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Research Article
Guilotes, a new genus of Coelotinae spiders from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (Araneae, Agelenidae)
expand article infoBing Li§, Zhe Zhao|, Haifeng Chen, Zhiyan Wu, Chuntian Zhang§, Shuqiang Li|
‡ Langfang Normal University, Langfang, China
§ Shenyang Normal University, Liaoning, China
| Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Open Access

Abstract

A new genus of the subfamily Coelotinae F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1893, Guilotes Z. Zhao & S. Li, gen. n. from China is described, as well as four new species: G. ludiensis Z. Zhao & S. Li, sp. n. (♂♀, type species), G. qingshitanensis Z. Zhao & S. Li, sp. n. (♂♀), G. xingpingensis Z. Zhao & S. Li, sp. n. (♂♀) and G. yandongensis Z. Zhao & S. Li, sp. n. (♀). The DNA barcodes of all species are documented for future use.

Keywords

Asia, barcodes, new species, taxonomy

Introduction

The spider subfamily Coelotinae (Araneae, Agelenidae) comprises 743 valid species belonging to 30 genera (World Spider Catalog 2018; Li and Quan 2017). Coelotinae are recorded only in the Nearctic, Palearctic, and Indo-Malaya regions with 89% of the species distributed in Asia, 7% in Europe, and 4% in North America. New coelotine genera and species had been recently discovered (Chen et al. 2015a, b, 2016a, b; Zhang and Marusik 2016; Zhang et al. 2016a, b; Zhao and Li 2016; Komnenov 2017; Okumura 2017; Quasin et al. 2017; Zhang and Zhao 2017; Zhang et al. 2017; Zhu et al. 2017; Li et al. 2018a, b). Zhao and Li (2017) studied the evolutionary history and biogeography of Coelotinae using molecular data (8 genes, ~ 6.5 kb) on 18 genera and 286 coelotine species. The well resolved phylogeny of coelotine spiders promoted the new taxa erecting and taxonomic revisions (Chen et al. 2016b; Zhao and Li 2016; Li et al. 2018a, b). So far, there are 387 coelotine species (about 52% of the total) from 24 genera reported from China. However, in the karst regions of China, there are still many poorly known species with unusual characters which are not belonging to any known coelotine genera (World Spider Catalog 2018).

In this study, Guilotes Z. Zhao & S. Li, gen. n. is proposed to include four new species. The new genus was confirmed by the phylogenetic framework of coelotine spiders (Zhao and Li 2017). The molecular topologies supported Guilotes as a monophyletic group in Guangxi Coelotes groups. The new species of Guilotes are compared with those of the morphological similar genus Notiocoelotes Wang, Xu & Li, 2008. All specimens of Guilotes were collected from karst regions in southern China.

Materials and methods

Specimens were examined with a LEICA M205C stereomicroscope. Photographs were captured with an Olympus C7070 wide zoom digital camera (7.1 megapixels) mounted either on an Olympus SZX12 dissecting microscope or on an Olympus BX51 compound microscope. Photos from multiple focal ranges were combined using Helicon Focus (Version 3.10) photo stacking software. Female epigyne and male palp were dissected form the body to be proper examined. The epigyne was removed and treated in a warmed 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution before study. Measurements were obtained with a LEICA M205C stereomicroscope and are given in millimeters. Eye diameters were measured as the maximum diameter from either dorsal or frontal views. Leg measurements are given as: total length (femur, patella + tibia, metatarsus, tarsus). Images of the male left palp are presented. Terminology of the structures follows Wang (2002), Chen et al. (2015b) and Zhang et al. (2016b).

References to figures in the cited papers are listed in lowercase (figure or figs); figures from this paper are noted with an initial capital (Figure or Figs). Abbreviations used in the text and figures:

A epigynal atrium;

ALE anterior lateral eye;

ALEPLE distance between ALE and PLE;

AME anterior median eye;

AMEALE distance between AME and ALE;

AMEAME distance between AME and AME;

AMEPME distance between AME and PME;

C conductor;

CD copulatory duct;

CF cymbial furrow;

CO copulatory opening;

E embolus;

EB embolic base;

ET epigynal tooth;

FD fertilization duct;

LC lamella of conductor;

LTA lateral tibial apophysis;

MA median apophysis;

OC outgrowth of conductor;

PA patellar apophysis;

PLE posterior lateral eye;

PME posterior median eye;

PMEPLE distance between PME and PLE;

PMEPME distance between PME and PME;

RTA retrolateral tibial apophysis;

S spermatheca;

SB spermathecal base;

SH spermathecal head;

ST subtegulum;

T tegulum;

TS tegular sclerite.

DNA barcodes were also obtained for the species delimitation and matching. A partial fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (CO1) gene was amplified and sequenced for all species using the primers LCO1490-oono (5’-CWACAAAYCATARRGATATTGG-3’) and C1-N-2776 (5’-GGATAATCAGAATANCGNCGAGG-3’). For additional information on extraction, amplification and sequencing procedures, see Zhao and Li (2017). All sequences were analyzed using BLAST and are deposited in GenBank. The accession numbers are provided in Table 1.

Table 1.

Voucher specimen information.

Guilotes species Voucher code GenBank accession number Sequence length Collection localities
G. ludiensis sp. n. IZCAS-Ar34051(zz391) KY778823 1194bp Guilin City, Guangxi, China
G. qingshitanensis sp. n. IZCAS-Ar34059(zz892) KY778825 1194bp Guilin City, Guangxi, China
G. xingpingensis sp. n. IZCAS-Ar34067(zz890) KY778824 1194bp Guilin City, Guangxi, China
G. yandongensis sp. n. IZCAS-Ar34075(zz392) KY778813 1194bp Baise City, Guangxi, China

Taxonomy

Family Agelenidae C.L. Koch, 1837

Subfamily Coelotinae F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1893

Guilotes Z. Zhao & S. Li, gen. n.

Figs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

Type species

Guilotes ludiensis Z. Zhao & S. Li, sp. n.

Etymology

The generic name is derived from the pinyin word “Gui”, referring to the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Gui is a short name for Guangxi) where the genus is distributed, and “-lotes” as part of Notiocoelotes, which is similar to the new genus. The gender is masculine.

Diagnosis

The males of the genus Guilotes are similar to those of the genus Notiocoelotes by cymbial furrow long (Figs 1C, 3C, 5C) and embolus long and filiform (Figs 1B, 3B, 5B), but can be distinguished by the chelicerae with 5–6 promarginal and five retromarginal teeth; the presence of a patellar apophysis (Figure 1C) and conductor short not reaching the embolus base (Figure 1B). The females of the genus Guilotes are similar to those of the genus Notiocoelotes by atrium oval and posterior (Figs 2A, 4A, 6A, 7A), hoods absent, copulatory ducts large, but can be distinguished by the chelicerae with 4–6 promarginal and 5–6 retromarginal teeth, the absence of a tongue-shaped atrial scape (Figure 2A), and the presence of two epigynal teeth (Figure 2A, absent in G. qingshitanensis sp. n. (Figure 4A)).

Figure 1. 

Left male palp of Guilotes ludiensis sp. n., holotype. A Prolateral view B Ventral view C Retrolateral view.

Figure 2. 

Epigyne and habitus of Guilotes ludiensis sp. n. A Epigyne, ventral B Vulva, dorsal C Male habitus, dorsal D Female habitus, dorsal E Female habitus, ventral. Scale bar equal for D and E.

Figure 3. 

Left male palp of Guilotes qingshitanensis sp. n., holotype. A Prolateral view B Ventral view C Retrolateral view.

Figure 4. 

Epigyne and habitus of Guilotes qingshitanensis sp. n. A Epigyne, ventral B Vulva, dorsal C Male habitus, dorsal D Female habitus, dorsal E Female habitus, ventral. Scale bars equal for C–E.

Description

Medium sized spiders, with total length 4.17–8.66. Carapace yellowish brown; cephalic area, labium, endites and sternum brown; chelicerae dark brown (Figs 2C–E, 4C–E, 6C–E, 7C–E). Abdomen gray with dark gray chevron stripes (Figs 2C–D, 4C–D, 6C–D, 7C). Spinnerets yellowish brown (Figs 2C–E, 4C–E, 6C–E, 7C–E). Legs yellowish brown with dark rings (Figs 2C–E, 4C–E, 6C–E, 7C–E). Chelicerae usually with 4–6 promarginal and 5–6 retromarginal teeth. Anterior lateral spinnerets larger than posterior median spinnerets but smaller than posterior lateral spinnerets; colulus slide-shaped; distal article of the spinneret longer than coxa. Leg formula 4123. Palp: patellar apophysis finger-shaped, RTA large and LTA small (Figs 1C, 3C, 5C). Cymbial furrow equal to (Figs 1C, 5C) or longer (Figure 3C) than 1/2 length of cymbium. Embolus long and filiform, beginning at 4 to 5 o’clock position (Figs 1B, 3B, 5B). Conductor short and broad with an outgrowth (Figs 1A, 3A, 5A) and a dorsal lamella (LC = lamella of conductor; Figs 1C, 3C, 5C). Median apophysis broad (Figs 1C, 5C) or thin, sharp and elongated (Figure 3C). Epigyne: with two teeth (Figs 2A, 6A, 7A, absent in G. qingshitanensis sp. n. (Figure 4A)). Atrium oval and posterior (Figs 2A, 4A, 6A, 7A). Hoods absent. Copulatory openings centrally located (on corners of the atrium; Figs 2A, 4A, 6A, 7A). Copulatory duct expanded and sac-like (Figs 2B, 6B, 7B) or elongate and convoluted (Figure 4B). Spermathecae long, spermathecae heads long, stretched to the back (Figs 2B, 4B, 6B, 7B).

Natural history

All species of this genus were collected from moist caves with soluble rock.

Comments

The new genus was supported as monophyletic within the Guangxi Coelotes group (Zhao and Li 2017: 993, figure 3 - see ZZ391, ZZ392, ZZ890, and ZZ892). Males and females of each species were collected from the same caves and double-checked using DNA barcoding.

The divergence time analyses showed the split of Guilotes gen. n. and other close related clades early than 30 million years ago (Zhao and Li 2017: figure 3, S8). Guilotes and Notiocoelotes are very similar in morphology and present similar distribution areas (Wang et al. 2008, Liu et al. 2010, Zhang et al. 2016b); thus, it is meaningful to distinguish between them.

Distribution

Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (Figure 8).

Guilotes ludiensis Z. Zhao & S. Li, sp. n.

Figs 1, 2, 8

Type material

Holotype ♂ (IZCAS-Ar34050): China: Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Guilin City: Ludi Cave, 25°18.551'N, 110°15.822'E, elevation: 200 m, 6.XII.2015, Z. Chen and X. Zhang leg. Paratypes: 1♀ (IZCAS-Ar34051, zz391, KY778823), same cave as holotype, 25°18.505'N, 110°15.793'E, elevation: 200 m, 9.XII.2012, Z. Chen and Z. Zhao leg.; 1♂3♀♀ (IZCAS-Ar34052–Ar34055), same data as holotype; 2♀♀ (IZCAS-Ar34056, Ar34057), same cave as the holotype, 25°18.237'N, 110°16.218'E, elevation: 150 ± 3 m, 5–6.I.2018, Z. Chen leg.

Etymology

The specific name is an adjective and refers to the type locality, Ludi Cave.

Diagnosis

Males of Guilotes ludiensis sp. n. can be distinguished from G. xingpingensis sp. n. with the long patellar apophysis, wide lateral tibial apophysis (Figs 1C, 5C) and narrow conductor (Figs 1A, 5A) with swollen OC and large LC (Figure 1C). Differ from G. qingshitanensis sp. n. by the straight and short conductor with a LC and embolus beginning at 5 o’clock position (Figure 1B). Females can be distinguished from G. xingpingensis sp. n. by the epigynal teeth located in the middle of the atrial lateral margins (Figure 2A), copulatory ducts concave laterally and narrow fertilization ducts (Figure 2B). Differ from G. qingshitanensis sp. n. by the presence of epigynal teeth (Figure 2A) and sac-like of copulatory ducts (Figs 2B, 4B). Differ from G. yandongensis sp. n. by locations of epigynal teeth near the atrial lateral margins, atrium twice wider than long (Figure 2A), copulatory ducts ending horizontally and narrow fertilization ducts (Figure 2B).

Description

Male (holotype, IZCAS-Ar34050): Total length 5.94. Carapace 3.56 long, 2.77 wide. Abdomen 2.38 long, 1.78 wide. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME: 0.08, ALE: 0.16, PME: 0.15, PLE: 0.15; AMEAME: 0.04, AMEALE: 0.03, AMEPME: 0.10, ALEPLE: 0.02, PMEPME: 0.05, PMEPLE: 0.05. Leg measurements: I: 11.22 (3.96, 3.26, 2.60, 1.40); II: 10.51 (3.61, 3.36, 2.18, 1.36); III: 10.01 (3.39, 3.05, 2.38, 1.19); IV: 12.41 (4.17, 3.68, 3.17, 1.39). Chelicerae with five promarginal and five retromarginal teeth. Palp: patellar apophysis finger-shaped, its length shorter than width of patella (Figure 1C); RTA narrow, pointed tip (Figure 1C); LTA short, approximately 1/2 length of RTA (Figure 1C); cymbial furrow long, subequal to 2/3 length of cymbium (Figure 1C); embolus filiform, beginning at 5 o’clock position (Figure 1B); conductor short, horizontally directed (Figure 1A–B); OC located at the base of the conductor (Figure 1A) and LC located behind the outgrowth (Figure 1C); median apophysis small, spoon-like (Figure 1B–C).

Female (one of the paratypes, IZCAS-Ar34053): Total length 5.54. Carapace 2.57 long, 1.44 wide. Abdomen 2.97 long, 2.08 wide. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME: 0.05, ALE: 0.12, PME: 0.10, PLE: 0.11; AMEAME: 0.06, AMEALE: 0.03, AMEPME: 0.08, ALEPLE: 0.05, PMEPME: 0.08, PMEPLE: 0.07. Leg measurements: I: 7.08 (2.59, 2.21, 1.42, 0.86); II: 6.13 (2.06, 1.80, 1.46, 0.81); III: 5.52 (2.01, 1.61, 1.21, 0.69); IV: 7.66 (2.79, 2.41, 1.61, 0.85). Chelicerae with six promarginal and five or six retromarginal teeth. Epigyne: teeth short, less than 1/2 atrial length, located near the atrial lateral margins (Figure 2A); atrium small, occupying 1/7 epigynal plate (Figure 2A); copulatory ducts broad, occupying 3/4 epigynal plate (Figure 2B); spermathecae cylindrical, elongated and posterior, stay away from each other (Figure 2B); spermathecal heads long, stretched to the back (Figure 2B).

Variation

Total length: males 5.94–6.53 (n = 2); females 5.54–7.13 (n = 6).

Distribution

Males and females of this species were collected from Ludi Cave, Guilin City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (Figure 8).

Guilotes qingshitanensis Z. Zhao & S. Li, sp. n.

Figs 3, 4, 8

Type material

Holotype ♂ (IZCAS-Ar34058): China: Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Guilin City: Lingchuan County, Qingshitan Town, Yanbei Village, Yanbei Cave, 25°30.622'N, 110°14.969'E, elevation: 173 m, 7.XII.2015, X. Zhang and Z. Chen leg. Paratypes: 1♀ (IZCAS-Ar34059, zz892, KY778825), same cave as holotype, 25°31.137'N, 110°14.908'E, elevation: 173 m, 21.XII.2013, H. Zhao leg.; 1♂2♀♀ (IZCAS-Ar34060–Ar34062), same data as holotype; 2♂♂2♀♀ (IZCAS-Ar34063–Ar34066), same cave as holotype, 25°31.607'N, 110°14.967'E, elevation: 201 ± 4 m, 3.I.2018, Z. Chen leg.

Etymology

The specific name is an adjective and refers to the type locality, Qingshitan Town.

Diagnosis

Males of Guilotes qingshitanensis sp. n. differ from G. ludiensis sp. n. and G. xingpingensis sp. n. by long and bent conductor and OC (Figure 3A–B), LC with saw-shaped margin (Figure 3C), embolus beginning at 4 o’clock position (Figure 3B), small median apophysis with needle-shaped top and spoon-shaped end (Figure 3B–C). Females differ from G. ludiensis sp. n., G. xingpingensis sp. n. and G. yandongensis sp. n. by the absence of epigynal teeth (Figure 4A) and spiral copulatory ducts (Figure 4B).

Description

Male (holotype, IZCAS-Ar34058): Total length 6.92. Carapace 3.53 long, 2.51 wide. Abdomen 3.39 long, 2.01 wide. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME: 0.08, ALE: 0.15, PME: 0.14, PLE: 0.16; AMEAME: 0.06, AMEALE: 0.05, AMEPME: 0.08, ALEPLE: 0.04, PMEPME: 0.10, PMEPLE: 0.10. Leg measurements: I: 12.64 (4.96, 3.65, 2.25, 1.78); II: 11.08 (4.22, 3.21, 2.24, 1.41); III: 9.69 (3.85, 2.56, 2.44, 0.84); IV: 14.02 (5.02, 3.97, 3.43, 1.60). Chelicerae with six promarginal and five retromarginal teeth. Palp: patellar apophysis finger-shaped, its length subequal to width of patella (Figure 3C); RTA narrow, keel-shaped apex (Figure 3C); LTA short, approximately 1/5 length of RTA (Figure 3C); cymbial furrow long, subequal to 1/2 length of cymbium (Figure 3C); embolus filiform, beginning at 4 o’clock position (Figure 3B–C); conductor long and bent (Figure 3A); outgrowth of the conductor beginning at the base of conductor, with similar shape as conductor (Figure 3A); lamella of the conductor broad, with saw-shaped margin (Figure 3C); median apophysis small, its end spoon-shaped while its top needle-shaped (Figure 3C).

Female (one of the paratypes, IZCAS-Ar34061): Total length 7.82. Carapace 3.53 long, 2.35 wide. Abdomen 4.29 long, 3.01 wide. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME: 0.09, ALE: 0.16, PME: 0.16, PLE: 0.15; AMEAME: 0.08, AMEALE: 0.05, AMEPME: 0.08, ALEPLE: 0.04, PMEPME: 0.10, PMEPLE: 0.09. Leg measurements: I: 9.74 (2.69, 3.27, 2.24, 1.54); II: 8.71 (2.82, 2.69, 1.92, 1.28); III: 8.14 (2.69, 2.37, 1.99, 1.09); IV: 10.97 (3.08, 3.53, 3.01, 1.35). Chelicerae with five or six promarginal and five retromarginal teeth. Epigyne: teeth absent (Figure 4A); atrium small, occupying 1/7 epigynal plate (Figure 4A); copulatory ducts long and spiral (Figure 4B); spermathecae long and longitudinally lengthening (Figure 4B); spermathecal heads and stalk covered by the copulatory ducts in dorsal view (Figure 4B); spermathecal bases horizontally extended (Figure 4B).

Variation

Total length: males 6.92–7.69 (n = 4); females 5.54–7.13 (n = 5).

Distribution

Males and females of this species were collected from Yanbei Cave, Guilin City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (Figure 8).

Guilotes xingpingensis Z. Zhao & S. Li, sp. n.

Figs 5, 6, 8

Type material

Holotype ♂ (IZCAS-Ar34067, zz890, KY778824): China: Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Guilin City: Yangshuo County, Xingping Town, Luotian Village, Luotian Cave, 24°56.731'N, 110°31.459'E, elevation: 217 m, 17.XII.2013, H. Zhao leg. Paratypes: 3♂♂4♀♀ (IZCAS-Ar34068–Ar34074), same cave as holotype, elevation: 241 m, 8.XII.2015, X. Zhang and Z. Chen leg.

Etymology

The specific name is an adjective and refers to the type locality, Xingping Town.

Diagnosis

Males of Guilotes xingpingensis sp. n. differ from G. ludiensis sp. n. by the patellar apophysis short, lateral tibial apophysis narrow, conductor wide with flat outgrowth and small lamella (Figure 5C). Females differ from G. ludiensis sp. n. by the sail-shaped copulatory ducts and fertilization ducts wide and long (Figure 6B).

Figure 5. 

Left male palp of Guilotes xingpingensis sp. n., holotype. A Prolateral view B Ventral view C Retrolateral view.

Figure 6. 

Epigyne and habitus of Guilotes xingpingensis sp. n. A Epigyne, ventral B Vulva, dorsal C Male habitus, dorsal D Female habitus, dorsal E Female habitus, ventral. Scale bars equal for C–E.

Description

Male (holotype, IZCAS-Ar34067): Total length 5.03. Carapace 2.65 long, 1.75 wide. Abdomen 2.38 long, 1.56 wide. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME: 0.06, ALE: 0.13, PME: 0.12, PLE: 0.13; AMEAME: 0.07, AMEALE: 0.06, AMEPME: 0.08, ALEPLE: 0.02, PMEPME: 0.10, PMEPLE: 0.11. Leg measurements: I: 9.68 (3.28, 2.97, 2.09, 1.34); II: 7.84 (2.56, 2.31, 1.88, 1.09); III: 7.32 (2.56, 1.94, 1.88, 0.94); IV: 10.20 (3.44, 2.97, 2.66, 1.13). Chelicerae with six promarginal and five retromarginal teeth. Palp: patellar apophysis short, its length approximately half length of patella, finger-shaped (Figure 5C); RTA narrow, pointed tip (Figure 5C); LTA short, approximately 1/4 length of RTA (Figure 5C); cymbial furrow long, subequal to 1/2 length of cymbium (Figure 5C); embolus filiform, beginning at 5 o’clock position (Figure 5A, B); conductor short, horizontally directed (Figure 5A); base of conductor with one outgrowth (Figure 5A); lamella of the conductor located behind the outgrowth (Figure 5C); median apophysis small, spoon-shaped (Figure 5B–C).

Female (one of the paratype, IZCAS-Ar34071): Total length 6.99. Carapace 3.21 long, 2.24 wide. Abdomen 3.78 long, 2.44 wide. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME: 0.06, ALE: 0.12, PME: 0.11, PLE: 0.12; AMEAME: 0.07, AMEALE: 0.04, AMEPME: 0.08, ALEPLE: 0.04, PMEPME: 0.09, PMEPLE: 0.09. Leg measurements: I: 9.55 (3.72, 2.56, 2.12, 1.15); II: 8.49 (3.72, 2.28, 1.53, 0.96); III: 7.89 (3.09, 2.12, 1.73, 0.95); IV: 10.71 (4.11, 3.14, 2.05, 1.41). Chelicerae with five promarginal and five retromarginal teeth. Epigyne: teeth short, about 1/4 atrial length, located near the atrial lateral margins (Figure 6A); atrium small, occupying 1/8 epigynal plate (Figure 6A); copulatory ducts broad, occupying 3/4 epigynal plate (Figure 6B); spermathecae bean-shaped with complex lumen and posterior, stay away from each other, and below the copulatory ducts (Figure 6B); spermathecal heads long, stretched to the back (Figure 6B).

Variation

Total length: males 4.17–6.41 (n = 4); females 4.40–6.99 (n = 4).

Distribution

Males and females of this species were collected from Luotian Cave, Guilin City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (Figure 8).

Guilotes yandongensis Z. Zhao & S. Li, sp. n.

Figs 7, 8

Type material

Holotype ♀ (IZCAS-Ar34075, zz392, KY778813): China: Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Baise City: Debao County, Yandong Town, Xingwang Village, Podi Cave, 23°14.268'N, 110°14.597'E, elevation: 632 m, 9.XII.2012, Z. Zhao and Z. Chen leg. Paratypes: 2♀♀ (IZCAS-Ar34076, Ar34077), same cave as holotype, 11.XII.2015, X. Zhang and Z. Chen leg.

Etymology

The specific name is an adjective and refers to the type locality, Podi Cave.

Diagnosis

Females of Guilotes yandongensis sp. n. can be differ from G. qingshitanensis sp. n. by having the epigynal teeth (Figure 7A) and wide fertilization duct (Figure 7B); they differ from G. ludiensis sp. n. and G. xingpingensis sp. n. by the copulatory ducts with folded lateral margin (Figure 7B).

Figure 7. 

Epigyne and habitus of Guilotes yandongensis sp. n. A Epigyne, ventral B Vulva, dorsal C Female habitus, dorsal D Female habitus, ventral E Female habitus, lateral. Scale bars equal for C–E.

Description

Female (holotype, IZCAS-Ar34075): Total length 5.77. Carapace 2.51 long, 1.61 wide. Abdomen 3.26 long, 2.05 wide. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME: 0.08, ALE: 0.12, PME: 0.12, PLE: 0.12; AMEAME: 0.04, AMEALE: 0.04, AMEPME: 0.08, ALEPLE: 0.05, PMEPME: 0.09, PMEPLE: 0.07. Leg measurements: I: 7.49 (2.81, 2.34, 1.25, 1.09); II: 7.11 (2.67, 2.03, 1.38, 1.03); III: 6.32 (2.19, 1.88, 1.47, 0.78); IV: 8.65 (2.81, 2.59, 2.19, 1.06). Chelicerae with four promarginal and five retromarginal teeth. Epigyne: teeth short, subequal to 1/3 atrial length, located far from the atrial lateral margins (Figure 7A); atrium small, occupying less than 1/8 epigynal plate (Figure 7A); copulatory ducts broad, occupying 3/4 epigynal plate, with folded lateral margin (Figure 7B); spermathecae long (Figure 7B); spermathecal heads long, stretched to the back (Figure 7B); spermathecal stalks long, lengthening along the margin of copulatory ducts (Figure 7B).

Variation

Total length: females 5.77–8.85 (n=3).

Distribution

All specimens of this species were collected from Podi Cave, Baise City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (Figure 8).

Figure 8. 

Localities of Guilotes species in China. 1 G. ludiensis sp. n. 2 G. qingshitanensis sp. n. 3 G. xingpingensis sp. n. 4 G. yandongensis sp. n.

Acknowledgements

The manuscript benefitted greatly from comments by Facundo Martín Labarque, Lina Maria Almeida-Silva and Daniele Polotow; Sarah Crews kindly checked English of the manuscript. This study was supported by the National Natural Sciences Foundation of China to Zhe Zhao (NSFC–31772418), Chuntian Zhang (NSFC–31750002), and Shuqiang Li (NSFC–31530067, 31471960).

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