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Taxonomic study of the leafhopper genus Oncopsis (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Macropsinae) from Sichuan Province, China with description of two new species and a key to males
expand article infoHu Li§, Juan Li§, Ren-Huai Dai
‡ Institute of Entomology of Guizhou University, Guizhou, China
§ Shaanxi University of Technology, Shaanxi, China
Open Access

Abstract

This paper deals with the leafhopper genus Oncopsis (Macropsinae) from Sichuan Province of China, and describes and illustrates two new species, O. konkaensis sp. nov. from Minya Konka (Sichuan), and O. moxiensis sp. nov. from Moxi Town (Sichuan), and provides a key to males and a geographic distribution map for Oncopsis species from Sichuan.

Keywords

Auchenorrhyncha, China, distribution, morphology, taxonomy

Introduction

The leafhopper genus Oncopsis Burmeister, 1838 includes more than 90 members (Dai et al. 2018, Li et al. 2018) around the world, and is the second largest group in the subfamily Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Oncopsis has been treated as a tribe of the subfamily Eurymelinae recently (Dietrich and Thomas 2018), and has a distribution mostly in the Holarctic region. The type species is Cicada flavicollis Linnaeus, 1761. Oncopsis differs from other macropsine genera in having the face with coronal pits closer together than the ocelli, the usually transversely striate pronotum, the male pygofer without a process, and the s-shaped male dorsal connective that is usually produced into various processes from its inner ventral margin.

Almost all species of Oncopsis are oligophagous or monophagous on Betulaceae, including Betula procurva Litv., B. turkestanica Litv., Alnus barbata C.A.Mey., A. hirsuta (Spach) Rupr., A. japonica (Thunb.) Steud., Duschekia spp., and Carpinus betulus L. (Tishechkin 2016). Only one species, Oncopsis krios Mühlethaler, is an exception and is associated with Ulmus sp. (Ulmaceae) (Mühlethaler 2008). Sichuan Province is located in the Qinghai-Tibet, southwest and central China regions under the divisions of Zoogeographical Regions of China (Chen 1997), a key area for insect biodiversity. The first species of Oncopsis recorded in China, O. fusca (Melichar, 1902), was reported from Sichuan Province. Later, Xu et al. (2006), Dai and Li (2013), Kuoh (1992), Li et al. (2018) and Dai et al. (2018) described new species or reported Oncopsis from this area. To date, 14 species of Oncopsis, including the two new species described here, are known from Sichuan Province, which has more than 40% of the total number (n = 33) of Oncopsis species distributed in China (Dai et al. 2018, Li et al. 2018).

In the present paper, the genus Oncopsis from Sichuan Province, China is reviewed, and two new species, O. konkaensis, sp. nov. from Minya Konka and O. moxiensis, sp. nov. from Moxi Town, are described and illustrated. A geographic distribution map and a key for identification of Oncopsis from Sichuan Province (based on male features) are provided.

Materials and methods

Specimens were collected by sweep net. External morphology was observed under an Olympus SZX7 and BX43 microscopes. Male genitalia preparations were made by placing the whole abdomen in a boiling solution of 8% NaOH for 5 minutes, then rinsing with fresh water several times and transferring into glycerin on glass slides for examination, dissection, drawing, and photography. The dissected genitalia and remains of the abdomen were stored in micro vials containing glycerin for further examination.

Habitus images of adults were obtained with an Olympus SZX7 microscope associating with a Canon EOS 550D camera. Genitalia drawings were made and edited with Adobe Illustrator CS6 and Photoshop CS6.

The morphological terminology used in this work for the species descriptions follow the works of Anufriev (1967), Hamilton (1980), and Tishechkin (2017). The body length was measured from the apex of the head to the end of the forewings and is given in millimeters.

The type specimens of the new species are deposited in the Museum of Zoology and Botany, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong, China (SUHC), and the other examined specimens are deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, China (GUGC).

Taxonomy

Oncopsis Burmeister, 1838

Bythoscopus (Oncopsis) Burmeister, 1838: 10.

Zinneca Amyot & Servile, 1843: 579; Hamilton 1980: 887 (synonymy).

Type species

Cicada flavicollis Linnaeus, 1761 [by subsequent designation, Westwood 1840].

Distribution

Palaearctic, Oriental, and Nearctic realms.

Host

Betulaceae and Ulmus spp. (Ulmaceae).

Remarks

Oncopsis can be distinguished from other genera of Macropsinae largely by the following combined features: face with coronal pits closer together than ocelli; frons usually with transverse striations or punctures; pronotum with transverse striations; forewing with three (rarely two or reticulate) anteapical and four apical cells; male pygofer without process at ventral margin; dorsal connective generally large, s-shaped in lateral aspect, and bearing large, forked or unforked process from inner ventral margin; dorsal connective usually articulating against upper margin of pygofer.

Oncopsis anchorous Xu, Liang & Li, 2006

Oncopsis anchorous Xu, Liang & Li, 2006: 836

Material examined

1 male [Holotype], 1 male and 1 female [Paratypes]: CHINA: Sichuan Province, Emeishan, 16-vii-1995, collected by Mao-Fa Yang (GUGC).

Distribution

Sichuan (Fig. 65).

Oncopsis furca Liu & Zhang, 2003

Oncopsis furca Liu & Zhang, 2003: 181

Material examined

1 male: CHINA: Sichuan Province, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Garzê, Luding County, Moxi Town, Hailuogou, 3000 m above sea level, 29-vii-2012, collected by Meng Jiao (GUGC).

Distribution

Sichuan (Fig. 65), Gansu, and Qinghai (Dai et al. 2018, Li et al. 2018).

Oncopsis fusca (Melichar, 1902)

Bythoscopus fuscus Melichar, 1902: 120

Oncopsis fusca Metcalf 1966: 219; Lauterer and Anufriev 1969: 162

Material examined

None.

Distribution

Sichuan (Fig. 65), Tibet, and Hubei; Philippines, and Malaysia (Dai et al. 2018, Li et al. 2018).

Oncopsis graciaedeagus Li, Dai & Li, 2018

Oncopsis graciaedeagus Li, Dai & Li, 2018: 31

Material examined

1 male [Holotype], 5 males and 3 females [Paratypes]: CHINA: Sichuan Province, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Garzê, Luding County, Moxi Town, Hailuogou, 3000 m above sea level, 29-vii-2012, collected by Hu Li, Zhi-Hua Fan, and Meng Jiao (GUGC).

Distribution

Sichuan (Fig. 65).

Oncopsis hailuogouensis Li, Dai & Li, 2018

Oncopsis hailuogouensis Li, Dai & Li, 2018: 33

Material examined

1 male [Holotype]: CHINA: Sichuan Province, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Garzê, Luding County, Moxi Town, Hailuogou, 3000 m above sea level, 29-vii-2012, collected by Meng Jiao (GUGC).

Distribution

Sichuan (Fig. 65).

Oncopsis kangdingensis Dai & Li, 2013

Oncopsis kangdingensis Dai & Li, 2013: 12

Material examined

1 male [Holotype], 1 male and 7 females [Paratypes]: CHINA: Sichuan Province, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Garzê, Kangding County, 2700 m above sea level, 10-viii-2010, collected by Yi Tang (GUGC).

Distribution

Sichuan (Fig. 65), Shanxi, and Yunnan (Dai et al. 2018, Li et al. 2018).

Oncopsis konkaensis Li, Li & Dai, sp. nov.

Figs 1–3, 7–16, 65

Type material

Holotype male : CHINA: Sichuan Province, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Garzê, Luding County, Minya Konka, Yajiageng, 3800 m above sea level, 13-viii-2015, collected by Hong-Ping Zhan (GUGC).

Etymology

The specific epithet was derived from the type locality, Minya Konka (Sichuan Province), where the species was collected, combined with the Latin suffix -ensis, meaning from a locality.

Description

[Holotype] Body color. Body background color (Figs 1, 2) yellowish. Crown (Fig. 1) with black transverse stripe. Face (Fig. 3) yellow, eyes reddish brown; antenna with pedicel and scape yellowish brown and flagellum dark brown; frons with approximately m-shaped black macula between eyes; frontoclypeus with n-shaped black macula at middle with two ends close to each other, and dark oblique striation near lateral margin; clypeus with brown markings. Pronotum (Fig. 1) dark brown medially, lighter anterolaterally. Scutellum (Fig. 1) black with pair of posteriorly diverging yellow submedial stripes. Forewing (Figs 2, 3) pale hyaline infused with brown, venation dark brown. Legs yellowish, marked with brown maculae.

Figures 1–6. 

Males of Oncopsis in dorsal (1, 4), and lateral (2, 5) views, and face (3, 6) 1–3 O. konkaensis sp. nov. 4–6 Oncopsis moxiensis sp. nov.

Body appearance. Typically wedge-shaped. Head (Fig. 1) short, with parallel margins, broadly convex in dorsal view; width across eyes as wide as pronotum. Face including eyes (Fig. 3) slightly wider than long, distance between ocelli nearly 4 × that from ocellus to adjacent eye, frons with distinct rugae and longitudinal carina, clypeus with few scattered punctures. Pronotum (Fig. 1) with obvious closely-spaced transverse striations, anterior margin prominent frontally, and posterior margin concave medially, broader by 2.6 × length. Scutellum (Fig. 1) triangular, with coarse surface, middle length 1.5 × that of pronotum. Forewing (Figs 2, 3) hyaline, with three anteapical and four apical cells, veins well defined.

Male abdominal apodemes of second tergite (Fig. 9) weakly sclerotized, with rounded apex. Apodemes of second sternite (Fig. 10) basally broad, tapered to subacute apex, and pointed towards each other, distance between apodemes nearly 2 × their middle length.

Figures 7–16. 

Oncopsis konkaensis sp. nov. 7 Male pygofer, lateral view 8 Subgenital plate, lateral view 9 2nd abdominal tergal apodemes 10 2nd abdominal sternal apodemes 11 Aedeagus, later view 12 Aedeagus, ventral view 13 Dorsal connective, lateral view 14 Style, dorsal view 15 Connective, dorsal view 16 Connective, lateral view.

Male genitalia. Pygofer side broad basally (Fig. 7), dorsal and caudal margin truncated, ventral margin with distal half expanded inwards, with scattered setae. Subgenital plate (Fig. 8) slender, 0.6 × length of ventral margin of pygofer. Aedeagus (Figs 11, 12) with broad basis, slender shaft, tapered to subacute end in lateral aspect, margins somewhat parallel, with round apex in ventral view, gonopore subapical. Dorsal connective (Fig. 13) s-shaped in lateral view, produced to large and long process from inner ventral margin bent ventrad beyond mid-length, apex bifurcate. Style (Fig. 14) with stout stem, dorsally bent, gradually widening to apex, with marginal setae, apical margin truncated. Connective (Figs 15, 16) typical of the genus.

Measurement

Body length (including tegmen): 5.0 mm.

Distribution

Sichuan (Fig. 65).

Host

Betula spp. (Betulaceae).

Remark

The new species differs from all other known members of Oncopsis by the unique shape of the dorsal connective, which has the medial process large and long, bent ventrad and bifurcated at the apex; also by the combined features of the aedeagus and pygofer.

Oncopsis kuluensis Viraktamath, 1996

Oncopsis kuluensis Viraktamath, 1996: 185; Dai and Li 2013: 17.

Material examined

3 males: CHINA: Sichuan Province, Emeishan National Natural Reserve, Jinding, 7-viii-1991, collected by Zi-Zhong Li (GUGC); 2 females: CHINA: Sichuan Province, Emeishan National Natural Reserve, Leidongping, 7-viii-1991, collected by Zi-Zhong Li (GUGC).

Distribution

Sichuan (Fig. 65) and India (Viraktamath 1996, Li et al. 2018).

Oncopsis ludingensis Li, Dai & Li, 2018

Oncopsis ludingensis Li, Dai & Li, 2018: 36.

Material examined

1 male [Holotype], 1 male and 5 females [Paratypes]: CHINA: Sichuan Province, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Garzê, Luding County, Moxi town, Hailuogou, 3000 m above sea level, 29-vii-2012, collected by Li Hu, Fan Zhi-Hua and Jiao Meng (GUGC).

Distribution

Sichuan (Fig. 65).

Oncopsis melichari Lauterer & Anufriev, 1969

Oncopsis melichari Lauterer & Anufriev, 1969: 163.

Material examined

None.

Distribution

Sichuan. Note: the distribution of O. melichari is excluded from the distribution map since the collected data, “the valley of the river Shubagu” of the original record (Lauterer and Anufriev 1969), cannot be matched with any known place names.

Oncopsis moxiensis Li, Li & Dai, sp. nov.

Figs 4–6, 17–26, 65

Type material

Holotype male : CHINA: Sichuan Province, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Garzê, Luding County, Moxi Town, Hailuogou, 3600 m above sea level, 12-viii-2015, collected by Hong-Ping Zhan (GUGC).

Etymology

The specific epithet was derived from place name, Moxi Town, where the species was collected and the type locality is located, combined with the Latin suffix -ensis, meaning from a locality.

Description

[Holotype] Body color. Background yellow brown. Crown (Fig. 4) dark brown. Face (Fig. 6) yellow brown to dark brown, eyes brown, marked with reddish; antenna yellowish brown; frons dark to black except on ocelli and middle line; clypeus with central area dark or black on both sides of middle line, distal half chocolate. Pronotum (Fig. 4) dark brown with evenly dispersed darker spots. Scutellum and legs coloration similar to O. konkaensis sp. nov. Forewing (Figs 5, 6) with basal half dark brown and distal half yellowish brown.

Body appearance. Relatively stout. Head including eyes (Fig. 4) slightly narrower than pronotum. Face across eyes (Fig. 6) broader than long, central region with obvious punctures. Pronotum (Fig. 4) 2.5 × wider than long, with fore-margin strongly protruding forward, and hind margin slightly depressed in middle. Scutellum (Fig. 4) 1.2 × longer than pronotum. Other features as in O. konkaensis sp. nov.

Male abdominal apodemes of second tergite (Fig. 19) broad, close to each other, twisted caudally. Apodemes of second sternite (Fig. 20) relatively small, basally broad, tapered to acute or subacute apex, and pointed inwards; distance between apodemes nearly 3 × their middle length.

Figures 17–26. 

Oncopsis moxiensis sp. nov. 17 Male pygofer, lateral view 18 Subgenital plate, lateral view 19 2nd abdominal tergal apodemes 20 2nd abdominal sternal apodemes 21 Aedeagus, later view 22 Aedeagus, ventral view 23 Dorsal connective, lateral view 24 Style, dorsal view 25 Connective, dorsal view 26 Connective, lateral view.

Figures 27–47. 

Aedeagus of Oncopsis in Sichuan, lateral (28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 45–46) and ventral (27, 29, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43–44, 47) views 27 O. anchorous (after Xu et al. 2006) 28–29 O. furca 30–31 O. fusca (after Lauterer and Anufriev 1969) 32–33 O. graciaedeagus 34–35 O. hailuogouensis 36–37 O. kangdingensis 38–39 O. kuluensis 40–41 O. ludingensis 42–43 O. melichari (after Lauterer and Anufriev 1969) 44 O. nigrofasciata (after Xu et al. 2006) 45 O. trimaculata (after Kuoh 1992) 46–47 O. tristis (after Tishechkin 2017).

Figures 48–64. 

Dorsal connectives of Oncopsis in Sichuan, lateral views 48 O. anchorous (after Xu et al. 2006) 49 O. furca 50–51 O. fusca (after Lauterer and Anufriev 1969) 52 O. graciaedeagus 53 O. hailuogouensis 54 O. kangdingensis 55 O. kuluensis 56 O. ludingensis 57–58 O. melichari (after Lauterer and Anufriev 1969) 59 O. nigrofasciata (after Xu et al. 2006) 60 O. trimaculata (after Kuoh 1992) 61–64 O. tristis (after Tishechkin 2017).

Male genitalia. Pygofer side (Fig. 17) basally broad, dorsal and caudal margins straight. Subgenital plate (Fig. 18) approximately 2/3 length of pygofer ventral margin. Aedeagus (Figs 21, 22) broad basally, shaft tapered to acute apex in lateral view, slightly narrowed in middle, apex rounded in ventral aspect, gonopore apical. Dorsal connective (Fig. 23) with large process bent ventrocaudally from inner ventral margin with bifurcated end and sinuated margins; with extremely slender process pointed ventrad near base. Style apex bent dorsad and irregularly tapered (Fig. 24); connective (Figs 25, 26) typical.

Measurement

Body length (including tegmen): 5.4 mm.

Distribution

Sichuan (Fig. 65).

Figure 65. 

Map showing the distribution of species of Oncopsis in Sichuan Province, China. Key: a. O. anchorous; b. O. furca; c. O. fusca; d. O. graciaedeagus; e. O. hailuogouensis; f. O. kangdingensis; g. O. konkaensis; h. O. kuluensis; i. O. ludingensis; j. O. moxiensis; k. O. nigrofasciata; l. O. trimaculata; m. O. tristis.

Host

Betula spp. (Betulaceae).

Remark

This species is similar to Oncopsis konkaensis sp. nov. in the body coloration and external morphology, and somewhat similar in the shape of the dorsal connective, but can be distinguished from the latter by the different coloration of the face, and the shapes of the aedeagus, style and the dorsal connective.

Figures 66–68. 

Photographs showing the landscape and Oncopsis habitat at Hailuogou of Sichuan 66 a tip of the Hailuogou glacier 67 Vegetation 68 Potential host plant to Oncopsis.

Oncopsis nigrofasciata Xu, Liang & Li, 2006

Oncopsis nigrofasciatus Xu, Liang & Li, 2006: 837.

Oncopsis nigrofasciata, Dai, Li and Li 2018: 130 (correction of gender of species name).

Material examined

1 male: CHINA: Sichuan Province, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Garzê, Kangding County, 2700 m above sea level, 10-viii-2005, collected by Yi Tang (GUGC); 1 female: CHINA: Sichuan Province, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Garzê, Kangding County, 23-vii-2012, collected by Zhi-Hua Fan (GUGC).

Distribution

Sichuan (Fig. 65), Qinghai, Ningxia, Shanxi, Hebei, Yunnan, Shaanxi, and Jilin (Dai et al. 2018; Li et al. 2018).

Oncopsis trimaculata Kuoh, 1992

Oncopsis trimaculata Kuoh, 1992: 272.

Material examined

None.

Distribution

Sichuan (Fig. 65).

Oncopsis tristis (Zetterstedt, 1840)

Jassus tristis Zetterstedt, 1840: 303.

Oncopsis tristis, Metcalf 1966: 231; Lauterer and Anufriev 1969: 165; Tishechkin 2017: 542.

Material examined

None.

Distribution

Sichuan (Fig. 65), western Europe to the Russian Far East including Sakhalin and Kurile Islands, Japan (Tishechkin 2017).

Key to species of Oncopsis from Sichuan Province, China based on male genitalia

1 Aedeagal shaft (Figs 32, 42) strongly elongated and slender in lateral view 2
Aedeagal shaft normal, stout and typical in lateral view 3
2 Aedeagal shaft (Figs 32, 33) strongly tumid at middle in ventral view, and with fine protuberances on ventral margin O. graciaedeagus
Aedeagal shaft (Figs 42, 43) slightly inflated at middle in ventral view, without protuberances on ventral margin O. melichari
3 Dorsal connective process clearly bifurcated from base or sub-base 4
Dorsal connective process (Figs 13, 23) not bifurcated from base or sub-base, only apex bilobed 13
4 Process of dorsal connective with upper branch (Fig. 54) clearly shorter than lower one O. kangdingensis
Process of dorsal connective with upper branch longer than or at least as long as lower one 5
5 Process of dorsal connective with upper branch (Fig. 60) clearly bent dorsad O. trimaculata
Process of dorsal connective with upper branch usually bent ventrad or caudad 6
6 Process of dorsal connective branched from sub base 7
Process of dorsal connective branched from base 8
7 Inner margin between two branches of process of dorsal connective (Fig. 49) smooth, not sinuate or serrated O. furca
Inner margin between two branches of process of dorsal connective (Fig. 59) serrated O. nigrofasciata
8 Both branches of process of dorsal connective (Figs 48, 53) slender and of almost equal length 9
Upper branch of process of dorsal connective distinctly wider and shorter than lower one 10
9 Lower branch of process of dorsal connective (Fig. 48) bent dorsad; aedeagal shaft (Fig. 27) with lateral margins slightly sinuate in ventral view O. anchorous
Lower branch of process of dorsal connective (Fig. 53) bent caudad; aedeagal shaft (Figs 34, 35) tapered to apex in ventral view O. hailuogouensis
10 Inner margin between two branches of process of dorsal connective smooth 11
Inner margin between two branches of process of dorsal connective sinuate 12
11 Upper branch of process of dorsal connective (Figs 50, 51) bent ventrad and round at apex, lower branch longer than 1/2 length of upper one O. fusca
Upper branch of process of dorsal connective (Fig. 55) bent caudad and subacute at apex, lower branch less than 1/2 length of upper one O. kuluensis
12 Aedeagal shaft (Figs 40, 41) tapered in ventral view; two branches of process of dorsal connective (Fig. 56) closer to each other, upper branch sinuate and pointed caudally, and lower one slender O. ludingensis
Aedeagal shaft (Figs 46, 47) with lateral parallel margins in ventral view; two branches of process of dorsal connective (Figs 61–64) away from each other, upper branch evenly bent caudally, and lower branch short O. tristis
13 Aedeagal shaft (Figs 11, 12) tapered to apex in ventral view; process of dorsal connective (Fig. 13) with apex bifurcated and ventrally pointed O. konkaensis
Aedeagal shaft (Figs 21, 22) slightly narrowed at middle in ventral view; process of dorsal connective (Fig. 23) with apex bifurcated but ventrocaudally pointed O. moxiensis

Acknowledgments

We thank Hong-Ping Zhan (GUGC) for providing the specimens for the Macropsinae study, Drs Jin Hyung Kwon (referee) and Christopher H. Dietrich (referee and the subject editor) for reading and improving this paper, and giving valuable suggestions. The project was supported by a Young Talent Fund of University Association for Science and Technology in Shaanxi, China (no. 20170209).

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