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ZooKeys 343: 1–297, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.343.5744
A systematic revision of Baconia Lewis (Coleoptera,  Histeridae, Exosternini)
Michael S. Caterino 1,†, Alexey K. Tishechkin 1,2,‡
1 Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, 2559 Puesta del Sol, Santa Barbara, CA 93105 USA
2 Louisiana State Arthropod Museum, Department of Entomology, Louisiana State University, 404 Life Sciences Building, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 USA

Corresponding author: Michael S. Caterino (mcaterino@sbnature2.org)

Academic editor: C. Majka

received 6 June 2013 | accepted 23 September 2013 | Published 15 October 2013


(C) 2013 Michael S. Caterino. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC-BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


For reference, use of the paginated PDF or printed version of this article is recommended.

Citation: Caterino MS, Tishechkin AK (2013) A systematic revision of Baconia Lewis (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Exosternini). ZooKeys 343: 1–297. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.343.5744

Abstract

Here we present a complete revision of the species of Baconia. Up until now there have been 27 species assigned to the genus (Mazur, 2011), in two subgenera (Binhister Cooman and Baconia s. str.), with species in the Neotropical, Nearctic, Palaearctic, and Oriental regions. We recognize all these species as valid and correctly assigned to the genus, and redescribe all of them. We synonymize Binhister, previously used for a polyphyletic assemblage of species with varied relationships in the genus. We move four species into Baconia from other genera, and describe 85 species as new, bringing the total for the genus to 116 species. We divide these into 12 informal species groups, leaving 13 species unplaced to group. We present keys and diagnoses for all species, as well as habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia for nearly all. The genus now contains the following species and species groups: Baconia loricata group [Baconia loricata Lewis, 1885, B. patula Lewis, 1885, Baconia gounellei (Marseul, 1887a), Baconia jubaris (Lewis, 1901), Baconia festiva (Lewis, 1891), Baconia foliosoma sp. n., Baconia sapphirina sp. n., Baconia furtiva sp. n., Baconia pernix sp. n., Baconia applanatis sp. n., Baconia disciformis sp. n., Baconia nebulosa sp. n., Baconia brunnea sp. n.], Baconia godmani group [Baconia godmani (Lewis, 1888), Baconia venusta (J. E. LeConte, 1845), Baconia riehli (Marseul, 1862), comb. n., Baconia scintillans sp. n., Baconia isthmia sp. n., Baconia rossi sp. n., Baconia navarretei sp. n., Baconia maculata sp. n., Baconia deliberata sp. n., Baconia excelsa sp. n., Baconia violacea (Marseul, 1853), Baconia varicolor (Marseul, 1887b), Baconia dives (Marseul, 1862), Baconia eximia (Lewis, 1888), Baconia splendida sp. n., Baconia jacinta sp. n., Baconia prasina sp. n., Baconia opulenta sp. n., Baconia illustris (Lewis, 1900), Baconia choaspites (Lewis, 1901), Baconia lewisi Mazur, 1984], Baconia salobrus group [Baconia salobrus (Marseul, 1887b), Baconia turgifrons sp. n., Baconia crassa sp. n., Baconia anthracina sp. n., Baconia emarginata sp. n., Baconia obsoleta sp. n.], Baconia ruficauda group [Baconia ruficauda sp. n., Baconia repens sp. n.], Baconia angusta group [Baconia angusta Schmidt, 1893a, Baconia incognita sp. n., Baconia guartela sp. n., Baconia bullifrons sp. n., Baconia cavei sp. n., Baconia subtilis sp. n., Baconia dentipes sp. n., Baconia rubripennis sp. n., Baconia lunatifrons sp. n.], Baconia aeneomicans group [Baconia aeneomicans (Horn, 1873), Baconia pulchella sp. n., Baconia quercea sp. n., Baconia stephani sp. n., Baconia irinae sp. n., Baconia fornix sp. n., Baconia slipinskii Mazur, 1981, Baconia submetallica sp. n., Baconia diminua sp. n., Baconia rufescens sp. n., Baconia punctiventer sp. n., Baconia aulaea sp. n., Baconia mustax sp. n., Baconia plebeia sp. n., Baconia castanea sp. n., Baconia lescheni sp. n., Baconia oblonga sp. n., Baconia animata sp. n., Baconia teredina sp. n., Baconia chujoi (Cooman, 1941), Baconia barbarus (Cooman, 1934), Baconia reposita sp. n., Baconia kubani sp. n., Baconia wallacea sp. n., Baconia bigemina sp. n., Baconia adebratti sp. n., Baconia silvestris sp. n.], Baconia cylindrica group [Baconia cylindrica sp. n., Baconia chatzimanolisi sp. n.], Baconia gibbifer group [Baconia gibbifer sp. n., B. piluliformis sp. n., Baconia maquipucunae sp. n., Baconia tenuipes sp. n., Baconia tuberculifer sp. n., Baconia globosa sp. n.], Baconia insolita group [Baconia insolita (Schmidt, 1893a), comb. n., Baconia burmeisteri (Marseul, 1870), Baconia tricolor sp. n., Baconia pilicauda sp. n.], Baconia riouka group [Baconia riouka (Marseul, 1861), Baconia azuripennis sp. n.], Baconia famelica group [Baconia famelica sp. n., Baconia grossii sp. n., Baconia redemptor sp. n., Baconia fortis sp. n., Baconia longipes sp. n., Baconia katieae sp. n., Baconia cavifrons (Lewis, 1893), comb. n., Baconia haeterioides sp. n.], Baconia micans group [Baconia micans (Schmidt, 1889a), Baconia carinifrons sp. n., Baconia fulgida (Schmidt, 1889c)], Baconia incertae sedis [Baconia chilense (Redtenbacher, 1867), Baconia glauca (Marseul, 1884), Baconia coerulea (Bickhardt, 1917), Baconia angulifrons sp. n., Baconia sanguinea sp. n., Baconia viridimicans (Schmidt, 1893b), Baconia nayarita sp. n., Baconia viridis sp. n., Baconia purpurata sp. n., Baconia aenea sp. n., Baconia clemens sp. n., Baconia leivasi sp. n., Baconia atricolor sp. n.]. We designate lectotypes for the following species: Baconia loricata Lewis, 1885, Phelister gounellei Marseul, 1887, Baconia jubaris Lewis, 1901, Baconia festiva Lewis, 1891, Platysoma venustum J.E. LeConte, 1845, Phelister riehli Marseul, 1862, Phelister violaceus Marseul, 1853, Phelister varicolor Marseul, 1887b, Phelister illustris Lewis, 1900, Baconia choaspites Lewis, 1901, Epierus festivus Lewis, 1898, Phelister salobrus Marseul, 1887, Baconia angusta Schmidt, 1893a, Phelister insolitus Schmidt, 1893a, Pachycraerus burmeisteri Marseul, 1870, Phelister riouka Marseul, 1861, Homalopygus cavifrons Lewis, 1893, Phelister micans Schmidt, 1889a, Phelister coeruleus Bickhardt, 1917, and Phelister viridimicans Schmidt, 1893b. We designate neotypes for Baconia patula Lewis, 1885 and Hister aeneomicans Horn, 1873, whose type specimens are lost.

Keywords

Histeridae, Histerinae, Exosternini, taxonomy, subcortical, Neotropical region, Nearctic region, Palaearctic region, Oriental region

Introduction

The genus Baconia Lewis includes some of the most beautiful and remarkable of all histerids. Many of the species are brilliantly metallic blue, green, or violet, and may rarely have various maculations. Many also exhibit extremely flattened body forms, easily rivalling the better-known Hololeptini for flatness. The genus was described by Lewis (1885) to accommodate one of the most extreme of these, the very large (~5mm) and highly flattened Baconia loricata Lewis. Many subsequently described species were recognized for their distinctive coloration, and the group is generally considered among the more easily recognizeable and distinctive elements of the New World Exosternini fauna.

Unfortunately, the reality of Baconia is much more complex. In fact the genus has suffered from numerous taxonomic and systematic problems. Initially, Lewis himself apparently regarded only the most extremely flattened species to properly belong to Baconia, and he described most of the species now included here in Phelister, despite what appears to modern taxonomists to be obvious similarities in structure. There was also a period during which its status as an independent genus or as a subgenus of Phelister was in flux (e.g. Schmidt 1889a, 1889b), and even its higher level placement was questioned by its author (Lewis 1891). There has been a question as to the status of the genus Binhister Cooman, which has contained two Asian and one Neotropical species, whether it should be included as a subgenus of Baconia (as in Mazur 1997, 2011) or as an independent genus (Mazur 1984; Ôhara 1989, 1994). Worst of all, the taxonomic history of Baconia became further intertwined with that of Phelister, when Lewis (1889) offhandedly designated the type of Phelister to be a species that is now considered an unquestioned member of Baconia, Baconia venusta (LeConte). This and other problems have been overlooked or ignored by most subsequent authors. A proposal to the ICZN to suppress the potentially disruptive type designation for Phelister has been published, though not yet ruled upon (Caterino and Tishechkin 2013b). In addition to the taxonomic problems, there is also a tremendous wealth of undescribed diversity of Baconia, many of which species significantly expand the conventional conception of the genus.

The original definition of the genus was rather vague as to defining characters. Of those provided, only a few might be construed as unique to the genus ‘corpus depressum...prosternum parum angustatum…mesosternum latissimum antice rectum…tibiae extus unidentatae vel inermes’ (Lewis 1885: 462), with the remainder of the description listing characters common to Histerinae or even Histeridae as a whole. Of these Lewis clearly considered the flattened body and correspondingly wide prosternum to be the most significant, as convex species sharing most of these characters were shortly thereafter described in Phelister (e.g., Baconia godmani Lewis, 1888; Baconia eximia Lewis, 1888). Lewis’s tight circumscription of Baconia was soon challenged. When describing the convex ‘Phelister’ micans, Schmidt (1889a) suggested that it might be better placed in Baconia. Schmidt (1889b) provided a longer list of Phelister spp. that might be grouped under Baconia. And Schmidt (1889c) treated his broader Baconia, first as a subgenus of Phelister, and then as a distinct genus (Schmidt 1893a). Schmidt’s broader conception rested on the arrangement of marginal spines of the protibia, the anterior depressions of the pronotum, the weak to absent spines of the posterior tibiae, and the possession of punctures near the apices of the elytra (Schmidt 1889b). Lewis (1901) subsequently began describing a few additional species in Baconia, but explicitly disagreed with Schmidt’s assignment of micans, fulgidus, and angustus to the genus, citing their bisinuate mesosternum. He never addressed Schmidt’s conception of the genus directly, and kept the genera widely separated in his 1905 catalog (Baconia among what we now consider to be Platysomatini genera, Phelister among the other Exosternini). Bickhardt (1917) followed Lewis’s delimitations of Baconia and Phelister, and assigned them to Histerini and Exosternini, respectively. It was not until Mazur (1981) described Baconia slipinskii, comparing it to Schmidt’s Baconia angusta that the issue was, however obliquely, addressed again. Finally, in 1984, Mazur enlarged the concept of Baconia, essentially to that espoused by Schmidt nearly 100 years prior.

Our definition of Baconia relies primarily on one unambiguous morphological character. The fundamental synapomorphy of the group is a very distinctive antennal club, which has four sensory openings on each upper and lower surface (Figs 1B, 54E, 64C). These apparently occur along what in other Histeridae would be the annuli dividing the three subsections of the club. In most Baconia species the club is entirely tomentose, and these sensoria are surrounded by small glabrous rims. However, in a few taxa (the Baconia famelica group), much of the surface of the club is glabrous. This character unites a diversity of general body forms, some of which might be considered distinctive taxa of their own. The most extreme of these is an apparent myrmecophile with spectacular pygidial trichomes. Given the strong antennal character, however, we prefer to keep all these together within the genus. There remains one small lineage of uncertain relationships, which we exclude from Baconia for the present. This lineage comprises Phelister simoni and one undescribed close relative from the southern USA. These species superficially look nothing like Baconia, and lack this synapomorphic antennal club. However, phylogenetic analyses, which include DNA for the undescribed species, place these either at the base of, or even within, Baconia (Caterino and Tishechkin in prep.) Lacking any clear morphological character support for inclusion, we consider the Baconia simoni lineage most likely to be a sister lineage to Baconia, and will be describing a new genus for it in a separate paper (Caterino, Tishechkin and Proudfoot in prep.)

Below we present a complete revision of the species of Baconia. There are presently 27 species assigned to the genus (Mazur 2011), in two subgenera (Binhister Cooman and Baconia s. str.). We fully synonymize the subgenus Binhister with Baconia, as it has previously referred to an artificial group of species. We recognize all 27 described species as valid and correctly assigned, and redescribe all of them. We move four species into Baconia from other genera, and describe 85 species as new, bringing the total for the genus to 116 species. We present keys and diagnoses for all species, establish a series of informal species groups to facilitate identification, and provide habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia for nearly all species.

Materials and methods

Type material of all New World species was examined by one or both of the authors. We have not not seen type material of two of the three Asian species, as the primary emphasis of the study was on the New World fauna. Nonetheless we have established identities of the Asian species with reasonable confidence through reference to other authoritatively determined specimens.

Conventional imaging was done using a Visionary Digital’s ‘Passport’ portable imaging system, which incorporates a Canon D7 with MP-E 65mm 1–5×macro zoom lens. Images were stacked using Helicon Focus software. SEM imaging was done on a Zeiss EVO 40 scope, most specimens sputter coated with gold, or uncoated specimens examined in ‘variable pressure’ mode. We present only selected images as necessary to identify the species in this paper. However, multiple photographs of all species have been archived in MorphBank (www.morphbank.net), and are also available through the Encyclopedia of Life (www.eol.org). Following histerid conventions, total body length is measured from the anterior margin of the pronotum to the posterior margin of the elytra (to exclude preservation variability in head and pygidial extension), while width is taken at the widest point, generally near the elytral humeri.

Much of the morphological terminology used is based on Wenzel and Dybas (1941), but modified to follow more recent treatments by Helava et al. (1985), Ôhara (1994), Kanaar (1997) and Lawrence et al. (2011). We have presented an extensive discussion of Exosternini-specific morphological terminology in Caterino & Tishechkin (2013a), and refer the reader to the labeled illustrations there.

We present extensive descriptions for the majority of species. At the same time, we term these ‘diagnostic descriptions’, to emphasize the fact that they focus on those character systems in which differences among species are typically found. They are not intended to be exhaustive descriptions of each species’ morphology. We have attempted to make most of them consistent in character content and order, facilitating comparison as well as their reuse of descriptions in other contexts, such as in species pages and other media, which we encourage. The ‘remarks’ sections highlight the few most important key characters of each species.

Material examined lists provide verbatim data only for holotypes and lectotypes, and summary data for all other material, whether paratypes or non-type locality.

Type material. Within verbatim records, data are enclosed in double quotes, with data on separate labels separated by a slash ‘/’. The summary data generally avoids excessive repetition. Each record begins with the number of specimens exhibiting identical data. Records separated by commas are largely identical, differing only in the datum presented, most frequently distinct dates or collectors. Distinct localities are separated by semicolons, and records from distinct countries are separated by periods (full-stops).

Specimens from the following collections were examined:

AKTC Alexey Tishechkin Collection, Santa Barbara, USA

BDGC Bruce Gill Collection, Ottawa, Canada

BMNH Natural History Museum, London, UK

CASC California Academy of Sciences Collection, San Francisco, USA

CDFA California State Collection of Arthropods, Sacramento, USA

CEMT Coleção de Entomologia, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Brazil

CHJG Jeffrey P. Gruber Collection, Madison, USA

CHND Nicolas Degallier Collection, Paris

CHPWK Peter Kovarik Collection, Columbus, USA

CHSM Slawomir Mazur Collection, Warsaw, Poland

CMNC Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Canada

CMNH Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburg, USA

FMNH Field Museum, Chicago, USA

FSCA Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, USA

GBFM Museo Fairchild, Universidad de Panama, Panama City, Panama

IAVH Instituto Alexander von Humboldt, Villa de Leyva, Colombia

INBIO Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, San Jose, Costa Rica

LSAM Louisiana State Arthropod Museum, Baton Rouge, USA

LUND Entomological Museum of Lund University, Lund, Sweden

MCZC Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA

MHNG Museum d’Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland

MNHN Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

MSCC Michael Caterino Collection, Santa Barbara, USA

MUSM Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru.

NCSU North Carolina State University Collection, Raleigh, USA

NHRS Natur Historiska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, Sweden

SBMNH Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara, USA

SEMC Snow Entomology Museum, University of Kansas, Lawrence, USA

TAMU Texas A&M University Collection, College Station, USA

UDG Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexico

UFPR Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil

UNESP Universdade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira, Ilha Solteira, Brazil

USFQ Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador

USNM National Museum of Natural History, Washington, USA

WSUC Washington State University Insect Collection, Pullman, USA

ZMHB Zoological Museum of Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany

Taxonomy
Baconia Lewis, 1885: 462

http://species-id.net/wiki/Baconia

Type species:

Baconia loricata Lewis, 1885: 463, designated by Bickhardt 1917: 163.

Binhister Cooman, 1934: 122 (type species Binhister barbarus Cooman, by original designation); previously recognized as a subgenus, it is here fully synonymized; comb. n.

Description.

Size range: Length 1.0–5.0mm; width 0.6–4.0mm; Body: ovoid to elongate, sides broadly rounded to sub- or fully parallel, convex to very strongly flattened; color rufescent to frequently piceous or metallic; glabrous or rarely finely setose. Head: frons convex, flat, or deeply depressed, frontal stria usually present along inner margin of eyes, variably interrupted or obsolete across front, frons and epistoma frequently separated by weak to strong transverse carina; supraorbital stria present or absent; epistoma depressed to flat or convex, frequently swollen along apical margin, apical margin usually straight; labrum usually much wider than long, up to 4× or more, usually emarginate apically, but may be straight, bisinuate, or weakly produced; antennal scape usually short, stout, only weakly expanded to apex (Fig. 1A), may be longer, and/or expanded apically; antennal club generally completely tomentose, though rarely glabrous basally, annuli absent, but with 4 characteristic sensory slits on upper and lower surfaces (Fig. 1B), rarely with additional subapical sensorial patch (Fig. 54E); submentum angulate at base, truncate to projecting along distal margin, with few simple setae; gular sutures finely impressed, extending anterolaterad, uninterrupted to basal corner of buccal cavity; mentum subquadrate, sides weakly convergent, apical margin truncate to weakly emarginate, bearing few simple setae; labium with palpifers prominent, palpi with three palpomeres, the basalmost very short, the distal two with short, scattered setae; maxilla with cardo short, transverse, glabrous, stipes triangular, bearing few simple setae, palpi with four palpomeres, the basalmost very short; mandibles (Figs 1A, 3A, 28C) generally each with basal tooth, may be blunt or strong and acute, mandible frequently furrowed along lower, outer edge, may have ventral (mesal) pore and associated (presumed) secretory channel (Fig. 1C). Pronotum: sides parallel to convergent apically; marginal stria usually present and continuous around lateral and anterior margins; lateral submarginal stria present or absent; anterior corners nearly always weakly depressed (Fig. 1D); prescutellar impression absent; disk with single pair of anterior marginal gland openings, usually located close to anterior margin, behind eye on each side, discal punctation highly varied. Elytra: with 2–3 epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria rarely present, inner subhumeral stria frequently present, often restricted to short basal fragment, dorsal striae 1-5 and sutural stria highly varied, variously abbreviated from base or apex or entirely absent; elytral disk nearly always with distinct secondary punctures in apical half or less (Fig. 1E). Prosternum: prosternal keel varied in width, often quite broad in depressed species, basal margin varied from emarginate to truncate, rarely outwardly arcuate; carinal striae generally present, usually complete, free, rarely abbreviated anteriorly, united or obsolete; prosternal lobe short to moderate in length, apical margin subtruncate to broadly arcuate, rarely bisinuate; marginal stria of prosternal lobe usually distinct across middle, variably obsolete at sides. Mesoventrite: anterior mesoventral margin ranging from distinctly emarginate to distinctly projecting, marginal stria complete to absent, rarely with secondary submarginal stria; mesometaventral stria usually present, most frequently arched forward onto mesoventrite, may in some cases partially displace or completely replace marginal mesoventral stria. Metaventrite: Anterior margin, i.e., mesometaventral suture, frequently arched forward (mirrored in most, but not all cases, in mesometaventral stria), inner lateral metaventral stria generally present, extending from near inner corner of mesocoxa toward metacoxa, or toward posterior corner of metepisternum in the most depressed species, variably sinuate or abbreviated apically; outer lateral metaventral stria present or absent; metaventral disk usually coarsely punctate at sides, impunctate at middle. Abdomen: 1st abdominal ventrite with one or two lateral striae along inner edge of metacoxa, disk usually impunctate at middle, but with conspicuous median punctures in various species; abdominal ventrites 2-5 usually punctate at sides, rarely with dense punctures extending across middle of disk (Fig. 43F). Propygidium often with basal transverse stria (Fig. 5E), disk variably punctate sexually dimorphic in one species; single pair of propygidial gland openings usually conspicuous (Fig. 1F), situated on each side variably near basal margin; pygidium never with apical marginal stria, usually densely punctate, very rarely sexually dimorphic, with male’s setose or otherwise modified; both sexes bearing pygidial trichomes in one species.Legs: Protibia usually rather narrow, with 0-5 unevenly spaced marginal teeth (Fig. 2A), the outer margin nearly always finely serrulate along entire length (Fig. 2A); protibial spurs present, usually short, weakly curved; mesotibia usually with 1-2 weak marginal spines (Fig. 2B), rarely lacking spines; metatibia rarely with any marginal spines (Fig. 2C), generally smooth, with outer apical corner slightly prolonged; tarsi not obviously dimorphic, tarsomeres 1-4 short, usually bearing only single pair of apical setae, tarsomere 5 about as long as 2-4 together, usually weakly dorsoventrally curved (Fig. 2D); tarsal claws simple, separate. Male genitalia:Accessory sclerites absent. T8 generally short, broad, with basal rim strongly sclerotized, basolateral edge extending beneath to inner corner of ventrolateral apodeme; ventrolateral apodeme usually acute, with distal portion strongly reduced, T8 usually broadly open beneath; basal emargination very shallow to moderately deep; basal membrane attachment line rarely evident, usually intersecting basal emargination; distal margin weakly sclerotized, poorly defined, usually vaguely emarginate. S8 articulated at basal corners with ventrolateral apodemes of T8, apical guides weakly developed, halves separate or fused; if separate, halves usually strongly divergent from base, with apices narrow, often rounded, bare to conspicuously setose; if halves of S8 fused, apical margin usually weakly emarginate, frequently with apicoventral velar membrane, bare to conspicuously setose. T9 usually divided, rarely united, with basal apodemes long and slender to short and broad; ventrolateral apodemes weak to strong, opposing or recurved basad, very rarely fused beneath; distal apices usually weakly opposed, subacute to truncate; subapical seta often present on sides. T10 entire, weakly sclerotized, apical margin rounded to weakly emarginate. S9 usually desclerotized along midline, rarely entirely divided; stem very narrow to moderately broad, frequently with ventral keel along much of length; stem rarely absent, with entire T9 short, subcordate; head of S9 usually broad, acute apicolaterally, with apical margin shallowly emarginate to sinuate; tegmen relatively simple, shallowly incised apically, parallel-sided to tapered apically, lacking medioventral tooth or process; median lobe narrow, simple, in a few species associated with small, articulated apical denticulate plates (Fig. 41O); basal piece usually short, with superficial membrane attachment line and oval, asymmetrical basal foramen. Female genitalia: T8 forming a single plate, apical margin usually emarginate; S8 entire or with median plate isolated, with basal baculi detached, articulated with sternites, basally subparallel; S9 usually present, elongate; median coxite articulation present; valviferae paddle-shaped; coxites varied in shape, subquadrate to elongate, with 2-5 apical marginal teeth, with distinct, articulated apical stylus; bursa copulatrix usually completely membraneous, rarely with small sclerotizations of bursal wall; generally with single, bulbous, weakly sclerotized spermatheca, inserted near or at apex of bursa copulatrix; single, basically thin and elongate spermathecal gland present, generally attached near midpoint of spermatheca.

Figure 1.

Baconia generic characters. A Frons of Baconia anthracina B Antenna of Baconia tricolor C Mouthparts of Baconia gibbifer D Pronotum of Baconia disciformis E Elytron of Baconia anthracina F Pygidia of Baconia tricolor.

Figure 2.

Baconia generic characters. A Protibia of Baconia tricolor B Mesotibia of Baconia tricolor C Metatibia of Baconia anthracina D Mesotarsus of Baconia insolita.

Diagnosis.

Although initially characterized on the basis of extreme flattening of the body, the species of Baconia in fact span a broad range from convex to very flat. They are frequently metallic in appearance, although many species exibit no hint of metallic coloration. They are best recognized by their unique antennal club sensoria – in all species the annuli are reduced to a set of 4 distinct sensory slits on both upper and lower surfaces (Figs 1B, 54E, 64C). These are found in no other Histeridae. Additional characters that can help to diagnose the genus if the antennal club is not visible: antennal scape usually short (Fig. 1A), no more than twice as long as wide, its apex obliquely truncate; frontal stria rarely complete; inner margins of eyes often strongly convergent dorsally (Fig. 1A); both mandibles usually with distinct basal tooth (Fig. 1A); anterior corners of pronotum concave to depressed (Fig. 1D); antescutellar fovea absent; lateral pronotal stria, when present, close to margin and often carinate; elytral disk with secondary punctures near apex (or, if generally punctate, punctures becoming larger and denser toward apex; Fig. 58A); prosternal striae usually present, rarely meeting anteriorly; protibia usually finely serrulate between major marginal spines; metatibia (and often mesotibia) with few or no marginal spines, and frequently prolonged at outer apex (Fig. 2C); and apical tarsomere long and somewhat curved dorsoventrally (Fig. 2D). In the Neotropical region, the depressed anterior pronotal corners, minimially spinose posterior tibiae, and presence of apical elytral secondary punctures will distinguish them from all other histerids in the region. Hypobletus spp. may show comparable flatness to some Baconia, but are always rufescent in color and parallel-sided in body form. The most flattened Baconia spp. are nearly all metallic and/or rounded at the sides. In the Oriental region, where all the Baconia spp. are moderately to strongly depressed in body shape, there may be some Platysomatini that are generally similar in body form, but these will always exhibit S-shaped protarsal grooves and complete antennal annuli.

Checklist of the species of Baconia

We establish here a series of informal species groups. These generally correspond to groups that we feel reflect monophyletic groups within the genus (and are supported as such in preliminary analyses). However, as much as anything they are intended to facilitate identification and description, uniting species that are similar and appear related. Ordering of species within species groups is also intended to reflect phylogeny to a certain degree, facilitating comparisons among closely related species and their diagnoses.


Baconia loricata group

Baconia loricata Lewis, 1885

Baconia patula Lewis, 1885

Baconia gounellei (Marseul, 1887a)

Baconia jubaris (Lewis, 1901)

Baconia festiva (Lewis, 1891)

Baconia foliosoma sp. n.

Baconia sapphirina sp. n.

Baconia furtiva sp. n.

Baconia pernix sp. n.

Baconia applanatis sp. n.

Baconia disciformis sp. n.

Baconia nebulosa sp. n.

Baconia brunnea sp. n.


Baconia godmani group

Baconia godmani (Lewis, 1888)

Baconia venusta (J. E. LeConte, 1845)

Baconia riehli (Marseul, 1862), comb. n.

Baconia scintillans sp. n.

Baconia isthmia sp. n.

Baconia rossi sp. n.

Baconia navarretei sp. n.

Baconia maculata sp. n.

Baconia deliberata sp. n.

Baconia excelsa sp. n.

Baconia violacea (Marseul, 1853)

Baconia varicolor (Marseul, 1887b)

Baconia dives (Marseul, 1862)

Baconia eximia (Lewis, 1888)

Baconia splendida sp. n.

Baconia jacinta sp. n.

Baconia prasina sp. n.

Baconia opulenta sp. n.

Baconia illustris (Lewis, 1900)

Baconia choaspites (Lewis, 1901)

Baconia lewisi Mazur, 1984


Baconia salobrus group

Baconia salobrus (Marseul, 1887b)

Baconia turgifrons sp. n.

Baconia crassa sp. n.

Baconia anthracina sp. n.

Baconia emarginata sp. n.

Baconia obsoleta sp. n.


Baconia ruficauda group

Baconia ruficauda sp. n.

Baconia repens sp. n.


Baconia angusta group

Baconia angusta Schmidt, 1893a

Baconia incognita sp. n.

Baconia guartela sp. n.

Baconia bullifrons sp. n.

Baconia cavei sp. n.

Baconia subtilis sp. n.

Baconia dentipes sp. n.

Baconia rubripennis sp. n.

Baconia lunatifrons sp. n.


Baconia aeneomicans group

Baconia aeneomicans (Horn, 1873)

Baconia pulchella sp. n.

Baconia quercea sp. n.

Baconia stephani sp. n.

Baconia irinae sp. n.

Baconia fornix sp. n.

Baconia slipinskii Mazur, 1981

Baconia submetallica sp. n.

Baconia diminua sp. n.

Baconia rufescens sp. n.

Baconia punctiventer sp. n.

Baconia aulaea sp. n.

Baconia mustax sp. n.

Baconia plebeia sp. n.

Baconia castanea sp. n.

Baconia lescheni sp. n.

Baconia oblonga sp. n.

Baconia animata sp. n.

Baconia teredina sp. n.

Baconia chujoi (Cooman, 1941)

Baconia barbarus (Cooman, 1934)

Baconia reposita sp. n.

Baconia kubani sp. n.

Baconia wallacea sp. n.

Baconia bigemina sp. n.

Baconia adebratti sp. n.

Baconia silvestris sp. n.


Baconia cylindrica group

Baconia cylindrica sp. n.

Baconia chatzimanolisi sp. n.


Baconia gibbifer group

Baconia gibbifer sp. n.

Baconia piluliformis sp. n.

Baconia maquipucunae sp. n.

Baconia tenuipes sp. n.

Baconia tuberculifer sp. n.

Baconia globosa sp. n.


Baconia insolita group

Baconia insolita (Schmidt, 1893a), comb. n.

Baconia burmeisteri (Marseul, 1870)

Baconia tricolor sp. n.

Baconia pilicauda sp. n.


Baconia riouka group

Baconia riouka (Marseul, 1861)

Baconia azuripennis sp. n.


Baconia famelica group

Baconia famelica sp. n.

Baconia grossii sp. n.

Baconia redemptor sp. n.

Baconia fortis sp. n.

Baconia longipes sp. n.

Baconia katieae sp. n.

Baconia cavifrons (Lewis, 1893), comb. n.

Baconia haeterioides sp. n.


Baconia micans group

Baconia micans (Schmidt, 1889a)

Baconia carinifrons sp. n.

Baconia fulgida (Schmidt, 1889c)


Baconia incertae sedis

Baconia chilense (Redtenbacher, 1867)

Baconia glauca (Marseul, 1884)

Baconia coerulea (Bickhardt, 1917)

Baconia angulifrons sp. n.

Baconia sanguinea sp. n.

Baconia viridimicans (Schmidt, 1893b)

Baconia nayarita sp. n.

Baconia viridis sp. n.

Baconia purpurata sp. n.

Baconia aenea sp. n.

Baconia clemens sp. n.

Baconia leivasi sp. n.

Baconia atricolor sp. n.


Key to species of Baconia

1 Asian species 2
American species 10
2 Metaventrite with two parallel lateral striae, the outer variably complete (Figs 49H, 50B); pronotum with coarse punctures sparser across central part of disk (Figs 49E, 50A); widely distributed in SE Asia outside of Japan 3
Metaventrite with single lateral stria; pronotum coarsely punctate across entire disk; Japan Baconia chujoi (Cooman)
3 Body metallic 4
Body nonmetallic, rufotestaceus to piceous 5
4 Frontal stria absent from central part of frons; body more parallel-sided (Fig. 49E) Baconia reposita sp. n.
Frontal stria complete; body broad and subdepressed (Fig. 73C) Baconia glauca (Marseul)
5 Prosternal carinal striae united around prosternal midpoint (Fig. 49H) 6
Prosternal carinal striae separate throughout lengths 7
6 Inner lateral metaventral stria straight to apex; 1st abdominal ventrite with 2 lateral striae Baconia kubani sp. n.
Inner lateral metaventral stria curved strongly mediad posteriorly (Fig. 50E); 1st abdominal ventrite with single lateral stria Baconia adebratti sp. n.
7 Mesometaventral stria strongly arched forward, interrupting marginal mesoventral stria at middle, non-crenulate (Fig. 50G); mainland SE Asia 8
Mesometaventral stria not strongly arched forward, crenulate; Indomalayan region 9
8 First abdominal ventrite with two lateral striae Baconia barbarus (Cooman)
First abdominal ventrite with a single lateral stria Baconia silvestris sp. n.
9 Marginal mesoventral stria complete at middle; Indonesia: Sulawesi and Malaysia: Sabah Baconia wallacea sp. n.
Marginal mesoventral stria interrupted at middle; Malaysia: Sabah Baconia bigemina sp. n.
10 Lateral mesotibial margin with >5 marginal teeth; metatibia with 2 marginal spines; body elongate, parallel-sided, moderately flattened (Fig. 69A) Baconia cavifrons (Lewis)
Lateral mesotibial margin with no more than 3 marginal spines; metatibia lacking marginal spines 11
11 Pygidium with large, round trichomes (Fig. 69F) Baconia haeterioides sp. n.
Pygidium lacking trichomes . 12
12 Body strongly flattened; sutural, and usually 5th elytral striae completely absent 13 (Baconia loricata group, in part)
Body flattened or not; at least fragments of sutural stria present; 5th elytral stria present or not 20
13 Propygidium with complete stria along basal margin (Fig. 5E) 14
Propygidium lacking basal marginal stria 18
14 Body color metallic 15
Body not metallic, entirely rufotestaceus (Fig. 3C) Baconia patula Lewis
15 Fifth elytral stria present 16
Fifth elytral stria absent 17
16 Frontal stria present (though interrupted) across middle; 4th dorsal stria strongly abbreviated from base (Fig. 3E) Baconia gounellei (Marseul)
Frontal stria absent across middle, labrum very short, rounded; 4th dorsal stria more or less complete Baconia nebulosa sp. n.
17 Body very large (>5mm); known only from southern Brazil Baconia loricata Lewis
Body smaller (<4mm); known from Costa Rica Baconia applanatis sp. n.
18 Body metallic 19
Body rufopiceous to piceous Baconia brunnea sp. n.
19 Larger (>4mm), broader, flatter species (Fig. 9A-B); prosternal carinal striae separated by about the width of profemur, free basally; sides of frontal stria present along inner edge of eye Baconia disciformissp. n.
Smaller species (~3mm) (Fig. 5A); prosternal carinal striae separated by less than width of profemur, united basally; frontal stria completely absent Baconia jubaris (Lewis)
20 Protibia narrow, parallel-sided, with apical and sometimes basal marginal teeth, but rest of margin lacking teeth (Fig. 54F) 21 (Baconia gibbifer group)
Protibia wider, margin with at least one distinct tooth along middle portion of margin 26
21 Central portion of mesometaventral stria absent (Fig. 54C); lateral striae of 1st abdominal ventrite curving mediad along anterior margin of ventrite, occasionally meeting at midline Baconia gibbifer sp. n.
Central portion of mesometaventral stria present; lateral striae of abdominal ventrite 1 not curving mediad along anterior margin of ventrite 22
22 Prosternal keel narrowed anterad (Fig. 54G), becoming subcarinate in anterior one-fourth 23
Prosternal keel more or less evenly convex throughout length (Fig. 54H) 24
23 Short anterior fragment of 5th elytral stria present; body more nearly parallel-sided (Fig. 56A), width at elytral apices about two-thirds humeral width Baconia tenuipes sp. n.
Fifth elytral stria absent; body strongly narrowed posterad (Fig. 54G), width at elytral apices little more than half humeral width Baconia piluliformis sp. n.
24 Elytral striae abbreviated, none extending into posterior half of elytra; body strongly convex, prosternal lobe densely punctate at sides (Fig. 54H) Baconia maquipucunae sp. n.
At least 2nd elytral stria extending into posterior half of elytra; body subdepressed; prosternal lobe not densely punctate at sides 25
25 Basal fragment of 4th elytral stria very short, not extending posterad past basal one-fourth; prescutellar area of pronotal disk impunctate (Fig. 56C); epistoma often with small median tubercle (Fig. 56B); Central America into northwestern South America Baconia tuberculifer sp. n.
Basal fragment of 4th elytral stria extending to elytral midpoint (Fig. 56D); prescutellar area of pronotal disk with a few coarse punctures; epistoma lacking median tubercle; South America Baconia globosa sp. n.
26 Body small, elongate and parallel-sided to strongly cylindrical (e.g. Figs 30, 52); body color rufotestaceus to metallic; 5th and sutural striae nearly or fully meeting in narrow anterior arch 27 (Baconia cylindrica & ruficauda groups, in part)
Body larger, rarely subcylindrical; body color varied; 5th and sutural striae not joined in anterior arch (4th and sutural may be) 30
27 Most of dorsum metallic, with rufescent pygidia (Fig. 30A); base of 5th dorsal stria not meeting sutural stria Baconia ruficauda sp. n.
Entire dorsum uniformly rufotestaceus; bases of 5th dorsal stria and sutural stria united 28
28 Anterior margin of frons produced as blunt, transverse ridge; epistoma concave beneath; 4th dorsal stria complete Baconia teredina sp. n.
Frons and epistoma more or less coplanar, anterior margin of frons not produced; 4th dorsal stria frequently interrupted or obsolete 29
29 Body larger (~1.5mm); 4th elytral stria more or less obsolete; Central America Baconia chatzimanolisi sp. n.
Body smaller (~1.3mm); 4th elytral stria present, but may be broadly interrupted; South America Baconia cylindrica sp. n.
30 Body small (<1.8mm), elongate, subquadrate, subdepressed (Figs 32A-D, E, G, 35C); body color rufescent, not metallic, not piceous; 4th dorsal stria meeting sutural stria at subangulate anterior arch 31 (Baconia angusta group)
Body size varied, but typically larger; body color darker, piceous or metallic; elytral striae varied, but 4th stria rarely joined to sutural stria 39
31 Frons obliquely subcarinate over each antennal base (Fig. 32H) Baconia bullifrons sp. n.
Frons more or less flat, not subcarinate over antennal bases 32
32 Dorsum distinctly bicolored, with pronotum darker than rufescent elytra (Fig. 35C); pronotum with coarse punctures sparsely scattered over most of disk, with only very narrow median band impunctate Baconia rubripennis sp. n.
Dorsum unicolored; pronotum with coarse punctures, if present, limited to sides, median impunctate band distinctly broader, nearly as wide or wider than head 33
33 Mesofemur with dentate process at posteroapical corner (Fig. 35B) Baconia dentipes sp. n.
Mesofemur at most weakly produced at posteroapical corner 34
34 Aedeagus very short and broad, tegmen no longer than twice maximum width (Figs 33E, K); 8th sternite with conspicuous fringe of long setae 35
Aedeagus longer, tegmen length generally 3 or more times maximum width; setae of 8th sternite much less conspicuous, may be absent 36
35 Basal piece of aedeagus about two-thirds as long as tegmen (Fig. 33E); spiculum gastrale with digitiform, laterally directed apical processes (Fig. 33D) Baconia angusta Schmidt
Basal piece of aedeagus shorter, no more than half tegmen length (Fig. 33K); spiculum gastrale with fine, setiform apical processes (Fig. 33J) Baconia incognita sp. n.
36 Spiculum gastrale with apical emargination relatively shallow, less than half total length of segment (Figs 36E-F) 37
Spiculum gastrale with apical emargination relatively deep, more than half total length of segment (Fig. 33N) 38
37 Apex of 9th tergite appearing truncate (Fig. 37C); apex of aedeagus narrower in dorsal view, less strongly curved ventrad (Figs 37E-F) Baconia lunatifrons sp. n.
Apex of 9th tergite rounded (Fig. 36C); apex of aedeagus more evenly rounded in dorsal view, strongly curved ventrad (Figs 36I-J) Baconia subtilis sp. n.
38 Basal piece of aedeagus long, meeting tegmen at a nearly right angle (Figs 33O-P); tegmen with little ventral curvature Baconia guartela sp. n.
Basal piece of aedeagus short, in line with tegmen; tegmen with significant ventral curvature (Figs 34M-N) Baconia cavei sp. n.
39 Body elongate, parallel-sided, subdepressed, coarsely punctate above (Figs 58, 60); pronotum uniformly punctate; frons strongly punctate, convex; all punctures (especially evident on pygidia) finely setigerous 40 (Baconia insolita group)
Body shape varied, may be coarsely punctate on various dorsal surfaces, but if so, punctures not setigerous; frons, if densely punctate, then variously depressed at middle 43
40 Pronotum lacking any suggestion of lateral submarginal stria 41
Pronotum with lateral submarginal stria composed of series of punctures 42
41 Body color metallic (Fig. 58C); South America Baconia burmeisteri (Marseul)
Body not metallic (Fig. 58A); Mexico Baconia insolita (Schmidt)
42 Frontal and especially epistomal punctures coarse; male genitalia with S9 broad (Fig. 61E) Baconia pilicauda sp. n.
Frontal and especially epistomal punctures sparser and finer (Fig. 60B); male genitalia with S9 narrower (Fig. 61D) Baconia tricolor sp. n.
43 Body metallic above, may be blue, violet, green, or bronzy 44
Body piceous or rufotestaceous, without any hint of metallic coloration 93
44 Dorsal metallic coloration disrupted by rufescent elytral maculations 45
Metallic coloration not interrupted by rufescent maculations 46
45 Body larger (~3mm), rounded; red maculations reaching elytral base (Fig. 68A); epistoma produced to form broad transverse ridge above labrum (Fig. 68B) Baconia katieae sp. n.
Body smaller (<2mm), elongate; elytra metallic blue at base, red maculations more medial (Fig. 16A); epistoma not produced over labrum Baconia maculata sp. n.
46 Lateral submarginal pronotal stria present (in rare cases may have linear depression with series of punctures weakly coalesced into striae) 47
Lateral submarginal pronotal stria absent; pronotal disk not depressed or elevated laterally 63
47 Lateral pronotal bead elevated into distinct submarginal ridge, depressed along its inner edge (e.g. Figs 64A, E, G); body relatively large, elongate, sides subparallel; frons usually depressed at middle 48 (Baconia famelica group, in part)
Lateral pronotal bead not elevated into submarginal ridge, pronotal disk at most weakly impressed along submarginal stria; body smaller and/or rounder; frons varied 51
48 Central part of frons very deeply impressed, separated from epistoma by distinct carina (Fig. 66C); dorsum conspicuously and more or less uniformly punctate (Fig. 66A); known only from Amazonas, Brazil Baconia longipes sp. n.
Central part of frons no more than shallowly impressed, separated from epistoma by only very fine carina or stria; body generally less conspicuously punctate, punctures distinctly finer on central part of pronotal and elytral disks; SE Brazil 49
49 Pronotum and pygidia more or less non-metallic, elytra rather faintly metallic (Fig. 64E); apices of elytral disks obliquely punctatorugose Baconia redemptor sp. n.
Pronotum, elytra, and pygidia more or less uniformly metallic 50
50 Frons and epistoma uniformly and continuously punctate (Fig. 64B); epistoma lacking apical transverse microsculpture; western Paraná, Brazil Baconia famelica sp. n.
Epistoma distinctly less punctate than frons; epistoma (and labrum) with conspicuous transverse microsculpture along sides and apical margin; eastern Paraná, Brazil Baconia grossii sp. n.
51 Distinct lateral submarginal pronotal stria present 52
Lateral submarginal pronotal ‘stria’ comprising only a series of submarginal punctures 61
52 Frontal stria complete 53
Frontal stria interrupted, narrowly to broadly 54
53 Propygidium of male depressed on either side of elevated, setose median ridge; pronotum black, with numerous fine lateral punctures (Fig. 62F); elytra metallic blue Baconia azuripennis sp. n.
Propygidium of male unmodified; pronotum darker blue than elytra, but not black (Fig. 73D); lateral pronotal punctures fewer, coarser Baconia coerulea (Bickhardt)
54 Frontal stria narrowly interrupted at middle; frons weakly depressed, with few punctures at middle Baconia violacea (Marseul)
Frontal stria broadly interrupted at middle; frontal shape varied 55
55 Body large (~3mm), broadly rounded, bright metallic blue; frons depressed at middle 56
Body smaller (<2.5mm), elongate, metallic coloration indistinct, barely evident without strong light or magnification; frons flat, frontal stria obsolete between antennal bases 57
56 Frons with strong, well-defined oblique ridges descending onto epistoma, nearly meeting at middle (Fig. 71D) Baconia carinifrons sp. n.
Frons with only weakly defined ridges anterad median frontal depression Baconia micans (Schmidt)
57 Violet elytra contrasting distinctly with blue pronotum (Fig. 38C); Cuba Baconia pulchella sp. n.
Elytra not violet, though coloration of elytra and pronotum may differ slightly; North and Central America 58
58 Coloration distinct; pronotum blue, elytra grading from blue-green anteriorly to blue posteriorly (Fig. 38A); elytral striae 1-5 more or less complete; USA Baconia aeneomicans (Horn)
Coloration very subtle; pronotum blue-black; elytral faintly blue to blue-green 59
59 Marginal mesoventral stria obsolete from most of anterior mesoventral margin, displaced by mesometaventral stria; aedeagus slightly broader, rounded apically Baconia quercea sp. n.
Marginal mesoventral stria complete or nearly complete, mesometaventral stria not strongly arched anterad 60
60 Anterior marginal pronotal stria interrupted above eyes; marginal mesoventral stria complete; dorsal punctation sparser (Fig. 40F); prosternum wider, striae subparallel to front; apices of S8 truncate (Fig. 41F) Baconia submetallica sp. n.
Anterior marginal pronotal stria continuous along anterior margin (Fig. 40B); marginal mesoventral stria interrupted at middle; dorsal punctation denser (Fig. 40A); prosternal striae weakly convergent to front; apices of S8 subacute (Fig. 39P) Baconia irinae sp. n.
61 Marginal mesoventral stria interrupted at middle; mesometaventral stria arched strongly forward (Fig. 16C) Baconia deliberata sp. n.
Marginal mesoventral stria complete (may be fine at middle); mesometaventral stria not so strongly arched forward 62
62 Sutural stria present in posterior one-half elytral length (Fig. 11A); frontal stria narrowly interrupted for about one-half labrum width; known from Central America and extreme northwestern South America Baconia godmani (Lewis)
Sutural stria longer, present in posterior two-thirds elytral length (Fig. 16E); frontal stria generally more broadly interrupted, for about labrum width; known from western Amazonia Baconia excelsa sp. n.
63 Propygidium with transverse basal stria 64
Propygidium without transverse basal stria 74
64 Coloration bronzy, only faintly blue (Fig. 82C); head large, frons broad, with frontal stria obsolete between antennal bases (Fig. 82D); labrum large, faintly bilobed, with conspicuous transverse microsculpture Baconia aenea sp. n.
Coloration not appearing bronzy, blue to violet-blue 65
65 Body large (>2.4mm), rounded, convex (Fig. 71E); male pygidium with elevated setose process in basal half (Fig. 71F); sutural stria complete, connected to 5th stria by basal arch Baconia fulgida (Schmidt)
Body size and shape varied; male pygidium unmodified; sutural stria abbreviated to obsolete, not connected to any other stria 66
66 Metallic coloration conspicuous dorsally and ventrally (Figs 11G–H) Baconia riehli (Marseul)
Metallic coloration limited to dorsal surface 67
67 Body strongly flattened 68
Body moderately to distinctly convex 73
68 At least elytral stria 4 strongly abbreviated from base 69
Elytral striae 1-4 more or less complete 70
69 Fourth and fifth elytral striae short but distinctly impressed, 5th stria longer than 4th (Fig. 6D); lateral pronotal punctures shallower and sparser; Panama Baconia pernix sp. n.
Fourth and fifth striae little more than apical series of punctures (Fig. 6C); lateral pronotal punctures deeper and denser; French Guiana Baconia furtivasp. n.
70 Frons irregularly and rather sparsely punctate; northern South America to Central America 71
Frons coarsely and uniformly punctate (Fig. 5G); known only from southern Brazil Baconia foliosoma sp. n.
71 Sutural stria well impressed in posterior half; frons depressed at middle, with few coarse punctures between ends of interrupted frontal stria (e.g. Fig. 11F); pygidial punctures distinctly finer in apical half Baconia isthmia sp. n.
Sutural stria barely impressed near apex; frons more or less flat; pygidial punctures only barely finer toward apex 72
72 Body strongly depressed (Figs 6A–B), propygidial width about 4×midline length; pygidial punctures fine Baconia sapphirina sp. n.
Body subdepressed (Figs 5C–D), propygidial width about 3×midline length; pygidial punctures coarser Baconia festiva (Lewis)
73 Mesoventrite (Fig. 22D) with doubled marginal and mesometaventral striae, the anterior three complete, the posterior-most interrupted at middle; French Guiana, northern Brazil Baconia lewisi Mazur
Mesoventrite (Fig. 11D) with single marginal and mesometaventral striae, the marginal mesoventral stria interrupted at middle; USA Baconia venusta (LeConte)
74 Mesometaventral stria present (at least as median fragments), in addition to marginal mesoventral stria (which may be interrupted at middle) 80
Mesometaventral stria absent 75
75 Fourth and 5th dorsal striae absent (Fig. 18G), sutural stria largely obsolete Baconia jacinta sp. n.
Fourth and/or sutural stria present and distinct 76
76 Fifth and sutural striae absent (Fig. 80C) Baconia viridis sp. n.
Sutural, and sometimes 5th striae, present 77
77 Sutural stria complete, well impressed; elytra violet in color, contrasting with blue pronotum and pygidia (Fig. 21E) Baconia illustris (Lewis)
Sutural stria obsolete in basal one-fourth to one-half; elytra and pronotum concolorous, generally blue to blue-green, not violet 78
78 Fourth stria variably present in apical half only Baconia navarretei sp. n.
Fourth stria variably present in basal half only 79
79 Frons and epistoma both depressed, each with few median punctures (Fig. 80B); frontal stria weakly interrupted between them Baconia nayarita sp. n.
Frons depressed, epistoma flat to slightly elevated relative to frons, both impunctate; frontal stria complete (Fig. 18D) Baconia eximia (Lewis)
80 Median portion of mesometaventral stria detached from sides, maybe be reduced or fragmented 81
Median portion of mesometaventral stria connected to lateral metaventral stria at sides 85
81 Elytral striae 1-5 distinct, present at elytral base 82
At least 5th stria, usually also 4th, abbreviated to some degree from base 83
82 Sutural stria more or less complete, inner subhumeral stria strongly abbreviated (Fig. 30B); frons convex, median portion of frontal stria absent Baconia repens sp. n.
Sutural stria abbreviated from base (Fig. 18E); inner subhumeral stria more or less complete; frons depressed at middle, median portion of frontal stria fragmented but present (Fig. 18F) Baconia splendida sp. n.
83 Inner subhumeral stria weak, interrupted at middle; mesometaventral stria well developed across middle two-thirds of mesoventral disk 84
Inner subhumeral stria more or less complete; mesometaventral stria weak, fragmented, present only at middle of disk (Fig. 14C) Baconia rossi sp. n.
84 Labrum strongly emarginate (Fig. 22A); sutural stria absent Baconia choaspites (Lewis)
Labrum weakly emarginate; sutural stria present in apical half Baconia scintillans sp. n.
85 Elytral stria 5 complete to base, may be slightly abbreviated apically (Fig. 82E); frons flat, labrum strongly emarginate (Fig. 82F) Baconia clemens sp. n.
Elytral stria 5, if present, strongly abbreviated from base; frons at least slightly depressed at middle; labrum varied, but usually not more than weakly emarginate 86
86 Sutural and 4th elytral striae connected by distinct basal arch (Fig. 21A) Baconia prasina sp. n.
4th elytral stria may be arched toward suture, but not connected to sutural stria 87
87 Marginal mesoventral stria interrupted; central portion of frontal stria complete (may be detached at sides), subangulate at middle (Fig. 77B) Baconia angulifrons sp. n.
Marginal mesoventral stria complete; central portion of frontal stria complete or interrupted at middle, but not subangulate at middle 88
88 Dorsum and pygidium concolorous (blue, blue-green or violet); body moderately convex 89
Pygidia black or testaceus, contrasting with dorsum; body subdepressed 91
89 Sutural stria complete; body color contrasting with elytra violet (Fig. 16F), pronotum and pygidia blueish Baconia violacea (Marseul)
Sutural stria abbreviated basally; body more or less unicolorous, varied in color 90
90 Body color blue (Fig. 18B); male S8 weakly widened apically (Fig. 19D) Baconia dives (Marseul)
Body color generally more violet (Fig. 18A); male S8 broadly widened apically (Fig. 19B) Baconia varicolor (Marseul)
91 Epistoma not markedly convex, depressed at middle; pygidia and venter black 92
Epistoma transversely convex along apical margin, not depressed at middle; pygidia (Figs 77F-G) and venter testaceus Baconia viridimicans (Schmidt)
92 Pronotum and elytra uniformly violet (Fig. 82A); Guianas Baconia purpurata sp. n.
Pronotum and elytra blue (Fig. 21D); known only from Costa Rica Baconia opulenta sp. n.
93 Lateral submarginal pronotal stria present 94
Lateral submarginal pronotal stria absent 111
94 Frons and epistoma divided by raised carina (Fig. 64H); frons, pronotum, and elytra conspicuously punctate (Fig. 64G); body large (>4mm) Baconia fortis sp. n.
Frons and epistoma not divided by raised carina; body with punctures much more restricted in distribution, predominantly impunctate 95
95 Frons with central portion of frontal stria present, may be abbreviated; frons depressed at middle, or deflexed with respect to epistoma 96
Central part of frontal stria absent; frons flat, rarely depressed at middle 97
96 Elytra lacking 5th and sutural striae; body strongly convex (Fig. 73A); known only from Chile Baconia chilense (Redtenbacher)
Elytra with sutural stria present; body broadly rounded, subdepressed (Fig. 62A); known from southern Brazil, Paraguay Baconia riouka (Marseul)
97 Pronotum conspicuously, almost uniformly punctate (Fig. 38F); known only from south-central to southeastern USA Baconia stephani sp. n.
Pronotum punctate at sides only or entirely impunctate; neotropical 98
98 Elytral 5th and sutural striae joined in basal arch (Fig. 84A); striae 1-4 nearly complete, only barely abbreviated apically Baconia leivasi sp. n.
Fifth and sutural striae not joined in basal arch; striae 2-4 usually distinctly abbreviated apically 99
99 Fourth dorsal stria bent inward at basal one-third, curved mediad along basal elytral margin (e.g., Figs 40A, C); 5th and sutural striae rather distinctly converging basad; body generally piceous, sides rounded 104
Fourth and 5th dorsal striae subparallel to sutural, bending only very weakly mediad at base; body rufescent to rufo-testaceus, generally parallel-sided 100
100 Mesometaventral stria strongly arched anterad, displacing central portion of marginal mesoventral stria (e.g., Fig. 47C); prosternal striae more or less complete, separate throughout their lengths; body more or less unicolorous 101
Marginal mesoventral stria complete, not displaced by mesometaventral stria; prosternal striae abbreviated anteriorly, united near prosternal midpoint; pronotum distinctly darker than rufescent elytra (Fig. 77C) Baconia sanguinea sp. n.
101 First abdominal ventrite with two lateral striae 102
First abdominal ventrite with single lateral stria 103
102 Body subdepressed, but not strongly flattened; prosternal carinal striae separated by less than width of profemur (Fig. 47C) Baconia lescheni sp. n.
Body rather strongly flattened; prosternum broad, the carinal striae separated by more than the width of profemur (Fig. 47F) Baconia animata sp. n.
103 Inner subhumeral elytral stria more or less complete; frons densely and uniformly punctate (Fig. 47D) Baconia oblonga sp. n.
Inner subhumeral elytral stria present at extreme base only; frons with dense punctures somewhat irregularly spaced Baconia rufescens sp. n.
104 First abdominal ventrite with at least a few distinct, coarse punctures across anterior part of disk (e.g., Figs 40B, 43F) 106
First abdominal ventrite with no more than fine ground punctation on disk 105
105 Fourth abdominal ventrite punctatorugose at center (e.g., Fig. 43F); marginal mesoventral stria interrupted for most of central one-third Baconia castanea sp. n.
Fourth abdominal ventrite with only sparse punctures at center (Fig. 40H); marginal mesoventral stria more broadly interrupted, with strial remnants only in extreme corners Baconia diminua sp. n.
106 Body larger (~2.5mm); frontal/epistomal disk distinctly prolonged, total midline length approximately equal to greatest width between eyes; first abdominal ventrite with dense punctures throughout basal one-half to two-thirds (Fig. 40D) Baconia fornix sp. n.
Body smaller (<2mm); frontal/epistomal disk not prolonged, midline length distinctly less than maximum interocular width; punctures of first abdominal ventrite generally sparser 107
107 Anterior marginal pronotal stria interrupted behind eyes, ends recurved slightly 108
Anterior marginal pronotal stria continuous along anterior margin 111
108 Epistoma densely microsculptured along anterior margin (Fig. 43E) Baconia mustax sp. n.
Epistoma without microsculpture along anterior margin 109
109 Protibial margin with distinct median and basal marginal teeth; Central America Baconia submetallica sp. n.
Protibial median and basal marginal teeth strongly reduced, margin more or less straight, with only very fine denticles produced beyond the marginal serrulation; South America 110
110 Prosternum relatively narrow, carinal striae separated by less than width of profemur Baconia plebeia sp. n.
Prosternum relatively broad, carinal striae separated by more than width of profemur Baconia slipinskii Mazur
111 Body very small (<1.5mm); basal piece longer, about twice as long as wide (Fig. 42M) Baconia aulaea sp. n.
Body moderately small (~1.8-2mm); basal piece shorter, about 1.5× as long as wide (Fig. 42P) Baconia punctiventer sp. n.
112 Base of 4th elytral stria present, arched to sutural stria (to which it may or may not be connected; Fig. 24A) 113
Base of 4th elytral stria absent 116
113 Body rather strongly depressed; sutural elytral stria strongly reduced, not extending into basal half of elytron (Fig. 84C) Baconia atricolor sp. n.
Body more distinctly convex; sutural stria more nearly complete, extending clearly into basal half of elytron, often reaching basal arch of 4th stria 114
114 Epistoma deflexed relative to frons 115
Epistoma and frons more or less coplanar (sharing a common median depression; Fig. 24C) Baconia salobrus (Marseul)
115 Labrum deeply emarginate (Fig. 28C); mesometaventral stria transverse, strongly crenulate, coincident with mesometaventral suture; epistoma lacking central fovea Baconia emarginata sp. n.
Labrum at most weakly emarginate (Fig. 28A); mesometaventral stria at least slightly arched anterad at middle, departing from mesometaventral suture, less strongly crenulate; epistoma frequently with median fovea Baconia anthracina sp. n.
116 Epistoma no more strongly punctate than frons Baconia obsoleta sp. n.
Epistoma distinctly punctate to punctato-rugose (e.g., Fig. 26A) 117
117 Central portion of frontal stria present, complete across middle; epistoma convex, but strongly deflexed; labrum reduced, narrowly rounded apically (Fig. 26A) Baconia turgifrons sp. n.
Central portion of frontal stria fragmented to absent, not complete across middle; epistoma less strongly deflexed; labrum not markedly reduced, transverse to weakly emarginate (Fig. 26C) Baconia crassa sp. n.
Species treatments
Baconia loricata group

Species in the Baconia loricata group are among the most consistently and strongly flattened species in the genus, and most may be placed here on that basis. However, they also share a few more substantial characters that might suggest that it is somewhat more than a group of convenience, including: apices of male S8 narrowed and extended (Fig. 4H), male S8 usually longer than T8; T9 with long, thin basal apodemes (Fig. 4C). Members of the generally similar Baconia godmani group are not only more convex, but also have a male S8 with a conspicuous fringe of apical setae (e.g., Fig. 12B).

Baconia loricata Lewis, 1885

http://species-id.net/wiki/Baconia_loricata

Fig. 3A, Map 1
Baconia loricata Lewis, 1885: 463.

Type locality. BRAZIL: Santa Catarina: Blumenau [26.9°S, 49.0°W].

Type material.

Lectotype, of undetermined sex, here designated (BMNH): “Blumenau. Amer. mer.” / “Baconia loricata Lewis Type” / “George Lewis Coll. B.M.1926-369” / “LECTOTYPE Baconia loricata Lewis, M.S.Caterino & A.K.Tishechkin des. 2010”. This species was described from an unspecified number of specimens, and the lectotype designation fixes primary type status on the only known specimen.

Diagnostic description.

Length: 4.8mm, width: 4.6mm; body broadly subquadrate, sides weakly rounded, widest at humeri, very strongly flattened, glabrous; dorsum entirely metallic blue, pygidia slightly greenish-blue; frons broad, shallowly depressed at middle, interocular margins weakly convergent dorsad, disk uniformly punctate, punctures separated by about their diameters, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, bent mediad at front but broadly interrupted medially; epistoma with apical margin distinctly emarginate; labrum about 3×wider than long, distinctly and narrowly emarginate; both mandibles with basal tooth; pronotal sides strongly converging, arcuate to apex, weakly explanate at sides, lateral marginal stria complete around lateral and anterior margins, very fine and close to margin, submarginal stria absent; pronotal disk with only fine ground punctation over median three-fourths of disk, with small, shallowly impressed secondary punctures sparsely interspersed at sides; elytra with single complete epipleural stria, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria more or less complete, dorsal stria 1 and 2 complete, 2nd stria very fine basally, 3rd stria present in basal half and as a short series of apical punctures, 4th stria represented by few apical fragments, 5th and sutural striae absent; elytral disk with small secondary punctures in apical fifth; prosternal keel broad, weakly convex, base weakly produced, carinal striae more or less complete, separate, subparallel; prosternal lobe about half keel length, apical margin broadly rounded, marginal stria obsolete at sides; mesoventrite broadly and shallowly emarginate, marginal stria interrupted at middle; mesometaventral stria present at middle, detached laterally, inner lateral metaventral stria extending obliquely posterolaterad toward outer corner of metacoxa, abbreviated apically, outer lateral metaventral stria absent, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; protibia narrow, elongate, with three weak marginal teeth, outer margin very finely serrulate between; meso- and metatibiae narrow, each with a single marginal spine about 3/4 of the way towards the apex; pygidia short and wide, propygidium with basal transverse stria present at middle, obsolete at sides; propygidium and pygidium both with medium sized, ocellate punctures, those of propygidium separated by slightly more than their diameters, those of the pygidium becoming smaller and denser, particularly toward apex. Male genitalia: not known.

Figure 3.

Baconia loricata group. A Dorsal habitus of lectotype of Baconia loricata B Frons of Baconia patula Dorsal habitus of Baconia patula D Ventral habitus of Baconia patula E Dorsal habitus of lectotypeof Baconia gounellei F Ventral habitus of lectotypeof Baconia gounellei.

Map 1.

Baconia loricata group records. Record for Baconia festiva in Bahia, Brazil is a state record only.

Remarks.

The type of the genus, Baconia loricata, is unfortunately still known only from the type specimen, which appeared too delicate to dissect. It is an unmistakeable species, being nearly twice the size of any other known species, as well as being among the most strongly flattened (Fig. 3A). It appears closely related to Baconia patula, sharing many subtle characters, but its size and metallic coloration will distinguish it immediately.

Baconia patula Lewis, 1885

http://species-id.net/wiki/Baconia_patula

Figs 3C–D, 4A–F, Map 1
Baconia patula Lewis, 1885: 463.
Type locality.

BRAZIL: Santa Catarina: Blumenau [26.9°S, 49.0°W].

Type material.

Neotype male (ZMHB): “Blumenau Bras.” / “Baconia patula” / “Caterino/Tishechkin Exosternini Voucher EXO-00442” / “NEOTYPE Baconia patula Lewis Desg. M.Caterino & A.Tishechkin, 2011”.

Other material.

BRAZIL: 1: Espirito Santo: Venda Nova do Imigrante, 20°16'S, 41°25'W, xii.2000, FIT, forest, F. Vaz-de-Mello (AKTC); 1: Santa Catarina: Blumenau (ZMHB); 1: Nova Teutonia, 10.iv.1957, Bambusa, F. Plaumann (FMNH), 3: 10.vi.1960, 5: 11.vi.1960, 2: 11.vii.1957, 3: 12.v.1960, 5: 12.vi.1960, 4: 13.vi.1960, 5: 19.v.1960, 4: 2.vi.1960, 1: 2.vii.1959, 5: 20.v.1960, 2: 20.vi.1960, 8: 21.v.1960, 7: 22.vii.1960, 4: 23.v.1960, 5: 24.v.1960, 5: 25.v.1950, 2: 26.v.1960, 3: 27.v.1960, 4: 28.v.1960, 5: 3.vi.1960, 2: 4.vi.1960, 6: 5.vi.1960, 11: 6.vi.1960, 6: 7.vi.1960, 5: 8.vi.1960, 4: 9.vi.1960 (all: Bambusa taquara, F. Plaumann leg., FMNH).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 2.0–2.7mm, width: 1.8–2.3mm; body broadly subquadrate, slightly but distinctly widening toward the front, very strongly depressed, glabrous; color rufo-brunneus throughout; frons broad, shallowly depressed at middle, interocular margins weakly convergent dorsad, disk with few sparse median punctures, frontal stria fine, present along inner margin of eye, bent mediad at front, but broadly interrupted medially, supraorbital stria absent; antennal club distinctly elongate, sides subparallel; epistoma with apical margin straight; labrum about 4×wider than long, apically emarginate; both mandibles with basal tooth; pronotal sides almost evenly arcuate to apex, subexplanate at sides, lateral marginal stria complete around lateral and anterior margins, very fine and close to margin, submarginal stria absent; pronotal disk with only fine ground punctation over median three-fourths of disk, with small, shallowly impressed secondary punctures sparsely interspersed at sides; elytra with two complete epipleural striae and fragments of a third, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria variably impressed in basal half, dorsal stria 1 complete, 2nd stria abbreviated at extreme base, 3rd stria very fine, scratchlike, present in basal half only, 4th, 5th and sutural striae absent, elytral disk with very small secondary punctures in apical fifth; prosternal keel broad, weakly convex, base weakly produced, carinal striae more or less complete, may be slightly abbreviated anteriorly, separate, subparallel; prosternal lobe about half keel length, apical margin broadly rounded, marginal stria present, obsolete at sides; mesoventrite broadly and distinctly emarginate, marginal stria complete; mesometaventral stria present at middle, detached laterally, inner lateral metaventral stria continuing from apex of marginal mesoventral stria, extending obliquely posterolaterad toward outer corner of metacoxa, abbreviated apically, outer lateral metaventral stria absent, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single, complete lateral stria, disk impunctate between; protibia narrow, elongate, with three marginal teeth, outer margin very finely serrulate between; mesotibia with single, inconspicuous subapical spine, and weak, oblique, submarginal carina near midpoint of anterior face; outer metatibial margin smooth; pygidia short and wide, propygidium with transverse basal stria, with moderately large ocellate punctures separated by about their diameters at middle, denser toward sides; propygidial gland openings very small, visible posterad ends of transverse basal stria; pygidium with sparse ground punctation and small secondary punctures evenly interspersed, separated by about their diameters. Male genitalia (Figs 4A-F): T8 broad, sides rounded to apex, basal rim slightly widened, basal emargination shallow, subangulate, apical emargination deep, narrow, ventrolateral apodemes weakly sclerotized, short, opposing, separated by about one-half tegmen width; S8 short, divided, with distinct, stronger ventromedial subsclerotizations, inner edges strongly divergent in apical half, outer margins weakly divergent, apical guides widening to broadly rounded apices, without conspicuous setae; T9 with basal apodemes long, thin, about one-half total length, T9 apices very narrowly rounded, glabrous, ventrolateral apodemes very poorly developed; T10 entire; S9 weakly widened to rounded base, head abruptly widened, sides attenuate, sclerotized along lateral and distal margins, not apically divided; tegmen narrowest near base, widening weakly to near apex, tegmen in lateral aspect rather thick throughout, weakly curved ventrad just at apex; median lobe simple, about one-third tegmen length; basal piece about one-fifth tegmen length, apical emarginations deep.

Figure 4.

Male genitalia of Baconia loricata group. A–F Baconia patula A T8 B S8 C T9 & T10 D S9 E Aedeagus, dorsal view F Aedeagus, lateral view G–L Baconia foliosoma G T8 H S8 I T9 & T10 J S9 K Aedeagus, dorsal view L Aedeagus, lateral view.

Remarks.

The original type of Baconia patula is unfortunately lost. There is an empty point in the BMNH, with labels that unambiguously associate the mount with the original type specimen. However, the specimen has been sought on multiple occasions, by the senior author and by BMNH personnel, and no corresponding specimen could be found. Because of the strong similarity among Baconia species the designation of an unambiguous Neotype seemed appropriate. The Neotype bears the same data as the original type, and may in fact be a syntype, although this can only be speculated.

This species is very distinct in its strongly flattened (Fig. 3C), non-metallic, rufobrunneus appearance, its emarginate labrum (Fig. 3B), and weakly convex prosternal keel (Fig. 3D). The association with ‘Bambusa taquara’, is not as specific as it appears, as no species of Bambusa currently bears this name, and taquara is generally used as a common name for various bamboos.

Baconia gounellei (Marseul, 1887)

http://species-id.net/wiki/Baconia_gounellei

Figs 3E–F, Map 1
Phelister gounellei Marseul, 1887: cxviii; Baconia gounellei: Lewis 1901: 372.
Type locality.

BRAZIL: Minas Gerais: Caraça [exact locality uncertain].

Type material.

Lectotype, probably female, here designated (BMNH): “Caraça(Minas Geraez) Bresil E.Gounelle 1.2.1885” / “Phelister Gounellei n.sp.” / “Marseul’s Type.” / “George Lewis Coll. B.M.1926-369” / “LECTOTYPE Phelister gounellei Marseul, M.S.Caterino & A.K.Tishechkin des. 2010”. This species was described from an unspecified number of specimens, and the lectotype designation fixes primary type status on the only known specimen.

Diagnostic description.

Length: [not measured, ~2.5mm], width: [not measured, ~1.5mm]; body broadly subquadrate, sides weakly rounded, widest at humeri, strongly flattened, glabrous; dorsum entirely metallic blue, pronotum and pygidia slightly more greenish-blue; frons slightly depressed at middle, interocular margins weakly convergent dorsad, disk with few coarse punctures at middle, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, bent mediad at front but broadly interrupted medially; epistoma with apical margin weakly emarginate; labrum about 3×wider than long; pronotal sides converging, arcuate to apex, weakly explanate at sides, lateral marginal stria complete around lateral and anterior margins, fine and close to margin, submarginal stria absent; pronotal disk with only fine ground punctation over median three-fourths of disk, with small, shallowly impressed secondary punctures sparsely interspersed at sides and front; elytra with single complete epipleural stria, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria present as separate basal and median fragments, dorsal striae 1-2 more or less complete, 3rd stria slightly abbreviated at both ends, 4th and 5th striae represented by few apical fragments, sutural stria absent; elytral disk with small secondary punctures in apical fourth; prosternal keel broad, flat, base weakly produced, carinal striae more or less complete, separate, subparallel; prosternal lobe about two-thirds keel length, apical margin broadly rounded, marginal stria well impressed at middle, obsolete at sides; mesoventrite broadly and shallowly emarginate, marginal stria broadly interrupted at middle, reduced to lateral strioles; mesometaventral stria present at middle, arched strongly forward to near margin, inner lateral metaventral stria sinuately curving posterolaterally toward mesepisternum, abbreviated apically, outer lateral metaventral stria absent, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; protibia rather narrow, elongate, with three weak marginal teeth, outer margin very finely serrulate between; meso- and metatibiae narrow, mesotibia with a single marginal spine, metatibial margin smooth; pygidia short and wide, propygidium with complete basal transverse stria, discal punctures ocellate, medium-sized, separated by a little more than their diameters; pygidial punctures smaller, sparser toward apex. Male genitalia: not known.

Remarks.

Because Baconia gounellei is known only from the type specimen, which is in relatively poor condition, it is hard to adequately characterize. It appears very close to Baconia loricata, but is much smaller and not as flat. Among the highly flattened, metallic species, it is unusual in the presence of the 5th elytral stria, and further distinguished by the presence of fragments of the frontal stria across the anterior margin of the frons. The only other species in this group with the 5th elytral stria present, Baconia nebulosa, is completely lacking anterior fragments of the frontal stria, and has very short, unusual mandibles.

Baconia jubaris Lewis, 1901

http://species-id.net/wiki/Baconia_jubaris

Figs 5A–B, Map 1
Baconia jubaris Lewis, 1901: 371.
Type locality.

BRAZIL: Bahia: San Antonio da Barra [13.0°S, 38.5°W].

Type material.

Lectotype, sex undetermined, here designated (BMNH): “S.Antonio da Barra, Pr. de Bahia, Gounelle, 11-12.88”/ “Baconia jubaris Lewis Type” / “George Lewis Coll. B.M.1926-369.” / “LECTOTYPE Baconia jubaris Lewis, M.S.Caterino & A.K.Tishechkin des. 2010”. This species was described from an unspecified number of specimens, and the lectotype designation fixes primary type status on the only known original specimen.

Diagnostic description.

Length: [not measured, ~2.5mm], width: [not measured, ~1.5mm]; body broadly subquadrate, sides weakly rounded, widest just behind humeri, strongly flattened, glabrous; dorsum entirely metallic blue, pronotum and pygidia slightly more greenish-blue; frons very weakly depressed at middle, interocular margins weakly convergent dorsad, disk with scattered, mostly fine punctures, few coarser punctures intermingled at middle; frontal stria absent, lacking from inner edge of eyes; epistoma very weakly emarginate; labrum about 3×wider than long, distinctly emarginate apically; each mandible with acute basal tooth on inner margin; pronotal sides converging, arcuate to apex, weakly explanate at sides, lateral marginal stria complete around lateral and anterior margins, fine and close to margin; pronotum very finely and very sparsely punctate throughout, with slightly larger punctures interspersed in lateral sixth; elytra with outer subhumeral absent, inner subhumeral stria more or less complete, 1st dorsal stria complete, 2nd dorsal stria slightly abbreviated basally, 3rd dorsal stria present as fine basal scratch and represented by punctures in apical third, 4th, 5th and sutural striae absent; elytral disk with conspicuous secondary punctures in apical fourth; prosternal keel broad, weakly convex, base bisinuate, weakly produced on either side, emarginate medially, carinal striae complete, united along basal margin, subparallel; prosternal lobe about two-thirds keel length, apical margin broadly rounded, marginal stria well impressed at middle; mesoventrite sinuate, broadly emarginate but weakly produced at middle, marginal stria broadly interrupted at middle; mesometaventral stria present at middle, arched strongly forward to near margin; inner lateral metaventral stria sinuately curving posterolaterad toward outer third of metacoxa, nearly complete, outer lateral metaventral stria weakly indicated in anterior third, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with complete inner lateral stria and posterior half of outer lateral stria, disk impunctate at middle; protibia rather narrow, elongate, with five weak marginal teeth, outer margin very finely serrulate between; meso- and metatibiae narrow, mesotibia with two marginal spines; propygidium lacking basal transverse stria, discal punctures ocellate, rather deep, separated by about their diameters; pygidial punctures smaller, sparser toward apex. Male genitalia: not known.

Figure 5.

Baconia loricata group. A Dorsal habitus of lectotype of Baconia jubaris B Frons of lectotype of Baconia jubaris C Dorsal habitus oflectotype of Baconia festiva D Ventral habitus oflectotype of Baconia festiva E Dorsal habitus of Baconia foliosoma F Ventral habitus of Baconia foliosoma G Frons of Baconia foliosoma.

Remarks.

This species is very similar to the preceding, but can be distinguished by the complete lack of frontal stria (Fig. 5B), even from the inner margins of the eyes, absence of 4th and 5th elytral striae (Fig. 5A), and more nearly complete inner subhumeral stria. It is known only from the type specimen.

Baconia festiva Lewis, 1891

http://species-id.net/wiki/Baconia_festiva

Figs 5C–D, Map 1
Baconia festiva Lewis, 1891: 389.
Type locality.

BRAZIL: Bahia [exact locality uncertain].

Type material.

Lectotype, sex undetermined, here designated (BMNH): “Bahia” / “Bahia AG” / “Baconia festiva Lewis Type” / “LECTOTYPE Baconia festiva Lewis, M.S.Caterino & A.K.Tishechkin des. 2010”. This species was described from an unspecified number of specimens, and the lectotype designation fixes primary type status on the only known original specimen.

Diagnostic description.

Length: [not measured, ~2.5mm], width: [not measured, ~1.5mm]; body broadly elongate oval, strongly depressed, glabrous; head, pronotum and pygidia dully metallic greenish-blue, elytra slightly more blue in color, venter rufo-brunneus; frons rather flat, interocular margins weakly convergent dorsad, disk with numerous coarse punctures at middle, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, curved across middle, interrupted for about half epistomal width; epistoma weakly emarginate apically; labrum about 3×wider than long, apex weakly arcuate; mandibles short; pronotal sides weakly, more or less evenly, curved to anterior corners, disk depressed along anterior fourth of lateral margin, marginal stria complete around lateral and anterior margins, submarginal stria absent, disk with coarse punctures at extreme sides separated by about twice their diameters; elytra with outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria present in about basal one-fifth and for short distance at middle, dorsal striae 1-4 complete, 5th stria present in apical half, sutural stria present as very short apical fragment, elytral disk with scattered secondary punctures in apical fourth; prosternal keel broad, weakly convex, base broadly, weakly produced, carinal striae complete, separate, diverging slightly to front; prosternal lobe about two-thirds keel length, apical margin bluntly rounded, marginal stria obsolete at sides; mesoventrite broadly, shallowly emarginate, marginal stria interrupted for width of emargination; mesometaventral stria arched strongly forward, weakly crenulate, narrowly detached at sides, inner lateral metaventral stria originating close to mesocoxa, extending obliquely posterolaterad toward posterior corner of metepisternum, abbreviated apically, outer lateral metaventral stria briefly indicated at base, metaventral and 1st abdominal disks impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single, complete lateral stria; protibia with four marginal denticles, the basalmost weak, outer margin serrulate between; mesotibia with single fine marginal spine; outer metatibial margin smooth; pygidia short and wide, propygidium with complete transverse basal stria, secondary punctures rather deep, separated by about their diameters or slightly more; pygidium with fine ground punctation and small, sparse secondary punctures more or less uniformly interspersed. Male genitalia: not known.

Remarks.

This species is very closely related to several that follow (Baconia foliosoma, Baconia sapphirina, Baconia furtiva, Baconia pernix, and Baconia applanatis). All are similar in size (~2.5mm), broad, roughly parallel-sided, strongly depressed, and have a basal transverse stria on the propygidium. Most of them are represented by very little material in collections. For example Baconia festiva is known only from the type specimen, which does not exactly match anything else studied. It is possible that discovery of more specimens would justify the synonymization of a few of these. However, at present they are distinguishable and mostly allopatric. Baconia festiva can be distinguished from the others by the combination of a complete 4th dorsal stria, 5th stria in the apical half of the elytra (Fig. 5C), rather coarse, sparse lateral pronotal punctation, and the generally arcuate mesometaventral stria (Fig. 5D).

Type locality.

BRAZIL: Santa Catarina: Nova Teutonia [27.18°S, 52.38°W].

Type material.

Holotype male: “Brasilien, Nova Teutonia, 27°11'B, 52°23'L Fritz Plaumann, I:2:1949, 3-500 m” / “Baconia sp. det.R.Wenzel 19” / “FMNH-INS 0000 069 302” (FMNH).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 2.0mm, width: 1.7mm; body elongate oval, strongly depressed, glabrous; head, pronotum and pygidia dully metallic blue, elytra more distinctly colored, venter rufo-brunneus; frons rather flat, weakly depressed at middle, interocular margins weakly convergent dorsad, disk rather coarsely punctate, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, only faintly indicated, fragmented across middle, supraorbital stria absent; epistoma flat, weakly emarginate apically; labrum about 4×wider than long, apex weakly bisinuate, surface with distinct reticulate microsculpture; mandibles short, only very bluntly dentate; pronotal sides weakly convergent in basal half, arcuate to apex, marginal stria complete around lateral and anterior margins, submarginal stria absent; pronotal disk depressed along anterior fourth of lateral margin, with only fine ground punctation over median two-thirds, with small secondary punctures interspersed at sides; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria impressed, fragmented over most of length, dorsal striae 1-4 complete, 5th stria present in apical two-thirds, sutural stria absent though with few punctures subserially arranged in apical half, elytral disk with scattered secondary punctures in apical fourth; prosternal keel broad, weakly convex, base broadly, weakly produced, carinal striae complete, separate, diverging slightly to front, slightly sinuate; prosternal lobe about two-thirds keel length, apical margin bluntly rounded, marginal stria obsolete at sides; mesoventrite broadly, shallowly emarginate, marginal stria interrupted for width of emargination; mesometaventral stria arched strongly forward, weakly crenulate, detached at sides, inner lateral metaventral stria originating close to mesocoxa, extending obliquely posterolaterad toward posterior corner of metepisternum, abbreviated apically, outer lateral metaventral stria absent, metaventral and 1st abdominal disks impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single, complete lateral stria; protibia with four marginal denticles, the basalmost weak, outer margin serrulate between; mesotibia with single marginal spine; outer metatibial margin smooth; pygidia short and wide, propygidium with complete transverse basal stria, small secondary punctures more or less uniformly separated by slightly more than their diameters; propygidial gland openings present behind transverse stria, about one-fourth from each side; pygidium with fine ground punctation and small, sparse secondary punctures more or less uniformly scattered. Male genitalia (Figs 4G–L): T8 about as long as broad, sides weakly divergent apically, basal emargination abrupt, narrow, subacute, apical emargination narrow, equilateral, with ventrolateral apodemes narrow, separated by about one-half maximum T8 width, extending about midway distad beneath, obsolete in apical half; S8 divided, inner margins evenly divergent to broad, glabrous apices, outer margins subparallel to weakly convergent, apical guides only weakly developed in apical half; T9 with basal apodemes thin, just over half total length, T9 apices narrow, subacute, weakly opposed, glabrous, ventrolateral apodemes very weak, not projecting beneath; S9 weakly widened at base, head only weakly widened, with no development of apicolateral points, desclerotized along midline; tegmen with sides weakly narrowed to apex, undulating slightly, apex bluntly rounded, tegmen more or less straight in lateral aspect; median lobe about two-thirds tegmen length; basal piece about one-fifth tegmen length.

Remarks.

Baconia foliosoma can be distinguished from others in this complex by its dense frontal punctation (Fig. 5G), absence of sutural stria (Fig. 5E), subquadrate mesometaventral stria (Fig. 5F), and rather small propygidial punctures. It is most similar to Baconia sapphirina, which always has at least a small, distinct fragment of the sutural stria present. It is known only from the type.

Etymology.

This species’ name refers to its flattened, leaf-like body.

Type locality.

COSTA RICA: Puntarenas: Osa Peninsula [8.7°N, 83.6°W].

Type material.

Holotype male: “Rancho Quemado, 200 m, Península de Osa, Prov. Punt., COSTA RICA. 12 a 24 may 1993. A. Gutiérrez. L-S 292500, 511000” / “INBIO CRI001189233” (INBIO). Paratypes (3): FRENCH GUIANA: 1: Montagne des Chevaux, 4°43'N, 52°24'W, FIT, 13.vi.2009, SEAG [Société entomologique Antilles-Guyane] (MNHN), 1: Belvèdére de Saül, 3°1'22"N, 53°12'34"W, FIT, 17.i.2011, SEAG (CHND), 1: 4.i.2011, FIT, SEAG (MSCC).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 1.7–1.9mm, width: 1.5–1.6mm; body subquadrate, strongly depressed, glabrous; head and pronotum metallic greenish-blue, very slightly contrasting with blue elytra and pygidia, venter rufo-brunneus; frons wide, weakly depressed at middle, interocular margins convergent dorsad, ground punctation fine, with coarser punctures at middle and toward vertex, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, variably fragmented across middle, never complete, supraorbital stria absent; antennal scape short, club elongate, ovoid; epistoma flat, weakly emarginate apically; labrum about 4×wider than long, apex weakly bisinuate; mandibles short, only very bluntly dentate; pronotal sides subparallel in basal half, arcuate to apex, marginal stria complete around lateral and anterior margins, submarginal stria absent; pronotal disk with only fine ground punctation over median two-thirds, with small secondary punctures interspersed at sides; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria impressed at base and often with isolated median fragment, dorsal striae 1-4 complete, 5th stria present in apical two-thirds, sutural stria very short, present in less than apical half, elytral disk with scattered secondary punctures along apical margin; prosternal keel broad, very weakly convex, base broadly produced, carinal striae complete, separate, subparallel, with bases just curved mediad; prosternal lobe about two-thirds keel length, apical margin bluntly rounded, marginal stria slightly fragmented at sides; mesoventrite broadly emarginate, marginal stria interrupted for width of emargination; mesometaventral stria arched forward, slightly sinuate, crenulate, narrowly detached at sides, inner lateral metaventral stria originating close to mesocoxa, extending obliquely posterolaterad toward posterior corner of metepisternum, outer lateral metaventral stria absent, metaventral and 1st abdominal disks impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single, complete lateral stria; protibia with four marginal denticles, the basal-most weak, outer margin serrulate between; mesotibia with single marginal spine; outer metatibial margin smooth; pygidia short and wide, propygidium with complete transverse basal stria, with moderately large, ocellate punctures more or less uniformly separated by slightly less than their diameters; propygidial gland openings present behind transverse stria, about one-fourth from each side; pygidium with rather dense ground punctation in apical half, small secondary punctures more conspicuous in basal half. Male genitalia (Fig. 7): T8 about as long as broad, sides straight to near apex, basal emargination deep, broad, subangulate, apical emargination shallow, narrowly rounded, ventrolateral apodemes weakly sclerotized, basal, opposing, separated by about tegmen width; S8 short, divided, inner edges approximate nearly to apex, outer margins divergent, apical guides widening to broadly rounded apices, without conspicuous setae; T9 with basal apodemes thin, about one-third total length, T9 apices narrowly rounded, glabrous, ventrolateral apodemes poorly developed; T10 entire; stem of S9 very weakly widened to rounded base, widening from midpoint toward apex, apices curving and acuminate, sclerotized along lateral margins, not apically divided; tegmen narrow in basal half, with sides subparallel, widening to spoon-shaped apex, tegmen weakly dorsoventrally flattened, curved ventrad in apical fourth; median lobe simple, about one-third tegmen length; basal piece about one-third tegmen length, apical emarginations deep.

Figure 6.

Baconia loricata group. A Dorsal habitus of Baconia sapphirina B Ventral habitus of Baconia sapphirina Dorsal habitus of Baconia furtiva D Dorsal habitus of Baconia pernix E Dorsal habitus of Baconia applanatis.

Figure 7.

Male genitalia of Baconia sapphirina. A T8 B S8 C T9 & T10 D S9 E Aedeagus, dorsal view F Aedeagus, lateral view.

Remarks.

Among the species related to Baconia festiva, this one is most easily recognized by its very shallow, sparse lateral pronotal punctation (Fig. 6A). In addition its inner subhumeral stria is more nearly complete than that of Baconia festiva, and its prosternal carinal striae tend to converge (Fig. 6B) rather than diverging slightly to the front.

Etymology.

This species is named for its brilliant, sapphire-like coloration.

Type locality.

FRENCH GUIANA: Montagne des Chevaux [4.72°N, 52.40°W].

Type material.

Holotype male: “GUYANE FRANÇAISE:Montagne des Chevaux 4°43'N, 52°24'W Piège d’interception 1 Aou 2009. SEAG leg.” / “Caterino/Tishechkin Exosternini Voucher EXO-00500” (MNHN). Paratypes (28): FRENCH GUIANA: 1:Montagne des Chevaux, 4°43'N, 52°24'W, 1.viii.2009, FIT, SEAG, 2:11.vii.2009, 4:13.vi.2009, 1:16.v.2009, 2:19.vii.2009, 1:2.v.2009, 3:27.vi.2009, 2:27.vii.2009, FIT, SEAG; 5:6.vi.2009, 4:9.viii.2009, 1: 15.iii.2009; 1: Belvèdére de Saül, 3°1'22"N, 53°12'34"W, 17.i.2011, 1: 20.xii.2010 (all FIT, SEAG leg.; CHND, MSCC, AKTC, FMNH).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 1.9–2.2mm, width: 1.5–1.8mm; body broadly elongate oval, strongly depressed, glabrous; head and pronotum metallic greenish-blue, contrasting slightly with metallic blue elytra and pygidia, venter piceous; frons convex over antennal bases, depressed along midline, ground punctation inconspicuous, with few coarse punctures on epistoma, middle of frontal disk, and toward vertex, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, curving inward at front, usually interrupted over antennal bases and at middle, supraorbital stria absent; antennal scape short, club asymmetrically oblong; epistoma weakly emarginate apically; labrum about 3×wider than long, weakly emarginate apically; both mandibles with acute basal tooth; pronotal sides increasingly arcuate to apex, marginal stria complete along lateral and anterior margins, lateral submarginal stria absent, pronotal disk narrowly depressed very close to anterior corners, ground punctation of pronotal disk fine, inconspicuous at middle, slightly coarser secondary punctures present in lateral thirds; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria present in basal two-thirds, may be interrupted, dorsal striae 1-3 complete, 3rd stria may be abbreviated apically, 4th, 5th and sutural striae only faintly indicated, generally only by serial punctures in apical third, elytral disk with few coarse punctures across apical fourth; prosternum broad, weakly convex, keel truncate to weakly sinuate at base, carinal striae complete, bent mediad at base, rarely united, subparallel to divergent anterad; prosternal lobe about two-thirds keel length, apical margin broadly rounded, marginal stria obsolete at sides; mesoventrite broadly, shallowly emarginate at middle, marginal stria complete; mesometaventral stria absent, inner lateral metaventral stria extending from end of marginal mesoventral stria posterolaterad toward middle of metacoxa, sinuate apically, outer lateral metaventral stria present, parallel to basal two-thirds of inner stria, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with complete inner lateral stria and posterior fragments of outer stria, middle portion of disk lacking coarse punctures; protibia 4-5 dentate, the basal denticles weak, outer margin serrulate between teeth; mesotibia with single marginal spine, subtended by submarginal carina diminishing to base; outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium with complete transverse basal stria, discal punctures small, ocellate, separated by 1–2× their diameters basally; propygidial gland openings evident behind ends of transverse basal stria, about one-fourth from each lateral margin; pygidium with ground punctation moderately dense, secondary punctation increasingly evident toward base. Male genitalia (Figs 8A–B, G): T8 slightly longer than broad, sides subparallel to weakly convergent apically, basal emargination broad, shallow, weakly acute at middle, basal rim slightly explanate, apical emargination broad, deep, with ventrolateral apodemes separated by about one-half maximum T8 width, extending about one-third distad beneath, tapering to near apex; S8 divided, inner margins approximate at base, weakly divergent to near apex, markedly desclerotized in apical third, bearing conspicuous fringe of setae near apex, outer margins weakly convergent, apical guides narrow but evenly developed along most of sides, narrowly rounded apically; T9 with basal apodemes thin, about half total length, T9 apices narrow, acute, weakly opposed, glabrous, ventrolateral apodemes very weakly projecting beneath; S9 weakly widened at base, head only slightly widened, with apicolateral points curved, horn-like, desclerotized along midline, with narrow apicomedial division; tegmen with sides subparallel to near apex, apical one-fourth weakly bulbous, broadly rounded at apex, dorsobasal edge projecting, tegmen more or less straight in lateral aspect; median lobe about two-thirds tegmen length; basal piece about one-fourth tegmen length.

Figure 8.

Male genitalia of Baconia loricata group. A T8 of Baconia furtiva B S8 of Baconia furtiva C T8 of Baconia pernix D S8 of Baconia pernix E T9 & T10 of Baconia pernix F S9 of Baconia pernix G Aedeagus, dorsal view of Baconia furtiva Aedeagus, dorsal view of Baconia pernix I Aedeagus, lateral view of Baconia pernix.

Remarks.

Among the species closely related to Baconia festiva, this species can be easily recognized by the presence of only apical fragments of the 4th, 5th, and sutural elytral striae (Fig. 6C).

Etymology.

The name of this species means ‘stealthy’ or ‘furtive’, referring to its presumed habit of stalking subcortical prey.

Type locality.

PANAMA: Canal Zone: Paraiso [9.03°N, 79.62°W]

Type material.

Holotype male: “Paraiso CZ Pan Feb 9.11 EASchwarz” / “ex. Colln. USNM” / “FMNH-INS 0000 069 303” (FMNH). Paratype (1): PANAMA: Colón: 2 km S Sabanitas, 9°19'19"N, 79°47'54"W, 120 m, 15–19.vii.1999, A. Gillogly & J.B. Woolley (TAMU).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 1.8–2.0mm, width: 1.5–1.7mm; body broadly elongate, strongly depressed, glabrous; head and pronotum metallic greenish-blue, contrasting slightly with metallic blue elytra and pygidia, venter rufo-brunneus; frons weakly convex over antennal bases, shallowly depressed along midline, ground punctation fine, few coarse punctures at middle of frontal disk and toward vertex, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, curving inward at front, interrupted over antennal bases and at middle, supraorbital stria absent; antennal scape short, club oblong; epistoma weakly emarginate apically; labrum about 3×wider than long, weakly bisinuate apically; both mandibles with small basal tooth; pronotal sides subparallel basally, increasingly arcuate to apex, marginal stria complete along lateral and anterior margins, lateral submarginal stria absent, pronotal disk narrowly depressed in anterior corners, ground punctation of pronotal disk fine, inconspicuous at middle, slightly coarser secondary punctures present in lateral fourths; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria present at base, dorsal striae 1-3 complete, 4th stria present in apical fourth, 5th stria longer, present in most of apical half, sutural stria shorter, may be absent, elytral disk with few coarse punctures in apical fifth; prosternum broad, weakly convex, keel outwardly arcuate at base, carinal striae well separated, complete, subparallel anterad; prosternal lobe about two-thirds keel length, apical margin broadly rounded, marginal stria obsolete at sides; mesoventrite broadly, shallowly emarginate at middle, marginal stria broadly interrupted; mesometaventral stria anteriorly arcuate, sinuate at middle, crenulate, narrowly detached at sides, inner lateral metaventral stria extending from inner corner of mesocoxa posterolaterad toward outer third of metacoxa, slightly abbreviated apically, outer lateral metaventral stria absent, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single, complete lateral stria, middle portion of disk lacking coarse punctures; protibia narrow, 4-dentate, outer margin serrulate between teeth; mesotibia with single marginal spine, outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium with complete transverse basal stria, discal punctures small, ocellate, separated by 1–2× their diameters; propygidial gland openings inconspicuous; pygidium with ground punctation moderately dense, secondary punctation increasingly evident toward base. Male genitalia (Figs 8C–F, H–I): T8 slightly longer than broad, sides subparallel, basal emargination broad, deep, apical emargination small, narrow, with ventrolateral apodemes short, separated by about two-thirds maximum T8 width, extending about midway distad beneath, obsolete in apical half; S8 divided, inner margins subparallel in basal one-third, evenly divergent to apices, outer margins weakly divergent, apical guides well developed in apical half, broadly rounded apically; T9 with basal apodemes thin, about half total length, T9 apices narrow, acute, weakly opposed, glabrous, ventrolateral apodemes very weakly projecting beneath; S9 weakly widened at base, head only slightly widened, with apicolateral points curved, horn-like, desclerotized along midline, with narrow apicomedial division; tegmen with sides weakly widened to apex, undulating slightly, apex broadly rounded, dorsobasal edge weakly arcuate, tegmen more or less straight in lateral aspect; median lobe about two-thirds tegmen length; basal piece about one-fourth tegmen length.

Remarks.

This species can be distinguished from the close relatives above by the short but distinctly impressed 4th and 5th elytral striae (Fig. 6D), with the 5th extending further anterad than the 4th. It is very similar to Baconia furtiva, above, but in that species these striae are little more than apical series of punctures. The lateral pronotal punctures of Baconia pernix are also shallower and sparser.

Etymology.

This species name means ‘active’.

Type locality.

COSTA RICA: Guanacaste: Sta. Rosa National Park [10.3°N, 85.62°W].

Type material.

Holotype female: “Est. Sta. Rosa, 300m, P.N. Sta. Rosa, Prov. Guanacaste, Costa Rica, 3 a 12 jun 1992, III curso Parataxon. L-N 313000, 359800” / “INBIO CRI000427988” (INBIO). Paratype female (1): COSTA RICA: Guanacaste: 4 km SSW Guayabo, 1600 ft, 4.vii.1993, M.S. Caterino (MSCC).

Other material.

1: FRENCH GUIANA: Montagne des Chevaux, 4°43'N, 52°24'W, FIT, SEAG (CHND).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 2.1–2.2mm, width: 1.7–1.8mm; body broadly subquadrate, strongly depressed, glabrous; head and pronotum metallic greenish-blue, elytra and pygidia metallic blue, contrasting slightly with pronotum dorsally, venter rufo-brunneus; frons wide, very weakly depressed at middle, interocular margins convergent dorsad, ground punctation fine, with few coarser punctures at middle and toward vertex, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, narrowly interrupted over antennal bases and broadly interrupted across middle, median fragments may be very weak or absent, supraorbital stria absent; antennal scape short, apex obliquely truncate, club asymmetrically oblong; epistoma truncate apically; labrum about 3×wider than long, apex weakly bisinuate; mandibles short, each with acute basal tooth; pronotal sides almost evenly arcuate to apex, lateral marginal stria complete around lateral and anterior margins, submarginal stria absent, pronotal disk with only fine ground punctation over median three-fourths of disk, with small secondary punctures interspersed only at sides; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria may be impressed over much of its length, but generally fine, fragmented, rarely absent, dorsal striae 1-2 more or less complete, 2nd may be slightly abbreviated basally, 3rd stria very fine, scratchlike, present in basal half only, 4th, 5th and sutural striae absent, elytral disk with scattered secondary punctures in apical one-third; prosternal keel broad, flat, very weakly emarginate at base, carinal striae complete, separate, sinuate between coxae, subparallel anterad; prosternal lobe about one-half keel length, apical margin rounded, marginal stria present at middle, fragmented to sides; mesoventrite weakly produced at middle, marginal stria complete; mesometaventral stria absent, inner lateral metaventral stria originating close to mesocoxa, curving posterolaterad toward outer third of metacoxa, outer lateral metaventral stria absent, metaventral and 1st abdominal disks impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with complete inner lateral stria and posterior fragment of outer stria; protibia with three marginal denticles, plus a very small basal spine, outer margin serrulate between spines; mesotibia with single marginal spine, a subcarinate ridge extending to it from base; outer metatibial margin smooth; pygidia short and wide, propygidium with complete transverse basal stria, coarse secondary punctures irregularly separated by their diameters or less; propygidial gland openings inconspicuous; pygidium with sparse ground punctation and small secondary punctures densely interspersed. Male: not known.

Map 2.

Baconia loricata group records.

Remarks.

This strongly depressed species is similar in size to the preceding several species, but may be easily distinguished by the complete absence of the 4th, 5th, and sutural elytral striae (Fig. 6E). The 3rd stria is also strongly abbreviated posteriorly, represented by only a fine stria in the basal half.

Etymology.

This species’ name refers to its strongly flattened body form.

Type locality.

FRENCH GUIANA: Belvèdére de Saül [3.01°N, 53.21°W].

Type material.

Holotype female: “GUYANE FRANÇAISE: Belvèdére de Saül, point de vue. 3°1'22"N, 53°12'34"W. Piège vitre 20.xii.2010. SEAG leg.” / “Caterino/Tishechkin Exosternini Voucher EXO-01292” (MNHN).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 2.6mm, width: 2.5mm; body broadly subquadrate, strongly depressed, glabrous; dorsum uniformly metallic blue, venter piceous; frons depressed at middle, interocular margins weakly convergent dorsad, coarsely punctate throughout, more densely toward vertex, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, absent across front, supraorbital stria absent; antennal scape short, club distinctly elongate, sides subparallel; epistoma transversely elevated along apical margin; labrum about 3×wider than long, apically emarginate; both mandibles with basal tooth, that on right mandible rather weak; pronotal sides almost evenly arcuate to apex, lateral marginal stria complete around lateral and anterior margins, close to margin and non-crenulate, submarginal stria absent; pronotal disk rather linearly depressed along anterior third of lateral margin, with only fine ground punctation over median three-fourths of disk, with small, shallowly impressed secondary punctures interspersed at sides; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner nearly complete, only slightly abbreviated apically, dorsal stria 1 complete, 2nd stria obsolete in basal third, 3rd stria very fine, scratchlike, present in basal half only, 4th, 5th and sutural striae absent, elytral disk with very small secondary punctures just along apical margin; prosternal keel broad, flat, base more or less truncate, carinal striae complete, separate, weakly convergent anterad; prosternal lobe about two-thirds keel length, apical margin narrowly rounded, marginal stria present obsolete at sides; mesoventrite broadly and weakly emarginate, marginal stria interrupted for width of prosternal keel; mesometaventral stria absent, though suture is evident, arched anterad, inner lateral metaventral stria originating close to mesocoxa, curving posterolaterad toward outer corner of metacoxa, recurved mediad at apex, outer lateral metaventral stria present, close and parallel to inner stria for about two-thirds its length, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with complete inner lateral stria and posterior fragment of outer stria, disk impunctate between; protibia narrow, elongate, with three well developed marginal teeth, outer margin very finely serrulate between; mesotibia with single, inconspicuous submarginal spine; outer metatibial margin smooth; pygidia short and wide, propygidium without transverse basal stria, small secondary punctures concentrated along base and at sides; propygidial gland openings very small, located about one-third from anterior margin, and one-fifth from lateral corner; pygidium with sparse ground punctation and small secondary punctures evenly, sparsely interspersed. Male: not known.

Figure 9.

Baconia loricata group. A Dorsal habitus of Baconia disciformis B Lateral habitus of Baconia disciformis Frons of Baconia disciformis D Pygidia of Baconia disciformis E Frons of Baconia nebulosa F Dorsal habitus of Baconia nebulosa G Dorsal habitus of Baconia brunnea.

Remarks.

This species is second in size only to Baconia loricata, but is still significantly smaller than that species. It may be further distinguished by its lack of transverse propygidial stria, densely punctate frons, and elongate legs, particularly the protibia (Figs 9A–D).

Etymology.

This species’ name refers to its large, flattened disc-like body.

Type locality.

ECUADOR: Orellana: Tiputini Biodiversity Station [0.635°S, 76.150°W].

Type material.

Holotype male: “ECUADOR: Depto. Orellana, Tiputini Biodiversity Station, 0°37'55"S, 76°08'39"W, 220-250m, 30 June 1998, T.L.Erwin et al. collectors” / “fogging, bare green leaves, some with covering of lichenous or bryophytic plants in terra firme forest, Lot 1821 Trans. 3 Sta. 2” / “Caterino/Tishechkin Exosternini Voucher EXO-00436” (USNM).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 1.5mm, width: 1.2mm; body broadly subquadrate, moderately strongly depressed, glabrous; head, pronotum and elytra metallic blue, venter and pygidia rufo-brunneus; frons very wide, short, very weakly depressed across middle, interocular margins convergent dorsad, frontal disk with numerous coarser punctures at middle, frontal and supraorbital striae absent; antennal scape short, apex obliquely truncate, club asymmetrically oblong; epistoma truncate apically; labrum very short, about 4×wider than long, apex outwardly arcuate; mandibles extremely short, mostly concealed in repose, dentation not observed in type; pronotal sides subparallel in basal third, evenly arcuate to apices, lateral marginal stria complete around lateral and anterior margins, submarginal stria absent, pronotal disk with only fine ground punctation over median third of disk, with small secondary punctures interspersed at sides; elytra with two complete epipleural striae and fragments of a third, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria present in basal fourth, dorsal striae 1-4 complete, 5th stria present in apical three-fourths, sutural stria absent, elytral disk with scattered secondary punctures in apical fifth; prosternal keel very broad, weakly convex, slightly outwardly produced at base, carinal striae complete, diverging from base to apex; prosternal lobe about one-half keel length, apical margin bluntly rounded, marginal stria present at middle, fragmented to sides; mesoventrite shallowly and broadly emarginate, marginal stria broadly interrupted; mesometaventral stria isolated at middle, arched strongly forward; inner lateral metaventral stria originating close to mesocoxa, extending posterolaterad toward outer corner of metacoxa, abbreviated apically, outer lateral metaventral stria absent; metaventral and 1st abdominal disks impunctate at middle, median metaventral suture rather deeply impressed; abdominal ventrite 1 with complete inner lateral stria and posterior fragment of outer stria; protibia with three weak marginal denticles, outer margin serrulate between spines; mesotibia with single marginal spine; outer metatibial margin smooth; pygidia short and wide, propygidium with complete transverse basal stria, coarse secondary punctures sparse at middle, slightly denser laterad; propygidial gland openings inconspicuous; pygidium with rather dense ground punctation in apical half, small coarse puncture more evident in basal half. Male genitalia (Figs 10A–D, I–J): T8 about as long as broad, sides weakly convergent to apex, basal emargination evenly arcuate, apical emargination deep, acute, ventrolateral apodemes well sclerotized, extending just beyond midline beneath, separated by about one-half tegmen width; S8 short, divided, inner edges sinuate, approximate beyond midpoint, outer margins weakly divergent, apical guides widening to rounded apices, without conspicuous setae; T9 with basal apodemes long, thin, about two-thirds total length, T9 apices very narrowly rounded, glabrous, ventrolateral apodemes very poorly developed; T10 entire; S9 widened to rounded base, head abruptly widened, sides subquadrate, sclerotized along lateral margins, not apically divided; tegmen narrowest near base, weakly constricted at middle, apices narrow, subacute, tegmen in lateral aspect rather thick throughout, only very weakly curved dorsoventrally; median lobe simple, about one-fourth tegmen length; basal piece about one-fifth tegmen length.

Figure 10.

Male genitalia of Baconia loricata group. A T8 of Baconia nebulosa B S8 of Baconia nebulosa C T9 & T10 of Baconia nebulosa D S9 of Baconia nebulosa E T8 of Baconia brunnea F S8 of Baconia brunnea G T9 & T10 of Baconia brunnea S9 of Baconia brunnea I Aedeagus, dorsal view of Baconia nebulosa J Aedeagus, dorsal view of Baconia nebulosa Aedeagus, dorsal view of Baconia brunnea L Aedeagus, lateral view of Baconia brunnea.

Remarks.

Among the strongly depressed, metallic species lacking a sutural stria, Baconia nebulosa can be distinguished by its small size, and by its short, wide head and peculiar, mostly concealed mandibles (Fig. 9E).

Etymology.

The name of this species means ‘foggy’, referring mainly to the fact that it was collected by fogging the canopy of lowland forest.

Type locality.

FRENCH GUIANA: Montagne des Chevaux [4.72°N, 52.40°W].

Type material.

Holotype male: GUYANE FR., Montagne des Chevaux, 4°43'N, 52°24'W Piège d’interception 16 May 2009. SEAG leg.” / “Caterino/Tishechkin Exosternini Voucher EXO-00441” (MNHN). Paratypes (8): 1: FRENCH GUIANA: Montagne des Chevaux, 4°43'N, 52°24'W, Piège d’interception, 26.xii.2008 (CHND), 1: 4.i.2009 (MSCC), 1: 23.ii.2009 (AKTC), 1: 25.iv.2009 (FMNH); 1:Rés. des Nouragues, Régina, 4°2.27'N, 52°40.35'W, 28.i.2010, FIT, SEAG (CHND); 1: Belvèdére de Saül, 3°1'22"N, 53°12'34"W, 20.xii.2010, SEAG (CHND), 1: 21.iv.2011, SEAG (FMNH); 1:Route Nac. 1., P.k. 2, 4°53.5'N, 52°21'W, 20.ix.2008, FIT, J. Touroult (MNHN).

Other material.

BOLIVIA, 1: Santa Cruz:Amboro National Park, Los Volcanes, 18°06'S, 63°36'W, 1000 m, 20.xi–12.xii.2004, FIT, H. Mendel & M. Barclay (BMNH). BRAZIL: 1: Mato Grosso do Sul: cerradão fragment nr. Selviria, 20°20'10"S, 51°24'36"W, 1.5 m, 11.xii.2010, FIT, C. Flechtmann, 1: 1.5 m, 21.xii.2010, FIT, C. Flechtmann, 1: 28.i.2011, FIT, ground level trail, C. Flechtmann, 1: 30.x.2010, FIT, ground level trail, C. Flechtmann (MEFEIS, FMNH). ECUADOR:1: Orellana: Est. Biodiv. Tiputini, 0.6376°N, 76.1499°W, 2–9.vi.2011, under bark, M. Caterino & A. Tishechkin, DNA Extract MSC-2128, EXO-00630 (MSCC). PANAMA:1: Colón: 14 km N jct. Escobal & Pina Rds., 2–11.vi.1996, FIT, J. Ashe & R. Brooks (SEMC); 1: Panamá: Barro Colorado Island, 9°11'N, 79°51'W, 23–27.vii.2000, FIT, S. Chatzimanolis (SEMC).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 1.9–2.3mm, width: 1.–1.9mm; body broadly subquadrate, strongly depressed, glabrous; color rufo-brunneus to rufo-piceous; frons broad, weakly depressed along midline, interocular margins convergent dorsad, ground punctation fine, with few coarser punctures at middle and toward vertex, frontal and supraorbital striae absent; antennal scape short, apex obliquely truncate, club asymmetrically oblong; epistoma truncate apically; labrum about 3×wider than long, apex weakly bisinuate; both mandibles with acute basal tooth; pronotum weakly convergent in basal two-thirds, rounded to apex, lateral marginal stria complete around lateral and anterior margins, submarginal stria absent, pronotal disk with only fine ground punctation over median three-fourths of disk, with small secondary punctures interspersed only at sides; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria finely impressed at base, rarely also at middle, dorsal striae 1–2 more or less complete, 2nd may be slightly abbreviated basally, 3rd stria very fine, scratchlike, present in basal half only, 4th, 5th and sutural striae absent, elytral disk with scattered secondary punctures in apical one-third; prosternal keel moderately broad, weakly convex, weakly emarginate at base, carinal striae complete, separate, subparallel; prosternal lobe about two-thirds keel length, apical margin rounded, with marginal stria present at middle; mesoventrite weakly produced at middle, marginal stria interrupted for width of prosternal keel; mesometaventral stria strongly arched forward, slightly detached at sides from lateral metaventral stria, which extends sinuately and obliquely toward outer third of metacoxa, metaventral and 1st abdominal disks impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with complete inner lateral stria, and posterior fragment of outer; protibia 4-dentate, outer margin serrulate between marginal spines; mesofemur with transverse apical series of punctures, subcontinuous with posterior marginal stria; mesotibia with single marginal spine, a subcarinate series of setigerous punctures extending from tibial base to base of marginal spine; outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium lacking basal stria, coarse secondary punctures rather dense along base and sides, sparser at middle, propygidial gland openings evident, located about midway behind anterior margin, about one-fourth width from each lateral margin; pygidium with sparse ground punctation and small secondary punctures evenly but sparsely interspersed. Male genitalia (Figs 10E-H, K-L): T8 broad, sides rounded to apex, basal rim slightly widened, basal emargination shallow, subangulate, apical emargination deep, narrow, ventrolateral apodemes weakly sclerotized, basal, opposing, separated by about one-half tegmen width; S8 elongate, divided, approximate at base, inner margins strongly and evenly divergent toward apex, outer margins divergent, apical guides widest near middle, narrowing to rounded apices, without conspicuous setae; T9 with basal apodemes long, thin, about one-half total length, T9 apices very narrowly rounded, glabrous, ventrolateral apodemes very poorly developed; T10 entire; S9 weakly widened to rounded base, head abruptly widened, sides obliquely subquadrate, deeply divided apically, nearly full length of sclerite; tegmen narrowest near base, widening weakly to near apex, tegmen in lateral aspect rather thick throughout, weakly curved ventrad just at apex; median lobe simple, about one-third tegmen length; basal piece about one-fifth tegmen length, apical emarginations deep.

Remarks.

As a strongly depressed, non-metallic species lacking 4th, 5th and sutural elytral striae (Fig. 9G), this species could only be confused with Baconia patula. The latter is, however, even more strongly flattened, and the body widens toward the front, whereas in Baconia brunnea, the body is clearly widest at the humeri. Baconia brunnea also lacks a basal propygidial stria. Due to some variation in elytral striation we restrict the type series to those specimens from French Guiana.

Etymology.

The name of this species refers to its non-metallic coloration.

Baconia godmani group

The Baconia godmani group predominantly comprises species that are metallic-colored and only moderately depressed. Most of the species also have the frons weakly depressed and punctate medially (Fig. 11F), have the prosternal keel at least weakly emarginate basally (Fig. 11D), the labrum bisinuate with a slight median projection (Fig. 11F), and have a conspicuous setal fringe along the apical margin of a very elongate male 8th sternite (Fig. 12B). A number of species here are represented by female specimens only, and their placement should be considered tentative, pending confirmation of male characters: Baconia splendida, Baconia prasina, Baconia opulenta, Baconia choaspites, and Baconia illustris. Baconia riehli is placed here on the basis of external characters, although its male does not have the setal fringe on the 8th sternite. This species may bridge this group and the preceding, representing an early diverging lineage. In general, species in this group are very similar externally, and can only be diagnosed by combinations of relatively subtle external characteristics with male genitalia.

Baconia godmani (Lewis, 1888)

http://species-id.net/wiki/Baconia_godmani

Figs 11A–B, 12A–D, I–J, Map 3
Phelister godmani Lewis, 1888: 191; Baconia godmani: Mazur 1984: 280
Type locality.

PANAMA: Chiriqui: Bugaba [8.49°N, 82.62°W].

Type material.

Holotype, sex undetermined(BMNH): “Bugaba, 800–1500 ft. Champion” / “B.C.A., Col., II, (1). Phelister” / “Phelister godmani Lewis Type” / “Sp. figured.”.

Other material.

GUATEMALA: 1: Zacapa: Santa Clara, in interior valley of Sierra de las Minas (N. of Cabanas), 5500 ft, 9.viii.1948, under bark, R. Mitchell (FMNH). PANAMA:2: Colón: P. N. San Lorenzo, STRI Crane Site, 9°17'N, 79°58'W, 28 m, 25.iv–5.v.2004, FIT, M. Gonzales (AKTC, GBFM). VENEZUELA: 1:Moritz (ZMHB).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 1.9–2.2mm, width: 1.6–1.8mm; body elongate oval, depressed, glabrous; head and pronotum metallic greenish to violet-blue, contrasting with metallic blue elytra, pygidia more subtly metallic blue, venter rufopiceous; frons elevated over antennal bases, depressed at middle, ground punctation fine, with few coarse punctures at middle and near vertex, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, curving inward at front, interrupted at middle, supraorbital stria more or less complete; antennal scape short, club broadly rounded; epistoma truncate apically; labrum about 4×wider than long, weakly bisinuate along apical margin; both mandibles with acute basal tooth; pronotum with sides weakly arcuate to apex, marginal stria complete along lateral and anterior margins, lateral submarginal stria absent, but generally represented by distinct series of submarginal punctures along side, ground punctation of pronotal disk rather conspicuous, coarse secondary punctures present in lateral thirds; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria largely complete, but usually interrupted in basal half, dorsal striae 1–4 complete, 5th stria complete or abbreviated from base with basal puncture, sutural stria present in about apical half, elytral disk with few coarse punctures in apical fourth; prosternum moderately broad, weakly convex, keel weakly emarginate at base, carinal striae complete, subparallel to divergent anterad, separate or united along basal margin; prosternal lobe about one-half keel length, apical margin broadly rounded, marginal stria obsolete at sides; mesoventrite weakly produced at middle, marginal stria complete; mesometaventral stria arched forward at middle, crenulate, detached at sides, inner lateral metaventral stria extending from end of marginal mesoventral stria obliquely posterolaterad toward middle of metacoxa, outer lateral metaventral stria absent, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single, complete lateral stria, middle portion of disk lacking coarse punctures; protibia 4–5 dentate, the basal one or two denticles weak, outer margin serrulate between teeth; mesotibia with two weak marginal spines; outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium without transverse basal stria, discal punctures moderately large, ocellate, separated by about half their diameters basally, slightly smaller and sparser posterad; propygidial gland openings evident about one-third from anterior margin, about one-fourth from each lateral margin; pygidium with ground punctation very fine but rather dense in apical half, secondary punctation evident mainly along basal margin. Male genitalia (Figs 12A–D, I–J): T8 about as long as broad, sides subparallel, basal rim weakly explanate, basal emargination broadly rounded, apical emargination inconspicuous, ventrolateral apodemes separated by about one-third maximum T8 width, extending about one-half distad beneath, obsolete in apical half; S8 much longer than T8, divided, inner margins approximate at base, strongly divergent apically, bearing conspicuous fringe of setae along apical one-third, outer margins subparallel to weakly divergent, apical guides well developed in apical two-thirds, narrowly rounded apically; T9 with basal apodemes thin, about one-half total length, T9 apices narrowly subacute, glabrous, ventrolateral apodemes weakly projecting beneath; S9 stem parallel-sided, weakly widened in basal half, head wide, thin, apicolateral points poorly developed, strongly desclerotized along midline, weakly divided apicomedially; tegmen with sides subparallel throughout, very weakly widened near apex, dorsobasal edge projecting, tegmen in lateral aspect more or less straight, weakly curved ventrad at apex; median lobe about one-third tegmen length; basal piece about one-fifth tegmen length.

Figure 11.

Baconia godmani group. A Dorsal habitus of lectotype of Baconia godmani B Ventral habitus of lectotype of Baconia godmani C Dorsal habitus of Baconia venusta D Ventral habitus of Baconia venusta E Frons of Baconia venusta F Frons (SEM) of Baconia venusta G Dorsal habitus oflectotype of Baconia riehli H Ventral habitus of Baconia riehli.

Figure 12.

Male genitalia of Baconia godmani group. A T8 of Baconia godmani B S8 of Baconia godmani C T9 & T10 of Baconia godmani D S9 of Baconia godmani E T8 of Baconia venusta F S8 of Baconia venusta G T9 & T10 of Baconia venusta S9 of Baconia venusta I Aedeagus, dorsal view of Baconia godmani J Aedeagus, lateral view of Baconia godmani K Aedeagus, dorsal view of Baconia venusta L Aedeagus, lateral view of Baconia venusta.

Map 3.

Baconia godmani group records. Record for Baconia godmani in Venezuela is a country record only.

Remarks.

This species is best distinguished by its lack of basal propygidial stria, presence of sublateral pronotal stria, and presence of the apical half of the sutural elytral stria.

Baconia venusta (J.E. LeConte, 1845)

http://species-id.net/wiki/Baconia_venusta

Figs 11C–F, 12E–H, K–L, Map 4
Platysoma venustum Dejean, 1837 (nom. nud.)
Platysoma venustum J.E. LeConte, 1845: 86; Hister venustus: J.L. LeConte 1851: 163; Phelister venustus: Marseul 1853: 468; Phelister venustulus Marseul 1862: 706 (emend.); Baconia venusta: Mazur 1984: 281.
Phelister venustus chalybaeus Casey, 1916: 234; Baconia venusta chalybaea: Mazur 1984: 281 (as valid subsp.); Wenzel in Mazur 1997: 26 (synonymized).
Type locality.

UNITED STATES: ‘Southern states’ [exact locality uncertain].

Type material.

Lectotype, here designated (MCZC): [orange locality disk indicating collection in ‘southern states’ (Carolina and Georgia as per original description)] / “7126” / “Type 6896” / “H. venustus Lec.” / “LECTOTYPE Platysoma venustum J.E.LeConte, M.S.Caterino & A.K.Tishechkin des. 2010”. This species was described from an unspecified number of specimens, and the lectotype designation fixes primary type status on the only known specimen.

Other material.

USA: Alabama: 2: Baldwin Co., Daphne, 8.viii.1958, under bark gum tree, B.K. Dozier (FSCA); 1: Colbert Co., 3mi. W Tuscumbia, 21.vi.1959, under bark, H. Steeves (FMNH); 1: Jefferson Co., Birmingham, Rocky Ridge, 14.vi.1983, at light, W. Suter (FMNH); 1: Mobile Co., Mobile, 16.xi.1924, H. Loding (FMNH), 2: no date (SEMC, FMNH); Arkansas: 2: southwest Arkansas (AMNH); 2: Arkansas, state record only (FMNH, AMNH); Florida: 1: Alachua Co., Newnan’s Lake, 14.vi.1965, C.W.O’Brien (MHNG); 1: Levy Do., 4 mi SW Archer, 4.vi.1994, at light, R. Aalbu (CDFA); 1: Santa Rosa Co., Milton, Lindgren trap baited with Persea borbonia, 21.vi.2007, R. Robinson(FSCA); 1: Marion Co., Ocala, 17.viii.1977, M.C. Thomas (FSCA); 1: Dixie Co. 6 mi N Old Town, 23.vii.1978, M.C. Thomas (FSCA); 1: Putnam Co., 2.iii.1960, under bark dead Quercus laevis, H.V. Weems (FSCA), 1: same data but 18.vi.1960 (FSCA); 1: A. Slosson (AMNH); Kansas: 1: Woodson Co., Cross Timbers St. Pk., E Spillway Access , 37.73918°N, 95.91898°W, 10.vi.2010, under bark, Z. Falin, DNA Extract MSC-2231, EXO-00944; 1: Louisiana: 1: East Baton Rouge Par., Baton Rouge, 12.ii.1982, under bark, S.M. Strother (LSAM); 1: Natchitoches Par., 1 mi NNE Lotus, 31°30'N, 93°7.5'W, 12.iv-3.vii.1996, FIT, A. Cline, S. Dash & M. Seymour (LSAM); 1: W Feliciana Par., Feliciana Pres., nr. Freeland, 30°47'N, 91°15'W, FIT, 29.v–12.vi.2005, A. Tishechkin & S. Gil (LSAM); Maryland: 4: Pr. Georges Co., 18.vii.1948, under bark (thin) tree, fire-killed 3 1/2 mos prior, G. Vogt (USNM), 5: 19.vi.1949, tree, fire-killed 14 1/2 mos. ago, red or black oak, G. Vogt (USNM), 1: 3.vii.1948, under thin bark red or black oak, fire-killed 3 mos. prior, G. Vogt (USNM); Mississippi: 4: George Co., Lucedale, 16.i.1931, H. Dietrich (FMNH), 1: 18.iv.1930, H. Dietrich (FMNH); North Carolina: 1: Guilford Co., Greensboro, 21.vi.1956, P. Ashlock (SEMC); 1: Southern Pines, 24.xi.1911, A.H. Manee (FMNH), 3: 25.iii.1911, 1: 25.ii.1911, 1: 16.i.1911, 1: 8.i.1915 (NCSU); 1: Cleveland Co., 20.v.1972, J. Ashe; Oklahoma: 2: Latimer Co., 5 mi. W Red Oak, x.1980, K. Stephan, 1: vi.1981, 5: vi.1982, 1: xi.1982, 3: v.1983, FIT, 1: vi.1983, 1: vi.1984, FIT, 1: v.1984, FIT, 1: v.1984, tree hole oak + rodent, 1: iv.1985, 2: vi.1985, 1: vii.1985, 1: v.1986, 3: v.1987, 2: iv.1991, 2: v.1991, 1: v.1993, 1: vi.1993, 1: iv.1994, 1: vii.1995 (all K. Stephan; FMNH, TAMU, FSCA); Tennessee: Hardeman Co., 5 mi S Bolivar on Union RD(8232), 200m, 28.vii.1972 (MHNG); 1: Texas: Brazos Co., 9.xi.1935, J. Robinson (FMNH).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 2.0–2.3mm, width: 1.7–2.0mm; body elongate oval, depressed, glabrous; dorsum metallic blue to greenish-blue, venter rufopiceous; frons elevated over antennal bases, depressed at middle, ground punctation fine, with few coarse punctures at middle and near vertex, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, curving inward at front, interrupted over antennal bases, at middle, or both, supraorbital stria vaguely represented by series of punctures; antennal scape short, club broadly rounded; epistoma truncate apically; labrum about 4×wider than long, weakly bisinuate along apical margin; both mandibles with acute basal tooth; pronotum with sides increasingly arcuate to apex, marginal stria complete along lateral and anterior margins, lateral submarginal stria absent, ground punctation of pronotal disk rather conspicuous, interspersed with coarser secondary punctures at sides, nearly to midline anteriorly; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria present as basal and frequently median fragments, dorsal striae 1–4 complete, 5th stria present in apical two-thirds and frequently with basal puncture, sutural stria present in apical half or slightly more, elytral disk with few coarse punctures in apical fourth; prosternum moderately broad, weakly convex, keel emarginate at base, carinal striae complete, subparallel to divergent anterad, separate or united along basal margin; prosternal lobe about two-thirds keel length, apical margin rounded, marginal stria obsolete at sides; mesoventrite produced at middle, marginal stria narrowly interrupted at middle; mesometaventral stria arched forward, crenulate, narrowly detached from lateral metaventral stria, which curves posterolaterad toward middle of metacoxa, outer lateral metaventral stria absent, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single, complete lateral stria, middle portion of disk lacking coarse punctures; protibia 4–5 dentate, the basal one or two denticles weak, outer margin serrulate between teeth; mesotibia with two weak marginal spines; outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium with complete transverse basal stria, discal punctures ocellate, separated more or less uniformly by about their diameters; propygidial gland openings evident behind ends of transverse basal stria, about one-fourth from each lateral margin; pygidium with ground punctation rather dense in apical half, secondary punctation denser toward base. Male genitalia (Figs 12E–H, K–L): T8 about as long as broad, sides subparallel, narrowed to base, basal emargination broadly, unevenly rounded, apical emargination very shallow, ventrolateral apodemes separated by about one-half maximum T8 width, extending about one-third distad beneath, strongly narrowed in apical half; S8 longer than T8, divided, inner margins approximate along basal one-fourth, strongly divergent apically, bearing conspicuous fringe of setae along apical one-third, outer margins subparallel to weakly divergent, apical guides well developed in apical half, broadly rounded apically; T9 with basal apodemes thin, about one-half total length, T9 apices narrowly rounded, glabrous, ventrolateral apodemes moderately strongly projecting beneath; S9 widened in basal half, head similar in width, subangulate to apicolateral points, desclerotized along midline, with narrow apicomedial division; tegmen with sides subparallel in basal half, weakly widened to apex, dorsobasal edge projecting, tegmen in lateral aspect more or less straight, slightly curved ventrad at apex; median lobe about one-fourth tegmen length; basal piece about one-fifth tegmen length.

Map 4.

Baconia venusta records.

Remarks.

This is one of only three species of Baconia occurring in the eastern US, and only shares metallic coloration with one, Baconia aeneomicans. It is easily distinguished from this species (see Fig. 38A) by its larger size, more broadly rounded body form, and relatively uniform coloration (Fig. 11C).One additional species occurs in the American southwest, Baconia navarretei, which is more similar. It is not likely that the ranges of these species will overlap, but Baconia venusta is nonetheless easily distinguished by the presence of a basal propygidial stria, and the presence of the median portion of the mesometaventral stria (Fig. 11D), both striae lacking in Baconia navarretei.

Mazur (2011) reported this species from Mexico. However, we have studied those specimens and assign them to Baconia eximia, below.

Baconia riehli (Marseul, 1862), comb. n.

http://species-id.net/wiki/Baconia_riehli

Figs 11G–H, 13, Map 3
Phelister riehli Marseul, 1862: 697.
Type locality.

CUBA [exact locality uncertain].

Type material.

Lectotype, sex undetermined, here designated (MNHN): “Phelister riehli M. Cuba [rest illegible]” / “[green heart-shaped label]” / “Museum Paris Coll. De Marseul 2842-90” / “Type” / “LECTOTYPE Phelister riehli Marseul, 1862, M.S.Caterino & A.K.Tishechkin des. 2010”. This species was described from an unspecified number of specimens, and the lectotype designation fixes primary type status on the only known specimen.

Other material.

CUBA: 1:Upper Ovando R. eastern Oriente, 1000-2000 ft, 17-20.vii.1936, P. Darlington (FMNH); 1: country record only (ZMHB). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: 1: La Altagracia: P. N. del Este, Boca de Yuma, 18°21.508'N, 68°36.956'W, 20 m, 19.vii.2004, S. Lingafelter (AKTC).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 2.2–2.3mm, width: 1.7–2.0mm; body elongate oval, almost parallel-sided, moderately depressed, glabrous; most of body, including venter, metallic blue to greenish-blue, elytra moderately to strongly violet; frons elevated over antennal bases, depressed at middle, ground punctation rather conspicuous, with small secondary punctures on epistoma, slightly larger punctures in frontal depression, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, fragmented to absent across front, supraorbital stria vaguely represented by series of punctures; antennal scape short, club slightly asymmetrically oblong; epistoma slightly convex along apical margin, truncate; labrum about 3×wider than long, weakly emarginate to bisinuate along apical margin; both mandibles with acute basal tooth; pronotal sides weakly convergent in basal half, arcuate to apex, marginal stria complete along lateral and anterior margins, lateral submarginal stria absent, ground punctation of pronotal disk rather conspicuous, interspersed with small secondary punctures nearly throughout, only lacking in posteromedial region; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria present as basal and frequently median fragments, dorsal striae 1–3 complete, 4th stria variably abbreviated from base, 5th and sutural striae absent, elytral disk with few coarse punctures in apical fourth; prosternum narrowed between procoxae, weakly convex, keel truncate to very weakly emarginate at base, carinal striae complete, divergent anterad and posterad, separate throughout; prosternal lobe about two-thirds keel length, apical margin subtruncate, marginal stria obsolete; mesoventrite weakly emarginate, slightly sinuate at middle, with a complete stria slightly removed from margin which is probably the mesometaventral stria, strongly displaced anterad; lateral metaventral stria originating freely near mesocoxa, curving posterolaterad toward middle of metacoxa, slightly abbreviated apically, outer lateral metaventral stria absent, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single, complete lateral stria, middle portion of disk with few small punctures along apical margin; protibia 4–5 dentate, the basal one or two denticles weak, outer margin serrulate between teeth; meso- and metatibiae rather elongate, narrow, mesotibia with two weak marginal spines; outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium with complete transverse basal stria, discal punctures rather small, ocellate, separated more or less uniformly by about their diameters; propygidial gland openings conspicuous behind ends of transverse basal stria, about one-fourth from each lateral margin; pygidium with sparse ground punctation interspersed with small secondary punctures throughout, these slightly larger and denser toward base. Male genitalia (Fig. 13): T8 slightly longer than broad, sides subparallel to weakly rounded, basal emargination broad, shallow, apical emargination very shallow, ventrolateral apodemes separated by about one-half maximum T8 width, extending about one-third distad beneath, strongly narrowed in apical half; S8 about as long as T8, divided, inner margins approximate along basal one-fourth, strongly divergent apically, outer margins subparallel, convergent to apex, apical guides well developed in apical apical two-thirds, elongate, narrowly rounded apically, lacking apical setae; T9 with basal apodemes thin, almost two-thirds total length, T9 apices narrowly subacute, glabrous, weakly opposing, ventrolateral apodemes weakly projecting beneath; S9 stem thin near basal one-third, weakly bulbous at base, head wide, curved to horn-like apicolateral points, desclerotized along midline, with narrow apicomedial division; tegmen with sides subparallel in basal half, weakly widened to near apex, slightly bulbous apically, dorsobasal edge weakly arcuate, tegmen in lateral aspect more or less straight; median lobe about one-third tegmen length; basal piece about one-fourth tegmen length.

Figure 13.

Male genitalia of Baconia riehli. A T8 B S8 C T9 & T10 D S9 E Aedeagus, dorsal view Aedeagus, lateral view.

Remarks.

At present, Baconia riehli is one of only two species in the genus known to occur in the West Indies. The other is Baconia pulchella, in the Baconia aeneomicans group. It is interesting to note that both of these exhibit more distinctly violet coloration than do nearly any mainland species, although they are not closely related. The two are easily distinguished by the larger, more broadly body form of Baconia riehli (Fig. 11G vs. 38C). From mainland species in the Baconia godmani group, this species is unique in lacking a marginal stria on the prosternal lobe.

Type locality.

PANAMA: Chiriqui: Hornito [8.68°N, 82.23°W].

Type material.

Holotype male: “PANAMA: Chiriquí Prov., Hornito, Finca La Suiza, 1220m 1.VI.2000 H. & A. Howden, FIT” / “Caterino/Tishechkin Exosternini Voucher EXO-00445” (CMNC). Paratype (1): same data as type, except: 3.vi.2000, FIT, H. & A. Howden (CMNC).

Other material.

GUATEMALA: Zacapa, Santa Clara, interior valley of Sierra de las Minas, under bark, 9.viii.1948, 5500 ft., R.D.Mitchell leg. (FMNH).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 2.2–2.3mm, width: 1.9–2.0mm; body broadly elongate oval, depressed, glabrous; color metallic greenish-blue over most of dorsum, venter rufobrunneus; frons elevated over antennal bases, depressed at middle, ground punctation fine, with few coarse punctures at middle and near vertex, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, curving inward at front, interrupted over antennal bases, at middle, or both, supraorbital stria weakly impressed but complete; antennal scape short, club nearly circular; epistoma truncate apically; labrum about 3×wider than long, weakly emarginate apically; both mandibles with acute basal tooth; pronotum with sides increasingly arcuate to apex, marginal stria complete along lateral and anterior margins, lateral submarginal stria absent, ground punctation of pronotal disk very fine, interspersed with coarser secondary punctures in lateral fourths; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria present as basal and median fragments, dorsal striae 1–3 complete, 4th and 5th striae weakly impressed in apical fourth, sutural stria present in apical third, elytral disk with few coarse punctures along apical margin; prosternum moderately broad, weakly convex, keel weakly emarginate at base, carinal striae complete, slightly sinuate, separate throughout; prosternal lobe about two-thirds keel length, apical margin rounded, marginal stria present along most of margin; mesoventrite weakly produced at middle, marginal stria interrupted for median one-third; mesometaventral stria arched forward, weakly crenulate, detached from lateral metaventral stria, which extends from inner corner of mesocoxa posterolaterad toward outer third of metacoxa, abbreviated apically, outer lateral metaventral stria absent, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single, complete lateral stria, middle portion of disk lacking coarse punctures; protibia 4–5 dentate, the basal one or two denticles weak, outer margin serrulate between teeth; mesotibia with two weak marginal spines; outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium lacking basal stria, with coarse punctures subserially arranged along basal margin, separated by 1–2× their diameters elsewhere; propygidial gland openings evident about one-third behind anterior margin, about one-fourth width from each lateral margin; pygidium with ground punctation rather dense in apical half, secondary punctation denser toward base. Male genitalia extremely similar that of Baconia godmani (see Figs 12A–D, I–J), differing as follows: T8 slightly more elongate, S8 with apical guides slightly more broadly expanded toward apex, tegmen with sides slightly more undulate, apex slightly more broadly rounded.

Figure 14.

Baconia godmani group. A Dorsal habitus of Baconia scintillans B Ventral habitus of Baconia scintillans C Ventral habitus of Baconia rossi D Dorsal habitus of Baconia navarretei.

Remarks.

This species lacks submarginal pronotal and basal propygidial striae, and has an isolated median fragment of the mesometaventral stria (Fig. 14B). It is similar in all these respects only to Baconia choaspites, which lacks a sutural elytral stria and has a deeply emarginate labrum. In Baconia scintillans, the labrum is weakly bisinuate and the sutural stria is present in the apical half. The two types, collected at the same locality, differ substantially in color, with the paratype distinctly bluer, not greenish-blue as the holotype. Some of the coloration of the latter, however, may result from a slightly oily surface.

Etymology.

This species’ name refers to its shiny, metallic appearance.

Type locality.

MEXICO: San Luis Potosí: El Salto Falls [22.58°N, 99.37°W].

Type material.

Holotype male: “MEXICO: San Luis Potosí: El Salto Falls, 12 km NW El Naranjo, 26 July 1990, 400 m, J.S.Ashe, K.-J.Ahn, R.Leschen #246 ex.fungusy log” / “SEMC0903644” (SEMC). Paratypes (3): 1: BELIZE: Cayo: Las Cuevas, 8.v.1994 (BMNH). 2: MEXICO: Puebla: 4.7 mi. SW La Cumbre, 5200 ft., 23.vii.1987, Kovarik & Schaffner (CHPWK).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 2.1–2.2mm, width: 1.8–1.9mm; body broadly elongate oval, depressed, glabrous; color metallic blue to greenish-blue over most of dorsum, pronotum may be more distinctly greenish (not in type), venter rufobrunneus; frons elevated over antennal bases, depressed at middle, ground punctation fine, with few coarse punctures at middle and near vertex, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, curving inward at front, interrupted over antennal bases and at middle; antennal scape short, club nearly circular; epistoma truncate apically; labrum about 4×wider than long, weakly bisinuate apically; both mandibles with acute basal tooth; pronotum with sides increasingly arcuate to apex, marginal stria complete along lateral and anterior margins, lateral submarginal stria absent, disk depressed along anterior fifth of lateral margin, ground punctation of pronotal disk very fine, coarser secondary punctures limited to narrow lateral region; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria present as basal and median fragments, dorsal striae 1-3 complete, 4th stria complete or interrupted in basal half, 5th stria weakly impressed in apical half to two-thirds, abbreviated from apex, sutural stria shorter than 5th anteriorly, but extending further to apex, elytral disk with few coarse punctures in apical sixth; prosternum moderately broad, weakly convex, keel subacutely emarginate at base, carinal striae complete, depressed at bases, slightly sinuate, weakly divergent anterad; prosternal lobe about two-thirds keel length, apical margin rounded, marginal stria obsolete at sides; mesoventrite subacutely produced at middle, marginal stria interrupted for width of prosternal keel; mesometaventral stria strongly arched forward, weakly crenulate, detached from lateral metaventral stria, which extends from inner corner of mesocoxa posterolaterad toward outer corner of metacoxa, abbreviated apically, outer lateral metaventral stria absent, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single, complete lateral stria, middle portion of disk lacking coarse punctures; protibia 4–5 dentate, the basal denticles weak, outer margin serrulate between teeth; mesotibia with two weak marginal spines; outer metatibial margin smooth; transverse basal propygidial stria varied, complete or represented only by subserially arranged punctures, punctures otherwise rather small and sparse, separated by 1–2× their diameters; propygidial gland openings evident about one-third behind anterior margin, about one-fourth width from each lateral margin; pygidium with ground punctation rather dense in apical half, secondary punctation evident only along basal margin. Male genitalia (Figs 15A–C, G, I–J): T8 slightly shorter than broad, sides weakly widened in basal one-third, convergent to apex, basal emargination broad, deep, weakly acute at middle, basal rim slightly explanate, apical emargination narrow, shallow, with ventrolateral apodemes separated by about one-half maximum T8 width, extending about one-half distad beneath, obsolete in apical half; S8 divided, inner margins approximate at base, weakly divergent in basal half, strongly divergent to apex, bearing conspicuous fringe of setae in apical one-third, outer margins subparallel, apical guides well developed in apical half, narrowly lobate apically; T9 with basal apodemes thin, about two-thirds total length, T9 apices narrow, bluntly subacute, weakly opposed, glabrous, ventrolateral apodemes weakly projecting beneath; S9 weakly widened at base, head broad, with apicolateral points curved, horn-like, desclerotized along midline, with narrow apicomedial division; tegmen with sides subparallel to near apex, apical one-fourth weakly bulbous, broadly rounded at apex, dorsobasal edge projecting, tegmen more or less straight in lateral aspect; median lobe about one-half tegmen length; basal piece about one-fourth tegmen length.

Figure 15.

Male genitalia of Baconia godmani group. A T8 of Baconia isthmia B S8 of Baconia isthmia C T9 & T10 of Baconia isthmia D T9 & T10 of Baconia maculata E T8 of Baconia maculata F S8 of Baconia maculata G S9 of Baconia isthmia S9 of Baconia maculata I Aedeagus, dorsal view of Baconia isthmia J Aedeagus, lateral view of Baconia isthmia K Aedeagus, dorsal view of Baconia maculata L Aedeagus, lateral view of Baconia maculata.

Remarks.

Baconia isthmia is very closely related to Baconia scintillans, above, both lacking a submarginal lateral pronotal stria, and exhibiting an isolated median fragment of the mesometaventral stria. Baconia isthmia is slightly smaller, a little more distinctly flattened, has a distinct transverse propygidial stria, has the 4th elytral stria reaching the base (may be interrupted), and lacks a median fragment of the inner subhumeral stria. There are slight genitalic differences as well, with the tegmen of Baconia isthmia slightly shorter and more spatulate apically, and the 8th sternite of the male less elongate, than those of Baconia scintillans or Baconia godmani.

Etymology.

This species is named for Isthmian region (de Tehuantepec) that spans the region inhabited by this species.

Type locality.

MEXICO: Jalisco: 6 km S Tecalitlan [19.4°N, 103.3°W].

Type material.

Holotype male: “MEXICO: Jalisco: 6 km S Tecalitlan, 1219 m, 14-VIII-1978, Edward S. Ross, Cal.Acad.Sci.Coll.” / “Caterino/Tishechkin Exosternini Voucher EXO-00497” (CASC). Paratypes (2): 1: same data as type (CASC), 1: same locality, 9.xi.1980, E. Ross (CASC).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 2.1–2.3mm, width: 1.7–1.9mm; body elongate oval, subparallel-sided, moderately depressed, glabrous; dorsum uniformly metallic blue, venter rufopiceous; frons elevated over antennal bases, depressed at middle, ground punctation fine, with coarse punctures on epistoma, at middle and near vertex, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, curving inward at front, interrupted at middle, rarely also interrupted over antennal bases, supraorbital stria absent; antennal scape short, club rounded; epistoma truncate apically; labrum about 4×wider than long, weakly bisinuate along apical margin; both mandibles with acute basal tooth; pronotal sides weakly convergent in basal half, arcuate to apex, marginal stria complete along lateral and anterior margins, lateral submarginal stria absent, ground punctation of pronotal disk fine, coarse secondary punctures extending across anterior margin and conspicuous in lateral thirds; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria largely complete, may be weakly interrupted in middle, dorsal striae 1-3 complete, 4th stria weakened or interrupted near base, present in apical half or more, 5th stria present in apical third, sutural stria slightly longer, elytral disk with few coarse punctures in apical fifth; prosternum moderately broad, weakly convex, keel truncate to very weakly emarginate at base, carinal striae complete, united or nearly united along basal margin, subparallel anterad; prosternal lobe about one-half keel length, apical margin broadly rounded, marginal stria weak, obsolete at sides; mesoventrite weakly sinuate at middle, marginal stria interrupted; mesometaventral stria absent represented by short, weak median fragment, inner lateral metaventral stria extending from near mesocoxa obliquely posterolaterad toward outer third of metacoxa, abbreviated apically, outer lateral metaventral stria absent, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single, complete lateral stria, middle portion of disk lacking coarse punctures; protibia 4-dentate, the basal denticle weak, outer margin serrulate between teeth; mesotibia with two weak marginal spines; outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium without transverse basal stria, discal punctures moderately large, ocellate, separated by about half their diameters, smaller posterad; propygidial gland openings evident about one-third from anterior margin, about one-fourth from each lateral margin; pygidium with ground punctation very fine but rather dense in apical half, secondary punctation evident mainly in basal third. Male genitalia essentially indistinguishable from that of Baconia godmani (though aedeagus was missing from type and not available for study).

Remarks.

This species is closely related to Baconia godmani, Baconia isthmia, and Baconia scintillans, as revealed by male genitalia, but it lacks the lateral submarginal pronotal stria of Baconia godmani, and differs from all three in its complete inner subhumeral stria. Additionally, in Baconia rossi the prosternal striae tend to be united basally or at least curved medially at the base (Fig. 14C), and the isolated fragment of the mesometaventral stria is very weak.

Etymology.

This species is named to honor Dr. Edward Ross, collector of the types and histerid aficionado going back many decades.

Type locality.

UNITED STATES: Arizona: Huachuca Mts. [31.42°N, 110.27°W].

Type material.

Holotype male: “ARIZONA: Cochise Co., Huachuca Mts. Miller Canyon Rec. Ar., 31°25'N, 110°16.5'W, Oak, u/bark 17 July 2001, A.Tishechkin” / “Caterino/Tishechkin Exosternini Voucher EXO-01120” (FMNH). Paratypes (3): USA: Arizona: 1: Cochise Co., Huachuca Mts. Sunnyside Canyon, 5500 ft, 18.vii.1972, R. Curtis (FMNH); 1: Santa Cruz Co., Santa Rita Mts. Madera Cyn, 25.vii.1966, K. Stephan (USNM); 1: Pima Co., Madera Cyn 31.72694°N, 110.88039°W, 20.vii.2012, E.G.Riley (TAMU)

Other material.

MEXICO: 2: Morelos: Tlayacapan, San Jose de los Laureles, BMM, 1768 m, 14.viii.1993, rotting log, G. Quiroz y J. Navarrete (UDGC, MSCC); 1: Morelos: Tlayacapan, San Jose de los Laureles, BMM, 1768 m, 14.viii.1993, rotting log, G. Quiroz y J. Navarrete (AKTC).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 2.4–2.6mm, width: 2.0–2.2mm; body elongate oval, depressed, glabrous; dorsum metallic blue, venter rufopiceous; frons elevated over antennal bases, depressed at middle, ground punctation fine, with few coarse punctures at middle and near vertex, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, curving inward at front, interrupted over antennal bases, at middle, or both, supraorbital stria vaguely represented by series of punctures; antennal scape short, club broadly rounded; epistoma truncate apically; labrum about 4×wider than long, weakly bisinuate along apical margin; both mandibles with acute basal tooth; pronotum with sides weakly arcuate to apex, marginal stria complete along lateral and anterior margins, lateral submarginal stria absent, ground punctation of pronotal disk rather conspicuous, coarse secondary punctures extending across anterior half, becoming more widespread and dense along sides; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria largely complete, but usually interrupted in basal half, dorsal striae 1–3 complete, 4th stria abbreviated from base, present in apical half or more, 5th stria present in apical third, sutural stria present in about apical half, elytral disk with few coarse punctures in apical fourth; prosternum moderately broad, weakly convex, keel weakly emarginate at base, carinal striae complete, subparallel to divergent anterad, separate or united along basal margin; prosternal lobe about one-half keel length, apical margin broadly rounded, marginal stria obsolete at sides; mesoventrite weakly produced at middle, marginal stria complete; mesometaventral stria absent, inner lateral metaventral stria extending from end of marginal mesoventral stria obliquely posterolaterad toward outer third of metacoxa, slightly abbreviated apically, outer lateral metaventral stria absent, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single, complete lateral stria, middle portion of disk lacking coarse punctures; protibia 4–5 dentate, the basal one or two denticles weak, outer margin serrulate between teeth; mesotibia with two weak marginal spines; outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium without transverse basal stria, discal punctures moderately large, ocellate, separated by about half their diameters basally and laterally, sparser medioapically; propygidial gland openings evident about one-third from anterior margin, about one-fourth from each lateral margin; pygidium with ground punctation very fine but rather dense in apical half, secondary punctation evident mainly along basal margin. Male genitalia indistinguishable in shape from those of Baconia venusta (see Figs 12E–H, K–L), although somewhat larger in absolute size.

Remarks.

Baconia navarretei is a relatively large species, completely lacking mesometaventral and basal propygidial striae. Although rather superficial, the most consistently distinguishing character of this species is the fact that the 5th elytral stria is shorter than either the 4th or the sutural, all of them being largely restricted to the posterior half of the elytron. In addition the lateral pronotal punctures tend to be very dense near the margin (Fig. 14D), moreso than in most similar species. Due to variation in pygidial sculpturing, and the large gap between localities for available material we restrict the type series to those specimens from Arizona, USA.

Etymology.

We name this species for Dr. Jose Luis Navarrete Heredia, of the University of Guadalajara, collector of several specimens of this species, in recognition of his valuable contributions to the knowledge of beetles of western Mexico, and recognizing his considerable contributions to many of our studies.

Type locality.

ECUADOR: Orellana:Res. Ethnica Waorani [0.67°N, 76.43°W].

Type material.

Holotype male: “ECUADOR: Depto. Orellana:Res. Ethnica Waorani, 1km S Onkone Gare Camp, Trans. Ent., 0°39'10"S, 76°26'W, 220m, 25 June 1996, T.L. Erwin et al. collectors” / “Insecticidal fogging of mostly bare green leaves, some with covering of lichenous or bryophytic plants in terra firme forest. Project MAXUS Lot 1536 Trans. 2 Sta. 6” / “Caterino/Tishechkin Exosternini Voucher EXO-00448” (USNM). Paratype (1): FRENCH GUIANA: Bélvédère de Saül, point de vue. 3°1'22"N, 53°12'34"W, FIT, 17.i.2011. SEAG leg. (CHND).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 1.7–1.8mm, width: 1.2–1.3mm; body elongate oval, subdepressed, glabrous; head and pronotum metallic greenish-blue, elytra metallic blue with distinct rufescent maculations extending across middle of disc from approximately sutural stria laterad to margin; frons together with epistoma strongly convex, weakly depressed at middle, uniformly coarsely punctate, interocular margins very weakly convergent dorsad, frontal stria present along inner margin of eyes, interrupted above antennal bases and at middle; antennal scape short, apex obliquely truncate, club elongate, subquadrate; epistoma convex along apical margin, weakly emarginate; labrum about 4×wider than long, apex broadly, shallowly emarginate; mandibles short, each with small, acute basal tooth; palpomeres stout, flattened; pronotal sides subparallel in basal half, weakly arcuate to apex, marginal stria complete around lateral and anterior margins, submarginal stria present close to lateral marginal, ending about one-fifth from anterior corner; pronotal disk with fine ground punctation and slightly coarser secondary punctures more or less uniformly dispersed throughout; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria present in basal two-thirds, but interrupted in middle, dorsal striae 1–5 complete to base, progressively more abbreviated apically mediad, with 5th stria obsolete in apical fourth, sutural stria present in apical two-thirds, obsolete at base; elytral disk with secondary punctures in apical fourth; prosternal keel narrow, weakly convex, base truncate, carinal striae complete, bent mediad at apices, but ending freely; prosternal lobe about two-thirds keel length, broadly rounded, marginal stria slightly fragmented at sides; anterior edge of mesoventrite weakly sinuate, marginal stria complete; mesometaventral stria arched forward, crenulate, detached at sides, inner lateral metaventral stria originating close to mesocoxa, extending posterolaterad toward middle of metacoxa, outer lateral metaventral stria short, oblique, metaventral and 1st abdominal disks impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with complete inner lateral stria and posterior fragments of outer stria; protibia with five marginal denticles, the basal two weak, outer margin serrulate between; mesotibia with 2–3 marginal spines; outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium without transverse basal stria, with moderately large, ocellate punctures uniformly separated by about their diameters; propygidial gland openings evident about one-third from anterior and one-fourth from lateral margins; pygidium with fine, sparse ground punctation denser in apical half, with sparse secondary punctures principally in basal half. Male genitalia (Figs 15D–F, H, K–L): T8 distinctly shorter than broad, sides subparallel, basal emargination broad, apical emargination narrow, shallow, with ventrolateral apodemes separated by about two-thirds maximum T8 width, extending about two-thirds distad beneath; S8 divided, short, inner margins approximate at base, strongly divergent to apex, bearing conspicuous fringe of setae along apical one-third, outer margins subparallel, to weakly divergent, apical guides well developed in apical half, apices broadly rounded; T9 with basal apodemes thin, about one-half total length, T9 apices narrow, bluntly subacute, weakly opposed, glabrous, ventrolateral apodemes moderately strongly projecting beneath; S9 very weakly widened in basal two-thirds, desclerotized along midline, head broad, with apicolateral points short, subparallel; tegmen with sides broadly rounded in basal half, weakly narrowed to apex, dorsal surface near base narrowly, transversely impressed, dorsobasal edge weakly arcuate, tegmen weakly sinuate in lateral aspect; median lobe broad, about two-thirds tegmen length, bearing conspicuous fine denticles on dorsal surface; basal piece nearly one-half tegmen length.

Figure 16.

Baconia godmani group. A Dorsal habitus of Baconia maculata B Dorsal habitus of Baconia deliberata Ventral habitus of Baconia deliberata D Pygidia of Baconia deliberata E Dorsal habitus of Baconia excelsa F Dorsal habitus of lectotype of Baconia violacea.

Remarks.

While this species’ male genitalia associates it clearly with the Baconia godmani group, in external characters it is highly distinctive, with its narrow elongate body form and red-maculate elytra (Fig. 16A).

Etymology.

This species is named for its distinctive elytral maculations.

Baconia deliberata sp. n.

http://zoobank.org/9AA5A279-ED81-4A7D-9C2C-52A50D66CA26

http://species-id.net/wiki/Baconia_deliberata

Figs 16B–D, 17A–C, G, I–J, Map 5
Type locality.

ECUADOR: Orellana:Res. Ethnica Waorani [0.67°N, 76.43°W].

Type material.

Holotype male: “ECUADOR: Depto. Orellana:Res. Ethnica Waorani, 1km S Onkone Gare Camp, Trans. Ent., 0°39'10"S, 76°26'W, 220m, 26 June 1996, T.L. Erwin et al. collectors” / “Insecticidal fogging of mostly bare green leaves, some with covering of lichenous or bryophytic plants in terra firme forest. Project MAXUS Lot 1582 Trans. 7 Sta. 2” / “Caterino/Tishechkin Exosternini Voucher EXO-00438” (USNM). Paratype (1): same locality as type, 21.i.2006, Lot 3115, Trans. 2, Sta. 6 (USNM).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 1.7–1.9mm, width: 1.3–1.5mm; body elongate oval, subparallel-sided, depressed, glabrous; head and pronotum metallic greenish-blue, elytra blue, pygidia and venter rufopiceous; frons elevated over antennal bases, depressed at middle, ground punctation fine, with few coarse punctures at middle and near vertex, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, curving inward at front, interrupted at middle; antennal scape short, club asymmetrically oblong; epistoma truncate apically; labrum about 4×wider than long, weakly bisinuate along apical margin; both mandibles with acute basal tooth; pronotal sides weakly arcuate to apex, marginal stria complete along lateral and anterior margins, lateral submarginal stria absent, ground punctation of pronotal disk fine, with coarse secondary punctures in lateral thirds; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria present in basal third and as weak fragment behind middle, dorsal striae 1–5 more or less complete, 5th stria may be weakly abbreviated from base, sutural stria present in about apical third, elytral disk with few coarse punctures in apical fifth; prosternum moderately broad, weakly convex, keel truncate at base, carinal striae complete, bent inward at base, weakly impressed along basal margin, subparallel anterad; prosternal lobe about two-thirds keel length, apical margin rounded, marginal stria obsolete at sides; mesoventrite emarginate at middle, marginal stria broadly interrupted; mesometaventral stria arched strongly forward, not crenulate, detached at sides, inner lateral metaventral stria extending from near mesocoxa obliquely posterolaterad toward middle of metacoxa, slightly sinuate apically, outer lateral metaventral stria absent, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single, complete lateral stria, middle portion of disk lacking coarse punctures; protibia 4-dentate, the basal denticle weak, outer margin serrulate between teeth; mesotibia with two weak marginal spines; outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium without transverse basal stria but with rather distinct basal series of large, close, ocellate punctures, discal punctures otherwise more or less uniformly separated by about 0.5–1× their diameters; propygidial gland openings evident about one-third from anterior margin, and almost one-third from each lateral margin; pygidium with ground punctation very fine but rather dense in apical half, secondary punctation conspicuous in basal third. Male genitalia (Figs 17A–C, G, I–J): T8 slightly shorter than broad, sides widened in basal one-third, convergent to apex, basal emargination broadly rounded, apical emargination inconspicuous, ventrolateral apodemes separated by about one-half maximum T8 width, extending about one-half distad beneath, obsolete in apical half; S8 much longer than T8, divided, inner margins approximate at base, strongly divergent apically, bearing conspicuous fringe of setae along apical one-third, outer margins subparallel to weakly divergent, apical guides well developed from base, broadly rounded apically; T9 with basal apodemes thin, almost two-thirds total length, T9 apices narrowly rounded, glabrous, ventrolateral apodemes moderately strongly projecting beneath; S9 stem thin at middle, widened in basal half, head broad, broadly curved to apicolateral points, desclerotized along midline; tegmen with sides subparallel throughout, very weakly widened near apex, dorsobasal edge projecting, tegmen in lateral aspect more or less straight, weakly curved ventrad at apex; median lobe about one-third tegmen length; basal piece about one-fifth tegmen length.

Figure 17.

Male genitalia of Baconia godmani group. A T8 of Baconia deliberata B S8 of Baconia deliberata C T9 & T10 of Baconia deliberata D T9 & T10 of Baconia excelsa E T8 of Baconia excelsa F S8 of Baconia excelsa G S9 of Baconia deliberata H S9 of Baconia excelsa I Aedeagus, dorsal view of Baconia deliberata J Aedeagus, lateral view of Baconia deliberata Aedeagus, dorsal view of Baconia excelsa L Aedeagus, lateral view of Baconia excelsa.

Map 5.

Baconia godmani group records. Record for Baconia varicolor in Colombia is a country record only.

Remarks.

This species shares male genitalic characters with several others in this group (Baconia godmani, Baconia rossi, Baconia scintillans), but is distinctive in its small size, parallel-sided form (Fig. 16B), presence of complete elytra striae 1-5, noncrenulate mesometaventral stria (Fig. 16C), and series of punctures in place of both the basal propygidial stria (Fig. 16D) and the lateral submarginal pronotal stria.

Etymology.

This species’ name means determined or resolved.

Type locality. ECUADOR: Orellana: Tiputini Biodiversity Station [0.635°S, 76.150°W].

Type material.

Holotype male: “ECUADOR: Depto. Orellana: Tiputini Biodiversity Station, 0°37'55"S, 76°08'39"W, 220-250m, 6 February 1999 T.L.Erwin et. al. collectors” / “insecticidal fogging of mostly bare green leaves, some with covering of lichenous or bryophytic plants Lot 2075 Trans. 8 Sta. 6” / “Caterino/Tishechkin Exosternini Voucher EXO-00432” (USNM). Paratypes (2): 1: ECUADOR: Orellana: Res. Ethnica Waorani, 1 km S Onkone Gare Camp, Trans. Ent., 0°39'10"S, 76°26'W, 220 m, 26.vi.1996, fogging, T. Erwin (USNM), 1: 30.ix.1996, fogging, T. Erwin (USNM).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 1.6–1.7mm, width: 1.3–1.4mm; body elongate oval, weakly depressed, glabrous; head and pronotum metallic greenish-blue, elytra and pygidia blue, venter rufopiceous; frons weakly elevated over antennal bases, depressed at middle, ground punctation rather coarse, with numerous coarser punctures at middle and near vertex, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, curving inward at front, interrupted over antennal bases and at middle; antennal scape short, club rounded; epistoma truncate apically; labrum about 4×wider than long, weakly emarginate apically; both mandibles with acute basal tooth; pronotal sides weakly arcuate to near apex, somewhat abruptly bent inward in apical fifth, marginal stria complete along lateral and anterior margins, lateral submarginal stria represented by semiregular series of deeply impressed punctures, continuous with sublinear depression in anterior corner, ground punctation of pronotal disk fine, with slightly coarser sparsely present nearly throughout, though less conspicuous at middle; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria present in basal fourth and as median fragment, dorsal striae 1–5 more or less complete, progressively abbreviated from apex, 5th stria obsolete in about apical third, sutural stria present in apical two-thirds, elytral disk with few coarse punctures in apical third; prosternum weakly convex, keel shallowly emarginate at base, carinal striae complete, divergent anterad and posterad; prosternal lobe about two-thirds keel length, apical margin narrowly rounded, marginal stria obsolete at sides; mesoventrite weakly projecting at middle, marginal stria complete; mesometaventral stria arched forward, crenulate, narrowly detached at sides, inner lateral metaventral stria curving from near mesocoxa posterolaterad toward outer third of metacoxa, sinuate medially, outer lateral metaventral stria may be vaguely indicated by short series of connected punctures, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single, complete lateral stria, middle portion of disk lacking coarse punctures, series of fine punctures more or less conspicuous along apical margin; protibia 4-5 dentate, basal denticles weak, outer margin serrulate between teeth; mesotibia with two weak marginal spines; outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium without transverse basal stria, discal punctures moderately large, ocellate, mostly separated by about 0.5–1× their diameters; propygidial gland openings evident about one-third from anterior margin, and almost one-third from each lateral margin; pygidium with ground punctation fine, conspicuous in apical half, secondary punctation limited to basal half. Male genitalia (Figs 17D–F, H, K–L): T8 slightly longer than broad, sides subparallel, basal emargination broadly rounded, apical emargination inconspicuous, ventrolateral apodemes separated by about one-half maximum T8 width, extending about one-half distad beneath, strongly narrowed in apical half; S8 longer than T8, divided, inner margins approximate at base, strongly divergent apically, bearing fine, rather inconspicuous fringe of setae along apical one-fifth, outer margins subparallel to weakly divergent, apical guides well developed from just beyond base, narrowly rounded apically; T9 with basal apodemes thin, about one-half total length, T9 apices narrowly rounded, glabrous, ventrolateral apodemes weakly projecting beneath; S9 stem thin at middle, widened in basal half, head wide but weak, with weakly curved apicolateral points, strongly desclerotized along midline; tegmen narrow, with sides subparallel throughout, dorsobasal edge arcuate, tegmen in lateral aspect more or less straight, weakly curved ventrad at apex; median lobe about one-half tegmen length; basal piece about one-sixth tegmen length.

Remarks.

Baconia excelsa can be distinguished by its pattern of elytral striation (Fig. 16E), with striae 1–5 present to the base, but with 3–5 variably abbreviated from their apices, and the sutural stria deeply impressed in the apical two-thirds (also slightly abbreviated from the apex). Unusual characters also include the series of lateral submarginal pronotal punctures, not forming a distinct stria, but lying within a slightly linear depression.

Etymology.

This species’ name means high or lofty, as in the canopy from which it was collected.

Baconia violacea (Marseul, 1853)

http://species-id.net/wiki/Baconia_violacea

Fig 16F, Map 5
Phelister violaceus Marseul, 1853: 469; Phelister violaris Marseul 1857: 457 (emend.). Baconia violacea: Mazur 1984: 281.
Type locality.

NOUVELLE GRENADE [including parts of Colombia and Venzuela; exact locality uncertain].

Type material.

Lectotype, sex undetermined, here designated (MNHN): “Phelister violaris M., N. Gren. … [illegible]” / “TYPE” / “Museum Paris Coll. de Marseul 2842-90” / “LECTOTYPE Phelister violaceus Marseul, 1853, M.S.Caterino & A.K.Tishechkin des. 2010”.

Marseul’s poor labeling and inconsistent writings leave considerable room for question about the original identities of this and the following species. The specimen we designate as lectotype of Phelister violaceus is not labeled with that name anywhere, but only with ‘Phelister violaris’, a nomen nudum that Marseul accidentally used in subsequent publications, referring evidently to this species. However, the specimen we designate as lectotype of Phelister varicolor has both violaris and violaceus on the original data label, and ‘varicolor’ only on a secondary label, which does not look exactly like Marseul’s handwriting. The type localities for the two are identical (though vague), and no other identifying data is given in the publication (though the labels are not otherwise identical). In addition the species are extremely similar and not adequately distinguished by the original descriptions. Our interpretation is that all the specimens were originally designated as violaris (at the time presumably only a manuscript name), that for the publication Marseul emended that to violaceus, and that several years later he decided that one of the original violaceus specimens was distinct and was named as varicolor (with a separate label applied at that time.) We have no strong evidence for this, however, and must admit that we cannot be certain which specimens went with which name. Our lectotype designations will help to alleviate this ambiguity.

Diagnostic description.

Length: [not measured, ~2.3mm], width: [not measured, ~1.5mm]; body elongate oval, weakly depressed, glabrous; dorsum metallic, nonuniformly in lectotype, with head, pronotum and pygidia metallic blue, elytra contrastingly bronzy-violet, venter rufobrunneus to faintly metallic; frons elevated over antennal bases, rather strongly depressed along antero-posterior midline, ground punctation rather conspicuous, with moderately large secondary punctures within frontal depression, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, complete across front; antennal scape short, club rounded; epistoma slightly convex along apical margin, truncate to weakly emarginate; labrum about 3×wider than long, weakly emarginate along apical margin; pronotal sides rather strongly convergently arcuate to apex, depressed in anterior corners, marginal stria complete along lateral and anterior margins, lateral submarginal stria absent, ground punctation of pronotal disk rather conspicuous, interspersed with small secondary punctures across front and toward sides; elytra with three complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria present at base, dorsal striae 1–4 complete, 5th stria absent, sutural stria more or less complete, elytral disk with very few coarse punctures in apical fifth; prosternum rather narrow, weakly convex, keel shallowly emarginate at base, carinal striae complete, divergent anterad and posterad, separate throughout; prosternal lobe about one-half keel length, apical margin bluntly rounded, marginal stria nearly complete; mesoventrite produced at middle, marginal stria complete, mesometaventral stria complete, transverse, finely crenulate, meeting lateral metaventral stria, which curves posterolaterad toward middle of metacoxa, outer lateral metaventral stria short, oblique, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single lateral stria, slightly abbreviated apically, middle portion of disk impunctate; protibia 4 dentate, basal denticle weak, outer margin serrulate between teeth; mesotibia with two marginal spines; outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium without basal stria, discal punctures rather small, ocellate, denser in basal two-thirds; propygidial gland openings inconspicuous; pygidium with ground punctation interspersed with small secondary punctures throughout, denser basad. Male genitalia: not known.

Remarks.

As delineated here, the only distinctive characteristics of Baconia violacea are the pattern of elytral striae, with 1-4 and the sutural striae complete (Fig. 16F), the complete frontal stria, and the presence of a fine, transverse mesometaventral stria. In Baconia varicolor, the sutural stria is abbreviated from the base, the frontal stria is interrupted at the middle, and the mesometaventral stria is subangulately arched forward at the middle. The coloration of the lectotype of Baconia violacea is distinctive, but it is impossible to know how consistent that might be. Lewis (1888) reported this species from Guatemala in the BCA. However, we assign those specimens to Baconia varicolor.

Baconia varicolor (Marseul, 1887)

http://species-id.net/wiki/Baconia_varicolor

Figs 18A, 19A–B, G, I, L–M
Phelister varicolor Marseul, 1887b: cxlvii; Baconia varicolor Mazur 1984: 281.
Type locality.

NOUVELLE GRENADE [exact locality uncertain].

Type material.

Lectotype male, here designated (MNHN): “Phelister violaris M violaceus, N.Gren…[illegible]” / “Phelister violaceus ….[illegible]” / “varicolor” / “TYPE” / “LECTOTYPE Phelister varicolor Marseul, 1887, M.S.Caterino & A.K.Tishechkin des. 2010”. See discussion under the preceding species for information on this lectotype.

Other material.

2: BRAZIL: Santa Catarina: 14.v.1988 (BMNH), 3: no date (BMNH). 1: COLOMBIA (BMNH). 3: GUATEMALA: S. Geronimo, G. Champion (BMNH).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 2.2–2.5mm, width: 1.9–2.1mm; body elongate oval, weakly depressed, glabrous; dorsum metallic, varied in color from bronzy to greenish-blue to blue or blue-violet; frons elevated over antennal bases, rather strongly depressed along antero-posterior midline, ground punctation rather conspicuous, with moderately large secondary punctures within frontal depression, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, may be complete, but usually fragmented across front, supraorbital stria absent; antennal scape short, club slightly asymmetrically oblong; epistoma slightly convex along apical margin, truncate to weakly emarginate; labrum about 3×wider than long, weakly emarginate to bisinuate along apical margin; both mandibles with acute basal tooth; pronotal sides weakly convergent in basal half, arcuate to apex, depressed in anterior corners, marginal stria complete along lateral and anterior margins, lateral submarginal stria absent, ground punctation of pronotal disk rather conspicuous, interspersed with small secondary punctures toward sides, especially dense, subserially arranged near margin; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria present as basal and rarely median fragments, dorsal striae 1–4 complete, 4th stria arched mediad at base, variably, slightly abbreviated from apex, 5th stria absent, sutural stria present in apical half or more, elytral disk with few coarse punctures in apical fourth; prosternum weakly convex, keel weakly emarginate at base, carinal striae complete, divergent anterad and posterad, separate throughout; prosternal lobe about one-half keel length, weakly deflexed, apical margin rather narrowly rounded, marginal stria obsolete at sides; mesoventrite weakly produced, marginal stria complete, mesometaventral stria subangulately arched forward, narrowly detached at sides; lateral metaventral stria extending from near mesocoxa posterolaterad toward inner third of metacoxa, sinuate apically, outer lateral metaventral stria short, oblique, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single, complete lateral stria, middle portion of disk impunctate; protibia 4–5 dentate, basal denticles weak, outer margin serrulate between teeth; mesotibia with two weak marginal spines; outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium without basal stria, discal punctures rather small, ocellate, denser in basal half; propygidial gland openings inconspicuous; pygidium with ground punctation rather dense in apical half, interspersed with small secondary punctures in basal third only. Male genitalia (Figs 19A–B, G, I, L–M): T8 slightly longer than broad, sides weakly convergent, more or less straight, basal emargination narrowly rounded, apical emargination inconspicuous, ventrolateral apodemes separated by about one-half maximum T8 width, extending beneath to about longitudinal midpoint, narrowed in apical half; S8 halves fused along midline, with broadly expanded, membraneous apical velum, not obviously setose, outer margins subparallel to weakly divergent, apical guides moderately well developed from just beyond base, narrowly rounded apically; T9 with basal apodemes thin, about one-half total length, apices acute, glabrous, ventrolateral apodemes acutely projecting beneath; S9 stem narrowest about two-thirds from base, very weakly expanded to base, strongly desclerotized along midline; tegmen with sides widest near apex, sinuately narrowed toward base, tegmen in lateral aspect weakly curved ventrad in apical fourth; median lobe nearly one-half tegmen length; basal piece about one-third tegmen length.

Figure 18.

Baconia godmani group. A Dorsal habitus of lectotype of Baconia varicolor B Dorsal habitus of lectotype of Baconia dives C Dorsal habitus of Baconia eximia D Frons of Baconia eximia E Dorsal habitus of Baconia splendida F Frons of Baconia splendida G Dorsal habitus of Baconia jacinta H Pygidia of Baconia jacinta.

Figure 19.

Male genitalia of Baconia godmani group. A T8 of Baconia varicolor B S8 of Baconia varicolor C T8 of Baconia dives D S8 of Baconia dives E T8 of Baconia eximia F S8 of Baconia eximia G T9 & T10 of Baconia varicolor H T9 & T10 of Baconia eximia I S9 of Baconia varicolor J S9 of Baconia dives K S9 of Baconia eximia L Aedeagus, dorsal view of Baconia varicolor M Aedeagus, lateral view of Baconia varicolor N Aedeagus, lateral view of Baconia dives O Aedeagus, dorsal view of Baconia eximia P Aedeagus, lateral view of Baconia eximia.

Remarks.

This species is very hard to characterize. The description above is based on the lectotype (Fig. 18A), but other specimens considered to be this species vary in a number of significant characters. The name alone posits a variable species, but whether this variation is real or if it has been confused with close relatives is very hard to say. Male genitalia of the type are unique, with a broadly apically widened S8, but genitalia are not available for most other purported specimens of the species. So even our own non-type identifications are tentative. The species is most closely related to Baconia eximia and Baconia dives, all of which share a united male 8th sternite.

Baconia dives (Marseul, 1861)

http://species-id.net/wiki/Baconia_dives

Figs 18B, 19C–D, J, N, Map 5
Phelister dives Marseul, 1861: 157 (cited in error as ‘Marseul, 1862: 706’ by Mazur 1997); Baconia dives: Mazur 1984: 280.
Type locality.

BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro: [22.9°S, 43.2°W].

Type material.

Lectotype, sex undetermined, here designated (NHRS): “Rio Jan.” / “F. Sahlb.” / “Type” / “Typus” / “NHRS-VKBS 000000004” / “6903 E91 +” / “LECTOTYPE Phelister dives Marseul, M.S.Caterino & A.K.Tishechkin des. 2010”. Paralectotype: same data as type, NHRS-VKBS000000005. This species was described from an unspecified number of specimens, and the lectotype designation fixes primary type status on one of the original specimens.

Other material.

BOLIVIA, 1: Santa Cruz:Hotel Flora y Fauna, 4-5 km SSE Buena Vista, 17°29.925'S, 63°39.128'W, 440 m, 6–15.xii.2003, FIT, forest, S. & J. Peck (CMNC). BRAZIL: 1: Amazonas: Igarape Belem, nr. Rio Solimoes, 70 km E, of Leticia, 18–28.v.1970, under bark, B. Malkin (FMNH); 1: Rio Janauaca, 40 km SW Manaus, 03°20'S, 060°17'W, 10.iii.1979, fogging white water inundation forest canopy, T. Erwin (USNM); 1: Pará: Santarém (CMNH). COLOMBIA, 2: Meta: Villavicencio, 11.vii.1938, under bark, H. Dybas (FMNH); 1: 13.vii.1938, C. Seevers (USNM), 1: 25.vii.1938, under bark, H. Dybas (FMNH). FRENCH GUIANA:Belvèdére de Saül, 3°1'22"N, 53°12'34"W, 10.xii.2010, FIT, SEAG (CHND). MEXICO: 1: San Luis Potosí:intercepted in route to Texas, orchid del maiz (USNM). VENEZUELA, 2: Anzoátegui: Los Naranjos, Rio Neveri (+ or -) 900 m, 25.viii.1966, L. Joly (MHNLS). PERU: Loreto: Iquitos, Rio Nanay, 4–6.ii.1984, L. Huggert (MHNG).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 2.2–2.6mm, width: 1.9–2.2mm; body elongate oval, weakly depressed, glabrous; dorsum metallic, more or less uniformly blue to blue-violet; frons elevated over antennal bases, rather strongly depressed along antero-posterior midline, ground punctation rather conspicuous, with few moderately large secondary punctures within frontal depression, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, curving mediad, interrupted at middle, supraorbital stria absent; antennal scape short; epistoma depressed in middle, slightly convex along distal margin, truncate to weakly emarginate; labrum about 3×wider than long, weakly emarginate to bisinuate along apical margin; both mandibles with acute basal tooth; pronotal sides increasingly arcuate to apex, depressed in extreme anterior corners, marginal stria complete along lateral and anterior margins, crenulate in front, lateral submarginal stria absent, ground punctation of pronotal disk rather conspicuous, interspersed with small secondary punctures along front and toward sides; elytra with three complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria present as basal and median fragments, dorsal striae 1–4 more or less complete, inner striae weakly abbreviated from apices, 4th stria arched mediad at base, 5th stria mostly absent, may be represented by basal puncture, sutural stria present in apical two-thirds, elytral disk with coarse punctures in apical fourth; prosternum weakly convex, keel weakly emarginate at base, carinal striae complete, divergent anterad and posterad, separate throughout; prosternal lobe slightly over one-half keel length, weakly deflexed, apical margin rather narrowly rounded, marginal stria obsolete at sides; mesoventrite weakly produced at middle, marginal stria complete, mesometaventral stria arched forward, crenulate, interrupted at middle, laterally meeting lateral metaventral stria, which extends posterolaterad toward middle of metacoxa, sinuate apically, outer lateral metaventral stria very short, oblique, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single lateral stria, abbreviated apically, middle portion of disk impunctate; protibia 4–5 dentate, basal denticles weak, outer margin serrulate between teeth; mesotibia with one prominent and one weak marginal spine; outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium without basal stria, discal punctures rather small, ocellate, separated by 1–2× their diameters, sparser apically; propygidial gland openings rather conspicuous one-third from basal and lateral margins; pygidium with ground punctation very fine, interspersed with small secondary punctures mainly in basal third. Male genitalia (Figs 19C–D, J, N): T8 slightly longer than broad, sides subparallel, more or less straight, with superficial dorsal sclerotizations in basal half, basal emargination narrowly rounded, apical emargination deep, subacute, basal rim slightly explanate, ventrolateral apodemes separated by about one-half maximum T8 width, extending beneath to about one-third from base; S8 elongate, halves fused along midline, with weakly expanded, membraneous apical velum bearing a dense setal fringe, apical guides moderately well developed, widest near middle, narrowly rounded apically; T9 with basal apodemes moderately thick, about one-half total T9 length, apices subacute, glabrous, ventrolateral apodemes weakly produced beneath; S9 stem parallel-sided, strongly desclerotized along midline; tegmen with sides widest near apex, sinuately narrowed toward base (as in Baconia varicolor), in lateral aspect slightly thickened near middle, very weakly curved toward apex; median lobe nearly one-half tegmen length; basal piece about one-third tegmen length.

Remarks.

Baconia dives is a relatively large, convex, laterally rounded species (Fig. 18B). It is best recognized by the elytral striation, with the inner subhumeral and striae 1–4 largely complete (though they may be weakly abbreviated from their apices), with the base of the 4th stria arched slightly mediad, the 5th stria represented by only a basal puncture, and the sutural stria present in the apical two-thirds. It lacks submarginal pronotal or basal propygidial striae, and has its mesometaventral stria weakly arched forward and finely crenulate across the middle (rarely interrupted). In this species, as well as in Baconia eximia, Baconia varicolor (and perhaps a few others of the above whose males are not known), the halves of the 8th sternite are fused along part of the midline.

Baconia eximia (Lewis, 1888)

http://species-id.net/wiki/Baconia_eximia

Figs 18C–D, 19E–F, H, K, O–P, Map 5
Phelister eximius Lewis, 1888: 191; Baconia eximia: Mazur 1984: 280.
Type locality.

NICARAGUA: Chontales [exact locality uncertain].

Type material.

Holotype, sex undetermined (BMNH): “Chontales. Janson” / “Sp. figured” / “eximius Lewis Type” / “B.C.A., Col., II, (1). Phelister”. This species was explicitly described from a single specimen.

Other material.

BELIZE, 1: Cayo: Las Cuevas Res. Sta., 16°44.33'N, 88°59.07'W, 550 m, 28.v.2000, FIT, M. Caterino, DNA Extract MSC-0065, EXO-01142; 1: Orange Walk: Rio Bravo Cons. Area, 25–30.iv.1996, FIT, C.E. Carlton (CHPWK). GUATEMALA: 2: Zacapa: Santa Clara, in interior valley of Sierra de las Minas (N. of Cabanas), 5500 ft, 9.viii.1948, under bark, R. Mitchell (FMNH); 1: Santa Cruz, Marble Quarry rd, NE Teculutan, 15°04.454'N, 89°41.074'W, 1539m, 17.v.2006, R.S. Zack (WSUC). MEXICO: 1: Veracruz: 15 mi W Tlapacoyan, 28.ii.1972, F. Parker & D. Miller (CHND); 1: Quintana Roo: Chetumal, 24.x.2004, M. Sawoniewicz (MHNG), 1: 30.x.2004, M. Sawoniewicz (MHNG). NICARAGUA, 1: Granada: Res. Nat. Volcan Mombacho, entrance rd, 11°50.05'N, 85°58.83'W, 910 m, 1–5.vi.2002, FIT, R. Brooks, Z. Falin & S. Chatzimanolis (SEMC); 1: Rio San Juan: Ref. Bartola, 8 km SE El Castillo , 10°58.6'N, 84°20.4'W, 30 m, 25-31.v.2002, FIT, rainforest, S. Peck (CMNC). PANAMA:1: Colón: P. N. San Lorenzo, Achiote, Cafetal A Dist. , 9°12'N, 79°58'W, 10 m, 12-26.v.2008, FIT, A. Mercado (AKTC); 1: P. N. San Lorenzo, Achiote, Pastizal B Dist., 9°12'N, 79°59'W, 0 m, 12-27.v.2008, FIT, A. Mercado (GBFM); 1: Barro Colorado Island, 9°10'N, 79°50'W, 15–27.v.1972, T. & L. Erwin (CHND); 1: Barro Colorado Island, 9°11'N, 79°51'W, 15.vii.1994, FIT, D. Banks (SEMC), 1: 1-10.viii.2005, J. McHugh, DNA Extract MSC-1901, EXO-00431, 1: 1–10.viii.2005, J. McHugh, N. Nguyen & C. Rodriguez (MSCC), 1: 14.vii.1969, in rotting fruit, W. Overal (FMNH).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 2.2–2.6mm, width: 2.2–2.3mm; body elongate oval, weakly depressed, glabrous; dorsum metallic blue, head and pronotum greenish-blue, contrasting slightly with elytra; frons transversely elevated between antennal bases, weakly depressed behind, interocular margins strongly convergent dorsad, ground punctation fine, with few secondary punctures near vertex, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, interrupted over antennal bases, but complete across middle, supraorbital stria absent; antennal scape short, club broadly rounded; epistoma weakly concave below frontal ridge, apical margin truncate to weakly emarginate; labrum about 3×wider than long, weakly emarginate apically; both mandibles with acute basal tooth; pronotal sides weakly convergent in basal half, somewhat abruptly arcuate to apex, weakly depressed in anterior corners, marginal stria complete along lateral and anterior margins, lateral submarginal stria absent, ground punctation of pronotal disk very fine, interspersed with small secondary punctures in lateral third; elytra with three complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria present in basal fourth, dorsal striae 1-3 complete, 4th stria variably abbreviated from apex, occasionally absent, 5th stria absent, sutural stria present in about apical three-fourths, elytral disk with few coarse punctures in apical fourth; prosternum moderately broad, weakly convex, keel very weakly emarginate at base, carinal striae complete, divergent anterad and posterad, separate throughout; prosternal lobe rather short, about one-half keel length, apical margin broadly rounded, marginal stria deeply impressed at middle, fragmented at sides; mesoventrite weakly produced at middle, marginal stria interrupted, mesometaventral stria absent; lateral metaventral stria extending from near mesocoxa posterolaterad toward middle of metacoxa, slightly abbreviated, sinuate apically, outer lateral metaventral stria short, oblique, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single lateral stria abbreviated apically, middle portion of disk impunctate; protibia weakly 4–5 dentate, outer margin serrulate between teeth; mesotibia with two weak marginal spines; outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium without basal stria, discal punctures rather small, ocellate, denser in basal half; propygidial gland openings evident about one-fourth from anterior margin, one-third from lateral margins; pygidium with fine ground punctation uniformly interspersed with small secondary punctures. Male genitalia (Figs 19E–F, H, K, O–P): T8 slightly longer than broad, sides subparallel, more or less straight, basal emargination shallowly rounded, apical emargination shallow, narrow, subacute, ventrolateral apodemes separated by about one-half maximum T8 width, extending beneath to about one-third from base; S8 elongate, halves fused along midline, with membraneous apical velum bearing a fine but dense setal fringe, apical guides weakly developed, widest near apex; T9 with basal apodemes moderately thick, about one-third total T9 length, apices bent mediad, narrowly rounded, glabrous, ventrolateral apodemes weakly produced beneath; S9 stem parallel-sided in basal two-thirds, expanded abruptly, then more gradually to narrow, subquadrate, divergent apices, more strongly sclerotized in apical half, apical margin shallowly divided; tegmen long, narrow, widest near apex, in lateral aspect slightly thickened in apical half, very weakly curved over entire length; median lobe about one-third tegmen length; basal piece about one-third tegmen length.

Remarks.

Among those few Baconia godmani group species having the halves of the male 8th sternite fused, Baconia eximia can be recognized by its distinctive, more or less complete transverse frontal elevation (Fig. 18D). Other helpful characters include the 4th elytral stria being abbreviated from apex (Fig. 18C) and the absence of the mesometaventral stria. There is some evident variation among known specimens, with those from Nicaragua showing much finer propygidial and pygidial punctation.

Type locality.

ECUADOR: Orellana:Res. Ethnica Waorani [0.67°N, 76.43°W].

Type material.

Holotype female: “ECUADOR: Depto. Orellana:Res. Ethnica Waorani, 1km S Onkone Gare Camp, Trans. Ent., 0°39'10"S, 76°26'W, 220m, 22 January 1994, T.L. Erwin et al. collectors” / “Insecticidal fogging of mostly bare green leaves, some with covering of lichenous or bryophytic plants in terra firme forest. Project MAXUS Lot 624 Trans. 5 Sta. 2” / “Caterino/Tishechkin Exosternini Voucher EXO-00435” (USNM).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 2.3mm, width: 1.9mm; body elongate oval, subparallel-sided, moderately strongly depressed, glabrous; head and pronotum metallic greenish-blue, elytra brightly metallic blue, pygidia intermediately (in color) greenish-blue, venter rufo-brunneus; frons weakly elevated over antennal bases, weakly depressed along midline, ground punctation rather conspicuous, with numerous coarser punctures on epistoma, within frontal depression, and toward vertex; frontal stria present along inner margin of eye and across front, but interrupted at middle, frontal-vertical margin sharp, supraorbital stria absent; antennal scape short, apex obliquely truncate, club elongate; epistoma apex truncate; labrum about 4×wider than long, weakly emarginate along apical margin; both mandibles with acute basal tooth; pronotal sides weakly convergent in basal three-fourths, arcuate to apex, depressed in anterior corners, marginal stria complete along lateral and anterior margins, slightly crenulate in front, lateral submarginal stria absent, ground punctation of pronotal disk fine, uniform, densely and almost uniformly interspersed with conspicuous secondary punctures, relatively impunctate only in basomedial area; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria complete, dorsal striae 1-5 complete, sutural stria present in apical half, elytral disk with few coarse punctures in apical fifth; prosternum weakly convex, keel weakly truncate at base, carinal striae complete, convergent between coxae, separate throughout; prosternal lobe about two-thirds keel length, apical margin bluntly rounded, marginal stria weak, obsolete at sides; mesoventrite weakly sinuate, marginal stria complete, mesometaventral stria arched forward at middle, weakly crenulate, detached at sides; lateral metaventral stria extending from near mesocoxa posterolaterad toward middle of metacoxa, outer lateral metaventral stria absent, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single, complete lateral stria, middle portion of disk impunctate; protibia 4 dentate, rather deeply emarginate between middle pair of denticles, outer margin serrulate between; mesotibia with two weak marginal spines; outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium without basal stria, discal punctures ocellate, large at middle, separated by less than their diameters, smaller and sparser to sides and apex; propygidial gland openings evident about one-third from anterior margin and one-fourth from lateral margins; pygidium with ground punctation fine and rather dense, secondary punctures interspersed throughout, becoming smaller toward apex. Male: not known.

Map 6.

Baconia godmani group records.

Remarks.

This species is quite distinct in its complete elytral striae 1–5 (as well as the inner subhumeral), more or less uniformly punctate pronotum (Fig. 18E), and weakly depressed, strongly punctate frons and epistoma (Fig. 18F). The contrast between the greenish-blue head and pronotum and the deep blue elytra is particularly strong in this species.

Etymology.

This species is named for its splendid metallic coloration.

Type locality.

GUATEMALA: Sacatepequez [14.61°N, 90.72°W].

Type material.

Holotype male: “Finca San Rafael, Sacatepequez, VII:1:48 GUAT. Elev. 6900 ft.” / “CNHM Guatemala Zool.Exped.(1948) R.D.Mitchell let.” / “under bark” / “FMNH-INS 0000 069 301” (FMNH). Paratypes (2): GUATEMALA: Zacapa: Santa Clara, in interior valley of Sierra de las Minas (N. of Cabañas), 5500 ft, 9.viii.1948, under bark, R. Mitchell (FMNH, MSCC).

Other material.

1: MEXICO: Veracruz: 15 mi W Tlapacoyan, 28.ii.1972, F. Parker & D. Miller (CHSM).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 2.3–2.4mm, width: 1.9–2.1mm; body elongate oval, moderately depressed, glabrous; head and pronotum metallic blue, usually faintly greener than deep blue metallic elytra and pygidia, venter rufo-brunneus with faint metallic tinge; frons elevated over antennal bases, depressed along antero-posterior midline, ground punctation rather conspicuous, with few secondary punctures within frontal depression, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, curving mediad, but usually interrupted above antennal bases, at middle, or both, supraorbital stria absent; antennal scape short, club rounded; epistoma truncate to weakly emarginate; labrum about 3×wider than long, weakly emarginate along apical margin; both mandibles with acute basal tooth; pronotal sides weakly convergent in basal half, arcuate to apex, depressed in anterior corners, marginal stria complete along lateral and anterior margins, slightly crenulate in front, lateral submarginal stria absent, ground punctation of pronotal disk fine, inconspicuous across middle, sparsely interspersed with small secondary punctures toward sides; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria present in basal fifth, dorsal striae 1–3 usually complete, 3rd stria may be abbreviated apically, 4th stria present in basal half only, slightly abbreviated from apex, 5th stria absent, sutural stria present in up to apical half, may be very weak, mostly obsolete, elytral disk with few coarse punctures in apical fifth; prosternum moderately broad, weakly convex, keel weakly emarginate at base, carinal striae complete, divergent anterad and posterad, separate throughout; prosternal lobe about one-half keel length, apical margin bluntly rounded, marginal stria weak, fragmented; mesoventrite weakly produced, marginal stria complete, mesometaventral stria absent; lateral metaventral stria extending from near mesocoxa posterolaterad toward outer third of metacoxa, sinuate apically, outer lateral metaventral stria absent, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with lateral stria abbreviated, middle portion of disk impunctate; protibia 4-5 dentate, basal denticles weak, outer margin serrulate between teeth; mesotibia with one marginal spine and short series of weak submarginal spines toward base; outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium without basal stria, but with several small discal punctures subserially arranged near basal margin, discal punctures otherwise small, ocellate, irregularly separated by 1–3× their diameters, sparser in apical half; propygidial gland openings evident about one-third from anterior and lateral margins; pygidium with ground punctation conspicuous, secondary punctures very small and restricted to near basal margin. Male genitalia (Fig. 20): T8 slightly longer than broad, sides weakly rounded, convergent to apex, basal emargination shallowly rounded, basal rim weakly explanate, apical emargination deep, narrow, ventrolateral apodemes separated by about three-fourths maximum T8 width, extending beneath to about one-third from base; S8 very short, halves separate, with dense setal fringe along entire apical margin, apical guides moderately well developed, similar in length throughout; T9 with basal apodemes moderately thin, short, about one-fourth total T9 length, apices long, gradually narrowed, ventrolateral apodemes fused for about one-fourth total T9 length beneath; S9 wide throughout, slightly narrowed in basal half, sides otherwise subparallel, lateral margins more strongly sclerotized, apical margin broadly emarginate; tegmen widest just basad midpoint, narrowed to base and apex, in lateral aspect slightly thickened in apical half, curved ventrad near apex; median lobe and basal piece each about one-third tegmen length.

Figure 20.

Male genitalia of Baconia jacinta. A T8 B S8 C T9 & T10 D S9 E Aedeagus, dorsal view F Aedeagus, lateral view.

Remarks.

This species is moderately distinctive externally, with its 4th stria abbreviated from apex, 5th absent (Fig. 18G), mesometaventral stria absent, pygidium with very few secondary punctures (Fig. 18H), no basal propygidial stria, relatively few lateral pronotal punctures, and hints of metallic ventrally. In addition it has highly distinctive male genitalia, with a very short, strongly fringed 8th sternite, and a ventral fusion of the halves of the 9th tergite. The specimen from Veracruz, Mexico is excluded from the types series as it shows a much more strongly impressed elytral sutural stria.

Etymology.

This species’ name refers to its blue coloration, ‘jacinta’ being Spanish for hyacinth.

Type locality.

MEXICO: Veracruz: Motzorongo [18.64°N, 96.73°W].

Type material.

Holotype female: “Motzorongo. 6” / “[handwritten, mostly unreadable] Schmidt!” / “MEXICO coll. J.Flohr” / “Caterino/Tishechkin Exosternini Voucher EXO-00488” (ZMHB).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 2.2mm, width: 1.9mm; body slightly elongate oval, rather strongly convex, glabrous; head, pronotum and elytra dark metallic green, pygidia only faintly metallic, venter rufo-piceous; frons elevated over antennal bases and along sides of frontal stria, slightly depressed behind, ground punctation rather conspicuous, with few secondary punctures on epistoma and within frontal depression, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, bent mediad, complete, subangulate mediad; epistoma weakly convex along apical margin, truncate; labrum about 3×wider than long, transversely subcarinate, weakly bisinuate along apical margin; antennal scape short; pronotal sides evenly convergent in basal two-thirds, abruptly arcuate to apex, weakly depressed in anterior corners, marginal stria complete along lateral and anterior margins, slightly crenulate in front, lateral submarginal stria absent, ground punctation of pronotal disk conspicuous, increasingly interspersed with small secondary punctures in lateral thirds, punctures forming a more or less continuous submarginal series; elytra with three complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria present in basal fifth and as faint median fragment, dorsal striae 1-3 usually complete, 3rd stria faintly abbreviated apically, 4th stria present in basal half, arched to connect to base of complete sutural stria, 5th stria absent, elytral disk with few coarse punctures in apical sixth; prosternum convex, keel emarginate at base, carinal striae complete, divergent anterad and posterad, separate throughout; prosternal lobe about two-thirds keel length, apical margin bluntly rounded, marginal stria well impressed at middle, obsolete at sides; mesoventrite distinctly produced, marginal stria complete, mesometaventral stria arched forward, narrowly interrupted at middle, continuous at sides with lateral metaventral stria, extending obliquely posterolaterad toward inner third of metacoxa, outer lateral metaventral stria present, parallel to basal half of inner stria, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single, complete lateral stria, middle portion of disk impunctate; protibia 4 dentate, basal pair of denticles very close together, outer margin serrulate between teeth; mesotibia with one marginal spine; outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium without basal stria, discal punctures ocellate, very irregularly separated by 1-3× their diameters, smaller and sparser apically and laterally; propygidial gland openings evident about one-third from anterior and one-fourth from lateral margins; pygidium with ground punctation conspicuous, secondary punctures rather coarse and dense in basal half, smaller and sparser apically. Male: not known.

Figure 21.

Baconia godmani group. A Dorsal habitus of Baconia prasina B Lateral habitus of Baconia prasina Frons of Baconia prasina D Dorsal habitus of Baconia opulenta E Dorsal habitus of lectotype of Baconia illustris.

Remarks.

This is a highly distinctive species, in its relatively convex body form and dull green coloration (Fig. 21A), complete frontal stria (Fig. 21C), and basally connected 4th and sutural elytral striae.

Etymology.

This species’ name refers to its distinctly green coloration.

Type locality.

COSTA RICA: Limon: Sardinas [10.7°N, 83.7°W].

Type material.

Holotype female (head mounted separately on point): “Sardinas, Barra del Colorado, Prov. Limon. COSTA RICA. 15m, 26 ABR-3MAY 1995. F. Araya, L N 291900 565900 #4639 / “INBIOCRI002170110” (INBIO).

Diagnostic description.

Length: 2.0mm, width: 1.7mm; body elongate oval, sides weakly rounded, moderately depressed, glabrous; head, pronotum and elytra uniformly metallic blue, with violet and greenish hints, pygidia and venter rufo-piceous; frons broad, weakly elevated above antennal bases, slightly depressed at middle, interocular margins strongly convergent dorsad, ground punctation fine, with a few secondary punctures at middle and near vertex, frontal stria fine, close to inner margin of eye, curving mediad but interrupted over antennal bases and in middle; supraorbital stria absent; epistoma weakly convex along apical and lateral margins; labrum about 3×wider than long, apically depressed, upper edge of depression arcuate and subcarinate; each mandible with acute basal tooth; antennal scape short, club asymmetrically oblong; pronotal sides weakly convergent in basal two-thirds, abruptly arcuate to apex, distinctly depressed in anterior corners, marginal stria complete along lateral and anterior margins, slightly crenulate in front, lateral submarginal stria absent, ground punctation of pronotal disk very fine, with small secondary punctures sparsely interspersed in lateral thirds; elytra with 2 complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria present as short basal fragment, dorsal striae 1-4 complete, 4th stria arched toward suture at base, 5th stria absent, sutural stria present in apical two-thirds, elytral disk with few coarse punctures in apical fifth; prosternum moderately broad, weakly convex, keel very shallowly emarginate at base, carinal striae complete, slightly convergent at middle but separate throughout; prosternal lobe slightly less than half keel length, apical margin bluntly rounded, marginal stria more or less complete (becoming series of connected punctures at sides); mesoventrite sinuate, weakly produced at middle, marginal stria narrowly interrupted, mesometaventral stria weakly arched forward, crenulate, continuous at sides with lateral metaventral stria, which extends posterolaterad toward inner third of metacoxa, outer lateral metaventral stria absent, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single lateral stria slightly abbreviated, middle portion of disk impunctate; protibia 4 dentate, basal denticle weak, outer margin only faintly serrulate; mesotibia with two weak marginal spines; outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium without basal stria, ground punctation very fine, discal punctures large and rather deep mediobasally, separated by slightly less than their diameters, smaller and sparser to sides and apical margin; propygidial gland openings conspicuous nearly one-half from anterior and one-fourth from lateral margins; pygidium with ground punctation fine, sparse, secondary punctures small, uniformly separated by about 4× their diameters. Male: not known.

Remarks.

This species’ rather depressed body form, in combination with non-metallic pygidium, elytral striae 1-4 complete with the 4th arched basally (Fig. 21D), and the triply interrupted frontal stria will distinguish it from all others.

Etymology.

This species’ name refers to its rich, deep blue coloration.

Baconia illustris (Lewis, 1900)

http://species-id.net/wiki/Baconia_illustris

Fig. 21E
Phelister illustris Lewis, 1900: 226; Baconia illustris: Mazur 1984: 280.
Type locality.

BRAZIL [exact locality uncertain].

Type material.

Lectotype, sex undetermined, here designated (BMNH): “Brazil” / “Barton” / “Phelister illustris Lewis Type” / “G.Lewis Coll. B.M.1926-369” / “LECTOTYPE Phelister illustris Lewis, M.S.Caterino & A.K.Tishechkin des. 2010”. This species was described from an unspecified number of specimens, and the lectotype designation fixes primary type status on the only known original specimen.

Diagnostic description.

Length: [not measured, ~2.5mm], width: [not measured, ~1.5mm]; body slightly elongate oval, rather strongly convex, glabrous; head slightly greenish-blue, pronotum and pygidia metallic violet-blue, elytra strongly violet, venter rufo-brunneus, but with distinct metallic tinge; frons weakly elevated over antennal bases, slightly depressed in middle, with few secondary punctures within frontal depression, frontal stria present along inner margin of eye, bent mediad, obsolete across middle; labrum about 3×wider than long, apical margin straight; antennal scape short; pronotal sides weakly rounded, convergent, weakly depressed in anterior corners, marginal stria complete along lateral and anterior margins, slightly crenulate in front, lateral submarginal stria absent, ground punctation of pronotal disk conspicuous, increasingly interspersed with coarse secondary punctures in lateral thirds; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria present only as short basal fragment, dorsal striae 1-3 complete, 4th stria nearly complete, becoming fragmented/obsolete in apical fourth, 5th stria absent, sutural stria complete, elytral disk with coarse punctures in apical fourth; prosternum convex, keel emarginate at base, carinal striae complete, divergent anterad and posterad, separate throughout; prosternal lobe about one-half keel length, apical margin bluntly rounded, marginal stria well impressed at middle, obsolete at sides; mesoventrite distinctly produced, marginal stria complete, mesometaventral stria absent, lateral metaventral stria extending obliquely posterolaterad toward middle of metacoxa, outer lateral metaventral stria present as short basal striole, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single lateral stria slightly abbreviated, curved mediad at apex, middle portion of disk impunctate; protibia tridentate, with 2 additional minute basal denticles, outer margin serrulate between teeth; mesotibia with one marginal spine; outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium without basal stria, discal punctures rather deep, separated by their diameters in basal half, much smaller and sparser in apical half; pygidium with ground punctation conspicuous, secondary punctures few and restricted to basal margin. Male genitalia: not known.

Remarks.

The color pattern, strongly rounded and convex body form (Fig. 21E), and complete sutural stria are adequate to recognize this species. This species’ type locality is too vague to pinpoint.

Baconia choaspites Lewis, 1901

http://species-id.net/wiki/Baconia_choaspites

Figs 22A–B, Map 6
Baconia choaspites Lewis, 1901: 372.
Type locality.

BRAZIL: Pernambuco: Serra de Communaty [exact locality unknown].

Type material.

Lectotype, sex undetermined, here designated (BMNH): “Serra de Communaty (Pernambuco) Gounelle 1.2.3.1893” / “Baconia choaspites Lewis Type” / “G.Lewis Coll. B.M.1926-369” / “LECTOTYPE Baconia choaspites Lewis, M.S.Caterino & A.K.Tishechkin des. 2010”. This species was described from an unspecified number of specimens, and the lectotype designation fixes primary type status on the only known original specimen.

Diagnostic description.

Length: [not measured, ~2.2mm], width: [not measured, ~1.3mm]; body elongate oval, moderately strongly flattened, glabrous; head, pronotum and pygidia slightly greenish-blue, elytra metallic blue, venter rufo-piceous; frons rather broad, very weakly depressed in middle, with few secondary medial punctures, frontal stria weak, present along inner margin of eye, obsolete across front; labrum about 3×wider than long, very deeply emarginate apically; antennal scape short, club rounded; pronotal sides weakly but evenly arcuate, convergent to front, depressed in anterior corners, marginal stria complete along lateral and anterior margins, slightly crenulate in front, lateral submarginal stria absent, ground punctation of pronotal disk conspicuous, increasingly interspersed with coarse secondary punctures in lateral thirds; elytra with two complete epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria absent, inner subhumeral stria present only as short basal fragment, dorsal striae 1–2 complete, 1st stria arched mediad at base, 3rd stria more or less complete but becoming fragmented toward apex, 4th stria slightly shorter than third, similarly fragmented apically, arched toward suture at base, 5th and sutural striae absent, elytral disk with coarse punctures in apical fourth; prosternum moderately broad, weakly convex, keel very shallowly emarginate at base, carinal striae complete, subparallel, separate throughout; prosternal lobe about one-half keel length, apical margin bluntly rounded, marginal stria well impressed at middle, obsolete at sides; mesoventrite faintly produced, marginal stria narrowly interrupted at middle, mesometaventral stria arched strongly forward, lateral metaventral stria slightly sinuate, extending obliquely posterolaterad toward outer third of metacoxa, abbreviated apically, outer lateral metaventral stria short, fragmented, metaventral disk impunctate at middle; abdominal ventrite 1 with single lateral stria slightly abbreviated, curved mediad at apex, middle portion of disk impunctate; protibia tridentate, with 2 additional minute basal denticles; mesotibia with one marginal spine; outer metatibial margin smooth; propygidium without basal stria, discal punctures rather deep, somewhat irregularly separated by about their diameters throughout; pygidium with ground punctation conspicuous, secondary punctures small and sparse, mainly limited to basal half. Male genitalia: not known.

Figure 22.

Baconia godmani group. A Frons of lectotype of Baconia choaspites B Ventral habitus of lectotype of Baconia choaspites C Dorsal habitus of lectotype of Baconia lewisi D Ventral habitus of lectotype of Baconia lewisi.

Remarks.

This species is placed in the Baconia godmani group due to overall similarity, but the deeply emarginate labrum (Fig. 22A) is unusual in the group. This feature, as well as the widely separated, parallel prosternal carinal striae (Fig. 22B) will help identify it. The basal curvature of the 1st dorsal elytral stria is unique, but it seems somewhat questionable that it represents more than an individual aberration. Confirmation of these characters would help better define this apparently distinctive species. Discovery of a male specimen to allow study of male genitalia would also help confirm its placement in the Baconia godmani group.

Baconia