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Review of the leafhopper subgenus Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Eurymelinae, Macropsini) with description of two new species from China
expand article infoHu Li, Juan Li, Ren-Huai Dai§
‡ Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong, China
§ Institute of Entomology of Guizhou University, Guiyang, China
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Abstract

The leafhopper subgenus Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) Anufriev, 1967 is reviewed and the type species is fixed as Bythoscopus kogotensis Matsumura, 1912. Six valid species of the subgenus are recognized including two new species described and illustrated here, Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) rectus Li, Li & Dai, sp. nov. and P. (S.) triangulus Li, Li & Dai, sp. nov. from Sichuan Province of Southwestern China. Additionally P. (S.) heterodigitatus Dai & Zhang, 2009 is proposed as a junior synonym of P. (S.) aomians (Kuoh, 1981) based on examination of many specimens. A key to species of the subgenus is also provided for identification.

Keywords

Auchenorrhyncha, morphology, new type, taxonomy

Introduction

The leafhopper genus Pediopsoides belonging to the subfamily Eurymelinae, tribe Macropsini (Dietrich and Thomas 2018) of Cicadellidae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) was originally established by Matsumura (1912) with Pediopsoides formosanus Matsumura, 1912 as its type species, and divided into four subgenera based on the features of the facial and tegminal proportions, and the male genitalia by Hamilton (1980). Sispocnis is just one of the four subgenera of Pediopsoides as proposed by Hamilton (1980), and was originally placed in the genus Oncopsis, erected by Anufriev (1967) for Bythoscopus juglans Matsumura, 1912 (misidentified type species). Later, Viraktamath (1981) added a new species, Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) sharmai from India; Dai and Zhang (2009) described two new species, P. (S.) dilatus and P. (S.) heterodigitatus from China, proposed a new combination, P. (S.) aomians from the genus Oncopsis, and revealed two new synonyms: Digitalis Liu & Zhang, 2002 as a synonym of Pediopsoides and Digitalis striolatus Liu & Zhang, 2002 as a junior synonym of P. (S.) aomians (Kuoh, 1981). So far, five species of Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) are known from the world including four species recorded in China.

In our marcopsine collection from Sichuan Province of China, two new species of Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) are recognized, and their illustrated descriptions are provided in the present paper. Based on the examination of the specimens, the subgenus Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) is simultaneously reviewed and a key is given for identification. It is revealed that P. (S.) heterodigitatus Dai & Zhang, 2009 is a junior synonym of P. (S.) aomians. To date, six species of the subgenus Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) are known, five of which occur in China.

Materials and methods

Adult specimens collected by sweep net were used for examination, description, illustration and imaging. The habitus images of adults were obtained with an Olympus SZX7 microscope mounted with a Canon EOS 550D camera.

The morphological terminologies and the higher classification system follow Hamilton (1980). The body length is measured from the apex of the head to the end of the forewings and is given in millimeters (mm).

The type materials of the new species are deposited in the Museum of Zoology and Botany, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong, China (SUHC). Other examined specimens are deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, China (GUGC).

Systematics

Pediopsoides Matsumura, 1912

Pediopsoides Matsumura, 1912: 305

Type species

Pediopsoides formosanus Matsumura, 1912

Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) Anufriev, 1967

Oncopsis (Sispocnis) Anufriev, 1967: 174

Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) Hamilton, 1980: 897

Type species

Bythoscopus kogotensis Matsumura, 1912, new designation.

The type species is fixed here under Article 70.3 of the ICZN as Bythoscopus kogotensis Matsumura, 1912, misidentified as Bythoscopus juglans Matsumura, 1912 in the original designation of Sispocnis by Anufriev (1967).

Distribution

Palaearctic and Oriental Regions.

Diagnosis

Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) is well known by the following features: face including eyes is clearly wider than long; the stripes on pronotum are usually transverse and weakly obscure, forewing has anteapical cells of variable number (2 or 3), male pygofer ventral processes generally bifid to multifid and twisted inward; and the dorsal connective usually carries a strongly developed process from its inner ventral margin.

Remarks

Sispocnis was originally established as a subgenus under the genus Oncopsis by Anufriev (1967) for Bythoscopus juglans Matsumura, 1912 which was designated as the type species. Hamilton (1980) revised the status of Sispocnis and proposed it as a subgenus within Pediopsoides. Hamilton (1980) also recognized Anufriev’s (1967) identification of B. juglans Matsumura as a misidentification, and provisionally considered Oncopsis (Sispocnis) kurentsovi Anufriev as the type of the subgenus. Based on examination of the type specimens of Matsumura (1912) and Anufriev (1977), Okudera (2014) considered O. (S.) kurentsovi Anufriev as a junior synonym of B. kogotensis Matsumura, and recognized misidentifications of this species as B. juglans by Anufriev (1967) and Anufriev and Emeljanov (1988). Additionally, Okudera (2014) considered B. juglans Matsumura as a junior synonym of Oncopsis nitobei (Matsumura, 1912).

Herein, it is necessary to clarify the type species for the subgenus. Following the provisions of Article 70.3.2 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, 1999), the type species is fixed here as Bythoscopus kogotensis Matsumura, 1912, misidentified as Bythoscopus juglans Matsumura, 1912 in the original designation by Anufriev (1967). Thus, Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) remains as a valid subgenus.

Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) aomians (Kuoh, 1981)

Figs 1–26

Oncopsis aomians Kuoh, 1981: 201

Digitalis striolatus Liu & Zhang, 2002: 175 (synonym by Dai and Zhang 2009)

Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) aomians, Dai & Zhang 2009: 28

Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) heterodigitatus Dai & Zhang, 2009: 31. syn. n.

Material examined

GUGC: 1 ♂, CHINA: Shaanxi Province, Mei County, Taibaishan National Natural Reserve, 17.vii.2012, collected by Fan Zhi-Hua; 1 ♀, CHINA: Sichuan Province, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Garzê, Kangding County, 31.vii.2012, collected by Fan Zhi-Hua; 2 ♀♀, CHINA: Yunnan Province, Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Shangri-la, 08.viii.2012, collected by Fan Zhi-Hua; 1 ♂, CHINA: Qinghai Province, Tu Autonomous County of Huzhu, Beishan Forest Farm, 2685 m, 17.viii.2008, collected by Song Qiong-Zhang; 2 ♂♂, CHINA: Qinghai Province, Datong Hui & Tu Autonomous County, Black Spring Reservoir, 3000 m, 09.vii.2007, collected by Chen Xiang-Sheng; 1 ♂ 7 ♀♀, CHINA: Sichuan Province, Tibetan Qiang Autonomous Prefecture of Ngawa, Songpan County, Huanglong Temple, 22.viii.1994, collected by Du Yu-Zhou; 5 ♀♀, CHINA: Yunnan Province, Nujiang of the Lisu Autonomous Prefecture, Lushui City, PianMa Town, 17.viii.2001, collected by Yang Mao-Fa; 2 ♂♂ 4 ♀♀, CHINA: Shanxi Province, Xinzhou City, Ningwu County, Luyashan National Natural Reserve, 18.viii.2011, collected by Li Hu, Fan Zhi-Hua & Yu Xiao-Fei. SUHC: 4 ♂♂ 4 ♀♀, CHINA: Sichuan Province, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Garzê, Luding County, Moxi Town, Hailuogou, 3600 m above sea level, 12.viii.2015, collected by Zhan Hong-Ping; 1 ♂ 1 ♀, CHINA: Sichuan Province, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Garzê, Daocheng County, Sangdui Town, 4100 m above sea level, 15.viii.2015, collected by Zhan Hong-Ping; 1 ♂ 1 ♀, CHINA: Sichuan Province, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Garzê, Luding County, Minya Konka, Yajiageng, 3800 m above sea level, 13.viii.2015, collected by Zhan Hong-Ping; 1 ♂, CHINA: Sichuan Province, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Garzê, Luding County, Xindianzi, 2845 m above sea level, 13.viii.2015, collected by Zhan Hong-Ping.

Description

Body color (Figs 1–6). Yellow brown to dark brown or black, usually densely marked with darker maculae. Pronotum (Figs 1, 2) generally with 4–6 shallow yellowish or brown spots on posterior margin. Scutellum (Figs 1, 2) with black triangular spots on lateral corners, or evenly black.

Figures 1–26. 

Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) aomians (Kuoh) 1, 2 male habitus, dorsal view 3, 4 male habitus, lateral view 5, 6 face 7 male pygofer and subgenital plate, lateral view 8–13 pygofer ventral processes (from several specimens), ventrocaudal view 14 dorsal connective, lateral view 15–20 process of dorsal connective from inner ventral margin, lateral view 21 aedeagus, lateral view 22–26 apex of aedeagus, ventral view.

Body appearance (Figs 1–6). Stout and wedge-shaped. Head (Figs 1, 2) with frontal margin sinuated slightly. Face (Figs 5, 6) with stripes and punctures; frons clearly with longitudinal carina in middle, and oblique striations from carina to lateral margins; lower parts of postclypeus tumid. Pronotum (Figs 1, 2) 2.5 times wider than long, scutellum 1.2 times longer than that of pronotum. Forewing (Figs 3, 4) with three anteapical and four apical cells, and occasionally with additional cross-vien(s).

Male genitalia. Pygofer (Figs 7–13) basally broad, ventrocaudal margin with multifid and inturned process usually with 2–4 figure-like or spine-like branches of different size. Dorsal connective (Figs 14–20) strongly developed, S-shaped, with bifurcate various process from inner ventral margin with dorsal branch usually larger, longer and twisted ventrad and ventral branch small, short and dorsally bent. Aedeagus (Figs 21–26) broad basally, shaft margins parallel or slightly sinuate at ventral aspect, apical dorsal margin of shaft elongate to two lobes (Fig. 22) and usually bifid at varying levels (Figs 23–26) with each lobe.

Distribution

China (Shaanxi, Sichuan, Qinghai, Shanxi, Gansu and Yunnan).

Remarks

After examination of many specimens, the morphological diversity of P. (S.) aomians in body color and male genital structures is now better understood. Pediopsoides (S.) aomians can be distinguished from other members of Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) largely by the multifid (2–4) figure-like or spine-like process on distal caudoventral margin of male pygofer, the bifurcate process from inner ventral margin of the dorsal connective, and the unique structure of the aedeagus. The original description of P. (S.) heterodigitatus was based on only one male from Yunnan Province of China and the shape of male genitalia according to the description of that species falls well within the variation of P. (S.) aomians as interpreted here. It is proposed herein as a junior synonym of P. (S.) aomians.

Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) dilatus Dai & Zhang, 2009

Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) dilatus Dai & Zhang, 2009: 31

Material examined

2 ♂♂, CHINA: Qinghai Province, Datong Hui & Tu Autonomous County, Black Spring Reservoir, 3000 m, 09.vii.2007, collected by Chen Xiang-Sheng; 1 ♀, CHINA: Sichuan Province, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Garzê, Kangding County, Scenic Spot of Kangding Love Song (= Mugecuo), 3600–3800 m, 30.viii.2008, collected by Yang Mao-Fa; 14 ♀♀, CHINA: Guizhou Province, Zunyi City, Suiyang County, Kuankuoshui National Natural Reserve, Chachang/Shuiku, 03-09.vi.2010, collected by Li Hu, Dai Ren-Huai & Xing Ji-Chun; 2 ♀♀, CHINA: Guizhou Province, Qiandongnan Miao & Dong Autonomous Prefecture, Leishan County, Leigongshan National Natural Reserve, 05.vii.2011, collected by Zheng Wei-Bin; 1 ♀, CHINA: Shandong Province, Qingdao City, Laoshan Mountain, 17.viii.2011, collected by Chang Zhi-Min.

Distribution

China (Sichuan, Qinghai, Guizhou, Shandong and Xizang).

Remarks

This species can be easily recognized by the teeth on the caudoventral margin of the male pygofer, the aedeagal shaft broadened gradually from the base to the end, the lateral triangular expansions on shaft apex, and the dorsal connective with the process from the inner ventral margin weakly sclerotized, slender, short and unbranched.

Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) kogotensis (Matsumura, 1912)

Bythoscopus kogotensis Matsumura, 1912: 305

Oncopsis juglans, Ishihara 1953: 21, misidentified (nec Matsumura 1912)

Oncopsis (Sispocnis) juglans, Anufriev 1967: 174, misidentified (nec Matsumura 1912)

Oncopsis (Sispocnis) kurentsovi Anufriev, 1977: 12 (synonym by Okudera 2014)

Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) juglans Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988: 78, misidentified (nec Matsumura 1912)

Material examined

28 ♂♂ 29 ♀♀, CHINA: Shanxi Province, Lishan National Natural Reserve, 23–26.vii.2012, collected by Song Qiong-Zhang, Zhang Pei & Xing Dong-Liang; 1 ♀, CHINA: Shanxi Province, Xinzhou City, Ningwu County, Luyashan National Natural Reserve, 19.viii.2011, collected by Yu Xiao-Fei; 2 ♂♂ 1 ♀, CHINA: Sichuan Province, Ya’an City, Tianquan County, Erlang Mountain, Labahe, 25.vii.2012, collected by Fan Zhi-Hua & Li Hu; 2 ♀♀, CHINA: Sichuan Province, Ya’an City, Fengtongzhai National Natural Reserve, 1500 m, 01.viii.2005, collected by Zhou Zhong-Hui & Xu Fang-Ling; 1 ♀, CHINA: Sichuan Province, Erlang Mountain, 04.viii.2005, collected by Yang Zai-Hua; 1 ♂, CHINA: Shaanxi Province, Ankang City, Ningshan County, Huoditang, Linchang, 12.vii.2012, collected by Li Hu; 2 ♀♀, CHINA: Shaanxi Province, Mei County, Taibaishan National Natural Reserve, Haopingsi, 12.vii.2012, collected by Xu Shi-Yan; 1 ♀, CHINA: Shaanxi Province, Qingmuchuan National Natural Reserve, 18.viii.2010, collected by Li Hu & Fan Zhi-Hua; 1 ♂, CHINA: Anhui Province, Liuan City, Tiantangzhai National Natural Reserve, 950 m, 01.viii.2013, collected by Li Bin, Jiao Meng & Yu Xiao-Fei; 1 ♀, CHINA: Hubei Province, Shiyan City, Wudang Mountains, 13.vii.2013, collected by Li Hu; 1 ♀, CHINA: Hubei Province, Shennongjia National Natural Reserve, Guanmenshan, 19.vii.2013, collected by Xing Dong-Liang; 1 ♂, CHINA: Hubei Province, Shennongjia National Natural Reserve, Yazikou, 1850 m, 11.viii.1997, collected by Yang Mao-Fa; 1 ♂, CHINA: Hubei Province, Wufeng Tujia Autonomous County, Houhe National Natural Reserve, 22.vii.2013, collected by Chang Zhi-Min; 1 ♀, CHINA: Guizhou Province, Leigongshan National Natural Reserve, 10.vii.2010, collected by Long Jian-Kun; 1 ♂ 3 ♀♀, CHINA: Guizhou Province, Leigongshan National Natural Reserve, Light traping, 04–06.vii.2011, collected by Chang Zhi-Min & Zheng Wei-Bin; 2 ♀♀, CHINA: Jilin Province, Changbaishan National Natural Reserve, 24.vii.2011, collected by Jiao Meng; 2 ♂♂ 1 ♀, CHINA: Henan Province, Xinxiang City, Huixian City, 800 m, 12.vii.2002, collected by Chen Xiang-Sheng; 2 ♂♂, CHINA: Henan Province, Baiyunshan National Natural Reserve, 14–17.viii.2008, collected by Li Jian-Da; 2 ♀♀, CHINA: Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Liupan Mountains, 2050 m, 28–29.vii.2008, collected by Song Qiong-Zhang; 1 ♀, CHINA: Jilin Province, Changbaishan National Natural Reserve, Baihe, 13.viii.1996, collected by Li Zi-Zhong; 1 ♀, CHINA: Liaoning Province, Benxi City, Laotudingzi National Natural Reserve, 19–20.vii.2011, collected by Fan Zhi-Hua; 10 ♂♂ 7 ♀♀, CHINA: Hebei Province, Chengde City, Wulingshan National Natural Reserve, 09.viii.2011, collected by Li Hu, Jiao Meng, Fan Zhi-Hua, Yu Xiao-Fei, Liang Wen-Qin & Zhang Xin-Feng.

Distribution

Widespread in China (Jilin, Liaoning, Zhejiang, Hebei, Henan, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Ningxia, Anhui, Hubei, Guizhou and Sichuan), Korea, southern part of Primorsky Krai of Russia and Japan.

Remarks

The combined features of the shape of the pygofer articulated lobe and ventral process, the relatively simple dorsal connective, and the structure of the aedeagus separate P. (S.) kogotensis from other species.

Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) rectus Li, Li & Dai, sp. nov.

Figs 27–37

Type material

HOLOTYPE: ♂, CHINA: Sichuan Province, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Garzê, Luding County, Minya Konka, Yajiageng, 3800 m above sea level, 13.viii.2015, collected by Zhan Hong-Ping. PARATYPE: 1 ♂, CHINA: Sichuan Province, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Garzê, Xiangcheng County, Shagong Town, Dagen, 3500–3900 m above sea level, 15.viii.2015, collected by Zhan Hong-Ping.

Etymology

The new specific epithet was derived from the Latin words “rectus” indicating that the aedeagal shaft is straight relatively.

Description

Body color. Body background color (Figs 27, 28) chocolate, punctures on surface of head, face, pronotum and scutellum darker brown. Face (Fig. 29) brownish, eyes reddish brown on facial view and pale brown on dorsal view (Fig. 27). Scutellum (Fig. 27) darker brown, both lateral corners with black triangular spots. Forewing (Figs 27, 28) evenly brown except area around outer apical cell, venation darker.

Figures 27–37. 

Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) rectus sp. nov. 27 male habitus, dorsal view 28 male habitus, lateral view 29 face 30 male pygofer and subgenital plate, lateral view 31 pygofer ventral processes, ventrocaudal view 32 dorsal connective, lateral view 33 aedeagus, later view 34 aedeagus, ventral view 35 style, dorsal view 36 connective, lateral view 37 connective, dorsal view.

Body appearance. Head (Fig. 27) short, and prominent forward, anterior margin slightly depressed near eyes, including eyes as wide as pronotum. Face (Fig. 29) covered distinct punctures; frons with weak carina and oblique striations, central part with two smooth inflated regions without any stripes or maculae; distance between ocelli nearly 4 times of that from ocellus to adjacent eye. Pronotum (Fig. 27) with obvious, intensively transverse striations and punctures, anterior margin round, and prominent frontally, posterior margin depressed in middle, 2.6 times broader than long. Scutellum (Fig. 27) surface granulose, mid-length 1.5 times that of pronotum. Forewing (Figs 27, 28) opaque, with three anteapical cells, veins prominent.

Male genitalia. Pygofer (Fig. 30) broad basally, dorsal margin incised and straight, distal part of ventral and caudal margins carries irregular small spine-like processes, and scattered setae. Subgenital plate (Fig. 30) slender, approximatively 0.65 times ventral margin of pygofer, marginated with setae. Aedeagus (Figs 33, 34) basally broad, dorsal apodeme well developed, shaft slender, and almost straight in lateral view, lateral margins parallel in ventral view, apex of ventral margin strongly expanded, and produced to bifid process which bifurcates again; gonopore apical. Dorsal connective (Fig. 32) in lateral aspect S-shaped, carries large bifurcate process from its inner ventral margin with both branches of equal length. Style (Fig. 35), stem stout and widened gradually to truncate apex, with marginal setae.

Measurement

Body length (including tegmen): 4.8–4.9 mm.

Distribution

China (Sichuan).

Remarks

This new species somewhat resembles P. (S.) aomians with both sharing approximate color pattern and external body form more or less, but it can be distinguished from the latter and other known species of Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) by the different structures of the pygofer ventral processes, aedeagus and the dorsal connective.

Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) sharmai Viraktamath, 1981

Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) sharmai Viraktamath, 1981: 308

Material examined

None.

Distribution

India.

Remarks

Based on the original description by Viraktamath (1981), this species can be separated from other members of the subgenus mostly by the following features: the pygofer ventral margin has two spine-like processes distally, the tapered aedeagal shaft has an excavated distal margin in middle formed into a U-shaped in caudal view, and the dorsal connective has a bifid apex and caudally-directed triangular process from its inner ventral margin.

Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) triangulus Li, Li & Dai, sp. nov.

Figs 38–48

Type material

HOLOTYPE: ♂, CHINA: Sichuan Province, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Garzê, Luding County, Minya Konka, Yajiageng, 3800 m above sea level, 13.viii.2015, collected by Zhan Hong-Ping.

Etymology

The new species name was derived from the Latin words “triangulus” referring to the triangular processes on the lateral margins of the aedeagal shaft.

Description

Body color. Background color (Figs 38, 39) yellow brown, punctures on body surface dark brown. Face (Fig. 40) yellowish, eyes dark brown, occasionally with reddish tinge. Pronotum (Fig. 38) with six pale yellowish subtriangular spots on posterior margin. Scutellum (Fig. 38) orange brown, both lateral corners with black triangular spots, and with dark posterior half. Forewing (Figs 38, 39) mainly pigmented by dark brown except transparent parts.

Figures 38–48. 

Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) triangulus sp. nov. 38 male habitus, dorsal view 39 male habitus, lateral view 40 face 41 male pygofer and subgenital plate, lateral view 42 pygofer ventral processes, ventrocaudal view 43 dorsal connective, lateral view 44 aedeagus, later view 45 aedeagus, ventral view 46 style, dorsal view 47 connective, dorsal view 48 connective, lateral view.

Body appearance. Head (Fig. 38) prominent frontally, clearly shorter medially than next to eyes, head including eyes as wide as pronotum. Face (Fig. 40) inflated in lateral view; frons with intensive punctures, oblique stripes and mid-carina; central part with n-shaped smooth region; ocelli closer to eyes, distance between them nearly 5 times of that from an ocellus to adjacent eye. Pronotum (Fig. 38) oblique forward and laterally, 2.7 times broader than long, with obvious, intensive and transverse striations and punctures, anterior area near eyes depressed, posterior margin excavated in middle. Scutellum (Fig. 38) surface granulose, and scattered with punctures, mid-length about 1.8 times that of pronotum. Forewing (Figs 38, 39) with three anteapical cells, veins prominent.

Male genitalia. Pygofer (Fig. 41) broad basally, with incised dorsal and caudal margins, distal half of each ventral margin produced into two small spine-like processes which sometimes bifid. Subgenital plate (Fig. 41) narrow and elongate, nearly as long as that of ventral margin of pygofer, and with marginal setae. Aedeagus (Figs 44, 45) basally broad, with strongly developed dorsal apodeme and preatrium, shaft short, clearly narrower than basis in lateral view, lateral margins parallel in ventral view, subapex with small triangular processes directed caudally on lateral margins, apex round; gonopore apical. Dorsal connective (Fig. 43), in lateral aspect, S-shaped, process from inner ventral margin short, and horn-like. Style (Fig. 46), stem bent dorsolaterally, apex with small expansion. Connective (Figs 47, 48) typical.

Measurement

Body length (including tegmen): 4.8 mm.

Distribution

China (Sichuan).

Remarks

The new species is similar to P. (S.) aomians in the pattern of body coloration, and somewhat similar to P. (S.) dilatus in male features, but can be distinguished from both by the distal half of the pygofer ventral margin with two small spine-like processes which are sometimes bifid, different shapes of the aedeagus and the dorsal connective.

Key to species of Pediopsoides (Sispocnis) based on male genitalia

1 Pygofer with articulated lobe, and one definite process inturned from ventral margin; dorsal connective relatively small, without process from inner ventral margin; aedeagal shaft with clear lateral expansions subapically P. (S.) kogotensis
Pygofer lobe without obvious suture on pygofer side, and with more than one processes or teeth on ventral margin; dorsal connective large, with various process from inner ventral margin; aedeagal shaft not as above 2
2 Pygofer ventral margin with series of teeth on distal half; aedeagal shaft narrowed basally, and gradually broadened to end in ventral view P. (S.) dilatus
Pygofer ventral margin with bifid or multifid processes on distal half; aedeagal shaft broad basally, or with parallel margins in ventral view 3
3 Dorsal connective with unbranched process from its inner ventral margin 4
Dorsal connective with branched process from its inner ventral margin 5
4 Aedeagal shaft with small triangular processes subapically on lateral margins, and round apex; dorsal connective without bifid apex P. (S.) triangulus sp. nov.
Aedeagal shaft without process on lateral margins, but with U-shaped apex; dorsal connective with bifid apex P. (S.) sharmai
5 Pygofer ventral margin with large and figure-like multifid (2–4) processes at distal half; aedeagus stout, and bent dorsally, apex of shaft expanded lateroapically P. (S.) aomians
Pygofer ventral margin with small and short multifid (more than 5) processes at distal half; aedeagal shaft slender, straight, apex of shaft only expanded apically P. (S.) rectus sp. nov.

Acknowledgments

We thank our colleagues (GUGC) for providing the specimens for the study, and Drs Dmitri Yu. Tishechkin (M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow), James N. Zahniser (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign), Stuart H. McKamey (USDA/ARS, Washington, D.C.) and Xiang-Sheng Chen (GUGC) for detailed comments and improvement to the article. The project was supported by a Young Talent Fund of University Association for Science and Technology in Shaanxi, China (no. 20170209).

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