ZooKeys 149: 145–161, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.149.1805
Additions and corrections to the check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico
J. Donald Lafontaine1, B. Christian Schmidt2
1 Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes, Biodiversity Program, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Bldg., 960 Carling Ave., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0C6
2 Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes, K.W. Neatby Bldg., 960 Carling Ave., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0C6

Corresponding authors: J.D. Lafontaine (don.lafontaine@agr.gc.ca), B.C. Schmidt (chris.schmidt@inspection.gc.ca)

Academic editor: J. K. Adams

received 13 August 2011 | accepted 3 September 2011 | Published 24 November 2011

(C) 2011 J. Donald Lafontaine. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

For reference, use of the paginated PDF or printed version of this article is recommended.


A total of 115 additions and corrections are listed and discussed for the check list of the Noctuoidea of North America north of Mexico published in 2010. Thirty-two of these are changes in authorship and/or date of publication or spelling. Taxonomic changes are 33 new or revised synonymies, three new combinations, and six revisions in status from synonymy to valid species.


Canada, United States, Notodontidae, Doidae, Erebidae, Euteliidae, Noctuidae, Nolidae, distribution, faunistics


Continuing work on the check list of Noctuoidea of North America north of Mexico has resulted in 115 changes to the list published last year (Lafontaine and Schmidt 2010). About one-third of these (32) are corrections in date, authorship or spelling, but the majority is the result from continuing taxonomic work in comparing species and generic concepts with type material and examination of genital characters. Sixteen species are added to the fauna: two were omitted previously; six were described in the past year; five are newly reported from the United States, and three are former synonyms now recognized as valid species. Thirty species are deleted from the fauna through synonymy or re-identification, reducing the total number of species to 3679 (down from 3693).

Materials and methods Repository abbreviations

Taxonomic changes are based on examination of material, especially type specimens, in the following collections:

BMNH The Natural History Museum [statutorialy: British Museum (Natural History)], London, UK

CNC Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

FMNH The Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois, USA

ODA Oregon Department of Agriculture, Salem, Oregon, USA

TLSRC Texas Lepidoptera Survey Research Collection, Houston, Texas, USA

USNM National Museum of Natural History [formerly, United States National Museum], Washington, District of Columbia, USA

ZMHB Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany

Results Corrections, additions, and changes (highlighted in bold)

p. 2 & p. 14 Subfamily Lymantriinae Hampson

        Tribe Nygmiini Holloway, 1999 [after Tribe Leucomini]

p. 3 & p. 39 Subfamily Eulepidotinae Grote, 1895

p. 3 & p. 39 Tribe Eulepidotini Grote, 1895

p. 4 & p. 64 Subfamily Agaristinae Boisduval, 1833

930067 Macrurocampa marthesia (Cramer, [1780])

930125 Elasmia packardii (Morrison, 1875)

930126 Elasmia cave Metzler, 2011

        syn. Hippia insularis of authors, not Grote, 1866

930126.1 Elasmia mandela (Druce, 1887)

        ssp. Elasmia mandela santaana Metzler & Knudson, 2011

930130 Symmerista suavis (Barnes, 1901)

930139 Scotura annulata (Guérin-Méneville, 1844)

930370.1 Lophocampa bicolor Walker, 1855

930496.1 Zanclognatha dentata Wagner & McCabe, 2011

930582 Hypena degesalis Walker, 1859

930613 Gonodonta sicheas (Cramer, [1777])

930615 Gonodonta pyrgo (Cramer, [1777])

930617 Gonodonta nutrix (Stoll, [1780])

930627 Hypocala andremona (Stoll, [1781])

930633 Goniapteryx servia (Stoll, [1780])

930638.5 Rhosologia porrecta Walker, 1865

930641 Gabara stygialis (Smith, 1903)

        syn. Gabara infumata (Hampson, 1926)

930758 Thysania zenobia (Cramer, [1777])

930792 Catocala ilia (Cramer, [1775])

930822 Catocala californiensis Brower, 1976

930845 Catocala grynea (Cramer, [1779])

930853 Catocala clintonii Grote, 1864

930864 Cissusa spadix (Cramer, [1780])

930880 Melipotis novanda (Guenée, 1852)

        syn. Melipotis agrotipennis (Harvey, 1875)

930924 Caenurgina erechtea (Cramer, [1780])

930951 Argyrostrotis flavistriaria (Hübner, [1831])

        syn. Argyrostrotis herbicola (Guenée, 1852)

        syn. Argyrostrotis contempta (Guenée, 1852)

        syn. Argyrostrotis diffundens (Walker, 1858)

        syn. Argyrostrotis carolina (Smith, 1905)

930954 Argyrostrotis quadrifilaris (Hübner, [1831])

930957 Gondysia similis (Guenée, 1852)

930958 Gondysia consobrina (Guenée, 1852)

        syn. Gondysia pertorrida Berio, 1955

930959 Gondysia smithii (Guenée, 1852)

930960 Gondysia telma (Sullivan, 2010)

930994 Metria celia (Stoll, [1781])

931004 Zaleops umbrina (Grote, 1883)

        syn. Zaleops paresa (Smith, 1906)

931049 Zale intenta (Walker, [1858])

        syn. Zale woodii (Grote, 1877)

931069.1 Eulepidotis dominicata (Guenée, 1852)

931069.2 Eulepidotis persimilis (Guenée, 1852)

931084 Athyrma adjutrix of authors, not (Cramer, [1780])

931086 Syllectra erycata (Cramer, [1780])

931138 Nola involuta Dyar, 1898

        syn. Nola exposita Dyar, 1898

        syn. Nola aphyla (Hampson, 1900)

        = Nola apera of authors, not Druce, 1897

931255 Cydosia nobilitella (Cramer, [1780])

931314 Ponometia candefacta (Hübner, [1831])

931329 Ponometia fasciatella (Grote, 1875)

        931392 Spragueia margana(Fabricius, 1794)

        syn. Spragueia cuviana (Fabricius, 1798)

931426 Acronicta cyanescens Hampson, 1909

931427 Acronicta vulpina (Grote, 1883)

931434.1 Acronicta parallela (Grote, 1879)

931434.2 Acronicta mansueta (Smith, 1897)

931450 Acronicta theodora of authors, not Schaus, 1894

931467 Acronicta increta Morrison, 1874

931611 Oxycnemis advena Grote, 1882

        syn. Oxycnemis gustis Smith, 1907

931617 Oxycnemis grandimacula Barnes & McDunnough, 1910

        syn. Oxycnemis erratica Barnes & McDunnough, 1913

931636.1 Aleptina arenaria Metzler & Forbes, 2011

931663.1 Plagiomimicus pyralina (Schaus, 1904)

931725.1 Azenia procida (Druce, 1889)

        syn. Azenia nepotica (Dyar, 1912)

931993 Condica mersa (Morrison, 1875)

        syn. Condica lunata (Barnes & McDunnough, 1916)

931994.1 Condica luxuriosa (Dyar, 1926)

931997 Condica concisa (Walker, 1856)

        syn. Condica proxima (Morrison, 1876)

932006 Condica chardra (Schaus, 1906)

        syn. Condica revellata (Barnes & Benjamin, 1924)

932011 Condica egestis (Smith, 1894)

        syn. Condica ignota (Barnes & Benjamin, 1924)

932014 Condica cupentia (Cramer, [1779])

932087.1 Schinia carrizoensis Osborne, 2010

932135.1 Schinia psamathea Pogue, 2010

932154.1 Schinia poguei Metzler & Forbes, 2011

932222 Spodoptera androgea (Stoll, [1780])

932223 Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, [1781])

932239.5 Pseudomarimatha flava Ferris & Lafontaine, 2010

932249.50 Chytonix palliatricula (Guenée, 1852)

932249.51 Chytonix sensilis Grote, 1881

        syn. Chytonix ruperti Franclemont, 1941

932328 Apamea tahoeensis Mikkola & Lafontaine, 2009

932709 Ufeus satyricus Grote, 1873

        ssp. Ufeus satyricus sagittarius Grote, 1883

        syn. Ufeus electra Smith, 1908

932711 Ufeus hulstii Smith, 1908

932819 Trichocosmia inornata Grote, 1883

        syn. Trichocosmia drasteroides (Smith, 1903)

932832 Anarta inconcinna(Smith, [1888])

        syn. Anarta castrae (Barnes & McDunnough, 1912)

        syn. Anarta ultra (Barnes & Benjamin, 1924)

        syn. Anarta montanica (McDunnough, 1930)

932836 Anarta obesula (Smith, 1904)

        syn. Anarta subalbida (Barnes & Benjamin, 1924)

932847 Scotogramma submarina (Grote, 1883)

        syn. Scotogramma addenda Barnes & Benjamin, 1924

932849 Scotogramma densa Smith, 1893

        syn. Scotogramma megaera Smith, 1899

932880 Lacanobia radix (Walker, [1857])

        syn. Lacanobia desperata (Smith, 1891)

932909 Hecatera dysodea ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

933009 Lasionycta sierra Crabo & Lafontaine, 2009

933017 Lacinipolia lustralis (Grote, 1875)

        syn. Lacinipolia selama (Strecker, 1898)

933062 Lacinipolia comis (Grote, 1876)

        syn. Lacinipolia lunolacta (Smith, 1903)

933093.1 Homorthodes euxoiformis (Barnes & McDunnough, 1913)

933105 Protorthodes incincta (Morrison, 1874)

        syn. Protorthodes smithii (Dyar, 1904)

933121 Ulolonche fasciata Smith, [1888]

        syn. Ulolonche marloffi (Barnes & Benjamin, 1924)

933128 Pseudorthodes vecors (Guenée, 1852)

        syn. Pseudorthodes imora (Strecker, 1898)

        syn. Pseudorthodes calceolaris (Strecker, 1900)

933143 “Orthodesnoverca (Grote, 1878)

        syn. “Orthodesvauorbicularis (Smith, 1902)

        syn. “Orthodesdelecta (Barnes & McDunnough, 1916)

933156.1Hexorthodesaccurata (H. Edwards, 1882)

933169 Neleucania praegracilis (Grote, 1877)

        syn. Neleucania bicolorata (Grote, 1881)

        syn. Neleucania niveicosta Smith, 1902

        syn. Neleucania citronella Smith, 1902

        syn. Neleucania suavis (Barnes & McDunnough, 1912)

933210 Xanthopastis regnatrix (Grote, 1863)

        syn. Xanthopastis timais of authors, not Cramer, [1780])

933210.1 Xanthopastis moctezuma Dyar, 1913

933280 Copablepharon spiritum Crabo & Fauske, 2004

        ssp. Copablepharon spiritum spiritum Crabo & Fauske, 2004

        ssp. Copablepharon spiritum lutescens Crabo & Fauske, 2004

        ssp. Copablepharon spiritum bicolor Crabo & Fauske, 2004

933282 Copablepharon canariana McDunnough, 1932

        ssp. Copablepharon canariana contrastaMcDunnough, 1932

933308 Euxoa adumbrata (Eversmann, 1842)

        ssp. Euxoa adumbrata thanatologia (Dyar, 1904)

933596 Xestia speciosa (Hübner, [1813])

        ssp. Xestia speciosa apropitia (Benjamin, 1933)


p. 2 & p. 14 Subfamily Lymantriinae Hampson, Tribe Nygmiini Holloway, 1999 – This tribe should be added to the check list for the Old World genus Euproctis Hübner, [1819]. Euproctis was listed in error in the tribe Leucomini.

p. 3 & p. 39 Subfamily Eulepidotinae – The year of publication is 1895, not 1985.

p. 3 & p. 39 Tribe Eulepidotini – The year of publication is 1895, not 1985.

p. 4 & p. 64 Subfamily Agaristinae – The author and year are Boisduval, 1833, not Herrich-Schäffer, [1858].

930067 Macrurocampa marthesia – The year of publication was deduced through external sources, so it should be shown in brackets. See note under 930617.

930125 Elasmia packardii New combination from Metzler and Knudson (2011).

930126 Elasmia cave This species was previously misidentified in North America as Hippia insularis, a species described from Cuba (Metzler and Knudson 2011).

930126.1 Elasmia mandela ssp. santaana Populations of Elasmia mandela occurring in south-central United States are segregated as a separate subspecies from the nominate form in Central America (Metzler and Knudson 2011).

930130 Symmerista suavis The species name was misspelled as sauvis in both Franclemont and Todd (1983) and in Lafontaine and Schmidt (2010).

930139 Scotura annulata This new generic combination was created when Miller (2009) synonymized the genus Zunacetha Walker, 1863 with Scotura Walker, 1854.

930370.1 Lophocampa bicolor The presence of this species in southern Texas has previously been overlooked, since it resembles washed-out specimens of Lophocampa caryae. It is currently known only from Big Bend NP, Brewster Co., TX (specimens in Canadian National Collection and Texas Lepidoptera Survey Collection).

930496.1 Zanclognatha dentata Addition (see Wagner and McCabe 2011).

930582 Hypena degesalis– The species name was misspelled as degasalis in Lafontaine and Schmidt (2010) and Franclemont and Todd (1983).

930613 Gonodonta sicheas See note under 930617.

930615 Gonodonta pyrgo See note under 930617.

930617 Gonodonta nutrix The author of this species is Casper Stoll, who finished the last part of Pieter Cramer’s work after Cramer’s death, so the names are credited to Stoll. The title pages of the first two volumes of Pieter Cramer’s work are dated 1779, but were actually published in a series of parts between 1775 and 1777. The last two volumes are dated 1782 but were published between 1779 and 1782 and the title pages were added later when the series was completed. The 34 issues that made up the four volumes were published between 1775 and Cramer’s death in 1776 and posthumously until 1780 by Casper Stoll. During 1780 the series was continued by Stoll and the names of the new species on plates 305 to 400 are credited to him. The dates are mostly deduced from external sources, so these should be shown in brackets. Only volume 4, pages 165 to 252 (plates 373 to 400) was actually published in 1782. The dates of publication of the 34 issues of texts and plates are taken from “AnimalBase – Early Zoological Literature On-line” maintained by the Zoological Institute of the University of Göttingen, Germany at (http://www.animalbase.uni-goettingen.de [accessed September 2011]).

930627 Hypocala andremona See note under 930617.

930633 Goniapteryx servia See note under 930617.

930638.5 Rhosologia porrecta – A specimen of this mainly Mexican species from Texas is in USNM with labels “Victoria, TX” “JD Mitchell Coll.” Ed Knudson (pers. comm.) provided additional information: “Joseph Daniel Mitchell was a pioneer biologist in Texas (1848–1922). He lived in Victoria TX from 1891 to about 1920 and was known for collecting insects, mollusks, etc. No doubt the specimen is genuine.”

930641 Gabara stygialis Gabara infumata (Hampson, 1926), syn. n. [formerly # 930642], is a form of Gabara stygialis in which the dark streak along the middle of the forewing is greatly reduced.

930758 Thysania zenobia See note under 930617.

930792 Catocala ilia See note under 930617.

930822 Catocala californiensis – A nominate subspecies is listed for Catocala californiensis, but currently no other subspecies are recognized so the subspecies entry should be deleted.

930845 Catocala grynea – See note under 930617.

930853 Catocala clintonii The correct original spelling is Catocala clintonii, not clintoni.

930864 Cissusa spadix See note under 930617.

930880 Melipotis novanda The name Melipotis agrotipennis (Harvey, 1875) is a synonym of Melipotis novanda (Guenée, 1852), syn. n., not a synonym of Melipotis agrotoides (Walker, 1858).

930924 Caenurgina erechtea See note under 930617.

930951 Argyrostrotis flavistriaria The year of publication was deduced through external sources, so it should be shown in brackets. Synonymy with Argyrostrotis herbicola [formerly # 930947], Argyrostrotis contempta [formerly # 930948], Argyrostrotis diffundens [formerly # 930949], and Argyrostrotis carolina [formerly # 930950] from Sullivan and Lafontaine 2011.

930954 Argyrostrotis quadrifilaris The year of publication was deduced through external sources, so it should be shown in brackets.

930957 Gondysia similis Generic combination from Sullivan and LeGrain 2011.

930958 Gondysia consobrina Generic combination and synonymy with Gondysia pertorrida from Sullivan and LeGrain 2011.

930959 Gondysia smithii Generic combination from Sullivan and LeGrain 2011.

930960 Gondysia telma Generic combination from Sullivan and LeGrain 2011.

930994 Metria celia See note under 930617.

931004 Zaleops umbrina The name Zaleops paresa, syn. n. [formerly # 931005], represents a dark form of Zaleops umbrina in which the forewing is mainly blackish brown with pale shading in the costal area and along the outer margin. The type specimens in AMNH (paresa) and USNM (umbrina) were both examined.

931049 Zale intenta This revised synonymy, proposed by Schmidt 2010, was omitted from the check list.

931069.1 Eulepidotis dominicata This species was inadvertently omitted from the 2010 check list. It was included in the 1983 MONA list (Franclemont and Todd 1983) on the basis of a report of the specimen from Texas published by Grote (1879) and discussed by Todd (1961). A recent specimen from Mission, Texas, 11 November 2002, by Leroy Koehn is in the TLSRC. A full report of the occurrence of this species and the next (Eulepidotis persimilis) is being prepared by Ed Knudson and associates.

931069.2 Eulepidotis persimilis A specimen of thisspecies was collected at Mission, Texas, 17 October 2011, by Mike Rickard. The specimen is deposited in the TLSRC.

931084 Athyrma adjutrix of authors – See note under 930617.

931086 Syllectra erycata See note under 930617.

931138 Nola involuta Nola involuta Dyar, 1898, stat. rev., was described from California and occurs from southern California to southern Texas. It is consistently different in wing markings from Nola apera Druce, 1897, from Jalapa, Mexico, such as the presence of a black patch along the base of the forewing costa that is absent from Nola apera, so we treat Nola involuta as a valid species. Nola exposita Dyar, 1898, syn. rev. [Type locality: Phoenix, Arizona], is revised from the synonymy of Nola apera to the synonymy of Nola involuta.The holotype of Nola aphyla (Hampson, 1900), syn. rev. [formerly # 931134], is a badly rubbed specimen of Nola involuta; both names are based on southern Californian material.

931255 Cydosia nobilitella See note under 930617.

931314 Ponometia candefacta The year of publication was deduced through external sources, so it should be shown in brackets.

931329 Ponometia fasciatella The year of publication is 1875, not 1975.

931392 Spragueia margana The name Pyralis cuviana Fabricius, 1798, has until recently been assigned to the Tortricidae as an unrecognized name. The type specimen has now been located in the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Denmark (ZMUC). Pyralis cuviana Fabricius, 1798, syn. n., is a synonym of (and a form of) Pyralis margana Fabricius, 1794. The species is currently known as Spragueia margana (Fabricius, 1794) and the synonym is Spragueia cuviana (Fabricius, 1798), comb. n. The type locality was originally given as ‘Habitat Kiliae’ [Kiel in northern Germany], so this should be corrected to “the Americas.” [Contributed by Ole Karsholt and Don Lafontaine].

931426 Acronicta cyanescens – The author and year are Hampson, 1909, not Guenée, 1852.

931427 Acronicta vulpina The author and year are Grote, 1883, not Guenée, 1852.

931434.1 Acronicta parallela Nearly identical externally to Acronicta falcula and some populations of Acronicta mansueta, and all three taxa were treated as conspecific by Lafontaine and Schmidt (2010). Additional study of specimens from key geographic areas, and re-examination of the type material, reveals that Acronicta parallela, stat. rev., is a valid species and our previous concepts of the taxa were erroneously based on geographic variants of Acronicta mansueta.

931434.2 Acronicta mansueta Eastern Great Plains populations are nearly identical externally to Acronicta parallela, with which it previously was treated as conspecific by Lafontaine and Schmidt (2010). As noted under 931434.1, Acronicta mansueta, stat. rev., is distinct from Acronicta paralella.

931450 Acronicta sp nr theodora – The species recorded in Arizona is an undescribed species related to Acronicta theodora. Acronicta theodora is known only from Mexico.

931467 Acronicta increta The year of publication is 1874, not 1974.

931611 Oxycnemis advena Oxycnemis gustis, syn. n. [formerly # 931614] is a new synonym of Oxycnemis advena following Robert Poole (Noctuidae of North Americahttp://www.nearctica.com/moths/noctuid/noctuidae.htm) [accessed September 2011] [Contributed by Robert Poole].

931617 Oxycnemis grandimacula Oxycnemis erratica, syn. n. [formerly # 931616] is a new synonym of Oxycnemis grandimacula following Robert Poole (Noctuidae of North Americahttp://www.nearctica.com/moths/noctuid/noctuidae.htm) [accessed September 2011] [Contributed by Robert Poole].

931636.1 Aleptina arenaria Addition (see Metzler and Forbes 2011a in references).

931663.1 Plagiomimicus pyralina Specimens of thisspecies have recently been found in Sunnyside Canyon, Huachuca Mountains, Arizona by Bruce Walsh. We tentatively retain the species in Plagiomimicus Grote following Poole (1989). It differs from Plagiomimicus, and all other Stririini, in having a frontal tubercle with a large central carina projecting out like a shark fin; the vesica has a large, spined, subbasal diverticulum, and the clasper is very long and thin, projecting more than half way across the valve. For these reasons we place the species in the list at the end of Plagiomimicus. The identity of the species was confirmed by Robert Poole.

931725.1 Azenia procida Azenia procida (Druce, 1889), stat. rev., previously was treated as a subspecies of Azenia edentata Grote, 1883, by Franclemont and Todd (1983), but differs in wing markings, male genitalia, and the shape of the frontal process. Azenia edentata has a clear-yellow forewing with tiny triangular costal dots and the outer margin of the frontal process is wavy, convex centrally and concave near the lateral margins. Azenia procida occurs in two color forms, one yellow and the other a dull yellowish brown. It differs from Azenia edentata in that the forewing has larger, more diffuse dark spots, the outer margin of the frontal process is evenly convex, and the DNA barcode is more than 4 % different from that of Azenia edentata. This taxon previously was treated as a form of Azenia edentata ssp. procida (Druce, 1889), but is now treated as a synonym of Azenia procida (Azenia nepotica (Dyar, 1912), syn. n.). The name nepotica represents the darker yellowish-brown form of Azenia procida. The male genitalia, shape of the frontal process, and DNA barcode are like those of the typical form of Azenia procida.

931993 Condica mersa Condica lunata, syn. n. [formerly # 932009] is a new junior synonym of Condica mersa following Robert Poole (Noctuidae of North Americahttp://www.nearctica.com/moths/noctuid/noctuidae.htm) [accessed September 2011] [Contributed by Robert Poole].

931994.1 Condica luxuriosa This mainly Mexican species is reported from Arizona by Robert Poole (Noctuidae of North Americahttp://www.nearctica.com/moths/noctuid/noctuidae.htm [accessed September 2011]). It is related to Condica albolabes (Grote, 1880), but the forewing of Condica luxuriosahas more black shading and the white speckling is more extensive, especially on the reniform spot and subterminal line. The genitalia of the two species also differ. [Contributed by Robert Poole].

931997 Condica concisa Condica proxima, syn. n. [formerly # 932000], is newly synonymized with Condica concisa to follow Robert Poole (Noctuidae of North Americahttp://www.nearctica.com/moths/noctuid/noctuidae.htm [accessed September 2011]). The unique holotype is lost, but the original description best fits that of Condica concisa. [Contributed by Robert Poole].

932006 Condica chardra Condica revellata, syn. n. [formerly # 932006] is synonymized with Condica chardra following Robert Poole (Noctuidae of North Americahttp://www.nearctica.com/moths/noctuid/noctuidae.htm). [Contributed by Robert Poole].

932011 Condica egestis– The holotype ofCondica ignota, syn. n. [formerly # 932012], in the USNM is an unusually pale specimen of Condica egestis. It is not clear if the specimen is naturally pale or is bleached from being exposed to too much light.

932014 Condica cupentia See note under 930617.

932087.1 Schinia carrizoensis Addition (see Osborne 2010).

932135.1 Schinia psamathea Addition (see Pogue 2010).

932154.1 Schinia poguei Addition (see Metzler and Forbes 2011b).

932222 Spodoptera androgea See note under 930617.

932223 Spodoptera eridania See note under 930617.

932239.5 Pseudomarimatha flava Inadvertently omitted from Lafontaine and Schmidt 2010. For description, see Ferris and Lafontaine (2010).

932249.50, 932249.51 Chytonix Grote – This genus belongs in the tribe Elaphriini. It has the divided sacculus and weakened area on the costa of the valve (e.g., see Lafontaine et al. 2010). With the move in position, the numbers of the two species change from 932713 and 932714 to 932249.50 and 932249.51.

932249.51 Chytonix ruperti Chytonix ruperti, syn. n. [formerly # 932715], is a synonym of Chytonix sensilis. The external characters (blackish in lower medial area, white dot by pm line, blackish basal area, black wedges on inner margin of subterminal line) are all variable and occur in varying combinations throughout. In the genitalia, the width of the tegumen and the form of clasper (a divided process versus a V-shaped sclerite), also are variable and both forms of clasper occur in the ruperti form (including the type series) and the typical sensilis form. A distinctive Florida form has a different barcode and may be a separate species, but structural characters are variable - just like in sensilis/ruperti.

932328 Apamea tahoeensis The correct spelling of the specific name is tahoeensis not tahoensis.

932681 Andropolia contacta – See the correction to Note 506 for this species below.

932386 “Oligiadivesta – This species was returned to its longstanding position in the Oligia Hübner group of genera by Lafontaine and Schmidt (2010), without explanation, after having been transferred to the genus Chytonix by Franclemont and Todd (1983). Genital and larval characters indicate that “Oligiadivesta (Grote, 1874) belongs in the tribe Xylenini, subtribe Apameina, as does the Oligia group of genera. Chytonix Grote, however, belongs in the tribe Elaphriini (see Note 932249.1 above).

932709 Ufeus satyricus The correct spelling of the subspecific name is sagittarius not saggiatarius. The lectotype of Ufeus electra, syn. n. [formlerly # 932711], in AMNH is a western specimen (from Oregon) of Ufeus satyricus, so the name becomes a synonym of Ufeus satyricus sagittarius.

932711 Ufeus hulstii The name for the western counterpart of Ufeus plicatus becomes Ufeus hultsii, stat. rev., with the transfer of Ufeus electra to the synonymy of Ufeus satyricus. The correct spelling for the specific name is hulstii, not hulsti.

932819 Trichocosmia inornata The lectotype of Trichocosmia drasteroides, syn. n. [formerly # 932820], in USNM is a more maculate form of Trichocosmia inornata.

932832 Anarta inconcinna The holotype of Anarta inconcinna, comb. n. [formerly # 932861], is a senior synonym of Anarta castrae, syn. n. [formerly # 932829], Anarta ultra, syn. n. [formerly a subspecies of Anarta castrae], and Anarta montanica, syn. n. [# 932832], The holotype of Anarta inconcinna from New Mexico is a form of the species in which the reniform and medial areas are paler than other areas of the forewing. Anarta ultra represents the more typical, evenly-colored, orange-brown form of the species. Anarta montanica is a more northerly and westerly yellow-brown form. The placement of the species here, rather than in Scotogramma, where inconcinna has previously been placed, is because the species is most closely related to Anarta oregonica and Anarta alta. The barcodes of populations in Alberta and British Columbia differ by less than 0.5% from those from New Mexico, whereas those of Anarta montanica differ from those of Anarta oregonica and Anarta alta by more than 1.5%.

932836 Anarta obesula – The holotype ofAnarta subalbida, syn. n. [formerly # 932835], from Whitehorse, Yukon, in USNM, represents the same species as the lectotype of Anarta obesula from Calgary, Alberta, in AMNH.

932847 Scotogramma submarina The holotype of Scotogramma addenda, syn. n. [formerly # 932852], from Colorado, represents the same species as Scotogramma submarina from Montana.

932849 Scotogramma densa This species, described from the Argus Mountains of California, is the same species as Scotogramma megaera, syn. n. [formerly # 932854], described from Glenwood Springs, Colorado. Both lectotypes are in USNM.

932880 Lacanobia radix Lafontaine and Schmidt (2010) followed Franclemont and Todd (1983) and Poole (1989) in listing Mamestra desperata Smith, 1891 [formerly # 932775], as a species of Orthosia Ochsenheimer. We had overlooked the synonymy of Mamestra desperata with Lacanobia radix by McCabe (1980), but follow it here. We have examined the lectotype of Mamestra desperata in USNM and agree with the synonymy by McCabe.

932909 Hecatera dysodea Note 551 on the discovery of this Eurasian species in North America should be corrected as follows. The first collections of Hecatera dysodeain Oregon were made in 2003 at Dufur (Wasco Co.) [not in 2005 at The Dalles]. The species was first collected in Washington in 2008 at Stevenson (Skamania Co.). Additional vouchers are in ODA (Richard Worth, pers. comm.).

933009 Lasionycta sierra The year of publication is 2009, not 2010.

933017 Lacinipolia lustralis – The holotype ofLacinipolia selama, syn. n. [formerly # 933034], in theFMNH is a typical specimen of Lacinipolia lustralis. The type locality of Lacinipolia selama is nominally Dallas, Texas, but the species has never been collected there, so the holotype could be mislabelled as to locality.

933062 Lacinipolia comis – The holotype ofLacinipolia lunolacta, syn. n. [formerly # 933064], in theBMNH is a dark female of Lacinipolia comis.

933093.1 Homorthodes euxoiformis – This species [formerly # 933153] is transferred from the genus Hexorthodes McDunnough to the genus Homorthodes McDunnough as Homorthodes euxoiformis, comb. n. The genital characters and barcode results suggest a close relationship to Homorthodes dubia (Barnes & McDunnough, 1912).

933105 Protorthodes incincta The syntypes ofProtorthodes smithii, syn. n. [formerly # 933106], in USNMrepresent yet another form of the extremely variable species Protorthodes incincta.

933121 Ulolonche fasciata – The holotype ofUlolonche marloffi, syn. n. [formerly # 933122], represents the same species as Ulolonche fasciata. Both holotypes are in USNM and both types are from New Mexico.

933128 Pseudorthodes vecors – The holotype ofOrthodes imora, syn. n. [formerly # 933130], is a pale reddish specimen of Pseudorthodes vecors from Wisconsin. The holotype of Orthodes calceolaris, syn. rev. [formerly # 933129], is a reddish specimen of Pseudorthodes vecors with white dusting on the transverse lines. It was described from Long Island, New York, and was raised to species status by Franclemont and Todd (1983), presumably on the basis of the discussion in Forbes (1954) that refers to populations from Long Island and south as having two rather than one generation a year. There is nothing in the genitalia or barcode results to suggest that southern populations are specifically distinct from northern ones. The types Orthodes imora and Orthodes calceolaris, are in the FMNH.

933143 “Orthodesnoverca Additional research on this species has confirmed the suggestion in Lafontaine and Schmidt (2010, note 591) that “Orthodesvauorbicularis, syn. n. [formerly # 933144], and “O.delecta, syn. n. [formerly # 933145], are geographic forms of a single species. Typical “Orthodesnoverca, a contrastingly-marked orange-brown form of the Great Basin and Rocky Mountains region, intergrades into the lightly-marked gray-brown forms of the Pacific Northwest (vauorbicularis) and California (delecta). Also, there are no differences in the genitalia or DNA barcodes to suggest that more than one species is involved.

933156.1 “Hexorthodesaccurata The species number is changed from 933154 to associate the species with “Hexorthodesciteria and “Hexorthodesemendata.

933169 Neleucania praegracilis Although the holotype of Neleucania praegracilis is lost, the details of the original description ― eyes hairy, resembling Heliophila pallens [Mythimna pallens (Linnaeus, 1758)], but with the forewing pale yellowish white and the slender habitus of Senta defecta Grote, 1874 [“Photedesdefecta (Grote, 1874)] ― leave no doubt as to the identity of this species. The list of synonyms (Neleucania bicolorata (Grote, 1881), syn. n. [formerly # 933167], Neleucania niveicosta Smith, 1902, syn. n. [formerly # 933168], Neleucania citronella Smith, 1902, syn. n., Neleucania suavis (Barnes and McDunnough, 1912), syn. n. [formerly # 933165], is due mainly to the variability of the forewing color. It varies from an even pale yellowish white to a dark orange brown; in darker forms the veins are streaked and the costa is white. There is no significant geographical variation in external appearance or genital characters that might suggest that any of the names in synonymy might represent a valid species. The species is unusual in that the male has a dark fuscous hindwing, whereas that of the female is almost white, the reverse of the usual situation in the Noctuidae. The only other species in the genus, Neleucania patricia (Grote, 1880), differs significantly in appearance and genitalia from Neleucania praegracilis and should probably be moved to another genus.

933210 Xanthopastis regnatrix The species known as Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, [1780]) is now recognized as a species complex consisting of at least six species. This is based on genital differences found by Tim McCabe (pers. comm.) and larval differences described by Dyar (1913a, 1913b, 1919). The name for the species in eastern United States is Xanthopastis regnatrix (Type locality: Pennsylvania). This species name was used for the species by Kimball (1965), Wagner (2005) and Wagner et al. (in press). It is characterized by the black patch of scales on the forewing that completely surround the reniform and orbicular spots, the relatively small process on the inner surface of the right valve, and the larval characters described by Dyar (1913a).

933210.1 Xanthopastis moctezuma Xanthopastis moctezuma, stat. rev., a mainly Mexican species (Type locality: Mexico), ) is characterized by the more broken black patch on the forewing, which forms an irregular series of dots on the outer side of the reniform spot, the much larger process on the inner surface of the right valve, and by the larval characters given by Dyar (1913b). It is known from as far north as Brownsville, Texas, but appears to be replaced by Xanthopastis regnatrix elsewhere in Texas. A specimen labeled “New Mexico” belongs to Xanthopastis moctezuma, but the occurrence of this species in the Southwest needs further confirmation.

933280 Copablepharon spiritum – Insert three subspecies of Copablepharon spiritum following Crabo and Fauske 2004.

933282 Copablepharon canariana The subspecies name contrasta was misspelled as contrasa in the text and index.

933308 Euxoa adumbrata– Subspecies thanatologia was misspelled as thantologia in the text and index.

933596 Xestia speciosa Subspecies apropitia was misspelled as apropritia in the text and index.

p. 114 Note 11 – The reference to Ferguson (1973) should be corrected to Ferguson (1978). The reference is given below.

p. 121 Note 75 – The reference to Wagner (2008) should be corrected to Wagner et al. (2008). The reference is given below.

p. 130 Note 177 – The reference to Fibiger (2009) should be corrected to Fibiger et al. (2009).

p. 132 Note 205 – The reference to Pogue (2009) should be corrected to Pogue (2009a).

p. 152 Note 497 – This note incorrectly spells Lomilysis, a generic synonym of Brachylomia, as Lomolysis.

p. 153 Note 506 – This note incorrectly refers to Andropoliacontrasta, a misspelling of Andropolia contacta.

p. 156 Note 555 – The reference to Pogue (2009) should be corrected to Pogue (2009b).

p. 160 Note 615 – The reference to Crabo et al. (2004) should be corrected to Lafontaine et al. (2004) and is given below.

p. 161 Note 642 – The reference Lafontaine and Crabo (1997) should be corrected to Crabo and Lafontaine (1997).

p. 165 Note 715 – The reference Ferguson (1963) was omitted. It is given below.


Many friends and colleagues sent us suggestions for additions and corrections to this list. We appreciate the help of James Adams, Gary Anweiler, Jérôme Barbut, Lars Crabo, Terhune Dickel, Cliff Ferris, Jeremy Holloway, Louis Handfield, Martin Honey, Ed Knudson, Eric Metzler, Jim Miller, Paul Opler, Margaret Ormes, Bob Patterson, Mike Pogue, Greg Pohl, Bob Poole, Eric Quinter, Bo Sullivan, Jim Troubridge, Jim Vargo, Dave Wagner, Bruce Walsh, and Alberto Zilli. Bob Poole also contributed new synonymies from his website Noctuidae of North Americahttp://www.nearctica.com/moths/noctuid/noctuidae.htm.

As with the original list, James Adams served us well as Academic Editor for ZooKeys and Gary Anweiler and Bob Patterson were particularly diligent in ferreting out errors and omissions.

Crabo LG, Lafontaine JD (1997) A revision of the cornuta group of Cerastis subgenus Metalepsis (Noctuidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society 51: 237-248.
Cramer P (1779 [1775–1780]) De uitlandsche kapellen voorkomende in de drie waereld-deelen Asia, Africa en America, by een verzameld en beschreeven. Amsterdam and Utrecht: S.J. Baalde and Barthelemy Wild. Vol. 1: 1–132 (pls. 1–84) [1775]; 133–156 (pls. 85–96) [1776]. Vol. 2: 1–151 (pls. 97–192) [1777]. Vol. 3: 1–104 (pls. 193–252) [1779], 105–176 (pls. 253–288) [1780]. Vol. 4: 1–28 (pls. 289–304) [1780]. See also Stoll [1780–1782].
Dyar HG (1913a) The larvae of Xanthopastis timais Cramer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 1: 20-22.
Dyar HG (1913b) Another larva of Xanthopastis timais Cramer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 1: 49-50.
Dyar HG (1919) The larva of Xanthopastis timais Cramer again (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 7: 149.
Ferguson DC (1963) Leucania comma in North America (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The Canadian Entomologist 95: 105-107.
Ferguson DC (1978) Noctuoidea: Lymantriidae. In: Dominick, RB et al. (Eds) The Moths of America North of Mexico. Fascicle 22.2. E.W. Classey Ltd., London, England, 110 pp.doi: 10.4039/Ent95105-1
Ferris CD, Lafontaine JD (2010) Review of the North American species of Marimatha Walker with descriptions of three new species (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Eustrotiinae) and the description of Pseudomarimatha flava (Noctuinae, Elaphriini), a new genus and species confused with Marimatha. ZooKeys 39: 117-135. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.39.424
Forbes WTM (1954) Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states. Part 3 Noctuidae. Cornell University Agriculture Experiment Station, Memoir 329: 1-433.
Franclemont JG, Todd EL (1983) Noctuidae. In: Hodges RW, Dominick T, Davis DR, Ferguson DC, Franclemont JG, Munroe EG, Powell JA (1983) Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico. E. W. Classey Ltd, London and The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation Washington, 120–159.
Grote AR (1879) New Texan moths collected by G. W. Belfrage. North American Entomologist 1: 12-13.
Kimball CP (1965) Arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas. 1. Lepidoptera of Florida. Division of Plant Industry, State of Florida Department of Agriculture, 363 pp.
Lafontaine JD, Crabo LG, Fauske GA (2004) Genus Copablepharon Harvey. In: Lafontaine JD (2004) Noctuoidea: Noctuidae (part) – Agrotini. In: Hodges RW (ed). The Moths of North America. Fascicle 27.1. The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, Washington: 146-180.
Lafontaine JD, Schmidt BC (2010) Annotated check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico. ZooKeys 40: 1-239. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.40.414
Lafontaine JD, Walsh JB, Holland RW (2010) A revision of the genus Bryolymnia Hampson in North America with descriptions of three new species (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Elaphriini). ZooKeys 39: 187-204.
McCabe TM (1980) A reclassification of the Polia complex for North America (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). New York State Museum, Bulletin Number432. vi + 141 pp.
Metzler EH (2011) Elasmia cave Metzler, new species. In: Metzler EH, Knudson EC (2011).
Metzler EH, Forbes GS (2011) The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 3. A new species of Aleptina Dyar, 1902 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Amphipyrinae, Psaphidini). In: Schmidt BC, Lafontaine JD (Eds). Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths III. ZooKeys 149: 125–133. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.149.1517
Metzler EH, Forbes GS (2011) The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae). In: Schmidt BC, Lafontaine JD (Eds). Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths III. ZooKeys 149: 135–144. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.149.1518
Metzler EH, Knudson EC (2011) A new species of Elasmia Möschler from New Mexico and Texas, and a new subspecies of Elasmia mandela (Druce) from Texas and Oklahoma (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae, Nystaleinae). In: Schmidt BC, Lafontaine JD (Eds). Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths III. ZooKeys 149: 51–67. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.149.1519
Miller JS (2009) Generic revision of the Dioptinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea: Notodontidae) Part 1: Dioptini. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 321, 674 pp.
Osborne KH (2010) A new species of Schinia from central California (Noctuidae: Heliothinae). Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society 64: 197-202.
Pogue MG (2010) A new species of Schinia Hübner from the southeastern United States (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae). ZooKeys 52: 57-64. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.52.476
Poole RW (1989) Lepidopterorum Catalogus (New Series). Fascicle 118 Noctuidae, Parts 1–3. New York: E.J. Brill, xii + 1314 pp.
Schmidt BC (2010) Taxonomic reassessment of Zale lunifera (Hübner) (Erebidae, Erebinae). ZooKeys 39: 99-106.
Stoll C [1780–1782] in Cramer [1775–1780]. Vol. 4: 29–90 (pls. 305–336) [1780], 91–164 (pls. 337–372) [1781], 165–252 (pls. 373–400) [1782].
Sullivan JB, Lafontaine JD (2011) New synonymies and combinations in Argyrostrotis Hübner (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Erebinae, Poaphilini). In: Schmidt BC, Lafontaine JD (Eds). Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths III. ZooKeys 149: 107–116. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.149.2347
Sullivan JB, Legrain A (2011) Gondysia preceded Neadysgonia (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Erebinae), a new generic synonymy from southeastern United States. In: Schmidt BC, Lafontaine JD (Eds). Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths III. ZooKeys 149: 103–106. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.149.1747
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Wagner DL, Schweitzer DF, Sullivan JB, Reardon RC (in press) Owlet caterpillars of eastern North America. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
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