, Mangoro River].

Cleopatra mareotica Bourguignat, 1879

Original reference. Bourguignat (1879: 25).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Mareotica Bourguignat, 1979.

Type locality. “Dans le petit canal de Mustapha, près de Ramlé (Égypte)” [Egypt, Ramle near Alexandria, Mustapha Canal].

Hauttecoeuria maunoiri Germain, 1905 [Invalid]

Original reference. Germain (1905a: 258).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria Maunoiri Germain, 1905.

Remarks. Unjustified emendation of Hauttecoeuria maunoiriana Bourguignat, 1885. Germain (1905a) changed the suffix of several species-group names ending in –iana or –ana introduced by Bourguignat (1885, 1888). The names thus formed are to be treated as emendations of the original names (Code Art. 33.2.1) and are available and have as unjustified emendations their own author and date (Code Art. 33.2.2).

Tanganikia maunoiriana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 44–45).

Original spelling. Tanganikia (Cambieria) maunoiriana Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Plages de Mpala et de Pambété” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lake Tanganyika, beach of Mpala and Zambia, beach of Pambété, southern shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Hauttecoeuria maunoiriana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 55).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria maunoiriana Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Sur la plage de Pambété” [Zambia, beach of Pambété, Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus maurus Reeve, 1852

Original reference. Reeve (1852: 127).

Type locality. “Branch of the Ganges” [India/Bangladesh, Ganges River].

Cleopatra bulimoides media Pallary, 1924

Original reference. Pallary (1924: 33).

Original spelling. Cleopatra bulimoides variété media Pallary, 1924.

Type locality. “Égypte” [Egypt].

Paludomus melanostoma Hanley & Theobald, 1876

Original reference. Hanley and Theobald (1876: 49, pl. 121, figs 8–9).

Type locality. “Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Cremnoconchus messageri Bavay & Dautzenberg, 1900

Original reference. Bavay and Dautzenberg (1900: 116–117).

Original spelling. Cremnoconchus Messageri Bavay & Dautzenberg, 1900.

Type locality. “Rivière Song-Ky-Kong, près de That-Khé” [Vietnam, near Thất Khê, Kỳ Cùng River].

Ellinoria michelae Van Damme & Pickford, 2003

Original reference. Van Damme and Pickford (2003: 10, 61–62, fig. 50).

Type locality. “Nkondo locality NK 34, Lake Albert, Uganda”.

Type stratum. “Nkondo Formation, Molluscan Association G3b, Late Miocene to Early Pliocene”.

Paludomus microsculpta Nevill, 1884 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 297).

Type locality. “Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Remarks. Introduced without description, definition, or indication (Code Art. 12.1).

Paludomus rotunda microstoma Nevill, 1884

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 295).

Original spelling. Paludomus rotunda var. microstoma Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “Anamallay Rivers [and] Madura Hills” [India, Tamil Nadu].

Remarks. See Remarks under Paludomus conica cherraensis Nevill, 1884.

Tanganikia soluta milneedwardsi Germain, 1905 [Invalid]

Original reference. Germain (1905a: 258).

Original spelling. Tanganikia (Hauttecœuria) soluta var. Milne-Edwardsi Germain, 1905.

Remarks. Unjustified emendation of Hauttecœuria milneedwardsiana Bourguignat, 1885. Germain (1905a) changed the suffix of several species-group names ending in –iana or –ana introduced by Bourguignat (1885, 1888). The names thus formed are to be treated as emendations of the original names (Code Art. 33.2.1) and are available and have as unjustified emendations their own author and date (Code Art. 33.2.2).

Hauttecoeuria milneedwardsiana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 50–51).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria milne-edwardsiana Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Sur les plages du sud du lac” [Zambia, southern shores of Lake Tanganyika].

Paramelania milneedwardsiana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 77–78).

Original spelling. Paramelania milne-edwardsiana Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Plage de Mlilo” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mlilo (= Moliro), Lake Tanganyika].

Rumella milneedwardsiana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 91).

Original spelling. Rumella milne-edwardsiana Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Plage de Kapampa, au sud-ouest du lac” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, beach of Kapampa, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus minensis Cheng, 1937

Original reference. Cheng (1937: 445–448, figs 1.4, 2.4).

Type locality. “In Min River near Kienway, Szechuan Province, China”.

Giraudia minima Smith, 1908

Original reference. Smith (1908: 12).

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Paludomus regulata minor Nevill, 1884 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 291).

Original spelling. Paludomus regulata subvar. minor Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “Burma” [Myanmar].

Remarks. See Remarks under Paludomus conica cherraensis Nevill, 1884; not subsequently made available under the Code (Art. 45.6.4.1).

Paludomus sulcata minor Nevill, 1884 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 299).

Original spelling. Paludomus [Philopotamis] sulcata subvar. minor Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Remarks. See Remarks under Paludomus conica cherraensis Nevill, 1884. Used by Rao (1929) as the valid name of a taxon, however without definition, description, or indication. Therefore not adopted as the name of a taxon in the sense of the code and thus not made available (Code Art. 45.6.4.1).

Paludomus aculeata minor Nevill, 1884 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 302).

Original spelling. Paludomus [Tanalia] aculeata subvar. minor Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Remarks. See Remarks under Paludomus conica cherraensis Nevill, 1884. Not subsequently made available under the Code (Art. 45.6.4.1).

Paramelania duveyrieriana minor Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 79).

Original spelling. Paramelania duveyrieriana var. minor Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Dans les environs de Pambété” [Zambia, surroundings of Pambété, Lake Tanganyika].

Remarks. Acting as first revisers, we here select the name Paramelania duveyrieriana var. minor Bourguignat, 1885 to have the precedence over Paramelania locardiana var. minor Bourguignat, 1885.

Paramelania locardiana minor Bourguignat, 1885 [Invalid]

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 83).

Original spelling. Paramelania locardiana var. minor Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “À Mlilo et aussi à Pambété” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mlilo (= Moliro) and Zambia, Pambété, Lake Tanganyika].

Remarks. Invalid, homonym of Paramelania duveyrieriana var. minor Bourguignat, 1885 [first reviser action, see under Paramelania duveyrieriana minor Bourguignat, 1885].

Reymondia minor Smith, 1889

Original reference. Smith (1889: 174).

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Hauttecoeuria giraudi minor Bourguignat, 1890

Original reference. Bourguignat (1890: 100).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria Giraudi var. minor Bourguignat, 1890.

Type locality. “A Kibanga, au sud de la presqu’île Oubouari” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kibanga, Obwari Peninsula, Lake Tanganyika].

Reymondia giraudi minor Bourguignat, 1890 [Invalid]

Original reference. Bourguignat (1890: 155).

Original spelling. Reymondia Giraudi forme minor Bourguignat, 1890.

Type locality. “Plage au nord de Mlilo; sur une autre plage voisine” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, beach north of Mlilo (= Moliro), Lake Tanganyika].

Remarks. Invalid, junior homonym of Reymondia minor Smith, 1889.

Bythoceras minor Moore, 1903

Original reference. Moore (1903: 242, 244, fig. 24).

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Lavigeria jouberti minor Germain, 1905 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Germain (1905a: 259).

Original spelling. Lavigeria jouberti var. minor Germain, 1905.

Type locality. Not given.

Remarks. Nomen nudum, introduced without description, definition, or indication (Code Art. 12.1).

Giraudia bridouxiana minor Ancey, 1906 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Ancey (1906b: 254).

Original spelling. Giraudia Bridouxiana f. minor Ancey, 1906.

Type locality. “Ufipa, M’bwé” [Tanzania, Ufipa region, Lake Tanganyika].

Remarks. Nomen nudum, introduced without description, definition, or indication (Code Art. 12.1).

Cleopatra johnstoni minor Dautzenberg & Germain, 1914 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Dautzenberg and Germain (1914: 57).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Johnstoni f. minor Dautzenberg & Germain, 1914.

Type locality. “Stn. 38, riv. Luvua, entre Ankoro et Kiambi“ and “Stn. 79, riv. Luvua, entre Ankoro et Kiambi” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, between Ankoro and Kiambi, Luvua River].

Remarks. Nomen nudum, introduced without description, definition, or indication (Code Art. 12.1).

Paludomus ferruginea minor Dautzenberg & Germain, 1914 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Dautzenberg and Germain (1914: 61).

Original spelling. Paludomus (Zanguebaria) ferruginea f. minor Dautzenberg & Germain, 1914.

Type locality. “Stn. 36, Lovoi, Kikondja, Katanga“ [Democratic Republic of the Congo, near Kikondja, Lovoi River].

Remarks. Nomen nudum, introduced without description, definition, or indication (Code Art. 12.1).

Cleopatra bulimoides minor Pallary, 1924

Original reference. Pallary (1924: 33).

Original spelling. Cleopatra bulimoides variété minor Pallary, 1924.

Type locality. “Égypte” … “d’une localité inconnue” [Egypt].

Edgaria milneedwardsiana minor Dartevelle & Schwetz, 1948

Original reference. Dartevelle and Schwetz (1948: 31, 37, 43, 53, 60, 74, 76).

Type locality. “Ufipa” [Tanzania, Ufipa region, Lake Tanganyika], see Ancey (1906b: 263).

Original spelling. Edgaria milne-edwardsiana var. minor Dartevelle & Schwetz, 1948.

Remarks. Dartevelle and Schwetz (1948: 53) remarked “D’autre part, nous avons ulilisé la variété suivante, due à C. F. Ancey et restée manuscrite, mais signalée (2, p. 263): Edgaria milne-edwardsiana var. minor C. F. Ancey”. Ancey (1906b: 263) stated that the specimens are distinguished from the nominate form by their smaller size, thus providing a diagnosis, which is referred to by Dartevelle and Schwetz (1948).

Edgaria egregia minor Leloup, 1953 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Leloup (1953: 166).

Original spelling. Edgaria egregia f. minor Leloup, 1953.

Remarks. Mentioned in the synonymy of Edgardia nassa forme typica; unavailable (Code Art. 11.6).

Edgaria nassa minor Leloup, 1953 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Leloup (1953: 166).

Original spelling. Edgaria nassa f. minor Leloup, 1953.

Remarks. Mentioned in the synonymy of Edgardia nassa forme typica; unavailable (Code Art. 11.6).

Edgaria locardiana spinulosa minor Leloup, 1953 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Leloup (1953: 167).

Original spelling. Edgaria locardiana var. spinulosa f. minor Leloup, 1953.

Remarks. Mentioned in the synonymy of Edgardia nassa forme giraudi; unavailable (Code Art. 11.6).

Syrnolopsis minuta Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 21–22).

Type locality. “Plage de Pambété” [Zambia, beach of Pambété, Lake Tanganyika].

Remarks. Syrnolopsis minima Bourguignat, 1885 as used by Bandel, 1998 is a lapsus for Syrnolopsis minuta Bourguignat, 1885.

Hauttecoeuria minuta Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 57–58).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria minuta Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Sur la plage de Mpala” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lake Tanganyika, beach of Mpala].

Paludomus minutiuscula Gredler, 1885

Original reference. Gredler (1885: 232–233, pl. 6, fig. 8).

Original spelling. Paludomus ? minutiusculus Gredler, 1885.

Type locality. “Aus Tschin-chi, einer Stadt 3. Ranges in der Provinz Kuei-tscheu” [China, Guizhou].

Philopotamis misconceptus Nevill, 1884 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 299).

Remarks. Mentioned as a manuscript name under Paludomus nigricans Reeve, 1847 by Nevill (1884: 299); unavailable (Code Art. 11.6).

Melania modicella Lea & Lea, 1851

Original reference. Lea and Lea (1851: 196–197).

Type locality. “Timor” [Timor].

Hauttecoeuria moineti Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 19, pl. 7, figs 1–3).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria Moineti Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Syrnolopsis lacustris molirensis Pilsbry & Bequaert, 1927

Original reference. Pilsbry and Bequaert (1927: 230–231, figs 26h, 27c–d).

Type locality. “Off Moliro, in 70 m and at Moliro; in Lake Tanganyika” [Democratic Republic of the Kongo, off and at Moliro, Lake Tanganyika].

Reymondia monceti Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 27–28, pl. 11, figs 7–8).

Original spelling. Reymondia Monceti Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Edgaria monceti Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 33–34, pl. 14, figs 12–13).

Original spelling. Edgaria Monceti Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Cà et là sur tout le pourtour du lac” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus monile Hanley & Theobald, 1876

Original reference. Hanley and Theobald (1876: 44, pl. 108, fig. 10).

Type locality. “Southern India”.

Paludomus moreleti Issel, 1874

Original reference. Issel (1874: 456–457, pl. 7, fig. 21–22).

Original spelling. Paludomus Moreleti Issel, 1874.

Type locality. “Territorio di Sarawak” [Malaysia, Borneo, Sarawak].

Cleopatra morelli Preston, 1905

Original reference. Preston (1905: 300–301, fig. 3).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Morelli Preston, 1905.

Type locality. “Just above Victoria Falls, Zambesi River” [Zimbabwe, Zambesi River, above Victoria Falls].

Paramelania imperialis mpalaensis Martel & Dautzenberg, 1899

Original reference. Martel and Dautzenberg (1899: 180, pl. 8, fig. 24).

Original spelling. Paramelania imperialis var. mpalaensis Martel & Dautzenberg, 1899.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganyika” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lake Tanganyika, Mpala].

Cleopatra. mterizensis Melvill & Standen, 1907

Original reference. Melvill and Standen (1907: 5, pl. 1, fig. 2).

Type locality. “Bed Mterize River, a tributary of the Loangwa River” [Zambia].

Syrnolopsis minuta multicarinata Ancey, 1906

Original reference. Ancey (1906b: 267).

Original spelling. Syrnolopsis minuta f. multicarinata Ancey, 1906.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika, côte orientale” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Cleopatra multilirata Ancey, 1906

Original reference. Ancey (1906a: 45).

Type locality. “Vinaninony, Madagascar” [Madagascar, Vinaninony].

Bithynia multisulcata Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 11, pl. 3, figs 7–8).

Original spelling. Bythinia multisulcata Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Sur les rives de la presqu’île Oubouari” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lake Tanganyika, shores of Obwari Peninsula].

Syrnolopsis minuta multicsulcata Ancey, 1906 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Ancey (1906b: 255).

Original spelling. Syrnolopsis minuta f. multisulcata Ancey, 1906.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika, côte orientale” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Remarks. Nomen nudum, introduced without description, definition, or indication (Code Art. 12.1).

Pseudocleopatra musiimei Van Damme & Pickford, 2003

Original reference. Van Damme and Pickford (2003: 10, 12–13, 55–58, 63, 66, fig. 43).

Type locality. “Nkondo locality NK 122, Lake Albert, Uganda”.

Type stratum. “Lusso Formation (Biozone L0) (L. Edward), Nkondo Formation (L. Albert), Molluscan Associations G3a, G3b & G3c. Late Miocene to Early Pliocene”.

Cleopatra mweruensis Smith, 1893

Original reference. Smith (1893: 637–638, pl. 59, fig. 10).

Type locality. “Lake Mweru” [Democratic Republic of the Congo/Uganda].

Paludomus andersoniana myadoungensis Nevill, 1881

Original reference. Nevill (1881: 160).

Original spelling. Paludomus Andersoniana var. myadoungensis Nevill, 1881.

Type locality. “Myadoung, near the Yunnan” [Myanmar].

Paludomus andersoniana nana Nevill, 1881

Original reference. Nevill (1881: 160).

Original spelling. Paludomus Andersoniana subvar. nana Nevill, 1881.

Type locality. “Also from Pegu” [Myanmar].

Remarks. Introduced as a subvariety. However, made available by Rao (1929: 292–293, text fig. 6) (Code Art. 45.6.4.1).

Paludomus conica nana Nevill, 1884 [Invalid]

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 289).

Original spelling. Paludomus conica var. nana Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “W. Khasi Hills” [India, Meghalaya].

Remarks. See Remarks under Paludomus conica cherraensis Nevill, 1884. Made available by Kobelt in Pfeffer and Kobelt (1887: 422) (Code Art. 45.6.4.1). Junior homonym of Paludomus andersoniana nana Nevill, 1881.

Melania nassa Woodward, 1859

Original reference. Woodward (1859: 349, pl. 47, fig. 4).

Original spelling. Melania (Melanella) nassa Woodward, 1859.

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika in Central Africa”.

Remarks. Nassopsis nana as used by Moore (1903) is an incorrect spelling.

Paramelania nassatella Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 37–38, pl. 16, figs 3, 4).

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paramelania nassatiformis Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 39–40, pl. 17, figs 5, 6).

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus nasuta Dohrn, 1857

Original reference. Dohrn (1857: 123–124).

Original spelling. Paludomus nasuta Dohrn, 1857.

Type locality. “Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Lithoglyphus neritinoides Smith, 1880

Original reference. Smith (1880b: 426).

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Remarks. Stanleya Neritoides is an incorrect subsequent spelling by Bourguignat (1885, 1888).

Paludomus neritoides Reeve, 1847

Original reference. Reeve (1847: pl. 1, fig. 3a. b).

Original spelling. Paludomus Neritoides reeve, 1847.

Type locality. “In the bed of a river at Ambegamoa, Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Bithynia bulimoides nigra Frauenfeld, 1864

Original reference. Frauenfeld (1864: 583, 629).

Original spelling. Bythinia bulimoides var. Nigra Frauenfeld, 1864.

Type locality. “Aegypten” [Egypt].

Remarks. Attributed to Caillaud. Introduced by Frauenfeld (1864: 583) as a variety of Bithynia bulimoides (Olivier, 1804), and on p. 629 the name was mentioned with some descriptional terms; thus satisfying the Code (Art. 12.1).

Paludomus nigricans Reeve, 1847

Original reference. Reeve (1847: pl. 2, fig. 6).

Type locality. “Ceylon (in mountain streams at 6,000 feet elevation)” [Sri Lanka].

Paludomus nodulosa Dohrn, 1857

Original reference. Dohrn (1857: 125).

Original spelling. Paludomus nodulosus Dohrn, 1857.

Type locality. “Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Cleopatra bulimoides nsendweensis Dupuis & Putzeys, 1901

Original reference. Dupuis and Putzeys (1901: 55–56).

Original spelling. Cleopatra bulimoides var. nsendweensis Dupuis & Putzeys, 1901.

Type locality. “Nyangwe, Nsendwe, Lokandu” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nyangwe; Nsendwe; Lokandu].

Cleopatra nyanzae Mandahl-Barth, 1954

Original reference. Mandahl-Barth (1954: 63, fig. 29a–b).

Type locality. “Kanyakwar wells” [Kenya].

Melania obesa Philippi, 1847

Original reference. Philippi (1846–1847: 170, pl. 4, fig. 3).

Original spelling. Melania ? obesa Philippi, 1847.

Type locality. “Nova Hollandia?” [Australia; doubtful].

Anceya giraudi obesa Leloup, 1953 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Leloup (1953: 108).

Original spelling. Anceya giraudi variété obesa Leloup, 1953.

Remarks. Mentioned in the synonymy of Anceya (Anceya) giraudi; unavailable (Code Art. 11.6).

Edgaria nassa var. obliqua Ancey, 1906

Original reference. Ancey (1906b: 264).

Type locality. “Sur les rivages de l’Ufipa” [Tanzania, Ufipa region, Lake Tanganyika].

Cleopatra obscura Mandahl-Barth, 1968

Original reference. Mandahl-Barth (1968: 34–35, pl. 1 fig. 8, pl. 7 figs 1–3).

Type locality. ”Kafubu region, Kimilolo River at Keyberg” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Keyberg Station near Lubumbashi, Kimililo River].

Paramelania obtusa Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 35–36, pl. 15, figs 6–8).

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus olivacea Reeve, 1847

Original reference. Reeve (1847: pl. 1, fig. 5).

Original spelling. Paludomus olivaceus Reeve, 1847.

Type locality. “Point Palmas, Island of Sumatra (in a muddy stream)” [Indonsesia, Sumatra, Point Palmas; doubtful].

Tanganikia opalina Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 15, pl. 5, figs 18–19).

Type locality. “Sur les plages de la partie septentrionale du lac“ [Democratic Republic of the Congo/Burundi, northern shores of Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus ornata Benson, 1856

Original reference. Benson (1856: 496).

Type locality. “Hab. in regno Burmanico” [Myanmar].

Tanganikia ovoidea Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 45–46).

Original spelling. Tanganikia (Cambieria) ovoidea Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Plage de Kapampa, au sud-ouest du lac” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, beach of Kapampa, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus palawanica Brot, 1891

Original reference. Brot (1891: 17–18).

Type locality. “In a brook about ten miles from Puerto Princesa in the Island of Palawan, Philippine Archipelago” [Philippines].

Remarks. Brot (1891: 17–18) used both, the spelling P. palawanicus and P. palawanica in the original description. The grammatical gender of the genus-group name Paludomus is feminine. Therefore, Paludomus palawanica Brot, 1891 is the correct original spelling.

Bithynia bulimoides pallida Frauenfeld, 1864

Original reference. Frauenfeld (1864: 583, 633).

Original spelling. Bythinia bulimoides var. Pallida Frauenfeld, 1864.

Type locality. “Aegypten” [Egypt].

Remarks. Attributed to Caillaud. Introduced by Frauenfeld (1864: 583) as a variety of Bithynia bulimoides (Olivier, 1804), and on p. 633 the name was mentioned with some descriptional terms; thus satisfying the Code (Art. 12.1).

Paludomus paludinoides Reeve, 1852

Original reference. Reeve (1852: 127).

Original spelling. Paludomus Paludinoides Reeve, 1852.

Type locality. “Sikkim branch of the Ganges” [India/Bangladesh].

Paludomus palustris Layard, 1855

Original reference. Layard (1855: 89–90).

Type locality. “The grassy margins of a tank at Anarajahpoora” [Sri Lanka].

Paramelania palustris Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 36, pl. 15, figs 31, 32).

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus parvula Rao, 1929

Original reference. Rao (1929: 293–294).

Type locality. “From an unknown locality in Burma” [Myanmar].

Paludomus parva Layard, 1855

Original reference. Layard (1855: 90).

Original spelling. Paludomus parvus Layard, 1855.

Type locality. “Bombay” [India, Maharashtra, Mumbai].

Tiphobia nassa paucicostata Smith, 1881

Original reference. Smith (1881b: 561).

Original spelling. Tiphobia (Paramelania) nassa var. paucicostata Smith, 1881.

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Cleopatra pauli Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885b: 27–28, pl. 1, fig. 3).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Pauli Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Bords du fleuve Haouach” [Chad, Haouach River].

Paludomus conica pealiana Nevill, 1884

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 288).

Original spelling. Paludomus conica var. pealiana Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “Assam [and] Sibsagar” [India, Assam, Sivasagar].

Remarks. See Remarks under Paludomus conica cherraensis Nevill, 1884.

Paludomus andersoniana peguensis Nevill, 1877

Original reference. Nevill (1877: 35).

Original spelling. Paludomus Andersoniana var. Peguensis Nevill, 1877.

Type locality. “Pegu” [Myanmar].

Potadomoides pelseneeri Leloup, 1953

Original reference. Leloup (1953: 92, 102–105, 115, 132, 136, pl. 3, fig. 6, figs. 43, 47, 57P, 72H, 76).

Type locality. “Dans le delta de la Malagarasi, le long des rives et dans les petites baies, coquilles; par tamisage de la vase et des débris végétaux recueillis par la petite drague dans une anse calme et encombrée de végétations, – 30–40 cm, spécimens vivants” [Tanzania, Malagarasi Delta].

Cleopatra percarinata Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885b: 27–28, pl. 1, fig. 1).

Type locality. “Lac Haoussa”.

Lavigeria perexemia Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 33–34, pl. 14, fig. 3).

Type locality. “Sur les rives nord et surtout occidentales du lac” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, northern and western shores of Lake Tanganyika].

Vivipara amiltoni persolida Issel, 1874

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 454–455).

Original spelling. Vivipara Hamiltoni var. persolida Issel, 1874.

Type locality. “Sadong, in limpidi ruscelli” [Malaysia, Borneo, Sarawak, Sadong River].

Paludina petrosa Gould, 1843

Original reference. Gould (1843: 144).

Type locality. “Tavoy” [Myanmar, Dawei].

Paludomus phasianinus Reeve, 1852

Original reference. Reeve (1852: 127).

Original spelling. Paludomus phasianina Reeve, 1852.

Type locality. “Seychelles”.

Paludomus picta Reeve, 1847

Original reference. Reeve (1847: pl. 2, figs 10a–b).

Original spelling. Paludomus pictus Reeve, 1847.

Type locality. “In a mountain stream at Ratnapoora, Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Cleopatra pilula Mandahl-Barth, 1967

Original reference. Mandahl-Barth (1967: 130, pl. 2, fig. 12).

Type locality. “Bushimaie River at Lukuta, Kasai” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kasai, Lukuta, Mbuji-Mayi River].

Cleopatra pirothi Jickeli, 1881

Original reference. Jickeli (1881: 338).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Pirothi Jickeli, 1881.

Type locality. “Nordost-Afrika” [Northeast Africa].

Syrnolopsis lacustris var. pluricarinata Dartevelle & Schwetz, 1948

Original reference. Dartevelle and Schwetz (1948: 30, 37, 39, 52, 59, 74, 85, pl. 1, fig. 11).

Original spelling. Syrnolopsis lacustris var. pluricarinata Dartevelle & Schwetz, 1948.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika, baie de Kasakalawe, profondeur : 10 a 15 m (Stn. 2068)” [Zambia, Bay of Kaskalawe, Lake Tangayika].

Rissoa ponsonbyi Smith, 1889

Original reference. Smith (1889: 175).

Original spelling. Rissoa (Horea) Ponsonbyi Smith, 1889.

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Cleopatra poutrini Germain, 1909

Original reference. Germain (1909: 377–378).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Poutrini Germain, 1909.

Type locality. ”Dans l’Egueï, à 1,000 kilomètres environ au nord de Fort-Lamy” [Chad, Kanem, Eguei].

Giraudia praeclara Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 62–63).

Original spelling. Giraudia præclara Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Plage au nord de Mlilo” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, beach north of Mlilo (= Moliro), Lake Tanganyika].

Paramelania pulchella Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 86).

Type locality. “Plage de Kapampa” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, beach of Kapampa, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Cleopatra bulimoides pulchella Pallary, 1909

Original reference. Pallary (1909: 63).

Original spelling. Cleopatra bulimoïdes var. pulchella Pallary, 1909.

Type locality. “Égypte” [Egypt].

Remarks. Attributed to Bourguignat in Pallary (1924: 33).

Paludomus punctata Reeve, 1852

Original reference. Reeve (1852: 127).

Original spelling. Paludomus punctatus Reeve, 1852.

Type locality. “Mauritius”.

Syrnolopsis pupoidea Leloup, 1953 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Leloup (1953: 121).

Remarks. Mentioned in the synonymy of Syrnolopsis gracilis as a manuscript name of Dautzenberg & Dupuis; unavailable (Code Art. 11.6).

Hauttecoeuria pusilla Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 22, pl. 8, figs 32–34).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria pusilla Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus pustulosa Annandale, 1921

Original reference. Annandale (1921: 563–564, fig. 11A, B).

Type locality. “From one stream in the south part of the Manipur Valley” [India, Manipur].

Reymondia pyramidalis Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 27–28, pl. 11, figs 9–13).

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus pyriformis Dohrn, 1858

Original reference. Dohrn (1858: 536).

Type locality. “Inhabitants of mountain-streams in Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Paludomus qianensis Liu, Duan & Zhang, 1994

Original reference. Liu et al. (1994: 30, 34).

Type locality. “Huangguoshu, (25.9°N, 105.6°E), Guizhou Province […] on the stones of the ditch beside river” [China, Guizhou].

Paludomus quadrasi Moellendorff, 1894

Original reference. Quadras & Moellendorff (1894: 130).

Original spelling. Paludomus (Philopotamis) quadrasi Moellendorff, 1894.

Type locality. “Busuanga” [Philippines, Busuanga Island].

Remarks. Authorship attributed to Moellendorff (Code Art. 50.1).

Syrnolopsis quintana Mabille, 1901

Original reference. Mabille (1901: 56).

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paramelania randabeli Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 37–38, pl. 16, figs 21, 22).

Original spelling. Paramelania Randabeli Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus rapaeformis Brot, 1880

Original reference. Brot (1880: 30–31, pl. 5, fig. 10).

Type locality. Not given.

Cleopatra raymondi Bourguignat, 1879

Original reference. Bourguignat (1879: 23–24).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Raymondi Bourguignat, 1879.

Type locality. “Lac Ballat dans l’isthme de Suez” [Egypt, Isthmus of Suez].

Tanalia reevei Layard, 1855

Original reference. Layard (1855: 92).

Original spelling. Tanalia Reevei Layard, 1855.

Type locality. “The Calloo ganga, Ratnapoora” [Sri Lanka, Ratnapura, Kalu River].

Philopotamis regalis Layard, 1855

Original reference. Layard (1855: 93).

Type locality. “Stream in the Cnia Corle, Western province, Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Paludomus regulata Benson, 1856

Original reference. Benson (1856: 496).

Type locality. “Hab. ad Thyet-Myo Burmanorum” [Myanmar, Thayet].

Paludomus reticulata Blanford, 1870

Original reference. Blanford (1870: 9–10, pl. 3, fig. 1).

Type locality. “Hab. in Cachar” [India, Assam, Cachar].

Melania retusa Griffith & Pidgeon, 1833

Original reference. Griffith and Pidgeon (1833–1834: pl. 14, fig. 9).

Type locality. Not given.

Remarks. See Remarks under Melania conica Griffith & Pidgeon, 1833

Paludomus retusa Swainson, 1840

Original reference. Swainson (1840: 340).

Original spelling. Paludomus (Hemimitra) retusa Swainson, 1840.

Type locality. Not given.

Bridouxia reymondi Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 32–33).

Type locality. “Plage de Kapampa” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, beach of Kapampa, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Remarks. The name was attributed to V. Giraud by Bourguignat (1885a: 32), but Bourguignat alone was responsible for the description and is therefore the author of the name (Code Art. 50.1).

Spekia reymondi Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 39–40).

Type locality. “Sur la plage de Mpala” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lake Tanganyika, beach of Mpala].

Remarks. The name was attributed to V. Giraud by Bourguignat (1885a: 39), but Bourguignat alone was responsible for the description and therefore is the author of the name (Code art. 50.1).

Hauttecoeuria reymondi Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 54–55).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria reymondi Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. Not given.

Remarks. The name was attributed to V. Giraud by Bourguignat (1885a: 54), but Bourguignat alone was responsible for the description and therefore is the author of the name (Code Art. 50.1).

Paramelania reymondi Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 72–73).

Type locality. “Sur la plage de Kapampa dans le Marungu (côte sud-ouest du lac)“ [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Marungu region, beach of Kapampa, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Remarks. The name was attributed to V. Giraud by Bourguignat (1885a: 72), but Bourguignat alone was responsible for the description and therefore is the author of the name (Code Art. 50.1).

Cleopatra bulimoides richardi Germain, 1911

Original reference. Germain (1911: 200, pl. 2, figs 5, 6).

Original spelling. Cleopatra bulimoides var. Richardi Germain, 1911.

Type locality. “Intérieur du Tchad, à 40 kilomètres du bord Ouest” [Interior of Lake Chad, 40 km from its western shore] and “Zone sableuse, bord occidental du Tchad” [Lake Chad, western shore].

Paludomus rotunda Blanford, 1870

Original reference. Blanford (1870: 10, pl. 3, fig. 2).

Type locality. “Hab. in regione Travancorica” [India, Kerala].

Stanleya rotunda Smith, 1904

Original reference. Smith (1904: 93).

Type locality. Given as “[Lac Tanganika], côte orientale” [Lake Tanganyika, eastern shore] in Bourguignat (1888) and as “sur les plages entre Oudjiji et l’embouchure du Malagarazi” [Tanzania, Lake Tanganyika, beaches between Ujiji and Malagarasi Delta] in Bourguignat (1890).

Remarks. Name introduced without description, but with reference to descriptions in Bourguignat (1888, 1890).

Pseudocleopatra rotunda Van Damme & Pickford, 2003

Original reference. Van Damme and Pickford (2003: 10, 58, 63, 66, fig. 46).

Type locality. “Nkondo locality NK 120, Lake Albert, Uganda”.

Type stratum. “Nkondo Formation, Molluscan Association G3b, Terminal Miocene-Early Pliocene”.

Paludomus rotungensis Preston, 1915

Original reference. Preston (1915a: 539–540).

Type locality. “Tenmalai, Upper Rotung” [India, Arunachal Pradesh].

Paludomus rudis Reeve, 1852

Original reference. Reeve (1852: 126).

Type locality. Not given.

Lavigeria ruellaniana Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 33–34, pl. 14, figs 5, 6).

Original spelling. Lavigeria Ruellaniana Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Sur les rives nord et surtout occidentales du lac” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, northern and western shores of Lake Tanganyika].

Remarks. Lavigeria Ruelliana is an incorrect subsequent spelling by Martel and Dautzenberg (1899).

Anceya rufocincta Smith, 1906

Original reference. Smith (1906: 183–184, pl. 10, fig. 12).

Type locality. “Kirando, towards south end of the east coast, 10 fath” [Tanzania, Kirando, Lake Tanganyika, eastern shore]

Lithoglyphus rufofilosus Smith, 1880

Original reference. Smith (1880b: 426).

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Cleopatra pirothi rufolirata Germain, 1919

Original reference. Germain (1919a: 119).

Original spelling. Cleopatra pirothi variété rufolirata Germain, 1919.

Type locality. “Rhodésie septentrionale: Lealui, sur le Haut-Zambèse” [Zambia, Lealui].

Cleopatra rugosa Connolly, 1925

Original reference. Connolly (1925: 424–425).

Type locality. “Italian Somaliland; Aggherrar” [Somalia, Aggherrar].

Edgaria rukwaensis Cox, 1939

Original reference. Cox (1939: 246–247, pl. 15, figs 6, 7).

Type locality. “Rungwa Sleeping Sickness Concentration Arealies about, lies about eighty miles to the north-west of the present shore of the lake” [Tanzania, Rungwa].

Type stratum. “Quaternary deposits of Lake Rukwa”.

Paludomus rusiostoma Gredler, 1885

Original reference. Gredler (1885: 231–232, pl. 6, figs 7, 7a).

Type locality. “Aus Tschin-chi, einer Stadt 3. Ranges in der Provinz Kuei-tscheu” [China, Guizhou].

Remarks. Probably a viviparid, see Zilch (1974).

Cleopatra schoutedeni Dautzenberg & Germain, 1914

Original reference. Dautzenberg and Germain (1914: 58–59, pl. 4, figs 15, 16).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Schoutedeni Dautzenberg & Germain, 1914.

Type locality. “Stn. 50, Nyangwe, Lualaba” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nyangwe, Lualaba River], through the lectotype designation by Glaubrecht and Strong (2007: 387).

Syrnolopsis minuta semilaevis Ancey, 1906

Original reference. Ancey (1906b: 255, 267).

Original spelling. Syrnolopsis minuta f. semilaevis Ancey, 1906.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika, côte orientale” [Tanzania/Burundi, eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika.

Paludina senegalensis Morelet, 1860

Original reference. Morelet (1860a: 190).

Original spelling. Paludina Senegalensis Morelet, 1860.

Type locality. “Habitat circa Podor in paludibus” [Senegal, Podor].

Paramelania servainiana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 83–84).

Type locality. “Sur la plage Pambété” [Zambia, beach of Pambété, Lake Tanganyika].

Hauttecoeuria servainiana Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 21–22, pl. 8, figs 18, 19).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria Servainiana Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus siamensis Blanford, 1903

Original reference. Blanford (1903: 283–284, pl. 8, fig. 3).

Original spelling. Paludomus Siamensis Blanford, 1903.

Type locality. “Siam, in valle superiore Menam fluminis” [Thailand, upper Chao Phraya Valley].

Paludomus conica sibsaugorensis Nevill, 1884

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 288).

Original spelling. Paludomus conica var. sibsaugorensis Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “Sibsagar” [India, Assam, Sivasagar].

Remarks. See Remarks under Paludomus conica cherraensis Nevill, 1884.

Paludomus ajanensis silhouettensis Nevill, 1884

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 296).

Original spelling. Paludomus ajanensis var. silhouettensis Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “Silhouette I., Seychelles”.

Remarks. See Remarks under Paludomus conica cherraensis Nevill, 1884.

Tanalia similis Layard, 1855

Original reference. Layard (1855: 92).

Type locality. “A mountain torrent at Kandangamoa, near Ratnapoora” [Sri Lanka, Ratnapura, Kandangamoa].

Hauttecoeuria singularis Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 52–53).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria singularis Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Près de Pambété” [Zambia, near Pambété, Lake Tanganyika].

Paramelania singularis Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 35–36, pl. 15, figs 16, 17).

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus skinneri Dohrn, 1857

Original reference. Dohrn (1857: 124–125).

Original spelling. Paludomus Skinneri Dohrn, 1857.

Type locality. “Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Paramelania smithi Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 37–38, pl. 16, figs 11, 12).

Original spelling. Paramelania Smithi Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Cleopatra smithi Ancey, 1906

Original reference. Ancey (1906a: 45–46).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Smithi Ancey, 1906.

Type locality. “River Chozi, which flows into the Chambézi, region of lake Bangwéolo, British Central Africa” [Zambia, region of Lake Bangweulu, Chozi River, tributary of Chambeshi River].

Stanleya smithiana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 88–89).

Type locality. “Plage de Mlilo” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, beach of Mlilo (= Moliro), Lake Tanganyika].

Cleopatra soleilleti Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885b: 28, pl. 1, fig. 1).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Soleilleti Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Lac Haoussa” [Ethiopia, Lake Awasa].

Paludomus solida Dohrn, 1857

Original reference. Dohrn (1857: 124).

Original spelling. Paludomus solidus Dohrn, 1857.

Type locality. “Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Hauttecoeuria soluta Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 51–52).

Original spelling. Hauttecœuria soluta Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Aux environs de Pambété” [Zambia, surroundings of Pambété, Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus sphaerica Dohrn, 1857

Original reference. Dohrn (1857: 124).

Original spelling. Paludomus sphæricus Dohrn, 1857.

Type locality. “Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Paramelania spinulosa Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 75–76).

Type locality. “Plage de Mlilo” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, beach of Mlilo (= Moliro), Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus spiralis Reeve, 1847

Original reference. Reeve (1847: pl. 3, fig. 15).

Type locality. “Streams of Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Paludomus spurca Adams & Adams, 1854

Original reference. Adams and Adams (1853–1858: pl. 36, fig. 2).

Original spelling. Paludomus spurcus Adams & Adams, 1854.

Type locality. Not given.

Paramelania stanleyana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 75).

Type locality. “Plages de Pambété et de Mlilo” [Zambia, beach of Pambété and Democratic Republic of the Congo, beach of Mlilo (= Moliro), Lake Tanganyika].

Edgaria nassa stappersi Leloup, 1953 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Leloup (1953: 173).

Original spelling. Edgaria nassa var. stappersi Leloup, 1953.

Remarks. Mentioned in the synonymy of Edgardia nassa forme spinulosa as a manuscript name of Dautzenberg; unavailable (Code Art. 11.6).

Melania stephanus Benson, 1836

Original reference. Benson (1836b: 747).

Original spelling. Melania Stephanus Benson, 1836.

Type locality. From the north-east frontier of Bengal (Benson, 1836a: 350).

Edgaria stockleyi Cox, 1939

Original reference. Cox (1939: 246, pl. 15, figs 3–5).

Type locality. “The Rungwa Sleeping Sickness Concentration Area, lies about eighty miles to the north-west of the present shore of the lake [Tanzania, Rungwa].

Type stratum. “Quaternary deposits of Lake Rukwa”.

Tanalia stomatodon Benson, 1862

Original reference. Benson (1862: 414–415).

Original spelling. Tanalia (?) Stomatodon Benson, 1862.

Type locality. “Habitat in aquis dulcibus montium prope Cottyam, regionis Travancoriæ” [India, Kerala, Kottayam].

Paludomus straeleni Leloup, 1953

Original reference. Leloup (1953: 14–15, 114, 130–131, 133–138, pl. 2, fig. 16, figs. 4, 57T, 70, 72DD, 73A–C).

Type locality. “Récoltes de la Mission hydrobiologique belge. No 38 — Moba, chalutage le long de la côte Nord du village, — 20 m, vase noire (I). No 43 — Moba, au large, petite drague, vase. No 49 — Baie de Toa, — 15 m, petite drague, sable, cailloux (II). No 50 — Au large du cap Bwana n’denge, à 1.000 m, le long de la côte, chalutage depuis 3 milles au Nord-Ouest de la Lugumba jusque par le travers de la rivière, — 20–80 m, fonds divers, vase, rochers, coquilles et spécimens vivants. No 80 — Dans la baie de Burton, au large de la rivière Mutambala, — 40 m, chalut à panneaux, sable vaseux. No 127 — Baie d’Utinta, 45–65 m, drague à herse, sable vaseux (III). No 133 — Baie de Katibili, à 500 m de la rive, — 65–70 m, drague à herse, sable (IV). No 138 — Baie de Bracone, dans l’île Kavala; — 12 m, petite drague, sable cailloux (V). No 143 — Baie au Sud de la Malagarasi, à la pointe Sud du delta et devant la rivière. No 246 — Dans la baie de Burton, à 1 mille au large de Baraka, — 30 m, petite drague, sable. No 267 — Baie de Nyanza, par le travers, au départ, ± 60 m (VI). No 328 — Laguno de Katibili, dans le goulot, — 0,50 m, sable (VII)” and “au large de Kituta, Sud du lac (stn. 2064, — 76 m)” and “dans la baie de Sumbu (stn. 2069, — 20–70 m)” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus striata Nevill, 1884 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 297).

Remarks. Published as a manuscript name under the unavailable name (introduced without description, definition, or indication) Paludomus microsculpta; unavailable (Code Art. 11.6).

Paludomus striatula Nevill, 1884

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 297–298).

Type locality. “Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Paludomus subdentata Nevill, 1884

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 300).

Original spelling. Paludomus [Philopotamis] subdentata Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Paludomus subfasciata Martens, 1908

Original reference. Martens and Thiele (1908: 266–267, pl. 5, fig. 2).

Type locality. “Sungei Guleh, Sangkulirang” [Indonesia, Borneo, East Kalimantan].

Paludomus nigricans subgranulosa Nevill, 1884

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 299).

Original spelling. Paludomus [Philopotamis] nigricans var. subgranulosa Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “Ceylon [and] Newera Ellia” [Sri Lanka; Nuwara Eliya].

Remarks. See Remarks under Paludomus conica cherraensis Nevill, 1884.

Paludomus grandidieri submutica Crosse & Fischer, 1878

Original reference. Crosse and Fischer (1878: 74, pl. 1, figs 4, 4a).

Original spelling. Paludomus Grandidieri var. β Submutica Crosse & Fischer, 1878.

Type locality. “Madagascar, dans les ruisseaux de la partie orientale de l’île” [Madagascar, eastern part of the island].

Paludomus hanleyi subpicta Nevill, 1884

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 305).

Original spelling. Paludomus [Tanalia] hanleyi var. subpicta Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “Yatteantotte, Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Remarks. See Remarks under Paludomus conica cherraensis Nevill, 1884.

Paludomus sulcata Reeve, 1847

Original reference. Reeve (1847: pl. 2, fig. 8a, pl. 3, figs 8b–c).

Original spelling. Paludomus sulcatus Reeve, 1847.

Type locality. “In a mountain stream at Ratnapoora, Ceylon” [Sri Lanka, Ratnapura].

Paludomus suraiensis Gurung, 1998

Original reference. Gurung (1998: 19–20).

Type locality. “Surai Khola, western Nepal”.

Type stratum. “Upper part of the Surai Khola Formation, the Dobata Formation

and lower part of the Dhan Khola Formation”.

Remarks. See also Parmar (2013).

Paludomus swainsoni Dohrn, 1857

Original reference. Dohrn (1857: 125).

Original spelling. Paludomus Swainsoni Dohrn, 1857.

Type locality. “Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Paramelania tabulata Sowerby, 1890

Original reference. Sowerby (1890: fig. 8 and explication of plate).

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Remarks. See also Verdcourt (2000).

Spekia zonata tanganikana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 37).

Original spelling. Spekia zonata var. Tanganikana Bourguignat, 1885.

Type locality. “Plage de Kapampa, dans le Marungu, à l’ouest du lac“ [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Marungu region, beach of Kapampa, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Horea tanganikana Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 27–28, pl. 11, figs 28–29).

Original spelling. Horea Tanganikana Bourguignat, 1888.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Reymondia tanganikana Ancey, 1894 [Invalid]

Original reference. Ancey (1894: 28).

Remarks. Unjustified emendation of Reymondia tanganyicensis Smith, 1889.

Melania tanganyicensis Smith, 1880

Original reference. Smith (1880b: 427).

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Reymondia tanganyicensis Smith, 1889

Original reference. Smith (1889: 175).

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Martelia tanganyicensis Dautzenberg, 1908

Original reference. Dautzenberg (1908: 329, pl. 4, figs 11–12).

Type locality. “À M’Pala” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mpala, Lake Tanganyika].

Hemimitra tangi Chen, 1943

Original reference. Chen (1943: 19–20, pl. 6, fig. 2).

Type locality. “Kiang-yang, northern Fukien Province” [China, Fujian].

Paludomus tanjorica Blanford, 1880 [Invalid]

Original reference. Blanford (1880: 220).

Remarks. Unjustified emendation of Helix tanschaurica Gmelin, 1791.

Paludomus tanjoriensis Blanford, 1863

Original reference. Blanford (1863: 171).

Original spelling. Paludomus Tanjoriensis Blanford, 1863.

Type locality. Not given, but by reference to Gmelin (1791: 3655): “Habitat in Coromandel aquis dulcibus” [India, Coromandel]. See also Chemnitz (1786: 174).

Remarks. Intended as an emendation for the unavailable name of the nominal taxon Helix fluviatilis tanschauriensis Chemnitz, 1786 (given as tanschauriensis and a reference to Gmelin). Interpreted here not as an emendation but as a newly introduced name by Blanford (1863).

Helix tanschaurica Gmelin, 1791

Original reference. Gmelin (1791: 3655).

Original spelling. Paludomus lanschaurica Gmelin, 1791.

Type locality. “Habitat in Coromandel aquis dulcibus” [India, lives in freshwater in Coromandel]. According to Chemnitz (1786) “bey Tirutschinapalli und Tanschaur auf Coromandel” [India, Tamil Nadu, near Tiruchirappalli and Thanjavur in Coromandel].

Remarks. Spelled as Helix lanschaurica by Gmelin (1791: 3655), which is interpreted as an incorrect original spelling (Code Art. 33.5.1), as the reference to Chemnitz (1786: 175) suggests that Gmelin was aware of the correct etymology of the species epithet. The name Helix lanschaurica has rarely been used as the valid name of a taxon (Rees 1819; Woodarch 1820; Wodarch and Mawe 1822, 1825, 1827, 1831, 1833; Bosc 1802, 1824, 1836; Pfeiffer 1840, 1841) and to our knowledge only once after 1900 (Coan and Petit 2011), whereas Helix tanschaurica is comparatively frequently used (e.g., Gmelin 1792; Frauenfeld 1864 as Helix tanschaurica; Schmidt 1818 as Melania tanschaurica; Gray 1855 as Paludina tanschaurica; Hanley and Theobald 1876; Preston 1915b; Seshaiya, 1929, 1934; Jacob 1959; Satyamurty 1960; Starobogatov 1970; Subba Rao and Mitra 1979; Brown 1980, 1994; Fretter 1984; Brown and Mandahl-Barth 1989; Daniel et al. 1998; Dillon 2000; Strong and Glaubrecht 2002; Thasun Amarasinghe and Krishnarajah 2009; Strong et al. 2011 as Paludomus tanschaurica; Starmühlner 1974, 1977, 1979; Subba Rao 1989 as Paludomus tanschauricus) and usually attributed to Gmelin (1791) (although sometimes with a wrong date). Paludomus sanschauricus as used by Adams and Adams (1853–1854) is an incorrect subsequent spelling.

Helix fluviatilis tanschauriensis Chemnitz, 1786 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Chemnitz (1786: 174, pl. 135, 1243a–b).

Original spelling. Helix fluviatilis Tanschauriensis Chemnitz, 1786.

Type locality. “Sie ist bey Tirutschinapalli und bey Tanschaur auf Coromandel in den dortigen Bächen und süssen Wassern gefunden worden” [India, Tamil Nadu, near Tiruchirappalli and Thanjavur in Coromandel].

Remarks. Published in a work rejected by ICZN Direction 1 (ICZN 1987).

Cleopatra tchadiensis Germain, 1905

Original reference. Germain (1905b: 328, footnote).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Tchadiensis Germain, 1905.

Type locality. “Dans le Tchad, notamment aux environs de l’archipel Kouri” [Chad/ Niger/Nigeria/Cameroon, Lake Chad, Kouri Islands].

Remarks. Cleopatra bulimoides var tschadiensis as used by Kobelt (1909) is an incorrect subsequent spelling.

Paludomus tennantii Reeve, 1847

Original reference. Reeve (1847: pl. 3, figs 12a–c).

Original spelling. Paludomus Tennantii Reeve, 1847.

Type locality. “In a rocky stream flowing from Adam’s Peak, Ceylon” [Sri Lanka, near Adam’s Peak].

Remarks. Tanalia tennentii in Layard (1855) and Paludomus (Tanalia) aculeata var. tennenti in Nevill (1884) are incorrect subsequent spellings.

Turbonilla terebriformis Smith, 1890

Original reference. Smith (1890: 95).

Original spelling. Turbonilla ? terebriformis Smith, 1890.

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Philopotamis thwaitesii Layard, 1855

Original reference. Layard (1855: 93–94).

Original spelling. Paludomus Thwaitsii Layard, 1855.

Type locality. “Weyweldenia, a rocky rivulet [and] at Kandanganoa and in the Calloo ganga” [Sri Lanka].

Remarks. Paludomus (Tanalia) aculeata var. thwaitesi is an incorrect subsequent spelling by Nevill (1884).

Limnotrochus thomsoni Smith, 1880

Original reference. Smith (1880b: 425).

Original spelling. Limnotrochus Thomsoni Smith, 1880.

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika”.

Paramelania tiarella Martens, 1895

Original reference. Martens (1895: 187).

Original spelling. Paramelania (Edgaria) tiarella Martens, 1895.

Type locality. “Tanganyika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paramelania timida Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 35–36, pl. 15, figs 24–25).

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Pseudocleopatra togoensis Thiele, 1928

Original reference. Thiele (1928: 394–395, 400, 402, textfig. 58, pl. 8, figs 18, 18a).

Type locality. “Fluß Volta bei Apaso (Togo)” [Ghana, Apaso, now inundated by Lake Volta].

Paludomus torrenticola Dohrn, 1858

Original reference. Dohrn (1858: 536).

Original spelling. Paludomus (Tanalia) torrenticola Dohrn, 1858.

Type locality. “Inhabitants of mountain-streams in Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Cleopatra trabonjiensis Smith, 1882

Original reference. Smith (1882: 384, pl. 22, figs 10–11).

Type locality. “A small lake at Trabonjy, in the north-west central part of the island” [Madagascar, Trabonjy].

Paludomus travancorica Blanford, 1880

Original reference. Blanford (1880: 219–220, pl. 2, fig. 22).

Type locality. “In Travancor (p. 219) and more specifically: in streams traversing the plains between Trevandrum and the foot of the Aghastyamali hill (p. 220)” [India, Kerala].

Paludomus trifasciata Reeve, 1852

Original reference. Reeve (1852: 126).

Original spelling. Paludomus trifasciatus Reeve, 1852.

Type locality. “Branch of the Ganges” [India/Bangladesh].

Bithynia trifasciata Frauenfeld, 1864 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Frauenfeld (1864: 583, 655).

Original spelling. Bythinia trifasciata Frauenfeld, 1864.

Type locality. Not given.

Remarks. Attributed to Parreyss; published in the synonymy of Bithynia bulimoides (Olivier, 1804). Also mentioned by Martens (1865: 203) in the synonymy of Paludina (Cleopatra) bulimoides. Treated as an available name, Paludina trifasciata, of a taxon by Paetel (1873: 64). However, the name was not adopted, i.e. the unavailable name was not used as the valid name of a taxon in a way which establishes it as a new name with its own authorship and date in accordance with the Code (Art. 12.1), and therefore was not made available under the Code (Art. 11.6.1) by Paetel (1873).

Edgaria trochlearis Leloup, 1953 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Leloup (1953: 166).

Remarks. Mentioned in the synonymy of Edgardia nassa forme typica; unavailable (Code Art. 11.6).

Martelia tanganyicensis typica Leloup, 1953 [Invalid]

Original reference. Leloup (1953: 107, 111, 113, 116, 146, pl. 2, fig2, figs 53, 56, 80–81).

Original spelling. Paludomus tanganyicensis forme typica Leloup, 1953.

Remarks. Name for the nominal forme.

Bridouxia giraudi typica Leloup, 1953 [Invalid]

Original reference. Leloup (1953: 115, 130, 132, 136, 140–144, pl. 13, figs 6A–B, figs 57V–W, 70, 72J, 75, 78A–B, E).

Original spelling. Bridouxia giraudi forme typica Leloup, 1953.

Remarks. Name for the nominal forme.

Edgaria nassa typica Leloup, 1953 [Invalid]

Original reference. Leloup (1953: 130, 132, 154–158, 164–167, pl. 7, fig. 1, pl. 8, fig. 1, pl. 9, fig. 2, figs 71, 72N, 86).

Original spelling. Edgaria nassa forme typica Leloup, 1953.

Remarks. Name for the nominal forme.

Paludomus undata Reeve, 1847

Original reference. Reeve (1847: pl. 1, figs 2a–b).

Original spelling. Paludomus undatus Reeve, 1847.

Type locality. “In rapids flowing from Adam’s Peak, Ceylon” [Sri Lanka, near Adam’s Peak].

Cleopatra pirothi unicarinata Martens, 1886

Original reference. Martens (1886: 126–127).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Pirothi var. unicarinata Martens, 1886.

Type locality. “Aegypten, Fajum-Becken unweit Adue über den Bats am Bahndamm in 17 Meter Seehöhe” [Egypt, Fayum Basin, close to Adue above the Bats near the train embankment, 17 m. a.s.l.].

Syrnolopsis minuta unicarinata Ancey, 1906

Original reference. Ancey (1906b: 255, 267).

Original spelling. Syrnolopsis minuta f. unicarinata Ancey, 1906.

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika, côte orientale” [Tanzania/Burundi, eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Cleopatra bulimoides unilirata Germain, 1911

Original reference. Germain (1911: 199, pl. 2, figs 22–24).

Original spelling. Cleopatra bulimoides var. unilirata Germain, 1911.

Type locality. “Zone sableuse entre Bosso et l’embouchure de la Komadougou, dans le Tchad” [Between Nigeria, Bosso and Nigeria/Niger, mouth of Komadougou River near Lake Chad], “Kélékorarom, dans le Tchad” [Lake Chad, Kélékorarom Island] and “Intérieur du Tchad, à 30 kilomètres du bord Ouest” [Lake Chad, 30 km from its western shore].

Spekia zonata unisulcata Bourguignat, 1890

Original reference. Bourguignat (1890: 64).

Original spelling. Spekia zonata var. b Unisulcata Bourguignat, 1890.

Type locality. “Plage de Pambété” [Zambia, beach of Pambété, Lake Tanganyika].

Cleopatra vanloockei Van Damme & Pickford, 2003

Original reference. Van Damme and Pickford (2003: 11, 52–53, fig. 37).

Type locality. “Nkondo locality NK 76, Lake Albert, Uganda”.

Type stratum. “Nkondo Formation, Molluscan Association G3b, Terminal Miocene -Early Pliocene”.

Nassopsis variabilis Martel & Dautzenberg, 1899

Original reference. Martel and Dautzenberg (1899: 174–175, pl. 8, figs 16–17).

Type locality. “Lac Tanganyika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Paludomus ventricosula Nevill, 1884

Original reference. Nevill (1884: 299–300).

Original spelling. Paludomus [Philopotamis] ventriculosa Nevill, 1884.

Type locality. “Ceylon [and] Kandapanne Ella, 4 Corles [and] Hackalle, Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Paramelania venusta Bourguignat, 1888

Original reference. Bourguignat (1888: 37–38, pl. 16, figs 13–14).

Type locality. “Lac Tanganika” [Lake Tanganyika].

Cleopatra verreauxi Pallary, 1909 [Invalid]

Original reference. Pallary (1909: 64).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Verreauxi Pallary, 1909.

Remarks. Unjustified emendation of Bithynia verrauxiana Bourguignat, 1856; the name as introduced by Bourguignat (1856) was given in the synonymy including a reference to the work (Code Art. 33.2.1).

Bithynia verreauxiana Bourguignat, 1856

Original reference. Bourguignat (1856: 241–242).

Original spelling. Bithinia Verreauxiana Bourguignat, 1856.

Type locality. “Le Nil, en Égypte” [Egypt, Nile River].

Remarks. Cleopatra verreauxi as used by Kobelt (1909) is apparently an incorrect subsequent spelling, whereas Cleopatra verreauxi Pallary, 1909 is interpreted as an unjustified emendation.

Bithynia vexillata Frauenfeld, 1864 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Frauenfeld (1864: 583, 659).

Original spelling. Bythinia vexillata Frauenfeld, 1864.

Type locality. Not given.

Remarks. Attributed to Parreyss; published in the synonymy of Bithynia bulimoides. Also mentioned by Martens (1865: 203) in the synonymy of Paludina (Cleopatra) bulimoides. Treated as an available name, Paludina vexillata, of a taxon by Paetel (1873: 64). However, the name was not adopted, i.e. the unavailable name was not used as the valid name of a taxon in a way which establishes it as a new name with its own authorship and date in accordance with the Code (Art. 12.1), and therefore was not made available under the Code (Art. 11.6.1) by Paetel (1873).

Bridouxia villeserriana Bourguignat, 1885

Original reference. Bourguignat (1885a: 30–31).

Type locality. “Sur la plage de Kapampa” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, beach of Kapampa, western shore of Lake Tanganyika].

Tanalia violacea Layard, 1855

Original reference. Layard (1855: 92).

Type locality. “A small mountain torrent in a dense forest between Gillymalle and Pallabaddoola, towards Adam’s Peak, Ceylon” [Sri Lanka].

Pseudocleopatra voltana Mandahl-Barth, 1973

Original reference. Mandahl-Barth (1973: 279–281, fig. 3a, h).

Type locality. “River Volta at Daboya” [Ghana, Daboya, River Volta].

Paludomus vondenbuschianus Arifin, 2017 [Unavailable]

Original reference. Arifin (2017: 110, 111).

Remarks. Nomen nudum, introduced without definition or description (Code Art. 13.1.1) or bibliographic reference to a definition or description (Code Art. 13.1.2); also not explicitly indicated as intentionally new (Code Art. 16.1).

Pseudocleopatra wamalai Van Damme & Pickford, 2003

Original reference. Van Damme and Pickford (2003: 10, 13, 57, 69–70, 76, 79, fig. 45).

Type locality. “Nkondo locality NK 84, L. Albert, Uganda”.

Type stratum. “Lusso Formation (Biozone I), Upper Nyaburogo and Warwire Formations, Molluscan Associations G4 and G5a, Early to Late Pliocene”.

Cleopatra bulimoides welwitschi Martens, 1897

Original reference. Martens (1897: 185).

Original spelling. Cleopatra bulimoides var. welwitschi Martens, 1897.

Type locality. “Angola, in einem salzhaltigen Bach bei Dungo im Distrikt Pungo-Adongo (am Cuanza)” [Angola, Dungo, Pungo, Cuanza].

Vinundu westae Michel, 2004

Original reference. Michel (2004: 4–11, figs 1A–D, 2A–I, 3A–C, E, 4B, C, 5A, B, 6C–F, 7A, B, 8A, 9).

Type locality. “Burundi, kilometre marker 29.8 south of Bujumbura, first major rocky shoreline, coordinates –3.640, 29.361 or 3°38'25"S, 29°21'40"E, 20 m water depth. Stromatolite-covered rocks and boulders”.

Remarks. The name was first introduced by West et al. (2003: 77). However, the work includes a disclaimer stating “This publication is not deemed to be valid for formal taxonomic/nomenclatural purposes”.

Pseudocleopatra wilsoni Van Damme & Pickford, 2003

Original reference. Van Damme and Pickford (2003: 10, 59, fig. 48).

Type locality. “Nkondo locality NK 126, Lake Albert, Uganda”.

Type stratum. “Warwire Formation, Molluscan Association G4, Early Pliocene”.

Paludomus yunnanensis Cheng, 1937

Original reference. Cheng (1937: 445–447, figs 1.2, 2.2).

Original spelling. Paludomus (Hemimitra) yunnanensis Cheng, 1937.

Type locality. “Yangtze River, near Shiikiang, Yunnan Province, China”.

Melania zanguebarensis Petit de la Saussaye, 1851

Original reference. Petit de la Saussaye (1851: 263–264, pl. 7, fig. 1).

Original spelling. Melania Zanguebarensis Petit de la Saussaye, 1851.

Type locality. “Zanzibar, côte de Zanguebar (Afrque orientale)” [Tanzania, Zanzibar].

Cleopatra zanguebarica Bourguignat, 1889

Original reference. Bourguignat (1889: 164–165).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Zanguebarica Bourguignat, 1889.

Type locality. “Cette coquille zanzibarienne parait commune dans les cours d’eau de la vallée du Vouami” [Tanzania, Zanzibar, Vouami Valley].

Melania zeylanica Lea & Lea, 1851

Original reference. Lea and Lea (1851: 194–195).

Type locality. “Seychelles and Ceylon” [Seychelles; Sri Lanka].

Remarks. Paludomus ceylanicus is a subsequent misspelling by Issel (1874).

Melonia zonata von dem Busch, 1842

Original reference. Philippi (1842–1845: 3, pl. 1, fig. 12).

Type locality. “Bengalia” [India/Bangladesh].

Remarks. The entire text with descriptions of von dem Busch’s new Melania names was attributed to von dem Busch on p. 4 of Philippi’s (1842–1845) work.

Cleopatra broecki zonata Putzeys, 1899

Original reference. Putzeys (1899: 60).

Original spelling. Cleopatra Broecki var. zonata Putzeys, 1899.

Type locality. “De la rivière Aruwimi, affluent du Congo” [Democratic Republic of the Congo, Aruwimi River].

Lithoglyphus zonatus Woodward, 1859

Original reference. Woodward (1859: 349, pl. 47, fig. 3).

Type locality. “Lake Tanganyika in Central Africa”.

Acknowledgements

We thank Thierry Backeljau and Ben Rowson for kindly providing copies of some relevant works. We also thank Frank Köhler (Australian Museum, Sydney) and Gerhard Haszprunar (Zoologische Staatssammlung, München) and an anonymous reviewer for valuable comments on a draft version of the manuscript.

References

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