ZooKeys 187: 1–7, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.187.2660
A new Synersaga species from Cambodia (Lepidoptera, Lecithoceridae), with a world catalogue of the genus
Kyu-Tek Park 1,†, Yang-Seop Bae 2,‡
1 The Korean Academy of Science and Technology, Seungnam, Gyunggi, 463-808 Korea; McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA
2 Division of Life Sciences, University of Incheon, Incheon, 406-772 Korea

Corresponding author: Kyu-Tek Park (keitpark22@gmail.com)

Academic editor: E. van Nieukerken

received 11 January 2011 | accepted 23 March 2012 | Published 27 April 2012

(C) 2012 Kyu-Tek Park. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC-BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

For reference, use of the paginated PDF or printed version of this article is recommended.


A new species of the genus Synersaga Gozmány, Synersaga mondulkiriensis sp. n., is described from Cambodia. The genus is diagnosed, and a global catalogue for the genus is provided.


Lepidoptera, Lecithoceridae, Synersaga, new species, Cambodia, taxonomy


The family Lecithoceridae (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea) is characterized by the very long antenna, usually longer than the forewing, and the male genitalia with gnathos bent downwards or absent. These characters are useful to differentiate from other gelechioid-moths. With respect to Lecithoceridae biology, larvae are known to feed on dead plant materials. A few Australian species have been reported to be reared on leaf litters of eucalypt (Common 1996). Recently, Komai et al. (2011) reported that two species of Lecithocerinae (Homaloxestis myeloxesta Meyrick, 1932 and Lecithocera thiodora (Meyrick, 1914)) and three species of Torodorinae (Athymoris martialis Meyrick, 1935, Deltoplastis apostatis (Meyrick, 1932), and Halolaguna sublaxata Gozmány, 1978) were reared from dead leaves of several unknown broadleaved trees in Japan. The family is mostly distributed in the Oriental and Australian Regions, around 1, 200 described species (van Nieukerken et al. 2011).

Synersaga Gozmány, 1978 is a small genus belonging to the subfamily Lecithocerinae that comprises six species only in the Oriental Region: the type species, Synersaga pseudocathara (Diakonoff, 1952) described from Myanmar, and five more species from East and Southeast Asia (Gozmány 1978; Park 2000, 2009; Park et al. 2007). Herein a new species, Synersaga mondulkiriensis sp. nov., is described from Cambodia. Moths have usually unicolorous forewing with yellowish-brown to dark-fuscous ground color.

The genus is allied to Lecithocera Herrich-Schäffer, 1853 and is defined by the combination of following characters: vein R3 on the forewing is separate or connate and the male genitalia have the cucullus fairly elongated and usually expanded distally, and well- developed caudal processes of the juxta. On the other hand, for several species of Lecithocera known from Sri Lanka, which have male genitalia resembling Synersaga, e.g. Lecithocera capnaula Meyrick, 1911, Lecithocera haemylopsis (Meyrick, 1911), Lecithocera nubigena (Meyrick, 1911), Lecithocera paroena (Meyrick, 1906), and Lecithocera paroristis (Meyrick, 1911), the generic placement should be reconsidered by examining the forewing venation.

Material and methods

The present study is based on recent material collected by the authors in Cambodia, from the result of an entomological expedition to Cambodia by the Environmental Ministry, Korea. The wingspan is measured from the left wing apex to the right wing apex, including fringe. The color standard for the description of adults follows Kornerup and Wanscher (1978). Types are deposited in the University of Incheon, Korea (UIK) on indefinite loan from Cambodia. Abbreviations for museums:HMNH= Hungarian Museum of natural History, Budapest, Hungary; KNA= Korea National Arboretum, Pocheon, Korea; UIK= University of Incheon, Korea; OPU= Osaka Prefectural University, Osaka, Japan; NRS= Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, Denmark.

Taxonomic Accounts
Genus Synersaga Gozmány, 1978


Synersaga Gozmány 1978: 141; Wu 1997: 174; Park et al. 2007: 206; Park 2009: 2.
Type species: Lecithocera pseudocathra Diakonoff 1951: 76. Type locality: Myanmar
= Anamimnesis Gozmány 1978: 143. Type species: Anamimnesis bleszynskii Gozmany 1978: 143 (synonimized by Park 2000).

Synersaga is characterized by the forewing characters: forewing slightly broader distally with round apex, evenly colored, with yellowish brown or blackish ground color; venation with R3 free or connate with R4+5; M3 and CuA2 short-stalked or connate. However, the forewing color patterns of the known species are very similar to each other and they can be differentiated from one another by the shape of the uncus and the caudal processes of the juxta in the male genitalia. The abdominal tergites are densely spinose, and the seventh tergite is uniquely specialized, produced laterally with a sclerotized anterior margin.

World catalogue of Synersaga

Synersaga bleszynskii (Gozmány, 1978: 143) China

TL (Type locality): Chekiang, China. Type in HMNH.

Fig.: Gozmány (1978, Taf. 8, 37, Fig. 86; Park (2000, Figs 20, 20a)

Synersaga caradjai (Gozmány, 1978: 143) Taiwan

TL: Kosempo, Taiwan. Type in HNHM.

Fig.: Gozmány (1978, Taf. 8, 37, Fig. 85)

Synersaga kuni Park, 2007: 206 Vietnam

TL: Cuc Phoung, N. Vietnam. Type in KNA.

Fig.: Park et al. (2007, Figs 8, 17, 17a)

Synersaga mondulkiriensis sp. n. Cambodia

TL: Mondulkiri, Cambodia. Type in UIK.

Fig.: Park & Bae (2012, Figs 4–12 )

Synersaga nigriptera Park, 2007: 208 Vietnam

TL: Babe, N. Vietnam. Type in KNA.

Fig.: Park et al. (2007, Figs 9, 18, 18a, 22)

Synersaga phuruaensis Park, 2009:2 Thailand

TL: Loei, China. Type in OPU.

Fig.: Park (2009, Figs 4-6, 8, 8a, 10)

Synersaga pseudocathra (Diakonoff, 1951: 76)* Myanmar

Ark. Zool. 1951, 3: 76. TL: Kambaiti, Myanmar. Type in NRS.

Fig.: Diakonoff (1951, Figs 13 (male), 15 &16 (female))

Type material.

Holotype ♂ – Cambodia, Prov. Mondulkiri, Seima Biodiversity Conservation Area, 12°57'N, 107°10'E, 3–8 July 2009 (Bae & Chae), gen. slide no. CIS-6072/Park. Paratype – 3♂, 1♀, same locality, 7 Oct. 2010.


This new species is similar to Synersaga pseudocathara from Myanmar, and Synersaga kuni and Synersaga nigriptera from Vietnam in the external and male genitalic characters. It can be distinguished from them by the shape of cucullus and the caudal processes of the juxta in the male genitalia. The caudal processes of the juxta of the new species are similar to those of Synersaga nigriptera, but longer and arched inwardly, and the distal portion of the cucullus is more or less clavate.


Adult (Figures 1, 2, 3). Wingspan, 17–18 mm. Head and thorax dark fuscous dorsally. Antenna dark fuscous throughout, relatively thick. Second segment of labial palpus fairly thickened, dark fuscous on outer surface with orange white apex, orange white on inner surface; 3rd segment slender, as long as 2nd segment, orange white all around. Forewing covered with dark fuscous scales throughout; two blackish discal spots well developed: one in middle, the other larger one at end of cell; apex rounded; termen slightly concave medially; venation with R1 arising from middle of cell; R2 nearer to R3 than R1 at base; R3 free; R4 and R5 stalked for basal 3/5 length; R5 reaching just beyond apex; M3 arising from half between M2 and CuA1+2 at base; CuA1 and CuA2 stalked for basal 1/5. Hindwing broader than forewing, pale brownish orange; apex more or less obtuse; termen sinuate; fringe concolorous, with narrow orange white basal line; venation with M3 and CuA1 short stalked. Hind tibia clothed with orange gray scales.

Male genitalia (Figures 4, 5, 6, 7). Uncus broad, short, obtuse, not exceeding basal stalk of gnathos, with small median lobe on caudal margin. Median process of gnathos strongly bent beyond middle, with acute apex. Valva broad basally, with triangular process near base on costa; costa gently concave; ventral margin gently arched outward in basal half; cucullus elongate, broadly expanded with round outer margin; dense long setae in basal half of cucullus, fairly setose beyond. Juxta with caudal processes long, gently arched inward, while the processes in Synersaga nigriptera nearly straight, clavate. Aedeagus gently curved, shorter than valva+cucullus, with finely dentate along ventral and dorsal margins apically; cornuti consist of a series of numerous needle-like cornuti. Abdominal segments in Figures 8 and 9.

Female genitalia (Figures 10, 11, 12). Similar to those of Synersaga nigriptera. Caudal margin of eighth abdominal sternite with deep Y-shaped medial emargination. Dorsal surface of ostial plate with dense spinules; caudal margin of ostium bursae concave. Antrum weakly sclerotized, cup-shaped. Ductus bursae coiled twice, slightly longer than corpus bursae, nearly same width throughout, with several needle-like spines internally. Corpus bursae elongate; signum a semiovate plate denticulate throughout.

Figures 1–9.

Synersaga mondulkiriensis sp. n., holotype 1 adult, holotype 2 head in dorsal view 3 labial palpus 4 male genitalia 5 close-up of juxta 6 aedeagus 7 close-up of cornuti 8 1st-4th abdominal segments 9 close-up of 6th–8th abdominal segments. Scale bar: 1 mm.

Figures 10–12.

Female genitalia of Synersaga mondulkiriensis sp. n. 10 genitalia 11 8th segment 12 genitalia. Scale bar: 1 mm.


Cambodia (Mondulkiri).


The species name is derived from the type locality.


We are indebted to Prof. Woo-Shin Lee, Seoul National University, Korea; Mrs. Kry Masphal and Thuch Phalla, Wildlife Protection Office, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, for their helpful collecting management. The present study was supported in part by the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), the Ministry of Environment, and the University of Incheon Research Grant (2010) in Korea. We thank Dr. James E. Hayden, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry, FDACS, Gainesville, FL, USA, for his careful reading and corrections to the manuscript.

Diakonoff A (1951) Entomological results from the Swedish expedition 1934 to Burma and British India. Lepid. Microlepidoptera 1. Arkiv for Zoologi. (2)3(6): 59–94.
Gozmány L (1978)Lecithoceridae.In: Amsel HG, Gregor F, Reisser H (Eds) Microlepidoptera Palaeartica. Vol. 5. Georg Fromme & Co., Wien, 306 pp.
Komai F, Yoshiyasu Y, Nasu Y, Saito T (2011) A guide to the Lepidoptera of Japan. Tokai University Press, Kanagawa, 1305 pp.
Kornerup A, Wanscher JH (1978) Methuen Handbook of Colour. 2nd ed. Methuen & Co., London, 252 pp.
Nieukerken EJ van, Kaila L, Kitching IJ, Kristensen NP, Lees DC, Minet J, Mitter C, Mutanen M, Regier JC, Simonsen TJ, Wahlberg N, Yen S-H, Zahiri R, Adamski D, Baixeras J, Bartsch D, Bengtsson BÅ, Brown JW, Bucheli SR, Davis DR, De Prins J, De Prins W, Epstein ME, Gentili-Poole P, Gielis C, Hättenschwiler P, Hausmann A, Holloway JD, Kallies A, Karsholt O, Kawahara AY, Koster SJC, Kozlov M, Lafontaine JD, Lamas G, Landry J-F, Lee S, Nuss M, Park K-T, Penz C, Rota J, Schintlmeister A, Schmidt BC, Sohn J-C, Solis MA, Tarmann GM, Warren AD, Weller S, Yakovlev RV, Zolotuhin VV, Zwick A (2011) Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758. In: Zhang Z. -Q. (Ed.), Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 212-221. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2011/f/zt03148p221.pdf.
Park KT (2009) Two new species of the genus Tisis Walker and Synersaga Gozmány (Lepidoptera, Lecithoceridae) from Thailand. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19: 1-3.
Park KT (2000) Lecithoceridae (Lepidoptera) of Taiwan (II): Sufamily Lecithocerinae: Genus Lecithocera Herrich-Schäffer and its allies. Zoological Studies 39: 360-374.
Park KT, Kim MY, Kim Sora, Cha MY, Byun BK, Nguyen C (2007) Lecithoceridae of Vietnam I. Genera Homaloxestis Meyrick and Synersaga Gozmány. Journal of Asia Pacific Entomology 10: 201-209. doi: 10.1016/S1226-8615(08)60354-4
Wu C (1997) Lepidoptera Lecithoceridae. Fauna Sinica, Insecta, 7. Science Press, Beijing, 302 pp.