ZooKeys 312: 65–78, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.312.5520
Agistemus aimogastaensis sp. n. (Acari, Actinedida, Stigmaeidae), a recently discovered predator of eriophyid mites Aceria oleae and Oxycenus maxwelli, in olive orchards in Argentina
Sergio Leiva 1,†, Nestor Fernandez 2,‡, Pieter Theron 3,§, Christine Rollard 3,|
1 Fellowship, National Institute Agricultural Technology (INTA). Experimental Rural Agency, Aimogasta. 5310. La Rioja. Argentina
2 National Council of Scientific and Technological Research (C.O.N.I.C.E.T) La Rioja University Campus. Research and Technology City. Av. Luis Mansueto de la Fuente S/N. (5300) La Rioja, Argentina
3 Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, 2520, South Africa
4 Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Département Systématique et Evolution Unité OSEB, Section Arthropodes, 57 rue Cuvier. 75231, Paris, cedex 05, France

Corresponding author: Nestor Fernandez (nestorfernand51@yahoo.fr)

Academic editor: Vladimir Pesic

received 13 May 2013 | accepted 12 June 2013 | Published 26 June 2013

(C) 2013 Sergio Leiva. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC-BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

For reference, use of the paginated PDF or printed version of this article is recommended.


A new species, Agistemus aimogastaensis, is described with the aid of optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy. This mite is an important predator of two eriophyid mites (Aceria oleae and Oxycenus maxwelli) in olive orchards (Olea europaea, variety Arauco) in La Rioja Province. The problems related to eriophyids in olive orchards in Argentina are highlighted and photos of the damage on leaves and fruit are included.


Agistemus aimogastaensis, new species, predator, Aceria olea, Oxycenus maxwelli, Olive orchards, Argentina


Species of the genus Agistemus are considered important predators on phytophagous mites, scale insects and their eggs. Recently several studies have been done on agriculturally important crop plants, such as apple, pear and citrus orchards, blackberry fruits, coconut, coffee, and fig trees, grapevines, leguminous plants, Yerba mate trees, medicinal and ornamental plants as well as vegetable crops and the stored products of these plants (Ehara 1962; Gonzalez-Rodriguez 1961; Momen 2012; Liana and Juarez 2012; Momen 2011; Al-Atawi 2011; Marchetti and Juarez 2011; Saber and Rasmy 2010; Thakur et al. 2010; Roy et al. 2006, 2008, 2009; Fadamiro et al. 2009; Kawashima et al. 2008; Jamieson et al. 2008; Matioli et al. 2007; Gotoh and Shida 2007; Matioli and De Oliveira 2007; De Gouvea et al. 2007; El-Sawi and Momen 2006; Mineiro et al. 2006; De Vis et al. 2006; Bostanian et al. 2006; Putatunda 2005; Yousuf and Chouhan 2004; Arbabi and Singh 2002; Abou-Awad et al. 2000).

Little is known about Agistemus species as predators of eriophyid mites in Olive orchards (Momen 2012; Abou-Awad et al. 2010) and this is the first report of this genus from olive orchards in Argentina.

The genus Agistemus was erected by Summers (1960) based on type species Caligonus terminalis Quayle 1912. Grandjean (1944) published a work on the family Stigmaeidae, and established a series of characteristics with reference to legs and palp chaetotaxy. Further contributions to the present definition of the family were made by Gonzalez-Rodriguez (1961, 1963, 1965) and Summers and Ehara (1965).

Material and methods

All specimens were collected individually from tree surfaces (vegetative buds, leaves, inflorescences, or fruits) and preserved in 70% ethanol. Specimens studied by means of light microscopy were macerated in lactic acid and observed in the same medium, using the open-mount technique (cavity slide and cover slip) as described by Grandjean (1949) and Krantz and Walter (2009). Drawings were made using an Olympus BHC compound microscope (Rungis, France) equipped with a drawing tube. Some specimens were studied by means of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). For this purpose, specimens preserved in ethanol were carefully rinsed by sucking them several times into a Pasteur pipette, and these were then transferred to buffered glutaraldehyde (2.5%) in Sörensen phosphate buffer: pH 7.4; 0.1 m for 2 hours. After postfixation for 2 hours in buffered 2% OsO4 solution and rinsing in buffer solution, all specimens were dehydrated in a series of graded ethanols and dried in a critical point apparatus. Specimens were mounted on Al-stubs with double-sided sticky tape and then gold coated in a sputter apparatus (Alberti and Fernandez 1988; Alberti and Fernandez 1990a, 1990b; Alberti et al. 1991; Fernandez et al. 1991; Alberti et al. 1997; Alberti et al. 2007). For a study of the genito-anal plates and genital structures, specimens were dissected and monitored during the lactic acid maceration process (in warm 70% lactic acid) before being stained with chlorazol black E, a well-known stain (Coineau 1974). Measurements taken: total length (tip of rostrum to posterior edge of notogaster) and width (widest part of notogaster) in micrometres (μm). Leg chaetotaxy studies made using standard, polarized and phase contrast microscopes. Setal formulae of the legs include the number of solenidia (in parentheses); Setal length measured with SEM.

Morphological terminology

Morphological terms and abbreviations used are those developed by Grandjean (1944), Summers (1960) and Gonzalez-Rodriguez (1963), Kethley (1990), We add the term: longitudinally aligned tiny round-convex elevations (r.c.e) in reference to structures on the postocular body.

New taxon description

The specific epithet is dedicated to the city of Aimogasta, La Rioja, Argentina, where the specimens were found.

Material examined.

Holotype female and 2 female paratypes, Aimogasta, Province de La Rioja, Argentina 11-NOV-2012 deposited in Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecauria (INTA), Aimogasta, La Rioja Argentina; 4 Paratype females, same date and locality as holotype deposited in Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France and 4 paratypes, same date and locality as holotype deposited in Geneva Natural History Museum, Switzerland. All preserved in 70% ethanol. All type specimens were collected from vegetative buds, leaves, inflorescences and fruit of Olea europaea, variety Arauco.


(adult female). Propodosomal plate: trapezoidal; ornamented with a faintly accentuated, polyhedral reticulate pattern; eyes clearly visible, ovoid convex, smooth; post ocular body triangular, rounded extremities, with series of longitudinally aligned small round-convex elevations, joined by thread–like strands. Metapodosomal plate hexagonal to polyhedral; ornamented with accentuated transverse polyhedral reticulate pattern. Wide area with fine transverse integumental striae, separating propodosomal and metapodosomal plates. Humeral and intercalar plates marginally. Setae g, ps1, ps2 Similarly shaped, finely barbate, sharply tipped; ps3 minutely dentate, truncate g, ps1, ps2 larger than ps3 and very different in shape and appearance in optical and SEM. Legs: genua II, III, IVsetal formula 0-0-0; leg IV lacks solenidion. Ambulacra with two claws and empodium with three pairs of bicapitate, fan shaped Y-raylets.

This species most closely resembles Agistemus collyerae Gonzalez-Rodriguez 1963, principally in relation to the setation of leg IV. However Agistemus aimogastaensis can be easily differentiated from the latter on account of the disposition and shape of propodosomal, metapodosomal, humeral and intercalar plates; as well as the length and disposition of dorsal setae. Specific characters given by Gonzalez-Rodriguez for Agistemus collyerae in relation to the unusual lengths of the ag2 setae (pg2 sensu Gonzalez-Rodriguez 1963) and g setae (g1 sensu Gonzalez-Rodriguez 1963), and the equal lengths of the other setae ag1, ps1, ps2 and ps3 (g2, g3, g4, pg1, Fig. 8, Gonzalez-Rodriguez 1963) is very different to the situation found in Agistemus aimogastaensis, where these setae are equal in size and shape; but setae ps3 (g4 sensu Gonzalez-Rodriguez 1963) is completely different to the other setae, both in shape and length. Finally, another important character is the post–ocular body (pob) and the microsculpture around this zone. The pob in Agistemus aimogastaensis is triangular with rounded extremities, and the microsculpture around this zone is smooth to fine integumental striations; in Agistemus collyerae the pob is round and the surrounding microsculpture is a thin-walled network or reticulate.


Measurements: SEM: 325 (312–351) × 160 (152–173) Light microscopy: 336 (331–339) × 168 (166–174) (n=10).

Shape: ovoid (Figures 1A, B).

Figure 1.

Agistemus aimogastaensis sp. n. Adult female, optical microscopy. A dorsal view B ventral view C palp D cuticular components of genital chamber; the anogenital covers are presented as indication of its relation to genital organs. E, anogenital covers. Abbreviations see Material and methods. Scale bars: A, B: 100 µm; C, D, E: 15 µm.

Colour: variable. Specimens observed in reflected light: orange-yellow, slightly shiny or white. We studied specimens of different colors and all were female.

Integument: (Figures 1A, B; 2A, D, E)

Microsculpture complicated, varying according to body region.

Figure 2.

Agistemus aimogastaensis sp. n. Adult female, SEM. A eye and post ocular body, lateral view B external scapular setae (sce), lateral view C internal vertical setae (vi), lateral view D eye and postocular body, detail, lateral view (indicated by stars and arrow) E ornamentation, metapodosomal plate. Abreviations: see Material and Methods. Scale bars: A: 10µm; B, D, E: 5µm; C: 2µm.

Propodosomal plate (P) polyhedral reticulate pattern: tiny accentuated polyhedral reticulated pattern, extending behind vi setal insertion and paraxially to ve and sce setal insertion, and paraxial to eye (eye) and post ocular body (pob). Near the eye and post ocular body and antiaxially to the ve and sce setal insertion smooth (Figs 2A, D). Existing paraxially to eye and pob, very fine integumental striae.

Metapodosomal (M) plate with polyhedral reticulate pattern, accentuate (Fig. 2D). Humeral plate (H), Intercalary plate (I), and Suranal plate (SA), more or less smooth (Fig. 1A).

Fine integumental striae covering zone between Propodosomal, Metapodosomal, Humeral, Intercalar and Suranal plates (Figs 1A, 2A).

Fine integumental striae covering venter of idiosoma, epimeral zone smooth (Fig. 1B).

Legs: cuticular surface smooth.

Setation. All dorsal setae minutely denticulate and truncate (Fig. 3C, D). Length: vi 12.60 (12.04-13.012); ve 13, 78 (13.05-13.92); sce 18.80 (18.78-18.93); c2 20.70 (19.89-21.01; c1 19.5 (19.56-19.80); d1 16.45 (16.43-16.48); e1 18.1 (18.00-18.09); d2 19.33 (19.23-19.92); e2 17.80 (17.77-17.84); f1 17.85 (16.01-17.69); h1 14.20 (14.18-14.24); h2 17.20 (17.16-17.24).

Figure 3.

Agistemus aimogastaensis sp. n. Adult female, SEM. A palp, tibia and tarsus lateral view B ambulacrum leg I, lateral view. C. dorsocentral a setae D dorsolateral la setae E ps2 setae. F ps3 setae. Abreviations see material and Methods. Scale bars: B, E: 5µm; A, C, D, F: 5µm. Small stars indicate the association of eupathidia ul’, ul” and sul. Diamond indicates palp tibial claw. Double arrow, indicates claw, and special single arrow indicate capitate fan-shaped raylets.

Ventral setae: epimeric smooth (1a, 1b, 1c, 2a, 3a, 3b, 3c, 4a, 4b, 4c); (ag1, ag2) and g, ps1, ps2, finely barbate (Fig. 3E), sharply tipped; ps3 minutely dentate, truncate (Fig. 3F).

Length: ag1 17.61 (17.58-17.66); ag2 17.70 (17.68-17.75); g 17.25 (17.17-17.29); ps1 17.40 (17.38-17.43); ps2 18.20 (18.18-18.24); ps3 17.05 (17.00-17.12).

In optical microscopy the dorsal setae and genital ps3 appear as dark, while epimerics, paragenital and genitals (g, ps1, ps2) appear transparent. Scanning Electron Micrographs depicted in Figure 3.

Dorsal region (Figure 1A). Propodosomal plate (P) trapezoidal, with three pairs of setae: vi situated close to the anterior margin of plate; ve situated slightly anteriorly and paraxially to the eye and the postocular body (pob); sce, situated posteriorly and antiaxially to pob. All setae situated on very small protuberances.

Observation of eye and the postocular body (pob) (not shown on Fig. 1A) is complex, because on mites not cleared the eye and the pob can both be observed, but in cleared animals only the eye is visible. Position of ve setae complicating observation in optical microscopy. SEM permits observation of the eye in dorsal view (Fig. 2A, D) as a smooth structure, ovoid and convex in lateral view; length: 9.55 (9.48-9.56); width: 6.28 (6.26-6.29). The pob has a more or less triangular shape with rounded extremities (Fig. 2A, D); 5.81(5.79-5.83) in length and 5.34 (5.32-5.37) in width; a series of longitudinally aligned slightly rounded-convex elevations (r.c.e) present, joined by thread–like strands. In recently mounted specimens (observed in optical microscopy), the pob presenting small red-yellow spots, disappearing quickly; possibly these spots are the r.c.e observed in SEM.

Propodosomal and metapodosal plates separated by a relatively large expanse of fine integumental striae (Fig. 1A, 2A).

Humeral plate (H) ovoid, situated antiaxially to P-plate and slightly antiaxially to M-plate; setae c2 insertion situated slightly paraxially to d2 insertion level (Fig. 1A).

Metapodosomal plate (M) hexagonal to polyhedral.

Dorsocentral setae: insertions c1 and e1 situated on the same longitudinal level; d1 insertion situated antiaxially to c1 and e1 insertion level. Dorsolateral setae: d2 insertionsituated externally and close to plate margin, posteriorly to c1 insertion level but anteriorly to d1 insertion level; e2 situated slightly paraxially to the d2 insertion level and posteriorly and antiaxially to d1 insertion level (Fig. 1A).

Intercalary plates (I) ovoid, situated near the body margin (Fig. 1A); f1 setal insertion situated paraxially to e2 insertion level and antiaxally to e1 insertion level.

Ventral region. Epimera well defined (Fig. 1B). Setal formulae: 3-1-3-3. Anogenital region clearly discernible. Two pairs of paragenital setae: ag1, ag2; and four pairs of setae: g, and three anal setae ps1, ps2, ps3 (see Setation). g, ps1, ps2 and ps3 differing in shape (See Setation).

Cuticular components of the genital chamber with preatrium (pre), saucer-shaped structure, longitudinal striate and postatrium (post) bilobed; between pre and pos a constriction or waist (w) (Fig. 1D).

Legs (Figure 4A–D). All legs with ambulacrum, composed of two claws with small tooth, and an empodium with three pairs of capitate fan-shaped raylets (resembling leaves of Ginkgo biloba tree) (Fig. 3B).

Figure 4.

Agistemus aimogastaensis sp. n. Adult female, legs. All legs in dorsal view. Abbreviations: see Materials and Methods. Scale bar A–D: 50 µm.

Setal formulae (solenidia in parentheses) I (1-4-2(1)-5(1)-11(1)); setae k on genu I; II (1-4-0-5(1)-8(1)); III (1-2-0-5(1)-7(1)); IV (1-2-0-4-7).

Setal formulae of palp (3-1-2-8(1)) (Fig. 1C); tarsus with four eupathidia and solenidion ω; (ul) ζ, sul ζ united in fork, with typical characteristics of Stigmaeidae (Grandjean 1944). Palp tibial claw present (Fig. 3A).


The post ocular body, delimited by red-yellow spots, is clearly visible in fresh recently prepared specimens, but these spots disappear quickly making it difficult to view; this situation is similar to observations made on Hydrozetes lemnae (Oribatida, Hydrozetidae) and at the base of the ultrastructural studies of secondary eye(Alberti and Fernandez 1988, 1990a, b).

Our observations on cuticular components of the genital chamber using optical microscopy must be indicated as relative, and we stress that their value for taxonomic studies is limited as their main significance is only to confirm adulthood [as indicated by Summers and Ehara (1965)].

Problems with Olive orchards in Argentina related to eriophyid mites and their predator Agistemus aimogastaensis sp. n.

The Olive industry in Argentina is significant, with several provinces such as Mendoza, San Juan, San Luis, La Rioja and Catamarca producing olive fruit and their derivatives, though levels of production may vary. Olive production plays a very important socio-economic role as principal provider of employment in La Rioja and Catamarca Provinces.

In olive orchards eriophyid mites are considered a secondary pest (International Olive Council 2007; Spooner et al. 2007) relating to young trees, and a problem in greenhouses or in zones with high humidity and temperature (Spooner et al. 2007). Regrettably, in Argentina, this problem has high incidence and produces large losses in olive industry yield, reaching up to 20%.

The predominant species of eriophyid mites found in Catamarca and La Rioja Provinces on Olea europaea (variety Arauco) are Aceria oleae and Oxycemus maxwelli. Of these two, Aceria oleae is predominant with a maximum on leaves and fruit in April and November. These two eriophyid mites cause a significant impact on regional economies due to significant fruit and leaf malformations (Figure 5).

Figure 5.

Malformations induced by eriophyid mites on leaves and fruit. A affected leaves B affected fruit. The upper left fruit is normal, others with malformations C young fruit attacked by Aceria oleae D detail of attack in C.

The predator Agistemus aimogastaensis was found in these two provinces in large numbers, principally in relation to the population level of eriophyid mites.

The possibility exists of using this predator as biological control measure of problematic eriophyid mites. Our laboratory observations show that Agistemus aimogastaensis is a voracious predator, principally on Aceria oleae. All ontogenetic stages prey on the mites. Several studies on different predation aspects are being conducted.


We thank Prof Dr Yves Coineau (former Director of Arthropod Section at MNHN), for his support in interpreting several morphological aspects of the mite, Prof Eddie Ueckermann (ARC, Plant-Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X134, Queenswood 0121 South Africa) for additional comments, and Leone Hudson for her contribution towards technical and language aspects of the paper.

This work is based on research supported in part by the National Research Foundation of South Africa (UID) 85288. Any opinion, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in the material are those of the authors and therefore the NRF does not accept any liability in regard thereto.

Abou-Awad BA, El-Sawaf BM, Reda AS (2000) Environmental management and biological aspects of the two eriophyoid fig mites Aceria ficus (Cotte) and Rhyncaphytoptus ficifoliae Keifer in Egypt. Anzeiger für Schaedlingskunde 73 (1): 5-12. doi: 10.1046/j.1439-0280.2000.00005.x
Abou-Awad BA, Hassan MF, Romeih AHM (2010) Biology of Agistemus olivi, a new predator of eriophyid mites infesting olive trees in Egypt. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 43 (8): 817-824. doi: 10.1080/03235400802246986
Al-Atawi FJ (2011) Phytophagous and predaceous mites associated with vegetable crops from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 18 (3): 239-246. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2011.02.004
Alberti G, Fernandez NA (1988) Fine structure of a secondarily developed eye in the freshwater moss-mite Hydrozetes lemnae (Coggi 1889) (Acari: Oribatida). Protoplasma 146: 106-117. doi: 10.1007/BF01405919
Alberti G, Fernandez NA (1990a) Aspects concerning the structure and function of the lenticulus and clear spot of certain oribatids (Acari: Oribatida). Acarologia 31: 65-72.
Alberti G, Fernandez N (1990b) Fine structure and function of the lenticulus and clear spot of Oribatids (Acari: Oribatida). In: Andre HM, Lions J-Cl (Eds) L’ontogenese et le concept de stase chez les Arthropodes. Agar Publishers Wavere, Belgium 343–354.
Alberti G, Fernandez N, Kümmel G (1991) Spermatophores and spermatozoa of Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida). Part II.Functional and systematical considerations. Acarologia 32 (4): 435-449.
Alberti G, Norton RA, Adis JL, Fernandez NA, Franklin E, Kratzmann M, Moreno IA, Ribeiro EF, Weigmann G, Woas S (1997) Porose integumental organs of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida). 2. Fine structure. In: Alberti G, Norton RA (Eds). Porose integumental organs of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida). Zoologica 48 (146): 33-114.
Alberti G, Fernandez N, Coineau Y (2007) Fine structure of spermiogenesis, spermatozoa and spermatophore of Saxidromus delamarei, Coineau 1974 (Saxidromidae, Actinotrichida, Acari). Arthropod Structure & Development 36 (2): 221-231. doi: 10.1016/j.asd.2006.11.002
Arbabi M, Singh J (2002) Studies on Agistemus industani Gonzalez-Rodriguez (Acarina: Stigmaeidae), an efficient predator of Tetranychus ludeni Zacker on mulberry. Acarina 10 (1): 85–89.
Bostanian NJ, Hardman JM, Racette G (2006) Inventory of predacious mites in Quebec commercial apple orchards where integrated pest management programs are implemented. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 99 (3): 536-544. doi: 10.1603/0013-8746(2006)99[536:IOPMIQ]2.0.CO;2
Coineau Y (1974) Eléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires Muséum National Histoire Naturelles, 22 Zoologie 81: 299 pp.
De Gouvea A, Zanella CF, Mazaro SM (2007) Association and populational density of mites predators in the mate-tea tree Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. (Aquifoliaceae) with or without the presence of phytophagous mites. Ciencia Rural 37 (1): 1-6.
De Vis R, De Moraes G, Bellini M (2006) Initial screening of little known predatory mites in Brazil as potential pest control agents. Experimental and Applied Acarology 39 (2): 115–125. doi: 10.1007/s10493-006-9004-7
Ehara S (1962) Notes on some predatory mites (Phytoseiidae and Stigmaeidae. Japanese Journal Applied Entomology Zoology 6: 53-60. doi: 10.1303/jjaez.6.53
El-Sawi S, Momen F (2006) Agistemus exsertus Gonzalez (Acari: Stigmaeidae) as a predator of two scale insects of the family Diaspididae (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 39 (6): 421-427. doi: 10.1080/03235400500321388
Fadamiro HY, Xiao Y, Nesbitt M, Childers, CC (2009) Diversity and seasonal abundance of predacious mites in Alabama satsuma citrus. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 102 (4): 617-628. doi: 10.1603/008.102.0406
Fernandez N, Alberti G, Kümmel G (1991) Spermatophores and spermatozoa of some oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) Part I. Fine structure and histochemistry. Acarologia 32 (3): 261–286.
Gonzalez-Rodriguez RH (1961) Contribucion al conocimiento de los àcaros del Manzano en Chile central. Universidad de Chile, Estacion Experimental Agronomica. Boletin Técnico 11: 35-39.
Gonzalez-Rodriguez RH (1963) Four new mites of the genus Agistemus Summers, 1960 (Acarina:Stigmaeidae). Acarologia 5 (3): 342-350.
Gonzalez-Rodriguez RH (1965) A taxonomic study of the genera Mediolata, Zetzellia and Agistemu s (Acari: Stigmaeidae). University of California Publications in Entomology 41: 66.
Gotoh T, Shida T (2007) Life cycles and interactions in spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) on dwarf bamboo, Sasa senanensis (F. & S.) (Poaceae), in Japan. International Journal of Acarology 33 (3): 259-273. doi: 10.1080/01647950708684531
Grandjean F (1944) Observations sur les Acariens de la famille des Stigmaeidae. Archives Sciences Physiques et Naturelles 26: 103-131.
Grandjean F (1949) Observation et conservation des très petits Arthropodes. Bulletin Muséum Histoire Naturelles, Paris. 21 (2): 363-370.
International Olive Council (2007) Production Techniques in olive growing. 346 pp. http://www.internationaloliveoil.org
Jamieson LE, Chhagan A, Charles JG (2008) Predation of citrus red mite (Panonychus citri) by Stethorus sp. and Agistemus longisetus. New Zealand Plant Protection 61: 317-321.
Kawashima M, Chung B-K, Jung C (2008) Herbivorous and predacious mites on persimmon trees, Diospyros kaki Thunb., in Korea. International Journal of Acarology 34 (2): 167–174. doi: 10.1080/01647950808683720
Kethley J (1990) Acarina: Prostigmata (Actinedida). In: Dindal DL (Ed). Soil Biology Guide. John Wiley & Sons: 667-756.
Krantz GW, Walter DE (2009) A manual of acarology. 3rd ed. Lubbock (TX): Texas Tech, University Press, 807 pp.
Liana J, Juarez F (2012) Mite (Acari) population dynamics in grapevines (Vitis vinifera) in two regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. International Journal Acarology 38 (5): 386-393. doi: 10.1080/01647954.2012.657240
Marchetti M, Juarez F (2011) Diversity and population fluctuation of mites (Acari) in blackberry (Rubus fruticosus, Rosaceae) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazilia. Iheringia Serie Zoologia 101(1–2)): 43-48. doi: 10.1590/S0073-47212011000100005
Matioli AL, de Oliveira CAL (2007) Biology of Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae) and its predation potential on Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Neotropical Entomology 36 (4): 577-582. doi: 10.1590/S1519-566X2007000400016
Matioli AL, Tavares MG, Pallini A (2007) Agistemus pallinii n. sp. (Acari: Stigmaeidae) from citrus orchards in Brazil. International Journal of Acarology 33 (3): 245-251. doi: 10.1080/01647950708684529
Mineiro C, Sato ME, Raga A (2006) Diversity of mites (Arachnida: Acari) on five cultivars of two species of coffee (Coffea spp.) in Garca, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Arquivos do Instituto Biologico Sao Paulo 73 (3): 333-341.
Momen FM (2011) Natural and factitious prey for rearing the predacious mite Agistemus exsertus Gonzales(Acari: Stigmaeidae). Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 46 (2): 267-275. doi: 10.1556/APhyt.46.2011.2.11
Momen FM (2012) Influence of life diet on the biology and demographic parameters of Agistemus olivi Romeih, a specific predator of Eriophyid Pest Mites (Acari: Stigmaeidae and Eriophyidae). Tropical Life Sciences Research 23 (1): 25-34.
Putatunda B (2005) Mites (Acarina) associated with stored food products in Himachal Pradesh, India: a taxonomic study. Journal of Entomological Research (New Delhi) 29 (1): 79-82.
Roy I, Gupta S, Saha G (2006) Two new species of prostigmatid mites infesting medicinal plants in West Bengal, India. Entomon 31 (4): 307-313.
Roy I, Gupta S, Saha G (2008) New reports of predatory mites (Acari: Prostigmata, Mesostigmata) from medicinal plants of Darjeeling district, West Bengal, India with description of a new species. Entomon 33 (2): 119-128.
Roy I, Gupta S, Saha G (2009) Predatory mites of the genus Agistemus (Acari: Stigmaeidae) from medicinal plants of West Bengal, India, with description of a new species. Entomon 34 (3): 175-180.
Saber S, Rasmy A (2010) Influence of plant leaf surface on the development, reproduction and life table parameters of the predacious mite, Agistemus exsertus Gonzalez (Acari: Stigmaeidae). Crop Protection 29 (8): 789-792. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2010.04.001
Spooner HR, Tesoriero L, Hall B (2007) Field guide to olive Pests, Diseases and Disorders in Australia. Rural industries Research and Development Corporation 68 pp.
Summers FM (1960) Several stigmaeid mites formerly included in Mediolata redescribed in Zetzellia Ouds, and Agistemus, new genus. Proceeding Entomological Society Washington 62 (4): 233-247.
Summers FM (1966) Genera of the mite family Stigmaeidae Oudemans (Acarina). Acarologia 8: 230-250
Summers FM, Ehara S (1965) Revaluation of the taxonomic characters in four species of the genus Cheylostigmaeus Willmann (Acarina: Stigmaeidae). Acarologia 7: 49-62
Thakur M, Dinabandhoo CL, Chauhan U (2010) Host Range, distribution, and morphometrics of predatory mites associated with phytophagous mites of fruit crops in Himachal Pradesh, India. Trends in acarology. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress: 431–434.
Yousuf M, Chouhan S (2004) Observations on two predatory mites belonging to the families: Stigmaeidae & Cheyletidae, associated with forestry phytophagous mites. Bulletin of Pure & Applied Sciences A Zoology 23A (2): 93–97.