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Catalogue
Scarabaeinae dung beetles from Ecuador: a catalog, nomenclatural acts, and distribution records
expand article infoWilliam Chamorro, Diego Marin-Armijos, Angélico Asenjo§, Fernando Z. Vaz-De-Mello§
‡ Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Loja, Ecuador
§ Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá Mato Grosso, Brazil
Open Access

Abstract

The Ecuadorian territory is divided into four natural regions: the coastal lowlands, the Andean highlands, the Amazon basin, and the Galapagos Islands. Each of these regions has its own ecosystems and specific vegetation. The purpose of this work is to compile an updated catalog of the Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) of Ecuador that includes distributional data and several nomenclatural acts. We compiled data from 25 scientific collections, with the examination of 13,550 scarabaeines; additionally, 390 bibliographic references were reviewed for their taxonomic histories. The Scarabaeinae fauna from Ecuador is represented by 33 genera and 223 species, with 45 range-restricted species; 27 species were erroneously recorded from the country. The following nomenclatural acts are made: (A) two new status as valid species: Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) ohausi Balthasar, 1939, stat. n., and Deltochilum (Calhyboma) arrowi Paulian, 1939 stat. n.; (B) one new synonym: Uroxys magnus Balthasar, 1940 = Uroxys latesulcatus Bates, 1891, syn. n.; (C) two revalidated names: Canthidium (Canthidium) orbiculatum (Lucas, 1857) and Dichotomius (Luederwaldtinia) fortepunctatus (Luederwaldt, 1923); and (D) ten lectotypes designated for: Choeridium orbiculatum Lucas, 1857; Choeridium cupreum Blanchard, 1846; Canthidium coerulescens Balthasar, 1939; Canthon angustatus Harold, 1867; Canthon angustatus ohausi Balthasar, 1939; Deltochilum tessellatum Bates, 1870; Pinotus fortepunctatus Luederwaldt, 1923; Pinotus globulus Felsche, 1901; Uroxys latesulcatus Bates, 1891; and Uroxys magnus Balthasar, 1940. The type specimens related to the new nomenclatural acts are illustrated and the maps of the geographical distribution of all species are provided.

Keywords

biomas, dung beetles, Neotropical region, taxonomic historic, type specimens

Introduction

Ecuador is a country located in northern South America. It has an area of 283,561 km2 and geographically is divided into four natural regions: the coastal lowlands, the Andean highlands, the Amazon basin, and the Galapagos Islands. The Ecuadorean territory is politically divided into 24 provinces, and it has 72 types of natural ecosystems (Sierra 1999).

Scarab beetles from the subfamily Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), commonly called dung beetles (in Spanish, “estercoleros”, “mierderos”, “peloteros”, or “ruedacacas”) can be found worldwide. Current estimates indicate there are more than 6500 species and 279 genera belonging to this group (Schoolmeesters et al. 2018). However, despite Ecuador’s impressive biodiversity, taxonomic research of scarab beetles in this region is scarce. Specific knowledge of Scarabaeinae is based entirely on a short list compiled by Campos (1921) in his work entitled “Studies about the entomological fauna of Ecuador” and 265 Scarabaeinae species cited by Carvajal et al. (2011) in their book “Escarabajos del Ecuador principales géneros” (Scarabs of Ecuador main genera). However, the number of species cited in the latter work is erroneous, as the authors considered numerous synonyms as valid names. Recently, Chamorro et al. (2018) provided an updated checklist for Ecuador with 33 genera, 28 subgenera, and 220 species including 19 new species records. However, no new nomenclatural acts were made.

There are several historical catalogs and checklists for Scarabaeinae that mention Ecuadorian taxa. Gemminger and Harold (1869) were the first to publish a catalog of worldwide species distribution patterns including eleven records from Ecuador. Later, Gillet (1911a) published another catalog of species distributions where the number of records for Ecuador increased to 30 dung beetle species. This was followed by Blackwelder’s (1944) checklist that compiled information about Neotropical beetles, including the West Indies, and reported 82 dung beetle species from Ecuador. Finally, Krajcik’s (2012) checklist of dung beetles reported 94 records for the country.

According to Fávila and Halffter (1997), the easy and very cheap methods to collect dung beetles, along with the advanced state of biology, taxonomy and natural history, make these insects excellent bioindicators. In Ecuador, environmental legislation associated with the ministry agreement of 2006 categorizes Scarabaeinae as an indicator group of insects used in biodiversity and environmental impact studies (TULAS 2007).

Here we present an updated catalog of the Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) species of Ecuador based on an extensive literature search and the examination of more than 13,500 specimens belonging to 26 collections from 13 different countries. This work aims to compile an updated catalog of the Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) of Ecuador, including distributional data and several nomenclatural changes.

Materials and methods

This catalog reports two sets of data for each species. The first dataset includes species’ taxonomic history including bibliographical references (e.g., original description, type species for each genus, type locality for each species, nomenclatural changes, comments, etc.). Original description and type locality data, as well as original symbols and language are maintained as they were originally published. The second dataset consist of information about the type specimens and their original labels, species occurrence outside of Ecuador, collecting localities in Ecuador and phenological data, including habitat preferences and/or biomes. For the latter, we follow Sierra’s (1999) plant formations (Plate 1). The collection method for each species is given. For some species, comments regarding nomenclatural and taxonomic changes are included following the ICZN (1999) guidelines. The specific usage of parenthesis, brackets, and punctuation are described below, together with the notes related to the spelling of the generic and species names.

Parenthesis () Comments on the type of bibliographic reference.

Brackets [] Used to emphasize orthographic errors written in past publications (for example, the synonym of Anomiopus [cited as Onomiopus]) or to add important comments.

Brackets and equal sign [=] Indicates a change made for a locality, year or author (for example Ega [= Tefé]).

Colon : (specifically for author, year) Separates the author and specifies the page where the bibliographic reference is written.

Semicolon ; Separates historical bibliographic references of genera and species, but also provinces and localities in the distribution section of each species.

Quotation marks “ ” Emphasize an old author’s name which is not available (for example, “Müller, 1764”). Also, it indicates label data (see Type specimens).

Comma , Separates information among labels used in the description of type specimens.

Slash / Separates lines used in the description of the type specimens.

p Represents data printed and used in the description of the type specimens.

hw Represents data handwritten and used in the description of the type specimens.

The material was kindly provided by several institutions and private collections as listed below (curators name and/or type records cited in bibliographical references are shown in parenthesis):

AMIC Colección Antonio Martínez, Rosario de Lerma, Argentina (see Martínez 1991). Name-bearing types now in MACN.

CECC Colección de Escarabajos Coprófagos de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia (see González et al. 2009).

CEMT Setor de Entomologia da Coleção Zoológica da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Brazil (Fernando Vaz-de-Mello).

CFPL Colección Familia Pardo-Locarno, Palmira, Colombia (Luis Carlos Pardo Locarno).

CMNC Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Canada (François Génier), (see Génier and Kohlmann 2003, Génier 2009, Cupello and Vaz-de-Mello 2018).

CNCI Canadian National Insect Collection, Agriculture et Agroalimentaire, Ottawa, Canada, (see Howden 1966).

CPFA Patrick Arnaud personal collection, Saintry-sur-Seine, France (see Arnaud 2000, 2002b).

FGIC F Génier Collection, Aylmer, Quebec, Canada (see Cook 1998).

HAHC A and H Howden collection Ottawa, Canada (see Arnaud 1997). Name-bearing types now in CMNC.

IAvH Instituto Alexander von Humboldt, Villa de Leiva, Colombia (see González et al. 2009).

IRSN Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium (Alain Drumont), (see Génier 1996).

MACN Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires, Argentina, formally know as Bernardino Rivadavia (Arturo Roig Alsina), (see Génier 2009, Martínez 1988b).

MECN Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, Quito, Ecuador (Santiago Villamarín).

MEPN Colección Entomológica, Museo de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador (Vladimir Carvajal).

MGO-UCE Museo Laboratorio Gustavo Orces, Universidad Central, Quito, Ecuador (Fabiola Montenegro).

MLUH Wissenschaftsbereich Zoologie Martin-Luther-Universität, Halle, Germany (Karla Schneider).

MNHN Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France (Olivier Montreuil and Antoine Mantilleri), (see Arnaud 1982a, Edmonds 1994, Génier 2009, Vaz-de-Mello 2008, Génier and Arnaud 2016).

MQCAZ Museo de Zoología de la Pontificia Universidad Católica, Quito, Ecuador (Álvaro Barragán, Carlos Carpio and Fernanda Salazar), (see Donoso et al. 2009, Génier and Kohlmann 2003).

MSMF Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Frankfurt, Germany (Damir Kovac and Andrea Hastenpflug-Vesmanis), (see Génier 2009).

MXAL Coleción privada Miguel Angel Morón, Xalapa, México, (see Morón 2006).

MUTPL Museo de Zoología de la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Loja, Ecuador (Diego Marín).

MZSP Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (Sonia Casari), (see Génier 1996, González et al. 2009).

NHML The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom, formally known as the British Museum (Natural History) (Maxwell VL Barclay), (see: Arnaud 2002a, Génier 1996, 2009, Kohlmann and Solís 2001, Zunino and Halffter 1988).

NHMW Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Wien, Austria (see Vaz-de-Mello and Cupello 2018a).

NHRS Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet. Sweden, Stockholm (Johannes Bergsten and Mattias Forshage, (see Génier 2009).

MZc Mario Zunino private collection, Asti, Italy, (see Zunino and Halffter 1997).

NMPC Narodní Muzeum, Praha, Czech Republic (Jirí Hajek), (see Bezdek and Hajek 2011, 2012, 2013, Génier and Kohlmann 2003).

OUMNH Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford, United Kingdom (Darren J. Mann).

SMTD Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde, Dresden, Germany (Klaus-Dieter Klass and Olaf Jaeger), (see Edmonds 1994, Edmonds and Zídek 2010, Génier 2009).

TAMU Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA (Edward G. Riley). (see Cupello and Vaz-de-Mello 2018).

USNM National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC, USA (David Furth and Floyd Shockley), (see Génier 1996, Howden and Young 1981).

ZMHB Naturshistorisches Museum Humboldt Universität, Berlin, Germany (Johannes Frisch and Joachim Willers, (see Edmonds 1994, Edmonds and Zídek 2010, Génier 1996, 2009, Solís and Kohlmann 2002).

ZMUC University of Copenhagen, Zoological Museum, København, Denmark (Alexey Solodovnikov).

ZSM Zoologische Staatssammlung, München, Germany (Michael Balke), (see Edmonds 1994).

New lectotypes have been designated (Plates 55D, 56A–D, 57B–D, 58A–B) to fix species names over single name-bearing type specimens (see ICZN 1999, Article 46). Additionally, labels of some syntypes with records for Ecuador have been examined.

Maps of the geographical distributions are provided for each species (Plates 355) in a geographical-regional scale (Ecuador). Maps were generated for 825 localities using the GIS software ARCGIS, 10.1 SP1, 2012 (Plate 2). Coordinates were standardized in degrees-minutes-seconds.

Results

A total of 13,550 scarabaeine specimens were analyzed from 26 scientific collections. We recorded a total of 223 species classified among 33 genera (Table 1) from the mainland Ecuador; no records of dung beetles from the Galapagos Islands were available. The taxonomic findings are reported as follows:

Table 1.

Genera and species of dung beetles registered for Ecuador.

Genera Number of species in Ecuador (this study) Number of species worldwide (Schoolmeesters et al. 2018)
Anomiopus Westwood, 1842 3 60
Ateuchus Weber, 1801 5 98
Bdelyrus Harold, 1869 9 27
Bradypodidium Vaz-de-Mello, 2008 1 3
Canthidium Erichson, 1847 18 173
Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817 20 160
Canthonella Chapin, 1930 3 (registered species, undescribed) 17
Copris Geoffroy, 1762 2 251
Coprophanaeus d’Olsoufieff, 1924 8 50
Cryptocanthon Balthasar, 1942 6 38
Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822 20 106
Dendropaemon Perty, 1830 2 41
Dichotomius Hope, 1838 20 171
Eurysternus Dalman, 1824 15 53
Eutrichillum Martínez, 1969 1 (registered species, undescribed) 3
Gromphas Brullé, 1837 1 6
Homocopris Burmeister, 1846 2 3
Malagoniella Martínez, 1961 2 10
Megatharsis Waterhouse, 1891 1 1
Onoreidium Vaz-de-Mello, 2008 3 4
Ontherus Erichson, 1847 16 60
Onthophagus Latreille, 1802 24 2157
Oruscatus Bates, 1870 1 2
Oxysternon Castelnau, 1840 3 11
Phanaeus Macleay, 1819 9 61
Scatimus Erichson, 1847 7 12
Scybalocanthon Martínez, 1948 4 21
Sinapisoma Boucomont, 1928 1 (registered species, undescribed) 1
Streblopus Lansberge, 1874 1 2
Sulcophanaeus d’Olsoufieff, 1924 3 15
Sylvicanthon Halffter & Martínez, 1977 4 16
Trichillidium Vaz-de-Mello, 2008 1 4
Uroxys Westwood, 1842 12 58

(A). Two new species status: Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) ohausi Balthasar, 1939 stat. n., and Deltochilum (Calhyboma) arrowi Paulian, 1939, stat. n.

(B). One new synonym: Uroxys magnus Balthasar, 1940 = Uroxys latesulcatus Bates, 1891.

(C). Two revalidated names: Canthidium (Canthidium) orbiculatum (Lucas, 1857) and Dichotomius (Luederwaldtinia) fortepunctatus (Luederwaldt, 1923).

(D). Ten new lectotypes designated: Choeridium orbiculatum Lucas, 1857; Choeridium cupreum Blanchard, 1846; Canthidium coerulescens Balthasar, 1939; Canthon angustatus Harold, 1867; Canthon angustatus ohausi Balthasar, 1939; Deltochilum tessellatum Bates, 1870; Pinotus fortepunctatus Luederwaldt, 1923; Pinotus globulus Felsche, 1901; Uroxys latesulcatus Bates, 1891 and Uroxys magnus Balthasar, 1940.

The following 45 species are currently known only from Ecuador:

Ateuchus ecuadorensis (Boucomont, 1928);

Ateuchus parvus (Balthasar, 1939);

Bdelyrus ecuadorae Cook, 2000;

Bdelyrus genieri Cook, 1998;

Bdelyrus parvoculus Cook, 1998;

Bdelyrus triangulus Cook, 1998;

Canthidium (Canthidium) flavum Balthasar, 1939;

Canthidium (Canthidium) opacum Balthasar, 1939;

Canthidium (Canthidium) pseudaurifex Balthasar, 1939;

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) inoptatum Balthasar, 1939;

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) luteum Balthasar, 1939;

Canthon (Canthon) delicatulus Balthasar, 1939;

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) subhyalinoides Balthasar, 1939;

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) conocephalus (d’Olsoufieff, 1924);

Cryptocanthon curticrinis Cook, 2002;

Cryptocanthon genieri Cook, 2002;

Cryptocanthon napoensis Cook, 2002;

Cryptocanthon otonga Cook, 2002;

Cryptocanthon urguensis Cook, 2002;

Deltochilum (Aganhyboma) arturoi Silva, Louzada & Vaz-de-Mello, 2015;

Deltochilum (Deltohyboma) batesi Paulian, 1938;

Deltochilum (Deltochilum) rosamariae Martínez, 1991;

Deltochilum (Deltohyboma) speciosissimum Balthasar, 1939;

Dichotomius (Dichotomius) provisorius (Luederwaldt, 1925);

Dichotomius (Luederwaldtinia) hempeli (Pereira, 1942);

Dichotomius (Selenocopris) fonsecae (Luederwaldt, 1926);

Onoreidium howdeni (Ferreira & Galileo, 1993);

Onoreidium ohausi (Arrow, 1931);

Ontherus (Caelontherus) hadros Génier, 1996;

Ontherus (Caelontherus) magnus Génier, 1996;

Onthophagus (Onthophagus) dicranoides Balthasar, 1939;

Onthophagus (Onthophagus) insularis Boheman, 1858;

Onthophagus (Onthophagus) lojanus Balthasar, 1939;

Scatimus cribrosus Génier & Kohlmann, 2003;

Scatimus furcatus Balthasar, 1939;

Scatimus onorei Génier & Kohlmann, 2003;

Scybalocanthon kaestneri (Balthasar, 1939);

Scybalocanthon maculatus (Schmidt, 1920);

Uroxys frankenbergeri Balthasar, 1940;

Uroxys latesulcatus Bates, 1891;

Uroxys lojanus Arrow, 1933;

Uroxys monstruosus Balthasar, 1940;

Uroxys ohausi (Balthasar, 1938);

Uroxys spaethi Balthasar, 1940; and

Uroxys sulai Balthasar, 1940.

Finally, 27 species were erroneously recorded from Ecuador:

Canthon (Canthon) cyanellus sallei Harold, 1863;

Canthon (Canthon) lituratus (Germar, 1813);

Canthon (Canthon) morsei Howden, 1966;

Canthon (Canthon) mutabilis Lucas, 1857;

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) rubrescens Blanchard, 1843;

Canthon (Goniocanthon) smaragdulus smaragdulus Fabricius, 1781;

Copris (Copris) incertus Say, 1835;

Copris (Copris) lugubris Boheman, 1858;

Deltochilum (Deltochilum) tumidum Howden, 1966;

Deltochilum (Deltohyboma) femorale Bates, 1870;

Deltochilum (Deltohyboma) parile Bates, 1887;

Deltochilum (Deltohyboma) spinipes Paulian, 1938;

Dichotomius (Dichotomius) alyattes Harold, 1880;

Dichotomius (Dichotomius) horridus Felsche, 1911;

Dichotomius (Dichotomius) longiceps (Taschenberg, 1870);

Dichotomius (Luederwaltinia) carbonarius Mannerheim, 1829;

Eucranium cyclosoma Burmeister, 1861;

Ontherus (Ontherus) appendiculatus (Mannerheim, 1829);

Ontherus (Caelontherus) obliquus Génier, 1996;

Ontherus (Ontherus) sulcator (Fabricius, 1775);

Onthophagus (Onthophagus) clypeatus Blanchard, 1843;

Onthophagus (Onthophagus) incensus Say, 1835;

Onthophagus (Onthophagus) ophion Erichson, 1847;

Sulcophanaeus actaeon (Erichson, 1847);

Sulcophanaeus noctis (Bates, 1887);

Sylvicanthon candezei Harold, 1869; and

Sylvicanthon aequinoctialis (Harold, 1868).

Genera and species records of Ecuador

Genus Anomiopus Westwood, 1842

Anomiopus Westwood, 1842: 59 (original description. Type species: Anomipus virescens Westwood, 1842 present designation).

Anomiopus: Westwood 1843: 62 (redescription); Agassiz 1846: 69 (catalog, unjustifiably cited as Anomoeopus); Westwood 1847: 231 (redescription); Erichson 1843: 189 (list of species); Lacordaire 1856: 94 (synonym of Onthocharis, see footnote 2); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1002 (catalog, synonym of Onthocharis); Gillet 1911a: 50 (catalog, synonym of Onthocharis); Lucas 1920: 100 (catalog, synonym of Onthocharis); Blackwelder 1944: 204 (cited as synonym of Onthocharis Westwood, 1847); Medina and Lopera 2000: 306 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 190 (list of species of Brazil); Medina et al. 2001: 137 (list of species of Colombia); Canhedo 2006: 354 (revision); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 12 (list of species of Bolívia); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 25 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 124 (diagnosis), 318 (list of species of Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 28 (complete list of species); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 2 (list of species of Costa Rica); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 107 (characters in key); Chamorro et al. 2018: 75 (characters in key), 91 (list of species of Ecuador).

Onthocharis Dejean, 1833: 144 (nom. nud.); 1837: 160 (nom. nud.); Erichson 1843: 189 (nom. nud.); Agassiz 1846: 749 (catalog); Westwood 1847: 230 (cited as valid); Lacordaire 1856: 94 (description. Type species: Onthocharis smaragdinus (Westwood, 1842), subsequent designation); Harold 1867a: 9 (characters in key); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1002 (complete list of species); Gillet 1911a: 50 (complete list of species); Lucas 1920: 459 (catalog, distribution); Luederwaldt 1931a: 366 (characters in key); Paulian 1938: 234 (characters in key); Pessôa and Lane 1941: 436 (characters in key); Blackwelder 1944: 204 (list of species of Latin America); Martínez 1959: 67 (catalog of species of Argentina); Pereira 1954a: 56 (characters in key); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 256 (catalog, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 576 (characters in key); Howden and Young 1981: 13 (characters in key), 47 (redescription); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 137 (synonym of Anomiopus [= cited as Onomiopus]).

Hypocanthidium Balthasar, 1938: 214 (original description. Type species: Hypocanthidium globulum Balthasar, 1938); Pereira 1954a: 56 (characters in key); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 256 (catalog, distribution); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 3 (junior synonym of Anomiopus Westwood, 1842); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 2 (synonym of Anomiopus Westwood, 1842).

Anomiopus brevipes (Waterhouse, 1891)

Plate 3A

Onthocharis brevipes Waterhouse, 1891a: 350 (original description. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Ega [= Tefé]).

Onthocharis brevipes : Gillet 1911a: 51 (list, distribution); Blackwelder 1944: 204 (list of species of Latin America); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 581 (list of species).

Anomiopus brevipes : Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 190 (new combination, cited for Brazil); Canhedo 2006: 362 (characters in key), 444 (redescription); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 28 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 196 (cited for Peru); Chamorro et al. 2018: 84 (figures 7E–F), 91 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Onthocharis brevipes Waterhouse, 1891. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the NHML. Locality: Ega, examined.

Holotype (♂): “Type [p, red margin]”, “[one face] Ega [opposite face] 56 / . / 84 [hw, light blue label]”, “Onthocharis / brevipes, / (Type) Waterh. [hw]”, “♂ / V.L.C.1999 [hw]”, “Anomiopus / brevipes ♂ / (Waterhouse, 1891) / V.L. Canhedo det. 1999 [p, black margin]”.

Distribution

Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Literature records

ORELLANA: Sacha Río Coca (Canhedo 2006: 447).

Temporal data

Collected in June.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests of the Amazon region. The collection method is unknown.

Anomiopus intermedius (Waterhouse, 1891)

Plate 3B

Onthocharis intermedia Waterhouse, 1891a: 354 (original description. Type locality: Brazil, Amazons, Tapajos [= Rio Tapajós, Pará]).

Onthocharis intermedia : Gillet 1911a: 51 (list, distribution); Blackwelder 1944: 204 (list of species of Latin America); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 581 (list).

Anomiopus intermedius : Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 190 (cited for Brazil); Canhedo 2006: 362 (characters in key), 452 (redescription); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 28 (complete list of species, cited as Anomiopus intermedia); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 196 (cited for Peru); Chamorro et al. 2018: 91 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Onthocharis intermedia Waterhouse, 1891. The holotype (♀) is deposited at the NHML. Locality: Bras. Tapajos, examined.

Holotype (♀): “Onthocharis / intermedia / (Type) Waterh. [hw]”, “Bras / Tapajos [hw, light blue label]”, “Type [p, red margin]”, “♀ / V.L.C.1999 [hw]”, “Anomiopus / intermedius ♀ / (Waterhouse, 1891) / V.L. Canhedo 1999 [p, black margin]”.

Distribution

Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru.

Literature records

ORELLANA: Coca, 250 m (Canhedo 2006: 454). PASTAZA: Mera, 1100 m (Canhedo 2006: 454). SUCUMBÍOS: 2 km N of Limoncocha, 250 m (Canhedo 2006: 454); Lago Agrio, 30 km E road to Tarapoa (Canhedo 2006: 454).

Temporal data

Collected in May, June, and October.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests and the foothill evergreen forests of the Amazon region from 250–1100 m a.s.l. The collection method is unknown.

Anomiopus pictus (Harold, 1862)

Plate 3C

Onthocharis picta Harold, 1862: 398 (original description. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Ega [= Tefé]).

Onthocharis picta : Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1002 (catalog); Gillet 1911a: 51 (catalog); Blackwelder 1944: 204 (list of species for Latin America); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 581 (list).

Anomiopus pictus : Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 190 (cited for Brazil); Canhedo 2006: 362 (characters in key), 449 (redescription); Krajcik 2012: 28 (complete list of species, cited as Anomiopus picta Harold, 1862); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 196 (cited for Peru); Chamorro et al. 2018: 91 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Onthocharis picta Harold, 1862. The holotype is deposited at the MNHN (ex coll. E Harold, ex coll. R Oberthür). Locality: Ega [= Tefé], examined.

Holotype (unsexed specimen): “Type [hw]”, “Ega [hw]”, “picta / Harold [hw]”, “HOLOTYPE [p, red label, black margin]”, “Ex. Museo / E. Harold [p, black margin]”, “Museum Paris / ex. Coll. / R. Oberthur [p, black margin]”.

Distribution

Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru.

Records examined

ORELLANA: Parque Nacional Yasuni, Río Rumiyacu Pozo Apaika, 215 m (1 specimen CEMT).

Temporal data

Collected in October.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests of the Amazon region at 215 m a.s.l. Collected with canopy fogging methods.

Genus Ateuchus Weber, 1801

Ateuchus Weber, 1801: 10 (original description. Type species: Ateuchus histeroires Weber, 1801, by primary monotypy).

Ateuchus: Latreille 1829: 532 (redescription); Castelnau 1840: 63 (redescription); Reiché 1841: 212 (characters in key); Agassiz 1846: 112 (catalog); Lacordaire 1856: 66 (redescription); Lucas 1920: 125 (catalog, distribution); Pereira 1954a: 56 (characters in key); Roze 1955: 43 (list of species for Venezuela); Martínez 1959: 76 (catalog of species for Argentina); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 256 (catalog, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 577 (characters in key, cited as Atheuchus Weber, 1801); Howden and Young 1981: 13 (characters in key), 68 (redescription); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 137 (catalog, distribution); Kohlmann 1984: 25 (redescription); Kohlmann 1997: 178 (redescription); Medina and Lopera 2000: 306 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 190 (list of species for Brazil); Medina et al. 2001: 137 (list of species for Colombia); Arnett et al. 2002: 49 (characters in key); Ratcliffe 2002: 13 (list of species for Panama); Morón 2003: 52 (list of species for Mexico); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 12 (list of species for Bolivia); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 28 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 126 (diagnosis), 318 (list of species for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 49 (complete list of species); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 4 (list of species for Costa Rica); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 108 (characters in key); Chamorro et al. 2018: 77 (characters in key), 91 (list of species of Ecuador).

Ateuchus Fabricius, 1801: 54 (description. Type species: unnamed).

Choeridium Audinet-Serville, 1825: 356 (original description. Type species: Choeridium simplex Serville, 1825); Castelnau 1840: 83 (redescription); Lacordaire 1856: 93 (redescription, synonym of Ateuchus Fabricius); Harold 1867a: 9 (characters in key); Harold 1868a: 32 (redescription); Harold 1868b: 55 (characters in key); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1006 (catalog); Gillet 1911a: 52 (catalog); Lucas 1920: 182 (catalog, distribution); Dawson 1922: 61 (characters in key); Luederwaldt 1929: 11 (characters in key); Luederwaldt 1931a: 369 (characters in key); Paulian 1938: 234 (characters in key); Balthasar 1939a: 44 (comment); Pessôa and Lane 1941: 437 (characters in key); Blackwelder 1944: 204 (list of species de Latin America); Chapin 1946: 79 (synonym of Ateuchus Weber).

Ateuchus aeneomicans (Harold, 1868)

Plate 3D

Choeridium aeneomicans Harold, 1868c: 82 (original description. Type locality: Brazil, S Paulo [= São Paulo de Olivença], Amazon).

Choeridium aeneomicans : Harold 1868a: 37 (characters in key), 66 (redescription); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1006 (list, distribution); Gillet 1911a: 52 (list, distribution); Balthasar 1939a: 63 (characters in key); Blackwelder 1944: 204 (list of species de Latin America).

Ateuchus aenomicans : Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 589 (characters in key); Howden and Young 1981: 68 (characters in key), 69 (redescription); Kohlmann 1997: 178 (characters in key), 179 (redescription); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 190 (cited for Brazil); Medina et al. 2001: 137 (cited for Colombia); Ratcliffe 2002: 13 (cited for Panama); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 4 (cited for Costa Rica); Krajcik 2012: 49 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 196 (cited for Peru); Chamorro et al. 2018: 91 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Choeridium aeneomicans Harold, 1868. Three syntypes examined deposited at the MNHN (ex coll. E Harold, ex coll. R Oberthür and ex coll. HW Bates). Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Distribution

Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Panama.

Records examined

ORELLANA: Bloque 31 Timara, Parque Nacional Yasuní (1 specimen CEMT). PASTAZA: Villano (1 specimen CEMT).

Temporal data

Collected in July and December.

Remarks

Inhabits lowland evergreen forests of the Amazon region. Collected with pitfall traps baited with human feces.

Ateuchus connexus (Harold, 1868)

Plate 4A

Choeridium connexum Harold, 1868a: 36 (characters in key), 55 (original description. Type locality: Ega [= Tefé]).

Choeridium connexum : Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1007 (list, distribution); Gillet 1911a: 52 (list, distribution); Balthasar 1939a: 60 (characters in key); Blackwelder 1944: 204 (list of species for Latin America); Roze 1955: 43 (list of species for Venezuela).

Ateuchus connexus : Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 589 (new combination, characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 190 (cited for Brazil); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 12 (cited for Bolivia); Krajcik 2012: 49 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 196 (cited for Peru); Chamorro et al. 2018: 91 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Choeridium connexum Harold, 1868. Two syntypes examined deposited at the MNHN (ex coll. R Oberthür and ex coll. HW Bates). Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Distribution

Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela.

Records examined

ORELLANA: Parque Nacional Yasuní, Estación de Biodiversidad Tiputini, 220 m USFQ (3 specimens CEMT).

Temporal data

Collected in June and July.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests of the Amazon region at 220 m a.s.l. Collected with flight interception traps and pitfall traps baited with human feces.

Ateuchus ecuadorensis (Boucomont, 1928)

Plate 4B

Choeridium ecuadorense Boucomont, 1928a: 191 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador, Balzapamba, Chimbo).

Choeridium ecuadorense : Balthasar 1939a: 62 (characters in key); Blackwelder 1944: 204 (list of species of Latin America).

Ateuchus ecuadorensis : Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 590 (characters in key); Krajcik 2012: 49 (complete list of species, cited as Ateuchus ecuadorense); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 91 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Choeridium ecuadorense Boucomont, 1928. Four syntypes examined deposited at the MNHN (ex coll. A. Boucomont). Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Syntype (♂): “Equateur [hw]”, “Ch. ecuadorense. / Bouc. [hw]”, “♂ [hw, discontinuos black margin]”, “MUSEUM PARIS / 1936 / COLL. A. BOUCOMONT [p]”, “Boucomont det. 1927 / choeridium / ecuadorense n. sp [hw and p]”, “Typus [p, pink label, black double margin]”.

Syntype (♂): “Type [p]”, “Rosembery [hw]”, “♂ [hw, discontinuos black margin]” , “Fry Coll. / 1905.100. [p]”, [Equador / Chimbo [hw], “Boucomont det. 1927 / choeridium / ecuadorense n. sp [hw and p]”.

Syntype (♀): “Equateur [hw]”, “Typus [p, pink label, black double margin]”, “♀ [hw, discontinuos black margin]”, “MUSÉUM PARIS / 1936 / COLL. A. BOUCOMONT.”.

Syntype (♀): “Equateur [hw]”, “Typus [p, pink label, black double margin]”, “♀ [hw, discontinuos black margin]”, “MUSÉUM PARIS / 1936 / COLL. A. BOUCOMONT.”.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Records examined

BOLIVAR: Chimbo [= San José de Chimbo] (1 specimen MNHN). EL ORO: 3 km E de Abañin, 800 m (2 specimens CEMT); Uzhcurrumi 500 m (2 specimens CEMT). LOS RÍOS: Estación Biologica Río Palenque, 220 m (28 specimens CEMT). MANABÍ: Cabo Pasado, 0 m (9 specimens CEMT); El Carmen (2 specimens CEMT). SANTA ELENA: Olón, 10 m (82 specimens CEMT). SANTO DOMINGO DE LOS TSÁCHILAS: 7 km road to Quevedo, 550 m (1 specimen CEMT); Puerto Limón, 400 m (3 specimens CEMT). UNDETERMINED PROVINCE: without specific locality (3 specimens MNHN).

Literature records

BOLIVAR: Chimbo (Boucomont 1928a: 191); Balzapamba (Boucomont 1928a: 191).

Temporal data

Collected in March, May, June, August, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland evergreen forests, coastal lowland semi-deciduous forests and coastal evergreen foothill forests from 0–800 m a.s.l. Species was collected with pitfall traps baited with human and pig feces.

Ateuchus parvus (Balthasar, 1939)

Plate 4C

Choeridium parvum Balthasar, 1939a: 49 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador).

Choeridium parvum : Blackwelder 1944: 204 (list, distribution).

Ateuchus parvus : Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 589 (characters in key); Bezdek and Hajek 2011: 352 (catalog of types NMPC); Krajcik 2012: 50 (complete list of species); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador, misspelled name Ateuchus parvum Balthasar, 1939); Chamorro et al. 2018: 91 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Choeridium parvum Balthasar, 1939. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the NMPC (ex coll. V Balthasar). Locality: Quevedo, examined.

Holotype (♂): “W. ECUADOR / Quevedo A.M. / Jan. 08 F.v. B [p]”, “Typus [p, red label, black margin]”, “Choeridium / parvum / n. sp / Dr. V. Balthasar det. [hw and p]”, “parvum m. [hw, green label, black margin]”, “HOLOTYPE [hw, red label]”.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Records examined

LOS RÍOS: CCRP [= Estación Biológica Río Palenque] (18 specimens MQCAZ; 5 specimens CEMT); Quevedo (1 specimen NMPC).

Temporal data

Collected in January, February, March, June, July, August, November, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland evergreen forests at 45 m a.s.l. Species was collected with pitfall traps baited with human feces.

Ateuchus scatimoides (Balthasar, 1939)

Plate 4D

Choeridium scatimoides Balthasar, 1939a: 47 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador, Loja, Ost-Cordill., Sabavilla [= Sabanilla, currently El Tambo]).

Choeridium scatimoides : Blackwelder 1944: 204 (list, distribution).

Ateuchus scatimoides : Medina et al. 2001: 137 (cited for Colombia); Krajcik 2012: 50 (complete list of species); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 196 (cited for Peru); Chamorro et al. 2018: 88 (figure 11F), 91 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Choeridium scatimoides Balthasar, 1939. Type material not examined.

Distribution

Colombia and Ecuador.

Records examined

ORELLANA: El Dorado plataforma Guarango, 300 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Parque Nacional Yasuní, Estación de Biodiversidad Tiputini, 220 m USFQ (1 specimen CEMT); Río Tiputini Yasuni Res. (1 specimen CEMT); Yampuna (1 specimen MQCAZ); Yuturi (1 specimen MQCAZ). PASTAZA: Bosque Protector Oglán Alto, 810 m (1 specimen CEMT; 4 specimens MUTPL; 1 specimen MGO-UC); Pandanuque, 420 m (1 specimen MUTPL). SUCUMBÍOS: La Selva Bio Station, 175 km ESE del Coca (1 specimen MQCAZ). ZAMORA CHINCHIPE: RVS El Zarza campamento las Peñas, Cordillera del Cóndor, conseción El Colibri, 1530 m (2 specimens MEPN); PN Podocarpus Bombuscaru, 1150 m (1 specimen MECN); Tundayme campamento Mirador, La Mina 1320 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Tundayme campamento Mirador, San Marcos, 900 m (1 specimen MUTPL).

Literature records

LOJA: Ost-Cordill., Sabavilla [= Sabanilla, El Tambo, ZAMORA CHINCHIPE] (Balthasar 1939a: 47).

Temporal data

Collected in January, February, March, May, July, September, November, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests and the foothill evergreen forests of the Amazon region from 420–1300 m a.s.l. Species was collected with pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces.

Genus Bdelyrus Harold, 1869

Bdelyrus Harold, 1869a: 97 (original description. Type species: Bdelyrus lagopus Harold, 1869 by monotypy).

Bdelyrus: Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1001 (catalog); Gillet 1911a: 48 (catalog); Lucas 1920: 136 (catalog, distribution); Luederwaldt 1931a: 367 (characters in key); Paulian 1936a: 207 (characters in key); Paulian 1938: 233 (characters in key); Pessôa and Lane 1941: 436 (characters in key); Blackwelder 1944: 203 (list of species for Latin America); Pereira 1954a: 55 (characters in key); Pereira et al. 1960: 156 (biology); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 256 (catalog, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 576 (characters in key); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 137 (catalog, distribution); Howden and Young 1981: 12 (characters in key), 46 (redescription); Cook 1998: 632 (revision); Medina and Lopera 2000: 306 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 190 (list of species for Brazil); Medina et al. 2001: 137 (list of species for Colombia); Ratcliffe 2002: 14 (list of species for Panama); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 12 (list of species for Bolivia); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 21 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 127 (diagnosis), 316 (list of species for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 52 (complete list of species); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 4 (list of species for Costa Rica); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 106 (characters in key); 74 (characters in key), 91 (list of species of Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 74 (characters in key), 91 (list of species of Ecuador).

Bdelyrus ecuadorae Cook, 2000

Bdelyrus ecuadorae Cook, 2000: 560 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador, Santa Jnéz [= Santa Inés]).

Bdelyrus ecuadorae : Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 52 (complete list of species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 91 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Bdelyrus ecuadorae Cook, 2000. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the MNHN (ex coll. R Oberthür and ex coll. A Boucomont). Locality: Santa Jnéz [= Santa Inés], examined.

Holotype (♂): “Bdelyrus n.sp. / det. J.Huijbregts 1984 [hw and p]”, “Museum Paris / ex Coll. / R. Oberthur [p, green label, black margin]”, “MUSEUM PARIS / Boucomont [hw and p, black margin]”, “Santa Jnéz / (Ecuad.) / R. Haerish S. [p, blak margin]”, “HOLOTYPE / Bdelyrus ecuadorae / Cook [p, red label]”.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Records examined

UNDETERMINED PROVINCE: Santa Jnéz [= Santa Inés] (1 specimen MNHN).

Temporal data

It is not known when this species was collected.

Remarks

The habitat requirements and collection methods are unknown.

Bdelyrus genieri Cook, 1998

Plate 5A

Bdelyrus genieri Cook, 1998: 646 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador, Napo Jatun Sacha, Biological Station).

Bdelyrus genieri : Cook 2000: 553–554 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 52 (complete list of species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 91 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Bdelyrus genieri Cook, 1998. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the FGIC (Cook 1998: 647, [= currently deposited at the CMNC]). Locality: Napo Jatun Sacha, Biological Station, not examined.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Records examined

NAPO: Cotundo, 1100 m (1 specimen MUTPL). ORELLANA: Dayuma Río Rumiyacu, 290 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Onkone Gare Bloque 16 km 38.5, Parque Nacional Yasuni (1 specimen MUTPL); Pozo Záparo, 10 km NE road to Maxus Parque Nacional Yasuní (1 specimen MUTPL); road to Maxus km 80 Reserva Étnica Huaorani, 250 m, Parque Nacional Yasuní (1 specimen MUTPL); road to Maxus km 117 Iro, 250 m, Parque Nacional Yasuní (1 specimen MUTPL); Tiputini Biodiversity Station, Parque Nacional Yasuni, 220 m (1 specimen CEMT). PASTAZA: Bosque Protector Oglán Alto, 570 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Cuenca Villano, Río Villano, cabeceras, 800 m, Oleoducto km 25 (1 specimen MUTPL); Chuyayacu, río Acaro Oñampare, 515 m (1 specimen MUTPL); La Independencia (1 specimen MUTPL). SUCUMBÍOS: Cascales Rio Bermejo comuna Etza, 350 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Cuyabeno Tarapoa, Pueblo Aguas Negras 240 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Pacayacu Campo Libertador, Tapi 265 m (1 specimen MUTPL).

Literature records

NAPO: Jatun Sacha, Biological Station, 21 km east of Puerto Napo (Cook 1998: 646).

Temporal data

Collected in January, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests and the foothill evergreen forests of the Amazon region from 240–1100 m a.s.l. Collected using both beat-sheet and canopy fogging methods.

Bdelyrus grandis Cook, 1998

Plate 5B

Bdelyrus grandis Cook, 1998: 649 (original description. Type locality: Colombia, Amazonas, Leticia).

Bdelyrus grandis : Cook 2000: 553–554 (characters in key); Medina et al. 2001: 137 (cited for Colombia); Donoso et al. 2009: Appendix II. 16 (catalog of types MQCAZ); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 52 (complete list of species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 91 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Bdelyrus grandis Cook, 1998. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the CNCI (Cook 1998: 650). Locality: Colombia, Amazonas, Leticia, not examined. One paratype is deposited in MQCAZ. Locality: Napo [= Sucumbíos], Cuyabeno, examined.

Paratype (sex unknown): “ECUADOR / NAPO Cuyabeno / IV – 1986 / legit G. Onore [hw and p, blak margin]”, “PARATYPE / Bdelyrus / grandis Cook [p, yellow label]”.

Distribution

Colombia and Ecuador.

Records examined

SUCUMBÍOS: Cascales Río Bermejo Comunidad ETZA, 350 m (1 specimen CEMT); Cuyabeno (1 specimen MQCAZ).

Temporal data

Collected in April and August.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests of the Amazon region at 350 m a.s.l. Collected with canopy fogging methods.

Bdelyrus howdeni Cook, 1998

Plate 5C

Bdelyrus howdeni Cook, 1998: 651 (original description. Type locality: Colombia, Amazonas, Leticia).

Bdelyrus howdeni : Cook 2000: 553–554 (characters in key); Medina et al. 2001: 137 (cited for Colombia); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 52 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 196 (cited for Peru); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 196 (cited for Peru); Chamorro et al. 2018: 91 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Bdelyrus howdeni Cook, 1998. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the CMNC (ex coll. H. Howden), (see Cook 1998: 652). Locality: Amazonas, Leticia, 700 ft, not examined.

Distribution

Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Records examined

ORELLANA: El Coca (2 specimens CEMT); Pozo Apaica, 220 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Río Capirón-Río Piraña road to Maxus km 38, 250 m, Parque Nacional Yasuní (1 specimen MUTPL); Río Rumiyacu, Parque Nacional Yasuní (1 specimen MUTPL); Río Tiputini Yasuní Res. (1 specimen CEMT); road Auca-Dayuma Río Tiputini, 350 m (1 specimen CEMT); road to Maxus km 80, Parque Nacional Yasuní, 250 m (1 specimen CEMT); road to Maxus km 117 Iro, 250 m, Parque Nacional Yasuní (1 specimen MUTPL); Záparo road to Maxus km 90, 245 m, Parque Nacional Yasuní (1 specimen CEMT). PASTAZA: B. P. Oglán, 550–655 m (2 specimens CEMT); Chuyayacu (2 specimen MUTPL); Río LLiquino Comunidad Villano, 420 m (3 specimens MUTPL); Río Villano cabeceras, Oleoducto km 25, 800 m (1 specimen CEMT). SUCUMBÍOS: Río Coca-Río Supayacu, 380 m, Parque Nacional Sumaco (1 specimen MUTPL).

Literature records

NAPO: 20 km south of Tena, 600 m (Cook 1998: 652). NAPO [= ORELLANA]: Onkone Gare Camp, 220 m (Cook 1998: 652).

Temporal data

Collected in January, June, July, August, September, and October.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests and the foothill evergreen forests of the Amazon region from 220–800 m a.s.l. Collected with canopy fogging methods.

Bdelyrus lobatus Cook, 1998

Plate 5D

Bdelyrus lobatus Cook, 1998: 645 (original description. Type locality: Peru, Huánuco).

Bdelyrus lobatus : Cook 2000: 553 (characters in key); Krajcik 2012: 52 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 196 (cited for Peru); Chamorro et al. 2018: 91 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Bdelyrus lobatus Cook, 1998. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the CMNC (ex coll. H. Howden), (see Cook 1998: 645). Locality: Huánuco, 14 km east of Tingo Maria, not examined.

Distribution

Ecuador and Peru.

Records examined

PASTAZA: Bosque Protector Oglán Alto, 575 m (1 specimen CEMT); La Independencia, 1090 m (2 specimens CEMT).

Temporal data

Collected in July and November.

Remarks

Inhabits the foothill evergreen forests of the Amazon region from 575–1090 m a.s.l. Collected with canopy fogging methods.

Bdelyrus parvoculus Cook, 1998

Plate 6A

Bdelyrus parvoculus Cook, 1998: 640 (original description, Type locality: Ecuador, Napo, El Reventador).

Bdelyrus parvoculus : Cook 2000: 552 (characters in key); Donoso et al. 2009: Appendix II. 16 (catalog of types QCAZ); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 52 (complete list of species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 91 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Bdelyrus parvoculus Cook, 1998. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the MQCAZ. Locality: El Reventador, examined.

Holotype (♂): “ECUADOR II. 88 / NAPO / El REVENTADOR / Legit: G. ONORE [hw and p, black margin]”, “HOLOTYPE / Bdelyrus / parvoculus Cook [p, red label]”.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Record examined

NAPO [= SUCUMBÍOS]: El Reventador (1 specimen MQCAZ).

Temporal data

Collected in February.

Remarks

It is possible that this species may occur in the Andean evergreen high montane forests. The collection method is unknown.

Bdelyrus pecki Cook, 1998

Plate 6B

Bdelyrus pecki Cook, 1998: 652 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador, Pastaza, 25 km N of Puyo).

Bdelyrus pecki : Cook 2000: 553–554 (characters in key); Donoso et al. 2009: Appendix II. 16 (catalog of types MQCAZ); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 52 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 196 (cited for Peru); Chamorro et al. 2018: 78 (figure 1H), 79 (figure 2A), 91 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Bdelyrus pecki Cook, 1998. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the HAHC (ex. coll. H. Howden) (see Cook 1998: 653) [= name-bearing types now in CMCN]. Locality: Ecuador, Pastaza, 25 km N of Puyo, 1000 m, not examined. One paratype is deposited in the MQCAZ. Locality: Napo, Hollín 1100 m, examined.

Paratype (sex unknown): “ECUADOR / NAPO / HOLLIN 1100m / 7–12–91 / F.CACERES [p]”, “PARATYPE Bdelyrus / pecki Cook [p, yellow label]”.

Distribution

Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru.

Records examined

NAPO: Pacto Sumaco, 1620 m (2 specimens MUTPL). Reventador (2 specimens CEMT); Sc Reventador, 1100 m (1 specimen CEMT). SUCUMBÍOS: Reventador (1 specimen CEMT). ZAMORA CHINCHIPE: RVS El Zarza campamento las Peñas conseción El Zarza, Cordillera del Cóndor, 1530 m (1 specimen MUTPL).

Literature records

NAPO: km 7.3 road Sarayacu-Loreto, 1200 m (Cook 1998: 553); 12 km southwest of Tena, 500 m (Cook 1998: 553); Hollín, 1100 m (Cook 1998: 553; Donoso et al. 2009: Appendix II. 16); Río Hollín, 1100 m (Cook 1998: 553). PASTAZA: 25 km N of Puyo, 1000 m (Cook 1998: 553); 22 km southeast of Puyo, 900 m (Cook 1998: 553); Llandia 17 km N of Puyo, 1000 m (Cook 1998: 553); Puyo (Cook 1998: 553).

Temporal data

Collected in January, May, June, July, September, November, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits the evergreen foothill forests and evergreen lower montane forests of the Amazon region from 1000–1620 m a.s.l. Collected with flight interception traps and canopy fogging methods.

Bdelyrus seminudus Bates, 1887

Plate 6C

Aphengium semi-nudum Bates, 1887: 42 (original description. Type locality: Nicaragua, Chontales; Panama, Volcán de Chiriquí).

Aphengium seminudum : Waterhouse 1890a: 379 (comment).

Bdelyrus seminudum : Gillet 1911a: 48 (list, distribution).

Bdelyrus seminudus : Blackwelder 1944: 203 (list of species for Latin America); Pereira et al. 1960: 156 (characters in key); Howden and Young 1981: 46 (redescription); Huijbregts 1984: 64 (distribution), 66 (characters in key); Cook 1998: 634–635 (characters in key), 656 (redescription); Cook 2000: 552–553 (characters in key); Medina et al. 2001: 137 (cited for Colombia); Ratcliffe 2002: 14 (cited for Panama); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 4 (cited for Costa Rica); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 52 (complete list of species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 91 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Aphengium seminudum Bates, 1887. The lectotype (♂) is deposited at the MNHN (ex coll. R Oberthür and ex coll. HW Bates). Locality: V de Chiriqui, examined.

Lectotype (♂): “Aphengium / seminudum Bates / lectotype dets.J.Huijbregts 1984 [hw and p]”, “♂ [p]”, “Museum Paris / ex Coll / R. Oberthur [p, green label]”, “V. de Chiriqui, / 25–4000 ft. / Champion. [p, pink label]”, “MUSEUM PARIS / COLL. H. W. BATES / 1952 [p, green label]”, “LECTOTYPE [p, red label]”.

Distribution

Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Panama.

Records examined

PICHINCHA: Bosque Protector Milpe-Río Pachijal, 1200 m (1 specimen CEMT; 3 specimens MUTPL); Puerto Quito, 750 m (1 specimen CEMT); Río Guayllabamba Guayabilla-Manduriacus, 520 m (1 specimen MUTPL).

Literature records

PICHINCHA: Pto. Quito (Cook 1998: 657). PICHINCHA [= SANTO DOMINGO DE LOS TSÁCHILAS]: 16 km southeast of Sto. Domingo, 500 m (Cook 1998: 657); Hba. Pupusa (Cook 1998: 657).

Temporal data

Collected in April, June, October, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal evergreen foothill forests from 500–1200 m a.s.l. Species was collected with beat-sheet collecting and canopy fogging methods.

Bdelyrus triangulus Cook, 1998

Plate 6D

Bdelyrus triangulus Cook, 1998: 660 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador, Napo, Sunka).

Bdelyrus triangulus : Cook 2000: 553 (characters in key); Donoso et al. 2009: Appendix II. 16 (catalog of types MQCAZ); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 52 (complete list of species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 91 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Bdelyrus triangulus Cook, 1998. The holotype (♀) is deposited at the MQCAZ. Locality: Napo [= Orellana] Sunka, examined.

Holotype (♀): “Ex: Hojarasca / Bosque Alto [hw]”, “ECUADOR / NAPO: SUNKA / 29-I-89 / Legit SANDOVAL”, “HOLOTYPE / Bdelyrus / triangulus Cook [p, red label]”.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Records examined

NAPO [= ORELLANA]: Sunka (1 specimen MQCAZ).

Temporal data

Collected in January.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests of the Amazon region at 300 m a.s.l. According to Donoso et al. (2009) this species was collected in leaf-litter.

Genus Bradypodidium Vaz-de-Mello, 2008

Bradypodidium Vaz-de-Mello, 2008: 18 (original description. Type species: Trichillum bradyporum Boucomont, 1928 by original designation).

Bradypodidium: Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 22 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 316 (list of species for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 57 (complete list of species); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 5 (list of species for Costa Rica); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 106 (characters in key); Chamorro et al. 2018: 74 (characters in key), 92 (list of species of Ecuador).

Bradypodidium bradyporum (Boucomont, 1928)

Plate 7A

Trichillum bradyporum Boucomont, 1928a: 188 (original description. Type locality: Costa Rica, Hamburg Farm Reventezon Riv., Prov. Santa Clara).

Trichillum bradyporum : Balthasar 1939b: 17 (characters in key), 26 (redescription); Blackwelder 1944: 204 (list of species for Latin America).

Pedaridium bradyporum : Martínez 1969: 119 (comment); Ferreira and Galileo 1993: 8 (characters in key), 36 (redescription); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2002: 676 (figure of genitalia); Solís and Kohlmann 2003: 10 (distribution), 11 (figure of dorsal habitus).

Bradypodidium bradyporum : Vaz-de-Mello 2008: 19 (distribution), 60 (figures of head and parameres); Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 5 (cited for Costa Rica); Krajcik 2012: 57 (complete list of species); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 104 (figure 7); Chamorro et al. 2018: 80 (figure 3E), 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Trichillum bradyporum Boucomont, 1928. The holotype (sex unknown) is deposited at the MNHN (see Vaz-de-Mello 2008: 19). Type locality: Hamburgfarm Reventazón, Ebene Limón, not examined.

Distribution

Costa Rica and Ecuador.

Records examined

ESMERALDAS: Tangareal, 125 m (1 specimen CEMT).

Literature records

ESMERALDAS: 11 km SE San Lorenzo La Chiquita, 5 m (Vaz-de-Mello 2008: 19).

Temporal data

Collected in March and April.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland evergreen forests from 5–125 m a.s.l. Collected with canopy fogging methods.

Genus Canthidium Erichson, 1847

Canthidium Erichson, 1847: 109 (original description. Type species: Canthidium thalassinum Erichson, 1847 by subsequent designation of Martínez et al. 1964: 161).

Canthidium: Lacordaire 1856: 96 (redescription); Harold 1867a: 10 (characters in key, redescription); Harold 1867b: 61 (list of species, distribution); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1004 (complete list of species); Bruch 1911: 186 (list of species for Argentina); Gillet 1911a: 54 (complete list of species); Lucas 1920: 164 (catalog, distribution); Luederwaldt 1929: 11 (characters in key); Luederwaldt 1931a: 369 (characters in key); Paulian 1938: 234 (characters in key); Pessôa and Lane 1941: 437 (characters in key); Blackwelder 1944: 205 (list of species for Latin America); Pereira 1954a: 56 (characters in key); Roze 1955: 44 (list of species for Venezuela); Martínez 1959: 72 (list of species for Argentina); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 257 (catalog, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 577 (characters in key); Howden and Young 1981: 13 (characters in key), 71 (redescription); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 137 (catalog, distribution); Martínez and Halffter 1986: 23 (redescription); Medina and Lopera 2000: 306 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 190 (list of species for Brazil); Medina et al. 2001: 137 (list of species for Colombia); Arnett et al. 2002: 49 (characters in key); Ratcliffe 2002: 14 (list of species for Panama); Morón 2003: 54 (diagnosis); Solís and Kohlmann 2004: 5 (redescription); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 12 (list of species for Bolivia); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 27 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 128 (diagnosis), 318 (list of species for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 62 (complete list of species); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 5 (list of species for Costa Rica); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 108 (characters in key); Cupello, 2018: 455 (list of Neotropical species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 77 (characters in key), 92 (list of species for Ecuador).

Pleronyx Lansberge, 1874a: 12 (original description. Type species Pleronyx dimidiatus Lansberge, 1874); Lucas 1920: 556 (catalog, distribution, cited as Pteronyx); Blackwelder 1944: 208 (list of species for Latin America, cited as Pteronyx); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 137 (catalog, distribution, cited as Pteronyx); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 194 (list of species for Brazil); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 3 (junior synonym of Canthidium Erichson, 1847); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 2 (synonym of Canthidium Erichson, 1847); Cupello, 2018: 455 (synonym of Canthidium Erichson, 1847).

Eucanthidium Martínez & Halffter, 1986: 30 (original description. Type species: Choeridium cupreum Blanchard, 1846), 31 (list of species of the Neotropical region); Solís and Kohlmann 2004: 7 (diagnosis), 8 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 27 (characters in key); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 109 (characters in key); Cupello, 2018: 455 (synonym of Canthidium Erichson, 1847); Chamorro et al. 2018: 77 (characters in key), 92 (list of species of Ecuador).

Subgenus Canthidium (Canthidium) Erichson, 1847

Canthidium (Canthidium) s. str. Erichson, 1847: 109 (original description. Type species: Canthidium thalassinum Erichson, 1847); Martínez and Halffter 1986: 25 (redescription), 26 (list of species of the Neotropical region); Solís and Kohlmann 2004: 7 (diagnosis), 8 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 27 (characters in key); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 108 (characters in key); Cupello, 2018: 455 (list of Neotropical species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 77 (characters in key), 92 (list of species of Ecuador).

Canthidium (Canthidium) aurifex Bates, 1887

Plate 7B

Canthidium aurifex Bates, 1887: 48 (original description. Type locality: Panama, Bugaba [= Bugabá]).

Canthidium aurifex : Gillet 1911a: 54 (list, distribution); Blackwelder 1944: 205 (list, distribution); Howden and Young 1981: 72 (characters in key), 91 (redescription); Medina et al. 2001: 137 (cited for Colombia); Ratcliffe 2002: 14 (cited for Panama); Solís and Kohlmann 2004: 11 (characters in key), 30 (redescription); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 5 (cited for Costa Rica); Krajcik 2012: 62 (complete list of species).

Canthidium (Eucanthidium) aurifex : Martínez and Halffter 1986: 31 (cited for Ecuador, Panama, Costa Rica); Morón 2003: 55 (cited for Mexico); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador).

Canthidium (Canthidium) aurifex : Cupello 2018: 456 (transferred to the subgenus Canthidium (Canthidium) Erichson, 1847. Cited for Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Canthidium aurifex Bates, 1887. One syntype examined deposited at the NHML. Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Distribution

Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, and Panama.

Literature records

LOS RÍOS: Río Palenque, 200 m (Howden and Young 1981: 92).

Temporal data

It is not known when this species was collected.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland evergreen forests at 200 m a.s.l. Collection method is unknown.

Canthidium (Canthidium) flavum Balthasar, 1939

Plate 7C

Canthidium flavum Balthasar, 1939c: 125 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador, Kordillieren).

Canthidium flavum : Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 595 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador). Krajcik 2012: 62 (complete list of species); Bezdek and Hajek 2012: 301 (catalog of types NMPC); Cupello, 2018: 475 (transferred to Canthidium incertae sedis, cited from Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Canthidium flavum Balthasar, 1939. The holotype (♀) is deposited at the NMPC (ex coll. V Balthasar). Locality: Loja Ostcordill, examined.

Holotype (♀): “Loja Ostcordill. / Sabanilla / F. Ohs. 2. 10. 05”, “Canthidium / flavum n. sp. / Dr. V. Balthasar det [p and hw]”, “SEM [p]”, “Typus [p, red label, black margin]”, “Mus. Nat. Pragae / 26 236 / Inv. [p and hw, orange label]”, “flavum / m. [hw, green label, black margin]’, “HOLOTYPE [hw, red label]”.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Records examined

LOJA: Sabanilla [= Sabanilla, El Tambo, ZAMORA CHINCHIPE] (1 specimen NMPC).

Temporal data

Collected in October.

Remarks

Inhabits the evergreen foothill forests of the Amazon region. Collection method is unknown.

Canthidium (Canthidium) funebre Balthasar, 1939

Plate 7D

Canthidium funebre Balthasar, 1939c: 125 (original description. Type locality: Holländisch Guyane, Gebiet des Lucia-Flusses).

Canthidium funebre : Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 594 (characters in key); Medina et al. 2001: 137 (cited for Colombia); Krajcik 2012: 62 (complete list of species).

Canthidium (Eucanthidium) funebre : Martínez and Halffter 1986: 32 (cited for Surinam and Venezuela); Bezdek and Hajek 2012: 302 (catalog of types NMPC).

Canthidium (Canthidium) funebre : Cupello 2018: 459 (transferred to the subgenus Canthidium (Canthidium) Erichson, 1847. Cited for Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Canthidium funebre Balthasar, 1939. The holotype is deposited at the NMPC (ex coll. V Balthasar). Locality: Surinam (Holländisch Guyane, Gebiet des Lucia-Flusses), examined.

Holotype (sex unknown): “Suriname-Exped. / Lucie-riv.-Gebied / VII-VIII. 1926 [p]”, “TYPUS [p, red label, black margin]”, “C. funebre / n. sp. m / Dr. V. Balthasar det. [p and hw]”, “funebre / m [hw, green label, blak margin]”, “HOLOTYPE [hw, red label]”.

Distribution

Colombia, Ecuador, Surinam, and Venezuela.

Records examined

SUCUMBÍOS: Tarapoa Campo Marian, Plataforma Fanny 18B60, 245 m (1 specimen MUTPL).

Temporal data

Collected in June.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests of the Amazon region at 245 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with human feces.

Canthidium (Canthidium) hespenheidei Howden & Young, 1981

Plate 8A

Canthidium hespenheidei Howden & Young, 1981: 92 (original description. Type locality: Panama, Panama Prov., Cerro Campana 850 m).

Canthidium hespenheidei : Ratcliffe 2002: 14 (cited for Panama); Solís and Kohlmann 2004: 16 (characters in key), 46 (redescription); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 5 (cited for Costa Rica); Krajcik 2012: 62 (complete list of species).

Canthidium (Eucanthidium) hespenheidei : Martínez and Halffter 1986: 32 (cited for Surinam and Venezuela); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318 (cited for Ecuador).

Canthidium (Canthidium) hespenheidei : Cupello 2018: 459 (transferred to the subgenus Canthidium (Canthidium) Erichson, 1847. Cited for Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Canthidium hespenheidei Howden & Young, 1981. The holotype is deposited at the CMNC (ex coll. H. Howden) (see Solís and Kohlmann 2004: 46). Locality: Cerro Campaná, 850 m, Panamá, not examined.

Distribution

Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Panama.

Literature records

PICHINCHA [= LOS RÍOS]: 47 km S de Santo Domingo Río Palenque, 215 m (Howden and Young 1981: 93). PICHINCHA: 3 km E de Tandapi, 1310 m (Howden and Young 1981: 93). PICHINCHA [= SANTO DOMINGO DE LOS TSÁCHILAS]: Tinalandia, 650 m (Howden and Young 1981: 93).

Temporal data

Collected in February and June.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland evergreen forests and coastal evergreen foothill forests from 215–1310 m a.s.l. According to Howden and Young (1981), this species was collected while perching on leaves at about 10–15 cm above the ground and with pitfall traps baited with human feces.

Canthidium (Canthidium) macroculare Howden & Gill, 1987

Plate 8B

Canthidium macroculare Howden & Gill, 1987: 215 (original description. Type locality: Panama, Chiriqui, La Fortuna Dam).

Canthidium macroculare : Medina et al. 2001: 137 (cited for Colombia); Ratcliffe 2002: 14 (cited for Panama); Solís and Kohlmann 2004: 13 (characters in key), 52 (redescription); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318 (cited for Ecuador); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 6 (cited for Costa Rica); Krajcik 2012: 62 (complete list of species).

Canthidium (Eucanthidium) macroculare : Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador).

Canthidium (Canthidium) macroculare : Cupello 2018: 461 (transferred to the subgenus Canthidium (Canthidium) Erichson, 1847); Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Canthidium macroculare Howden & Gill, 1987. The holotype is deposited at the CMNC (ex coll. H Howden) (see Howden and Gill 1987: 215). Locality: Panama, Chiriqui, La Fortuna Dam, not examined.

Distribution

Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, and Panama.

Records examined

LOS RÍOS: Estación Biológica Río Palenque, 220 m (18 specimens MQCAZ).

Literature records

PICHINCHA [= LOS RÍOS]: 47 km S of Sto Domingo [= Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas], Río Palenque, 700 m (Howden and Gill 1987: 215). PICHINCHA [= SANTO DOMINGO DE LOS TSÁCHILAS]: 16 km E Sto Domingo Tinalandia, 680 m (Howden and Gill 1987: 215).

Temporal data

Collected in February, May, and July.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland evergreen forests and coastal evergreen foothill forests from 220–700 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with human feces and flight interception traps.

Canthidium (Canthidium) muticum (Boheman, 1858)

Plate 8C

Onthophagus muticus Boheman, 1858: 48 (original description. Type locality: Insula Ohau, Honolulu).

Onthophagus muticus : Macleay 1864: 124 (redescription), Harold 1867c: 48 (comment, proposed as Canthidium Erichson, 1847).

Canthidium muticum : Harold 1867b: 88 (new combination); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1005 (complete list of species); Gillet 1911a: 56 (complete list of species); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 593 (characters in key); Krajcik 2012: 62 (complete list of species); Cupello, 2018: 477 (transferred to Canthidium incertae sedis); Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Onthophagus muticus Boheman, 1858. The holotype (♀) is deposited at the NRMS. Locality: Honolulu, examined.

Holotype (♀): “Hono- / lulu. [p]”, “Kimb [p]”, “Type [p]”, “muticum . Bhm [p]”, “Typus [p, red label, black margin]”, “129 / 62 [p and hw, red label]”, “Canthidium / muticum / Boh. [hw]”, “ 3980 / E92 + [p, blue label]”, “muticum Boh. [hw]”, “HOLOTYPE ♀ [hw, red label]”.

Distribution

Colombia and Ecuador.

Records examined

EL ORO: Arenillas, 15 m (126 specimens CEMT); Reserva Biológica Arenillas, 325 m (1 specimen CEMT).

Temporal data

Collected in April and June.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland semi-deciduous forests from 15–325 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with human feces and light traps. The distribution of this species is limited to the lowland semi-deciduous forests of the Pacific coast of Ecuador and Colombia.

According to Bousquet (2016: 84) and subsequently Cupello (2018: 477) the reports by Boheman (1858) are possibly incorrect with regard to their type localities. Specifically, it is likely that some specimens collected in the Neotropics were mingled with others caught in the Hawaiian archipelago.

Canthidium (Canthidium) onitoides (Perty, 1830)

Plate 8D

Onthophagus onitoides Perty, 1830: 41 (original description. Type locality: Brazilia australi, Prov. S Pauli.).

Canthidium onitoides : Harold 1867a: 31 (redescription under the new combination as C. onitoides); Harold 1867b: 79 (redescription); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1006 (complete list of species); Gillet 1911a: 56 (complete list of species); Blackwelder 1944: 205 (list of species of Latin America); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 594 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 191 (cited for Brazil); Medina et al. 2001: 138 (cited for Colombia); Krajcik 2012: 62 (complete list of species).

Canthidium (Eucanthidium) onitoides : Martínez and Halffter 1986: 33 (cited for Brazil: Amazonas).

Canthidium (Canthidium) onitoides : Cupello 2018: 462 (transferred to the subgenus Canthidium (Canthidium) Erichson, 1847); Chamorro et al. 2018: 88 (figure 11E), 89 (figure 12 D), 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Choeridium trituberculatum Lucas, 1857: 102 (original description); Harold 1867b: 79 (cited as synonym of Canthidium onitoides Perty, 1830); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1006 (cited as trituberculatum Luc); Gillet 1911a: 56 (cited as trituberculatum Luc); Blackwelder 1944: 205 (cited as trituberculatum Luc); Cupello, 2018: 462 (cited for Peru).

Type specimens

Onthophagus onitoides Perty, 1830. One syntype examined deposited at the ZSM. Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Choeridium trituberculatum Lucas, 1857. The holotype is deposited at the MNHN. Locality: Perou Rio Ucayali, examined.

Holotype (sex unknown): “10 / 47 [hw]”, “Perou / Rio. / Ucayali / de Castelnau / 10-1847 [hw]”, “Choeridium / trituberculatum / Luc. [hw]”, “HOLOTYPE [p, red label, black margin]”.

Distribution

Brazil, Colombia, and Ecuador.

Records examined

ORELLANA: Ines Arango road Tiwino-río Shiripuno, 250 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Tiputini Biodiversity Station, Parque Nacional Yasuní, 215 m (1 specimen MUTPL); road to Maxus km 90 Zaparo, Parque Nacional Yasuní, 245 m (1 specimen MUTPL). PASTAZA: Bosque Protector Oglán Alto, 950 m (3 specimens MUTPL). SUCUMBÍOS: Pacayacu Campo Libertador Tapi, 265 m (1 specimen MUTPL).

Literature records

PASTAZA: Sarayacu (Gemminger and Harold 1869:1006).

Temporal data

Collected in January, April, July, October, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests and the foothill evergreen forests of the Amazon region from 215–950 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with human feces and canopy fogging methods.

Canthidium (Canthidium) opacum Balthasar, 1939

Plate 9A

Canthidium opacum Balthasar, 1939c: 133 (original description. Type locality: Süd-Ecuador).

Canthidium opacum : Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 595 (characters in key).

Canthidium (Eucanthidium) opacum : Martínez and Halffter 1986: 33 (cited for Ecuador); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 62 (complete list of species); Bezdek and Hajek 2012: 303 (catalog of type NMPC).

Canthidium (Canthidium) opacum : Cupello 2018: 462 (transferred to the subgenus Canthidium (Canthidium) Erichson, 1847. Cited for Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Canthidium opacum Balthasar, 1939. The holotype is deposited at the NMPC (ex coll. V Balthasar). Locality: Landangui, examined.

Holotype (sex unknown): “S. ECUADOR / Landangui EW [p]”, “Typus [p, red label, black margin]”, “Canthidium / opacum / n. sp. / Dr. V. Balthasar det. [p and hw]”, “opacum / m. [hw, green label, black margin]”, “HOLOTYPE [hw, red label]”.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Records examined

Loja: Landangui (1 specimen NMPC).

Temporal data

It is not known when this species was collected.

Remarks

Inhabits the foothill evergreen forests of the Amazon region. Collection method unknown.

Canthidium (Canthidium) orbiculatum (Lucas, 1857), revalidated name

Plates 9B, 55D, 56A

Choeridium orbiculatum Lucas, 1857: 103 (original description. Type locality: Sarayacu).

Choeridium orbiculatum : Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1006 (complete list of species); Gillet 1911a: 55 (complete list of species, synonym of Canthidium cupreum Blanch.); Blackwelder 1944: 205 (list of species of Latin America, cited as synonym of Canthidium cupreum Blanchard, 1843); Cupello 2018: 457 (cited as synonym of Canthidium cupreum Blanchard, 1846).

Canthidium (Canthidium) orbiculatum : Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Chæridium cupreum Blanchard, 1846: 169 (original description. Type locality: province de Valle Grande [= Bolivia]).

Canthidium cupreum : Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1004 (transferred to the genus Canthidium Erichson, 1847. Complete list of species); Harold 1869d: 57 (cited for Bolivien [= Bolivia], comment); Gillet 1911a: 55 (complete list of species); Blackwelder 1944: 205 (list of species of Latin America); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 595 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 191 (cited as Canthidium cupreum (Blanchard, 1843), cited for Brazil); Medina et al. 2001: 137 (cited as Canthidium cupreum (Blanchard, 1843), cited for Colombia); Krajcik 2012: 62 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 196 (cited for Peru).

Canthidium (Eucanthidium) cupreum : Martínez and Halffter 1986: 31 (cited as Canthidium (Eucanthidium) cupreum (Blanchard), 1843. Cited for Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil).

Canthidium (Canthidium) cupreum : Cupello 2018: 457 (transferred to the subgenus Canthidium (Canthidium) Erichson, 1847).

Canthidium aureolum Harold, 1867b: 83 (original description); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1004 (complete list of species); Harold 1869d: 57 (synonym of Canthidium orbiculatum Lucas, 1857, comment); Gillet 1911a: 55 (complete list of species, cited as synonym of Canthidium cupreum Blanch.); Blackwelder 1944: 205 (list of species of Latin America, cited as synonym of Canthidium cupreum Blanch.); Cupello 2018: 457 (cited as synonym of Canthidium cupreum (Blanchard, 1846)).

Canthidium nitidum “Harold, 1867”a: 35 (original description); 1867b: 83 (synonym of Canthidium aureolum Harold, 1867b); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1004 (complete list of species, cited as synonym of Canthidium aureolum Harold); Gillet 1911a: 55 (complete list of species, cited as synonym of Canthidium cupreum Blanch.); Blackwelder 1944: 205 (list of species of Latin America, cited as synonym of Canthidium cupreum Blanch.); Cupello 2018: 479 (cited as “nitidum Harold, 1867”, name not available).

Type specimens

Choeridium orbiculatum Lucas, 1857. The lectotype (♂) (here designated) and four paralectotypes are deposited at the MNHN. Locality: Pérou Rio. Ucayali, examined.

Lectotype (here designated) (♂): “10 / 47 [hw]”, “Choeridium / orbiculatum, / Luc. [hw]”, “Canthidium / Det. J. Huijbregts 198 [p]”, “Pérou / Rio Ucayali / de Castelnau / 10 – 47 [hw]”, “Choeridium / orbiculatum Lucas / syntype HI 1983 [hw, red label]”, “C. orbiculatum / Lucas [hw, green label]”, “LECTOTYPE ♂ / Choeridium / orbiculatum / Lucas / des. F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello, 2014 [hw and p, red label, black margin]”.

Paralectotype (♂): “Choeridium / orbiculatum, / Luc. [hw]”, “10 / 47 [hw]”, “Pérou / Rio Ucayali / de Castelnau / 10 – 47 [hw]”, “SYNTYPE [p, red label]”, “PARALECTOTYPE / Choeridium ♂ / orbiculatum / Lucas / des. F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello, 2014 [hw and p, yellow label, black margin]”.

Paralectotype (♀): “Pérou / Rio Ucayali / de Castelnau / 10 – 47 [hw]”, “10 / 47 [hw]”, “SYNTYPE [p, red label]”, “PARALECTOTYPE / Choeridium ♀ / orbiculatum / Lucas / des. F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello, 2014 [hw and p, yellow label, black margin]”.

Paralectotype (♂): “Pérou / Rio Ucayali / de Castelnau / 10 – 47 [hw]”, “10 / 47 [hw]”, “SYNTYPE [p, red label]”, “PARALECTOTYPE / Choeridium ♂ / orbiculatum / Lucas / des. F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello, 2014 [hw and p, yellow label, black margin]”.

Paralectotype (♀): “10 / 47 [hw]”, “Pérou / Rio Ucayali / de Castelnau / 10 – 47 [hw]”, “SYNTYPE [p, red label]”, “PARALECTOTYPE / Choeridium ♀ / orbiculatum / Lucas / des. F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello, 2014 [hw and p, yellow label, black margin]”.

Choeridium cupreum Blanchard, 1846. The lectotype (♂) (here designated) is deposited at the MNHN. Locality: Valle Grande, Santa Cruz. Examined.

Lectotype (here designated) (♂): “G3 14 / 84 [hw]”, “MUSEUM PARIS / SANTA-CRUZ / (VALLE GRANDE) / D’Orbigny 1834 [p]”, “C. Cupreum / Blanch. / Valle-Grande / M. D’Orbigny. [hw, green label]”, “Choeridium / cupreum Blanchard / .J. Huijbregts 1983 det [hw and p]”, “LECTOTYPE [p]”, “LECTOTYPE ♂ / Choeridium / cupreum / Blanch. / des. F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello, 2014 [hw and p, red label, black margin]”.

Canthidium aureolum Harold, 1867. Location of syntypes unknown, possibly deposited at the MNHN (ex coll. E Harold), (see Cupello 2018, 457). Not examined.

Canthidium nitidum Harold, 1867. Type material not examined.

Distribution

Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Records examined

ORELLANA: Estación Científica Yasuní PUCE, Parque Nacional Yasuní, 220 m (5 specimens CEMT); Rodrigo Borja IAMOE (9 specimens CEMT). SUCUMBÍOS: Comunidad Cofanes Río Zábalo, 280 m (1 specimen CEMT); Limoncocha (1 specimen CEMT).

Temporal data

Collected in February, May, June, July, August, September, October, and November.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests of the Amazon region from 220–390 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with human feces.

Lucas (1857) described the species Choeridium orbiculatum (type locality: de la mission de Sarayacu, Peru). Subsequently, Gillet (1911a) synonymized it, without any explanation, with Canthidium cupreum (Blanchard, 1846) (a species described from Bolivia, Valle Grande). However, upon examining the external morphology (specifically, punctation on pronotal disc, elytral microsculpture and dorsal coloration) of the type specimens of C. orbiculatum (lectotype ♂ here designated, deposited at the MNHN, Plate 55D) and C. cupreum (lectotype ♂ here designated, deposited at the MNHN, Plate 56A), we could confirm they belong to the two distinct species. Therefore, maintaining the specific name originally proposed by Lucas, we revalidate it as Canthidium (Canthidium) orbiculatum (Lucas, 1857). Two lectotypes (♂, with localities: Pérou [= Peru] Rio Ucayali and Valle Grande) are designated and illustrated here (Plate 55D and Plate 56A) in order to fix the name over a single name-bearing type.

Canthidium (Canthidium) pseudaurifex Balthasar, 1939

Plate 9D

Canthidium pseudaurifex Balthasar, 1939c: 136 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador, Prov. Los Rios).

Canthidium pseudaurifex : Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 596 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 62 (complete list of species); Bezdek and Hajek 2012: 304 (catalog of type NMPC); Cupello, 2018: 477 (transferred to Canthidium incerta sedis, cited from Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Types specimens

Canthidium pseudaurifex Balthasar, 1939. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the NMPC. Locality: Babahoyo. Examined.

Holotype (♂): “Babahoyo / 7. 05 O. v. B. [p]”, “Typus [p, red label, black margin]”, “C. pseudauri- / fex n. sp. / Dr. V. Balthasar det. [hw and p]”, “pseudaurifex / m. [hw, green label, black margin]”, “HOLOTYPE [hw, red label]”.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Records examined

ESMERALDAS: Calle Mansa (2 specimens CEMT); Chispero (2 specimens CEMT); Colón del Ónzole (6 specimens CEMT); Gualpi (1 specimen CEMT); Padre Santo, Playa de Oro (6 specimens CEMT); Palma Real (2 specimens CEMT). IMBABURA: Río Guayllabamba alrededores de Pacto, 700–1150 m (2 specimens CEMT). LOS RÍOS: Babahoyo (1 specimen NMPC); Río Palenque Station (15 specimens CEMT). SANTA ELENA: Olón, 50 m (70 specimens CEMT).

Temporal data

Collected in January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland evergreen forests and coastal evergreen foothill forests from 50–1150 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with human and pig feces.

Canthidium (Canthidium) rufinum Harold, 1867

Plate 9C

Canthidium rufinum Harold, 1867b: 79 (original description. Type locality: Columbien [= Colombia], Costa Rica, und Bogotá, auch vom oberen Amazonenstrom).

Canthidium rufinum : Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1006 (complete list of species); Gillet 1911a: 56 (complete list of species); Blackwelder 1944: 205 (list of species de Latin America); Contreras 1951: 221 (cited for Colombia); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 594 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 191 (cited for Brazil); Medina et al. 2001: 138 (cited for Colombia); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 12 (cited for Bolivia); Krajcik 2012: 63 (complete list of species).

Canthidium (Eucanthidium) rufinum : Martínez and Halffter 1986: 33 (cited for Bolivia and Colombia).

Canthidium (Canthidium) rufinum : Cupello 2018: 464 (transferred to the subgenus Canthidium (Canthidium) Erichson, 1847); Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Canthidium rufinum Harold, 1867. Six syntypes examined deposited at the MNHN (ex coll. E Harold, ex coll. HW Bates and ex coll. R Oberthur). Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Distribution

Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, and Ecuador.

Records examined

ORELLANA: Río Tiputini, Parque Nacional Yasuní 250 (1 specimen CEMT); Yasuní (1 specimen CEMT). SUCUMBÍOS: 6 km de Dureno, Precooperativa Los Vergeles, 300 m (1 specimen CEMT).

Temporal data

Collected in August and November.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests of the Amazon region from 250–300 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with carrion.

Subgenus Canthidium (Neocanthidium) Martínez, Halffter & Pereira, 1964

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) Martínez, Halffter & Pereira 1964: 166 (original description. Type species: Neocanthidium bokermanni Martínez, Halffter & Pereira, 1964 by original designation).

Canthidium (Neocanthidium): Halffter and Matthews 1966: 257 (catalog, distribution); Howden and Young 1981: 71 (synonym of Canthidium Erichson, 1847); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 137 (catalog, distribution); Martínez and Halffter 1986: 22 (invalid name for Neocanthidium Martínez, Halffter & Pereira, 1964); Ratcliffe 2002: 14 (synonym of Canthidium Erichson, 1847); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 5 (synonym of Canthidium Erichson, 1847); Cupello, 2018: 455 (revalidated as subgenus of Canthidium Erichson, 1847), 465 (list of species of the Neotropical region); Chamorro et al. 2018: 77 (characters in key), 92 (list of species of Ecuador, cited as Canthidium (Neocanthidium) Martínez, Halffter & Pereira, 1986).

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) centrale Boucomont, 1928

Plate 10A

Canthidium centrale Boucomont, 1928b: 203 (original description. Type locality: Panama, Chiriqui, Guyane française: St-Jean du Maroni, St-Laurent du Maroni, Guyane hollandaise, Surinam).

Canthidium centrale : Blackwelder 1944: 205 (list, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 593 (characters in key); Howden and Young 1981: 74 (characters in key), 75 (redescription); Medina et al. 2001: 137 (cited for Colombia); Ratcliffe 2002: 14 (cited for Panama); Solís and Kohlmann 2004: 9 (characters in key), 33 (redescription); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 5 (cited for Costa Rica); Krajcik, 2012: 62 (complete list of species).

Canthidium (Canthidium) centrale : Martínez and Halffter 1986: 26 (cited for Ecuador, Panama, Guatemala, Mexico); Morón 2003: 55 (redescription, cited for Mexico); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) centrale : Cupello 2018: 467 (transferred to the subgenus Canthidium (Neocanthidium) Martínez, Halffter & Pereira, 1964. Distribution, cited for Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Neocanthidium martinezi Edmonds & Halffter, 1978: 319 (original description); Solís and Kohlmann 2004: 33 (synonym of Canthidium centrale Boucomont, 1928); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 5 (cited as synonym of Canthidium centrale Boucomont, 1928); Cupello, 2018: 467 (comment).

Type specimens

Canthidium centrale Boucomont, 1928. The holotype (sex unknown) is deposited at the MNHN (see Solís and Kohlmann 2004: 33). Locality: Panama, Chiriqui. Not examined.

Neocanthidium martinezi Edmonds & Halffter, 1978. Type material not examined.

Distribution

Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Panama, and Mexico.

Records examined

ESMERALDAS: Majua (1 specimen CEMT); Playa de Oro (1 specimen CEMT); Pote (1 specimen CEMT). LOS RÍOS: Río Palenque Station (1 specimen CEMT).

Temporal data

Collected in February and March.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland evergreen forests. Collected with pitfall traps baited with human feces.

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) coerulescens Balthasar, 1939

Plates 10B, 55D

Canthidium coerulescens Balthasar, 1939c: 117 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador, Ostcordillieren, Teremotillo, Jivaria, Santa Inéz [= Santa Inés]).

Canthidium coerulescens : Krajcik 2012: 62 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 196 (cited for Peru).

Canthidium (Canthidium) coerulescens : Martínez and Halffter 1986: 26 (transferred to the subgenus Canthidium (Canthidium) s. str., cited for Ecuador); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador); Bezdek and Hajek 2012: 300 (catalog of types NMPC).

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) coerulescens : Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 592 (characters in key. Transferred to the genus Neocanthidium Martínez, Halffter & Pereira, 1964); Cupello, 2018: 468 (distribution, cited for Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 89 (figure 12C), 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Canthidium coerulescens Balthasar, 1939. The lectotype (♂) (here designated) and one paralectotype are deposited at the NMPC (ex coll. V Balthasar). Locality: Jivaria, examined.

Lectotype (here designated) (♂): “O. Ecuador / Jivaria / 17 12. 05 F. Ohs.S. [p]”, “Typus [p, red label, black margin]”, “LECTOTYPE ♂ / Canthidium / coerulescens / Balth. / des. F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello, 2014 [hw and p, red label, black margin]”.

Paralectotype (♂): “O. Ecuador / Jivaria / 17 12. 05 F. Ohs.S. [p]”, “Typus [p, red label, black margin]”, “PARALECTOTYPE / Canthidium ♂ / coerulescens Balth / des. F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello, 2013 [hw and p, yellow label, black margin]”.

Distribution

Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela.

Records examined

SUCUMBÍOS: Río Azuela Reventador, 1720 m (1 specimen CEMT); La Sofía, 1800 m (2 specimens MUTPL). TUNGURAHUA: Baños El Topo, 1590 m (6 specimens CEMT; 8 specimens MUTPL). ZAMORA CHINCHIPE: Chito Río San Francisco, 1800 m (2 specimens MUTPL); RVS El Zarza conseción El Zarza, campamento las Peñas, Cordillera del Cóndor, 1710 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Tundayme campamento Mirador Jardín Botánico, 925 m (1 specimen CEMT); Tundayme campamento Mirador Escombrera Norte, 1225 m (2 specimens).

Literature records

UNDETERMINED PROVINCE: Teremotillo (Balthasar 1939c: 118); Jivaria (Balthasar 1939c: 118; Bezdek and Hajek 2012: 300); Santa Jnéz [= Santa Inés] (Balthasar 1939c: 118; Bezdek and Hajek 2012: 300).

Temporal data

Collected in January, February, May, August, September, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits lower montane forests and in the montane cloud forests of the Andean regions from 1710–1800 m a.s.l. It was also registered in the evergreen foothill forests and evergreen lower montane forests in the Amazon region from 925–1700 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with human feces.

The lectotype is here designated and illustrated (♂ deposited at the NMPC, Plate 56B) and belongs to the locality Ecuador, Jivaria [= eastern slopes of the Andes mountains].

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) escalerai Balthasar, 1939

Plate 10C

Canthidium escalerai Balthasar, 1939c: 121 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador).

Canthidium escalerai : Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 592 (characters in key); Medina et al. 2001: 137 (cited for Colombia); Krajcik 2012: 62 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 196 (cited for Peru).

Canthidium (Canthidium) escalerai : Martínez and Halffter 1986: 27 (cited for Ecuador); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador); Bezdek and Hajek 2012: 301 (catalog of types NMPC).

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) escalerai : Cupello 2018: 469 (transferred to the subgenus Canthidium (Neocanthidium) Martínez, Halffter & Pereira, 1964. Distribution, cited for Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Canthidium escalerai Balthasar, 1939. The holotype (♀) is deposited at the NMPC (ex coll. V Balthasar). Locality: Ecuador, Bucay, examined.

Holotype (♀): “Typus [p, red label, black margin]”, “C. escalerai / n. sp. m. / Dr. V. Balthasar det [p and hw]”, “escalerai / m. [hw, green label, black margin]”, “Bucay 300 m / F. Ohs. 23. 6. 05 [p]”, “W. Ecuador / Pucay / F. Ohaus S. [p]”, “HOLOTYPE [hw, red label]”.

Distribution

Ecuador and Peru.

Records examined

GUAYAS: Pucay [= Bucay] (1 specimen NMPC).

Temporal data

Collected in June.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland evergreen forests at 300 m a.s.l. Collection method unknown.

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) haroldi Preudhomme de Borre, 1886

Canthidium haroldi Preudhomme de Borre, 1886: 111 (original description. Type locality: Nicaragua).

Canthidium haroldi : Gillet 1911a: 55 (list, distribution); Blackwelder 1944: 205 (list, distribution); Howden and Young 1981: 73 (characters in key), 77 (redescription); Medina et al. 2001: 137 (cited for Colombia); Ratcliffe 2002: 14 (cited for Panama); Solís and Kohlmann 2004: 9 (characters in key), 41 (redescription); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 5 (cited for Costa Rica); Krajcik 2012: 62 (complete list of species).

Canthidium (Canthidium) haroldi : Martínez and Halffter 1986: 28 (transferred to the subgenus Canthidium (Canthidium) s. str., cited for Ecuador, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Guatemala); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador).

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) haroldi : Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 590 (characters in key. Transferred to the genus Neocanthidium Martínez, Halffter & Pereira, 1964); Cupello, 2018: 470 (distribution, cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Canthidium haroldi Preudhomme de Borre, 1886. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the IRSN (ex coll. E. Candeze). Locality: Nicaragua, examined.

Holotype (♂): “Canth. Haroldi / De Borre Type [hw]”, “Haroldi / P. [illegible] Borre / Type / Nicarag. J [hw, green margin]”, “Collection / E. CANDEZE [p, black margin]”, “TYPE [p, pink label, black margin]”, “Type [p, black margin]”, “HOLOTYPE ♂ [p and hw, red label, black margin]”, “Canthidium / haroldi / rev. Preudh [p and hw]”.

Distribution

Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Panama.

Literature records

UNDETERMINED PROVINCE: without specific locality (Martínez and Halffter 1986: 28).

Temporal data

It is not known when this species was collected.

Remarks

Habitat and collection methods are unknown.

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) inoptatum Balthasar, 1939

Plate 10D

Canthidium inoptatum Balthasar, 1939c: 130 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador).

Canthidium inoptatum : Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 592 (characters in key).

Canthidium (Canthidium) inoptatum : Martínez and Halffter 1986: 28 (cited for Ecuador); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 62 (complete list of species); Bezdek and Hajek 2012: 303 (catalog of types NMPC).

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) inoptatum : Cupello 2018: 470 (transferred to the subgenus Canthidium (Neocanthidium) Martínez, Halffter & Pereira, 1964. Distribution, cited for Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Canthidium inoptatum Balthasar, 1939. Two syntypes examined deposited at the MSMF and NMPC. Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Syntype (♀): “Ecuador / Catamayo / Ohaus S. [p]”, “Senckember / Museum [p]”, “Typus [p, red label, black margin]”, “Canthidium / inoptatum / n. sp. m / Dr. V. Balthasar det. [p and hw]”, “[one face, p] Typus [oposite face, hw] SMF C / 16818”.

Syntype (♀): “W.ECUADOR / Huigra / Dr. Davis [p]”, “Moser determ. [p] / Canthidium sp. [hw]”, “Senckenberg / Museum [p]”, “Typus [red label, black margin]”, “inoptatum [hw, green label, black margin]”.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Records examined

CHIMBORAZO: Huigra (1 specimen MSMF). LOJA: Catamayo (1 specimen MSMF). UNDETERMINED PROVINCE: Jivaria (1 specimen NMPC).

Temporal data

It is not known when this species was collected.

Remarks

Habitat and collection methods are unknown.

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) lentum Erichson, 1847

Canthidium lentum Erichson, 1847: 109 (original description. Type locality: Peru).

Canthidium lentum : Harold 1867b: 62 (redescription); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1005 (complete list of species); Gillet 1911a: 55 (complete list of species); Blackwelder 1944: 205 (list of species of Latin America); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 191 (cited for Brazil); Krajcik 2012: 62 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 196 (cited for Peru).

Canthidium (Canthidium) lentum : Martínez and Halffter 1986: 28 (transferred to the subgenus Canthidium (Canthidium) s. str., cited for French Guiana, Peru and Ecuador); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador).

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) lentum : Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 591 (characters in key. Transferred to the genus Neocanthidium Martínez, Halffter & Pereira, 1964); Cupello, 2018: 471 (distribution, cited for Ecuador). Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Canthidium lentum Erichson, 1847. One syntype examined deposited at the NMHU. Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Distribution

French Guiana, Peru, and Ecuador.

Literature records

UNDETERMINED PROVINCE: without specific locality (Martínez and Halffter 1986: 28).

Temporal data

It is not known when this species was collected.

Remarks

Habitat and collection methods unknown.

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) luteum Balthasar, 1939

Plate 11A

Canthidium luteum Balthasar, 1939c: 132 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador).

Canthidium luteum : Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 592 (characters in key); Krajcik 2012: 62 (complete list of species).

Canthidium (Canthidium) luteum : Martínez and Halffter 1986: 28 (cited for Ecuador); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318–319 (cited for Ecuador); Bezdek and Hajek 2012: 303 (catalog of types NMPC).

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) luteum : Cupello 2018: 471 (transferred to the subgenus Canthidium (Neocanthidium) Martínez, Halffter & Pereira, 1964. Distribution, cited for Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Canthidium luteum Balthasar, 1939. The holotype (♀) is deposited at the NMPC. Locality: Loja Ostcordill, examined.

Holotype (♀): “Loja Ostcordill. / Sabanilla / F. Ohs. 2. 10. 05 [p]”, “Typus [p, red label, black margin]”, “/ Canthidium / luteum n. sp. / Dr. V. Balthasar det. [p and hw]”, “luteum m. [hw, green label, black margin]”.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Records examined

LOJA: Ostcordill. Sabanilla [= Sabanilla El Tambo ZAMORA CHINCHIPE] (1 specimen NMPC).

Temporal data

Collected in October.

Remarks

Inhabits the evergreen foothill forests of the Amazon region. The collection method is unknown.

Genus Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817

Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817: 38 (original description. Type species: Scarabaeus pilularius, Linnaeus, 1758 subsequent designation by Paulian, 1939).

Canthon: Agassiz 1846: 184 (catalog); Lacordaire 1856: 77 (redescription); Leconte 1861: 125 (characters in key); Harold 1868d: 1 (redescription); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 989 (list, distribution); Blanchard 1885: 163 (redescription); Blatchey 1910: 912 (characters in key); Gillet 1911a: 27 (complete list of species); Lucas 1920: 164 (catalog, distribution); Dawson 1922: 61 (characters in key); Paulian 1938: 235 (characters in key); Paulian 1939: 22 (redescription, type species designation); Pessôa and Lane 1941: 414 (diagnosis); Islas 1942: 303 (redescription); Blackwelder 1944: 198 (list of species of Latin America); Lane 1947: 110 (comment); Roze 1955: 41 (list of species for Venezuela); Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 96 (characters in key); Martínez 1959: 27 (list of species for Argentina); Halffter 1961: 231 (characters in key), 258 (redescription); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 602 (catalog of species); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 261 (catalog, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 549 (characters in key); Halffter and Martínez 1968: 265 (diagnosis); Halffter and Martínez 1977: 38 (characters in key), 69 (redescription); Howden and Young 1981: 14 (characters in key), 19 (redescription); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 139 (catalog, distribution); Medina and Lopera 2000: 311 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 191 (list of species for Brazil); Medina et al. 2001: 135 (list of species for Colombia); Solís and Kohlmann 2002: 2 (redescription); Arnett et al. 2002: 49 (characters in key); Ratcliffe 2002: 13 (list of species for Panama); Morón 2003: 30 (redescription); Medina et al. 2003: 64 (distribution); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 13 (list of species for Bolivia); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 26 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 113 (diagnosis), 314 (list of species for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 63 (complete list of species); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 2 (list of species for Costa Rica); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 108 (characters in key); Chamorro et al. 2018: 76 (characters in key), 92 (list of species of Ecuador).

Coprobius Latreille, 1829: 535 (original description. Type species: Scarabaeus volvens Fabricius, 1792 subsequent designation by Reiche, 1841); Brullé 1837: 294 (diagnosis); Castelnau 1840: 68 (synonym of Canthon Hffsg.); Reiché 1841: 213 (characters in key, type species designation); Agassiz 1846: 282 (catalog); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 989 (synonym of Canthon Hoffmannsegg); Burmeister 1873a [1874]: 410 (synonym of Canthon Hoffsg); Gillet 1911a: 27 (synonym of Canthon Hffsg.); Lucas 1920: 201 (synonym of Canthon Hffsg); Blackwelder 1944: 198 (synonym of Canthon Hffsg); Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 112 (synonym of Canthon Hffsg); Martínez 1959: 27 (synonym of Canthon Hffsg); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 602 (synonym of Canthon Hffsg); Solís and Kohlmann 2002: 2 (synonym of Canthon Hffsg); Ratcliffe 2002: 12 (synonym of Canthon Hffsg); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 2 (synonym of Canthon Hffsg).

Coeloscelis Reiche, 1841: 213 (original description. Type species: Coeloscelis coriaceus Reiche, 1841 nomen dubium, by original designation. See Cupello and Vaz-de-Mello 2018: 17); Agassiz 1846: 268 (catalog); Lacordaire 1856: 76 (redescription); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 989 (cited as synonym of Canthon Hffsg); Gillet 1911a: 27 (synonym of Canthon Hffsg.); Blackwelder 1944: 198 (synonym of Canthon Hffsg.); Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 112 (synonym of Canthon Hffsg.); Martínez 1959: 27 (synonym of Canthon Hoffmannsegg); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 602 (synonym of Canthon Hoffmannsegg); Solís and Kohlmann 2002: 2 (synonym of Canthon Hffsg); Ratcliffe 2002: 12 (synonym of Canthon Hffsg, cited as Coeloschelis); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 2 (synonym of Canthon Hffsg).

Paedhyboma Kolbe, 1893: 191 (original description. Type species: Canthon aberrans Harold, 1868 by primary monotypy); Paulian 1938: 235 (characters in key); Paulian 1939: 21 (redescription); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 636 (catalog of species); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 549 (characters in key); Halffter and Martínez 1977: 38 (synonym of Canthon Hoffmannsegg); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 139 (cited as synonym of Canthon Hffsg.); Solís and Kohlmann 2002: 2 (cited as synonym of Canthon Hffsg); Ratcliffe 2002: 12 (synonym of Canthon Hffsg., cited as Paedohyboma); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 3 (synonym of Canthon Hffsg., cited as Paedohyboma).

Canthomoechus Pereira & Martínez, 1959: 165 (original description. Type species: Canthon quadratus Blanchard, 1846 by original designation); Halffter 1961: 231 (characters in key); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 590 (catalog of species); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 261 (catalog, distribution); Halffter and Martínez 1977: 38 (synonym of Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 139 (cited as synonym of Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817); Solís and Kohlmann 2002: 2 (cited as synonym of Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817); Ratcliffe 2002: 13 (synonym of Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 3 (cited as synonym of Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817).

Subgenus Canthon (Canthon) Hoffmannsegg, 1817

Canthon (Canthon) s. str. Hoffmannsegg, 1817: 38 (original description. Type species: Scarabaeus pilularius, Linnaeus, 1758); Canthon Halffter and Martínez 1968: 270 (characters in key); Halffter and Martínez 1977: 42 (characters in key), 86 (diagnosis); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 139 (cited as subgenus of Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 191 (cited as subgenus of Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817); Morón 2003: 39 (redescription); Medina et al. 2003: 64 (cited as subgenus of Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 27 (characters in key); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 108 (characters in key); Chamorro et al. 2018: 77 (characters in key), 92 (list of species of Ecuador).

Canthon (Canthon) aberrans (Harold, 1868)

Plate 11B

Deltochilum aberrans Harold, 1868d: 8 (original description. Type locality: Columbia [= Colombia]).

Deltochilum aberrans : Gemminger and Harold 1869: 995 (list, distribution); Harold 1880a: 18 (distribution); Kolbe 1893: 191 (diagnosis); Gillet 1911a: 35 (complete list of species); Campos 1921: 55 (cited for Ecuador); Blackwelder 1944: 202 (list of species of Latin America); Solís and Kohlmann 2002: 5 (cited as Canthon aberrans (Harold, 1868), synonym).

Paedhyboma aberrans : Shipp 1897: 195 (transferred to the genus Paedhyboma Kolbe, 1893); Paulian 1939: 21 (redescription, distribution); Balthasar 1941: 345 (cited for Peru); Martínez 1947: 113 (cited as synonym of Deltochilum aberrans Harold, 1868); Contreras 1951: 221 (cited for Colombia); Balthasar 1951: 330 (cited for Peru); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 636 (catalog of species); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 551 (characters in key); Solís and Kohlmann 2002: 5 (synonym of Canthon aberrans Harold).

Canthon aberrans : Pereira and D’Andretta 1955a: 48 (transferred to the genus Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru).

Canthon (Canthon) aberrans : Halffter and Martínez 1977: 87 (transferred to the subgenus Canthon s. str.); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 191 (cited for Brazil); Medina et al. 2001: 135 (cited for Colombia); Solís and Kohlmann 2002: 4 (characters in key), 5 (redescription); Ratcliffe 2002: 12 (cited for Panama); Medina et al. 2003: 64 (distribution); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 13 (cited for Bolivia); Carvajal et al. 2011: 314–315 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 63 (complete list of species); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 3 (cited for Costa Rica); Chamorro et al. 2018: 85 (figure 8A), 87 (figure 10H), 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Canthon bifurcatus Robinson, 1948a: 37 (original description); Martínez 1951a: 23 (distribution, synonym of Canthon juanae Martínez, 1949); Pereira 1953: 394 (synonym of Paedhyboma aberrans (Harold, 1968)); Pereira and D’Andretta 1955a: 48 (cited as Canthon aberrans (Harold, 1968), synonym); Solís and Kohlmann 2002: 5 (cited as synonym of Canthon aberrans Harold); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 3 (cited as synonym of Canthon aberrans Harold).

Canthon juanae Martínez, 1949b: 176 (original description); Martínez 1951a: 23 (synonym of Canthon bifurcatus Martínez, 1951); Pereira 1953: 394 (cited as synonym of Canthon plicatipennis Blanchard, 1843); Pereira and D’Andretta 1955a: 48 (cited as Canthon aberrans (Harold, 1968), synonym); Solís and Kohlmann 2002: 5 (cited as Canthon (Canthon) aberrans (Harold), synonym); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 3 (cited as Canthon aberrans (Harold, 1868), synonym).

Type specimens

Deltochilum aberrans Harold, 1868. One syntype examined deposited at the MNHN (ex coll. E Harold and R Oberthur). Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Canthon bifurcatus Robinson, 1948. The holotype (♀) is deposited at the USNM. Locality: Merida Venezuela. Examined.

Holotype (♀): “Merida / Venezuela [p]”, “♀ [p]”, “TypeNo / 65620 / U S N M [p and hw, red label]”, “M.Robinson / Collection / 1959 [p]”, “HOLOTYPE / Canthon / bifurcatus / Mark Robinson [p]”.

Canthon juanae Martínez, 1949. The holotype (♂) is deposited in the AMIC (see Martínez 1949b: 179) [= name-bearing types now in the MACN]. Locality: Bolivia. Dep. La Paz. Nor Yungas Rios Carioco, Choro, Dalem. 700 m. Not examined.

Two paratypes are deposited in CEMT. Examined.

Paratype (♀): “BOLIVIA / Dep. La Paz / Pcia. Nor Yungas / Ríos Carioco, Choro / Dalen 700 mts. / Coll. Martínez / Ene-949 [hw]”, “PARATIPO ♀ [hw, green label, black margin]”, “Canthon / juanae ♀ / sp.n. / A. MARTÍNEZ-DET.1949 [p and hw, green label, black margin]”.

Paratype (♂): “BOLIVIA / Dep. La Paz / Pcia. Nor Yungas / Ríos Carioco, Choro / Dalen 700 mts. / Coll. Martínez / Ene-949 [hw]”, “PARATIPO ♂ [hw, green label, black margin]”, “Canthon / juanae ♂ / sp.n. / A. MARTÍNEZ-DET.1949 [p and hw, green label, black margin]”.

Distribution

Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela.

Records examined

COTOPAXI: Bosque Integral Otonga, 1300 m (3 specimens CEMT; 152 specimens MQCAZ); La Mana (5 specimens MQCAZ). IMBABURA: Junín La Mina (7 specimens MQCAZ). EL ORO: Piñas, 1200 m (18 specimens MQCAZ). ESMERALDAS: Los Ajos (8 specimens MQCAZ; 3 specimens MECN); Palma Real (19 specimens MQCAZ; 10 specimens MECN); San Francisco, 20 m (4 specimens MQCAZ); Ricuaute (7 specimens MQCAZ; 1 specimen MECN); Santa Rita (3 specimens MQCAZ). MANABÍ: El Carmen, 600 m (2 specimens MQCAZ). MORONA SANTIAGO: Alshi 9 de Octubre, Rio Upano, 1500 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Gualaquiza (3 specimens MQCAZ); Limón Indanza (2 specimens MQCAZ); Macas, 1000 m (2 specimens MQCAZ). NAPO: Archidona (4 specimens MQCAZ); Cosanga (7 specimens MQCAZ); El Reventador (1 specimen MUTPL); El Reventador, Cascada de San Rafael (8 specimens MQCAZ); Los Guacamayos Piviyacu, 1800 m (4 specimens CEMT); Misahualli, 500 m (3 specimens MQCAZ); Parahuacu (2 specimens MECN); Puente Río Azuela, road Baeza-Lago Agrio (7 specimens MQCAZ); Río Hollín, 1100 m (4 specimens CEMT); San Rafael (6 specimens MQCAZ); Tena Talag, 750 m (2 specimens MQCAZ). ORELLANA: El Coca (1 specimen MQCAZ); Loreto (5 specimens MQCAZ). PICHINCHA: Chiriboga (8 specimens MQCAZ); Chiriboga km 59 (3 specimens MQCAZ); Estación Biológica Maquipucuna, 1250 m (3 specimens MUTPL); Hda Las Palmeras km 57 (4 specimens MQCAZ); Jerusalen (1 specimen MQCAZ); Mindo, 1400–1650 m (4 specimens CEMT); Nanegalito, 1800 m (19 specimens MQCAZ); Pampas Argentinas, 1300 m (8 specimens MQCAZ); Puerto Quito (3 specimens MQCAZ); Puerto Quito km 113 (1 specimen MQCAZ); San Vicente km 4, La Armenia, 1800 m (3 specimens MQCAZ); road Calacalí

Nanegalito, 2000 m (5 specimens MQCAZ); road Chiriboga-Santo Domingo (1 specimen MQCAZ); Tandayapa (3 specimens MQCAZ); Yaruquí, 2700 m (2 specimens MQCAZ); road to Nanegalito km 37 El Vergel, 1600 m (1 specimen CEMT). SANTO DOMINGO DE LOS TSÁCHILAS: ECR Guajalito (25 specimens MQCAZ); Río Toachi (3 specimens MQCAZ); Santo Domingo (7 specimens MQCAZ). SUCUMBÍOS: La Bonita, 1800 m (3 specimens MQCAZ); Limoncocha (1 specimen MQCAZ); El Reventador (2 specimens MQCAZ); road La Alegría-La Bonita km 32 (2 specimens MECN). TUNGURAHUA: Baños (1 specimen MQCAZ); Baños El Topo, 1530 m (3 specimens MUTPL); San Francisco (5 specimens MQCAZ); ZAMORA CHINCHIPE: El Pangui (4 specimens MUTPL); RVS El Zarza campamento las Peñas, Cordillera del Cóndor, 1710 m (4 specimens MUTPL); Guaguaymi, 2000 m (1 specimen CEMT); San Andres, 1850 m (3 specimens MQCAZ); Tundayme campamento Mirador La Mina, 1320 m (2 specimens MUTPL).

Temporal data

Collected every month of the year.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland evergreen forests and coastal evergreen foothill forests from 20–1250 m a.s.l. In the Andean region, it was registered in the lower montane forests and the montane cloud forests from 1300–2300 m a.s.l. In the Amazon, it was registered on the foothill evergreen forests from 500–1100 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with human feces and occassionally in mouse carrion.

Canthon (Canthon) delicatulus Balthasar, 1939

Plate 11C

Canthon delicatulus Balthasar, 1939d: 234 (original description. Type locality: West-Ecuador, Guayaquil und Pucay [= Bucay]).

Canthon delicatulum : Blackwelder 1944: 199 (list of species of Latin America).

Canthon delicatulus : Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 610 (catalog of species); Carvajal et al. 2011: 314–315 (cited for Ecuador).

Canthon (Canthon) delicatulus : Halffter and Martínez 1977: 89 (transferred to the subgenus Canthon s. str.); Bezdek and Hajek 2011: 362 (catalog of types NMPC); Krajcik 2012: 63 (complete list of species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Canthon delicatulus Balthasar, 1939. Two syntypes examined deposited at the MSMF and NMPC. Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Syntype (♂): “W Ecuador / Guayaquil / F. Ohaus S. [p]”, “Guayaquil / F. Ohs. 28. 5. 05 [p]”, “Canthon / delicatulus / n. sp. m. / Dr. V. Balthasar det. [p and hw]”, “[one face] Typus [p, red label, black margin], [opposite face] 6. 423 [hw]”, “[one face] Senckemberg- / Museum / Frankfurt/Main [p], [opposite face] Canthon / delicatulus B. [hw]”.

Syntype (♀): “W Ecuador / Pucay / F. Ohaus S. [p]”, “ Bucay 300 m. / F. Ohs. 23. 6. 05 [p]”, “Typus [p, red label, black margin]”, “C. delicatulus / n. sp. m. / Dr. V. Balthasar det. [p and hw]”, “delicatulus m. [hw, green label, black margin]”.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Records examined

AZUAY: Ponce Enriquez Mina Sorresdor, 40 m (5 specimens MUTPL); Ponce Enriquez Río Tenguel, 195 m (8 specimens MUTPL). EL ORO: Buenaventura Bajo, 500 m (4 specimens MQCAZ); El Pache 60 m, Río El Pache (5 specimens MQCAZ); 3 km E de Abañin, 800 m (1 specimen CEMT; 7 specimens MQCAZ); Piñas, 1200 m (1 specimen CEMT; 6 specimens MQCAZ); Uzhcurrumi, 500 m (1 specimen CEMT; 3 specimens MQCAZ). ESMERALDAS: Playa de Oro, 200 m (7 specimens MQCAZ); Puerto Balao, 200 m (2 specimens MUTPL); San Mateo (1 specimen CEMT; 2 specimens MQCAZ); Vainilla (3 specimens MQCAZ). GUAYAS: Guayaquil (1 specimen MSMF; 4 specimens CEMT; 5 specimens MQCAZ); Bucay, 300 m (1 specimen NMPC; 6 specimens MQCAZ). LOJA: Catamayo Alamala, 1380 m (1 specimen CEMT); Zapotillo Chaquiro, 340 m (1 specimen CEMT). LOS RÍOS: Estación Río Palenque (6 specimens MQCAZ). MANABÍ: Ayampe, 35 m (1 specimen MUTPL); El Aromo, 370 m (5 specimens MUTPL); San Juan de Manta, 20 m (8 specimens MUTPL); Puerto Rico, 25 m (1 specimen MQCAZ). PICHINCHA: Puerto Quito (5 specimens MQCAZ). SANTO DOMINGO DE LOS TSÁCHILAS: Alluriquín, 1200 m (7 specimens MQCAZ); Santo Domingo, Pupusa (3 specimens MQCAZ); Santo Domingo, Puerto Limón (3 specimens MUTPL).

Temporal data

Collected all months of the year except August.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland evergreen forests, lowland semi-deciduous forests, and evergreen foothill forests from 40–1200 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces.

Canthon (Canthon) gemellatus Erichson, 1847

Canthon gemellatus Erichson, 1847: 105 (original description. Type locality: Peru).

Canthon gemellatum : Harold 1868d: 16 (characters in key); 118 (redescription); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 991 (list, distribution); Kirsch 1873: 340 (cited for Peru); Gillet 1911a: 29 (complete list of species); Schmidt 1922: 75 (list, distribution); Balthasar 1939d: 197 (characters in key, cited for Ecuador); Balthasar 1941: 342 (cited for Peru); 1951: 327 (cited for Peru); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 613 (catalog of species); Halffter and Martínez 1977: 70 (list of species); Carvajal et al. 2011: 314–315 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 63 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru).

Canthon (Canthon) gemellatus : Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Canthon gemellatum : Blackwelder 1944: 199 (list of species for Latin America).

Type specimens

Canthon gemellatus Erichson, 1847. Four syntypes examined deposited at the NMHU. Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Distribution

Ecuador and Peru.

Literature records

UNDETERMINED PROVINCE: without specific locality (Balthasar 1939d: 197).

Temporal data

It is not known when this species was collected.

Remarks

Habitat and collection methods unknown.

Canthon (Canthon) obscuriellus Schmidt, 1922

Plate 11D

Canthon obscuriellus Schmidt, 1922: 89 (original description. Type locality: Columbiem [= Colombia], Paramba).

Canthon obscuriellus : Balthasar 1939d: 219 (characters in key); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 622 (catalog of species); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 553 (characters in key); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (cited for Colombia); Krajcik 2012: 64 (complete list of species).

Canthon obscuriellum : Blackwelder 1944: 200 (list of species for Latin America); Contreras 1951: 221 (cited for Colombia).

Canthon (Canthon) obscuriellus : Halffter and Martínez 1977: 89 (transferred to the subgenus Canthon s. str.); Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador); Vaz-de-Mello and Cupello 2018b: 62 (figures 80–82), 63 (lectotype designated).

Type specimens

Canthon obscuriellus Schmidt, 1922. The lectotype (♂) and one paralectotype are deposited at the SMTD (see Vaz-de-Mello and Cupello 2018b: 63, figure 82). Locality: Paramba, examined.

Lectotype (♂): “Paramba / 3500’. IV. 97. [p]”, “dry season. / (Rosenberg). [p]”, “Canthon / obscuriell / n. sp. a. Schmidt. [hw]”, “Coll. C Felche / Kauf 20, 1918 [p, green label, black margin]”, “LECTOTYPE ♂ / Canthon / obscuriellus / Smimidt / des. F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello, 2014 [hw and p, red label, black margin]”.

Paralectotype (♀): “Paramba / 3500’. III. 97. [p]”, “dry season. / (Rosenberg). [p]”, “Coll. C Felche / Kauf 20, 1918 [p, green label, black margin]”, “PARALECTOTYPE / Canthon ♀ / obscuriellus / Smimidt / des. F.Z.Vaz-de-Mello, 2014 [hw and p, yellow label, black margin]”.

Distribution

Colombia and Ecuador.

Records examined

IMBABURA: La Carolina, 1000 m (2 specimens MQCAZ; 4 specimens CEMT); Paramba, 3500 feet [= Parambas, 1065 m] (2 specimens SMTD).

Temporal data

Collected in November.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal foothill forests at 1000 m a.s.l. Collection method unknown.

Subgenus Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) Martínez, 1948

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) Martínez, 1948a: 41 (original description. Type species: Glaphyrocanthon variabilis Martínez, 1948); Martínez 1949a: 160 (characters in key); Roze 1955: 43 (list of species for Venezuela); Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 96 (characters in key), 125 (list of species); Martínez 1959: 59 (list of species of Argentina); Halffter 1961: 231 (characters in key); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 660 (catalog of species); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 261 (catalog, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 560 (characters in key); Halffter and Martínez 1977: 40 (cited as new status, subgenus of Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 139 (cited as subgenus of Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817); Rivera-Cervantes and Halffter 1999: 32 (redescription); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 191 (cited as subgénus of Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817); Ratcliffe 2002: 12 (synonym of Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817); Medina et al. 2003: 64 (cited as subgenus of Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 27 (characters in key); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 3 (cited as subgenus of Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 108 (characters in key); Chamorro et al. 2018: 77 (characters in key), 92–93 (list of species of Ecuador).

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) angustatus Harold, 1867

Plates 12A and 56C

Canthon angustatus Harold, 1867d: 79 (original description, Type locality: Costa Rica).

Canthon angustatus : Harold 1868d: 63 (redescription); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 989 (list, distribution); Bates 1887: 28 (distribution); Kolbe 1905: 579 (list, distribution); Gillet 1911a: 28 (complete list of species); Schmidt 1922: 72 (distribution); Balthasar 1939d: 216 (characters in key); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru).

Canthon angustatum : Blackwelder 1944: 199 (list of species for Latin America); Contreras 1951: 221 (cited for Colombia); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru).

Geocanthon angustatus : Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 155 (cited as new combination, diagnosis); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 669 (catalog of species); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 550 (characters in key).

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) angustatus : Halffter and Martínez 1977: 79 (transferred to the subgenus Glaphyrocanthon Martínez, 1948); Howden and Young 1981: 21 (characters in key), 30 (redescription); Medina et al. 2001: 135 (cited for Colombia); Solís and Kohlmann 2002: 3 (characters in key), 8 (redescription); Ratcliffe 2002: 12 (cited for Panama); Medina et al. 2003: 64 (distribution); Carvajal et al. 2011: 314–315 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 63 (complete list of species); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 3 (cited for Costa Rica); Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Canthon angustatus Harold, 1867. The lectotype (♂) (here designated) is deposited at the MNHN. Locality: Costa Rica. One paralectotype is deposited at the NHRS (ex coll. E Harold and ex coll. R Oberthur), examined.

Lectotype (here designated) (♂): “Costa Rica [hw]”, “Museúm Paris / ex coll. / R. Oberthür / 1952 [p, green label, black margin]”, “angustatus / +. +. Har. [hw]”, “Ex-Musæo / E. Harold [p, black margin]”, “LECTOTYPE ♂ / Canthon / angustatus / Harold / des. F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello, 2014 [hw and p, red label, black margin]”.

Paralectotype (♀): “♀ / Type [p and hw, black margin]”, “Zoolog. / Staatssg [p, black margin]”, “TIPO [p, pink label, black margin]”, “Costarica. / C. / angustatus. / Hrld. [hw, green margin]”, “PARALECTOTYPE / Canthon ♀ / angustatus / Harold / des. F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello, 2014 [hw and p, yellow label, black margin]”.

Distribution

Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Panama.

Records examined

ESMERALDAS: Colón del Ónzole (2 specimens CEMT; 19 specimens MQCAZ); El Progreso (9 specimens MQCAZ); Gualpí (7 specimens CEMT; 15 specimens MQCAZ; 8 specimens MECN); Mayronga (7 specimens MQCAZ); Palma Real (2 specimens CEMT, 15 specimesn MQCAZ); Playa de Oro, Playa Rica (18 specimens MQCAZ; 15 specimens MECN). LOS RÍOS: Estación Biológica Río Palenque, 250 m (32 specimens MQCAZ; 9 specimens MECN). MANABÍ: El Carmen (3 specimens MQCAZ). SANTO DOMINGO DE LOS TSÁCHILAS: 47 km S de Santo Domingo (1 specimen CEMT; 6 specimens MQCAZ).

Temporal data

Collected in January, February, March, April, May, September, October, and November.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland evergreen forests at 250 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with human feces.

A lectotype is here designated and illustrated (♂, deposited at the MNHN, Plate 56C), recorded in Costa Rica (without specific locality).

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) bimaculatus Schmidt, 1922

Plate 12B

Canthon bimaculatus Schmidt, 1922: 83 (original description, Type locality: Amazonas, Columbien [= Colombia]).

Canthon bimaculatus : Balthasar 1939d: 216 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 314–315 (cited for Ecuador); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru).

Canthon bimaculatum : Blackwelder 1944: 198 (list of species for Latin America); Contreras 1951: 221 (cited for Colombia); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru).

Geocanthon bimaculatus : Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 144 (cited as new combination, diagnosis); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 669 (catalog of species); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 550 (characters in key).

Geocanthon femoralis bimaculatus : Martínez and Halffter 1972: 58 (cited as new status, redescription).

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) femoralis bimaculatus : Halffter and Martínez 1977: 80 (transferred to the subgenus Glaphyrocanthon Martínez, 1948); Rivera-Cervantes and Halffter 1999: 46 (comment); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 191 (list of species for Brazil); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (cited for Colombia); Medina et al. 2003: 64 (distribution); Morón 2003: 32 (comment).

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) bimaculatus : Solís and Kohlmann 2002: 52 (comment); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 13 (cited for Bolivia); Krajcik 2012: 63 (complete list of species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador); Vaz-de-Mello and Cupello 2018b: 55 (figures 60 and 61), 56 (lectotype designated).

Type specimens

Canthon bimaculatus Schmidt, 1922. The lectotype (♂) is deposited at the NHRS (see Vaz-de-Mello and Cupello 2018b: 56, figure 61). Locality: Colombia, Amazonas, examined.

Lectotype (♂): “Amazonas [p, green label]”, “Typ. [p]”, “bimaculatus / type m. [hw]”, “Coll. C. Felsche / Kauf 20, 1918 [p, green label]”, “9285 / E92 + [p, blue label]”, “Typus [p, red label, black margin]”, “LECTOTYPE ♂ / Canthon / bimaculatus Sch. / des. F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello, 2013 [hw and p, red label, black margin]”.

Distribution

Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Records examined

ORELLANA: Río Yasuní Garzacocha Ishpingo, 200 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Estación Científica Yasuní PUCE, 250 m (77 specimens MQCAZ). SUCUMBÍOS: Trocha Zábalo-Güepí km 10, Reserva de Producción Faunística Cuyabeno (1 specimen MUTPL).

Temporal data

Collected in February, May, July, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests of the Amazon region from 200–220 m a.s.l. Collected with canopy fogging methods.

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) brunnipennis Schmidt, 1922

Plate 12C

Canthon brunnipennis Schmidt, 1922: 84 (original description, type locality: Amazonas).

Canthon brunnipennis : Balthasar 1939d: 204 (characters in key).

Canthon brunnipenne : Blackwelder 1944: 198 (list of species of Latin America).

Glaphyrocanthon brunnipennis : Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 661 (catalog of species).

Glaphyrocanthon (Coprocanthon) brunnipennis : Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 560 (characters in key).

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) brunnipennis : Halffter and Martínez 1977: 79 (transferred to the subgenus Glaphyrocanthon Martínez, 1948); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 191 (cited for Brazil, cited as Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) brunneipenne); Krajcik 2012: 63 (complete list of species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador); Vaz-de-Mello and Cupello 2018b: 56 (lectotype designated), 57, figs 64, 65.

Type specimens

Canthon brunnipennis Schmidt, 1922. The lectotype (♂) is deposited at the NHRS (see Vaz-de-Mello and Cupello 2018b: 56, figure 65). Locality: Amazonas, examined.

Lectotype (♂): “Amazonas [p, green label]”, “Coll. C. Felsche / Kauf 20, 1918 [p, green label]”, “brunnipennis / Type m. [hw]”, “14 / 56 [p and hw, pink label]”, “Typus [p, red label, black margin]”, “Glaphyrocanthon / brunnipennis / (Schm) / P. Pereira det.60 [p and hw]”, “9294 / E92 + [p, blue label]”, “Typ. [p]”, “brunnipennis a. schms [hw]”, “NHRS-JLKB / 000021104 [p]”, “LECTOTYPE ♂ / Canthon / brunnipennis Schmidt. / des. F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello, 2013 [hw and p, red label, black margin]”.

Distribution

Brazil and Ecuador.

Records examined

SUCUMBÍOS: Sacha Lodge, 250 m (2 specimens CEMT).

Temporal data

Collected in October.

Remarks

Inhabits lowland evergreen forests of the Amazon region at 250 m a.s.l. Collection method unknown.

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) luteicollis Erichson, 1847

Plate 12D

Canthon luteicollis Erichson, 1847: 105 (original description. Type locality: Peru).

Canthon luteicollis : Harold 1868d: 13 (characters in key), 59 (redescription); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 992 (list, distribution); Gillet 1911a: 31 (complete list of species); Schmidt 1922: 77 (distribution); Boucomont 1928c: 2 (cited for Peru, Guyana and Ecuador); Balthasar 1939d: 217 (characters in key); Balthasar 1941: 343 (cited for Peru); 1951: 328 (cited for Peru); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (cited for Colombia); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 13 (cited for Bolivia); Carvajal et al. 2011: 314–315 (cited for Ecuador); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru).

Canthon luteicollis var. nitidicollis : Schmidt 1922: 77 (list, distribution); Balthasar 1939d: 217 (characters in key); Balthasar 1941: 343 (cited for Peru); 1951: 328 (cited for Peru).

Canthon luteicolle var. nitidicolle : Blackwelder 1944: 200 (list of species for Latin America); Carvajal et al. 2011: 314–315 (cited for Ecuador).

Geocanthon luteicollis : Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 177 (cited as new combination); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 671 (catalog of species); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 551 (characters in key).

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) luteicollis : Halffter and Martínez 1977: 80 (transferred to the subgenus Glaphyrocanthon Martínez, 1948); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 191 (cited for Brazil, written as C. Luteicolle); Medina et al. 2003: 64 (distribution); Krajcik 2012: 64 (complete list of species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Canthon nitidicolle Lucas, 1857: 98 (original description); Harold 1868d: 13 (characters in key); 58 (redescription); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 992 (list, distribution); Kirsch 1873: 340 (cited for Peru); Gillet 1911a: 31 (complete list of species); Schmidt 1920: 124 (cited).

Type specimens

Canthon luteicollis Erichson, 1847. Two syntypes examined deposited at the NMHU and MNHN. Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Canthon nitidicolle Lucas, 1857. Six syntypes examined deposited at the MNHN. Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Distribution

Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Guyana, and Peru.

Records examined

MORONA SANTIAGO: Comunidad Untsuants Cordillera del Kutukú, 900–1100 m (19 specimens MECN; 24 specimens MQCAZ); Cumpi Cordillera del Kutukú, (1 specimen MUTPL). NAPO: Archidona (10 specimens MQCAZ); Archidona-Jumandi (4 specimens MQCAZ); Baeza (1 specimen MQCAZ); Baeza Oritoyacu (1 specimen MQCAZ); Bloque 20 Pungarayacu, cerca al Tena, 505 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Campanacocha, 220 m (10 specimens MQCAZ); Cosanga, 1900 m (1 specimen MQCAZ); Isla de los Monos (3 specimens MQCAZ); Jarawa (2 specimens MQCAZ); Jatun Sacha Estación Científica, 450 m (19 specimens MQCAZ); Misahualli (1 specimen CEMT); Misahualli Jungle Lodge unión río Napo y río Misahualli, 1600–1900 m (7 specimens MQCAZ); Río Hollín, 1200 m (1 specimen MQCAZ); Pichira (3 specimens MQCAZ); San Luis del Río Hollín, 550 m (3 specimens MQCAZ); Talag Marungachi, 750 m (7 specimens MQCAZ). ORELLANA: Bloque 31, Parque Nacional Yasuní, Perez Companc línea 9, 200 m (10 specimens MECN); Dayuma Campo Hormiguero, plataforma Hormiguero, 320 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Dayuma Campo Palanda, LLumpac, 295 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Dayuma Campo Palanda, Yuca 13, 255 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Dayuma plataforma Ungurahua, 300 m (2 specimens MUTPL); El Coca Primavera (2 specimens MQCAZ); El Coca, Palmoriente (4 specimens MQCAZ); El Dorado plataforma Guarango, 300 m (3 specimens MUTPL); Ines Arango Pre-Cooperativa Andina, Campo Cononaco, 300 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Estación Científica Yasuní PUCE, 250 m (12 specimens CEMT; 85 specimens MQCAZ); Estación de Biodiversidad Tiputini, 215 m, Parque Nacional Yasuní (3 specimens MUTPL); Pozo Daimi (1 specimen CEMT); Río Huataracu, 500 m (2 specimens MQCAZ); Río Rumiyacu-Pozo Apaika (3 specimens MQCAZ); Río Tiputini Yasuní Res. (2 specimens CEMT; 9 specimens MQCAZ); San Sebastian de Coca Comuna Guataraco Campo Pata, 345 m (3 specimens MUTPL); Lago San Pedro, plataforma Copal, 310 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Taracoa, 250 m (4 specimens MQCAZ); Yampuna (3 specimens MQCAZ), Yasuní, 250 m (4 specimens CEMT). PASTAZA: Balsaura (3 specimens MQCAZ); Bosque Protector Oglán Alto, 545–810 m (5 specimens MUTPL); Chuyayacu, 810 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Kapawi, 350 m (3 specimens MQCAZ); Loracachi, 220 m (5 specimens CEMT; 9 specimens MQCAZ); Moretecocha (2 specimens CEMT; 8 specimens MQCAZ); plataforma Villano (7 specimens CEMT; 15 specimens MQCAZ); Tipirishca km 51 road Puyo-Macas, 1050 m (5 specimes MECN). SUCUMBÍOS: Aucayacu Río El Eno, 16 km de Lago Agrio, 275 m (75 specimens MGO-UC); Bermejo plataforma ER-A road to Lumbaqui (1 specimen MUTPL); Campo Drago Shushufindi, 295 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Campo Hormiga, 225 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Cuyabeno (8 specimens MQCAZ); Cuyabeno Cabañas la Hormiga, 240 m (5 specimens MQCAZ); Cuyabeno Laguna Imuya, 220 m (2 specimens MQCAZ); Cuyabeno Laguna Grande, 220 m (6 specimens CEMT); Laguna de Cuyabeno (4 specimens MQCAZ); Limoncocha (4 specimens MQCAZ); Nueva Loja plataforma Iguana, 310 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Pacayacu Campo Libertador, 260 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Río Cuyabeno (3 specimens MQCAZ); 6 km de Dureno, Precooperativa Los Vergeles, 310 m (3 specimens MUTPL); Lagartococha (3 specimens MQCAZ); Sacha Lodge, 270 m (3 specimens MQCAZ); Sta Cecilia, 150 m (1 specimen MQCAZ); Tarapoa Campo Marian, 260 m, plataforma Fanny 5 (1 specimen MUTPL); Tarapoa Nuevo Manabí, 270 m (1 specimen MUTPL). TUNGURAHUA: Machay (1 specimen CEMT; 7 specimens MQCAZ). ZAMORA CHINCHIPE: Tundayme, 800 m (3 specimens MUTPL); Tundayme campamento Mirador, San Marcos, 900 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Tundayme campamento Mirador, Enerentsa, 1030 m (2 specimens MUTPL).

Temporal data

Collected every month of the year.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests and foothill evergreen forests of the Amazon region from 215–1030 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with carrion, human feces, and dead chilopods.

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) ohausi Balthasar, 1939, stat. n.

Plates 13A, 56D

Canthon angustatus ohausi Balthasar, 1939d: 216 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador).

Canthon angustatus ohausi : Bezdek and Hajek 2011: 361 (catalog of types NMPC); Chamorro et al. 2018: 92 (cited for Ecuador).

Canthon ohausi : Blackwelder 1944: 200 (list of species for Latin America); Carvajal et al. 2011: 314–315 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Canthon angustatus ohausi Balthasar, 1939. The lectotype (♂) (here designated) and one paralectotype are deposited at the NMPC. Locality: Mera, examined.

Lectotype (here designated) (♂): “Mera / Ecuador [p]”, “Typus [p, red label, black margin]”, “C. angustatus / ssp. m. / Typus ! [p and hw] / Dr. V. Balthasar det. [p]”, “LECTOTYPE ♂ / Canthon angus- / tatus ohausi / Balth. / des. F.Z.Vaz-de-Mello, 2013 [hw and p, red label, black margin]”.

Paralectotype (♀): “ECUADOR / Sabanilla / F. OhausS. [p]”, “Senckenberg / Museum [p]”, “Typus [p, red label, black margin]”, “C. angustatus / ssp. Ohausi m. / Typus ! [hw] / Dr. V. Balthasar det. [p]”, “ssp. Ohausi / m. [hw, green label, black margin]”, “PARALECTOTYPE / Canthon angusta- / tus ohausi ♀ / Balth. / des. F.Z.Vaz-de-Mello, 2013 [hw and p, yellow label, black margin]”.

Distribution

Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and French Guiana.

Records examined

NAPO: Río Nushiño Gareno-Waponi, 370 m (1 specimen MUTPL). ORELLANA: Campo Palanda-Yuca Sur, Estación Palanda 5, 320 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Estación de Biodiversidad Tiputini, 215 m, Parque Nacional Yasuní (3 specimens MUTPL); Ines Arango road Tiwino-río Shiripuno, 250 m (1 specimen MUTPL); road to Maxus km 45 Río Capirón, 220 m, Parque Nacional Yasuní Tiputini (1 specimen MUTPL); Lago San Pedro, plataforma Copal, 310 m (1 specimen MUTPL). PASTAZA: Bosque Protector Oglán Alto, 945 m (2 specimens MUTPL; 1 specimen MGO-UC); Chuyayacu, Oleoducto km 25, 200 m (1 specimen MGO-UC); Mera (2 specimens NMPC); Pandanuque, 420 m (1 specimen MUTPL). SUCUMBÍOS: Aucayacu Río El Eno, 16 km de Lago Agrio, 275 m (3 specimens CEMT; 36 specimens MGO-UC); Cascales Pozo Aguas Blancas, 385 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Cascales road to Lumbaqui Pozo Mascarey, 395 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Limoncocha, Reserva Biológica (1 specimen MUTPL); Pacayacu Campo Libertador, Tapi, 265 m (1 specimen MUTPL). ZAMORA CHINCHIPE: Sabanilla [= El Tambo, ZAMORA CHINCHIPE] (1 specimen NMPC); Tundayme campamento Mirador, Enerentsa, 1030 m (1 specimen MUTPL).

Temporal data

Collected in January, February, March, May, June, July, August, September, November, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests and the foothill evergreen forests of the Amazon region from 215–1300 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces.

Balthasar (1939) described Canthon angustatus ohausi (type locality: Ecuador) as a variety of Canthon angustatus Harold, 1867 (type locality: Costa Rica), which made the former name available as a subspecific category (see ICZN 1999, Articles 45.6.4 and 46.6.4.1). However, upon examining the external and genital morphology of the type specimens of C. angustatus ohausi (lectotype ♂ here designated, deposited at the NMPC, Plate 56D) and C. angustatus (lectotype ♂ here designated, deposited at the MNHN, Plate 56C), specifically, the differences in the aedeagus and the shapes of the pronotal spots, we think that they belong to two distinct species. Therefore, maintaining the subspecific name originally proposed by Balthasar, we elevate it to species level under the following new status: Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) ohausi Balthasar, 1939 stat. n. The lectotype is here designated and illustrated (♂ Plate 56D) and originates from Mera, Ecuador (associated with Amazon forests).

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) pallidus Schmidt, 1922

Plate 13B

Canthon pallidus Schmidt, 1922: 89 (original description. Type locality: Columbien [= Colombia]; Yungas de la Paz, Bolivia; Chanchamayo, Peru; Santa Jnéz [= Santa Inés], Ecuador; Chaco, Bolivia).

Canthon pallidus : Balthasar 1939d: 204 (characters in key); Balthasar 1941: 342 (cited for Peru); 1951: 327 (cited for Peru); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (cited for Colombia); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 13 (cited for Bolivia); Krajcik 2012: 64 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru).

Canthon pallidum : Blackwelder 1944: 200 (list of species for Latin America); Contreras 1951: 221 (cited for Colombia).

Geocanthon pallidus : Pereira and Martínez 1960: 47 (cited as new combination); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 671 (catalog of species).

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) pallidus : Halffter and Martínez 1977: 80 (transferred to the subgenus Glaphyrocanthon Martínez, 1948); Medina et al. 2003: 64 (distribution); Carvajal et al. 2011: 314–315 (cited for Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 87 (figure 10G), 92 (cited for Ecuador); Vaz-de-Mello and Cupello 2018b: 62 (figures 83 and 84), 63 (lectotype designated).

Glaphyrocanthon (Coprocanthon) gutierrezi Martínez, 1949a: 161 (original description).

Geocanthon gutierrezi : Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 151 (cited as new combination, redescription); Pereira and Martínez 1960: 47 (cited as Geocanthon pallidus (Schmidt, 1922) synonym); Halffter and Martínez 1977: 80 (synonym of Canthon pallidus Schmidt).

Type specimens

Canthon pallidus Schmidt, 1922. The lectotype (♂) is deposited in the NHRS (see Vaz-de-Mello and Cupello 2018b: 63, figure 84). Locality: Columbia [= Colombia], examined.

Lectotype (♂): “Columbia [p]”, “pallidus / a.Schmidth [hw]”, “9971 / E92 + [p, blue label]”, “PARALECTOTYPE / Canthon ♂ / pallidus / A. Schmidt / des. F.Z.Vaz-de-Mello, 2014 [hw and p, yellow label, black margin]”, “LECTOTYPE ♂ / Canthon pallidus / A. Schmidt / des. F.Z.Vaz-de- Mello, 2014 [hw and p, red label, black margin]”.

Geocanthon gutierrezi Martínez, 1949. The holotype is deposited at the MACN. Locality: Bolivia Dep. La Paz Pcia. Nor Yungas, Sacramento 2500 m. Examined.

Holotype (♂): “MACN-En / 1099 [p, black margin]”, “geocanthon / pallidus (Schm.) / A. MARTÍNEZ-DET 1957 [p and hw, black margin]”, “Ene-949 / BOLIVIA / Dep. La Paz / Pcia. Nor Yungas / Sacramento 2500 mts / Coll. Martínez [hw]”, “HOLOTIPO ♂ [hw, red label]”, “glaphyrocanhton / (coprocanthon) ♂ / gutierrezi sp. n / A. MARTÍNEZ-DET 1950 [p and hw, red label, black margin]”.

Distribution

Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Records examined

NAPO: Cosanga Estación Científica Yanayacu, 2130 m (1 specimen MQCAZ); Cuyuja, 2200 m (1 specimen MQCAZ); Hacienda San Isidro, Quijos Valley, 2000 m (1 specimen MQCAZ); Las Palmas, 2050 m (1 specimen MQCAZ). SUCUMBÍOS: Río Azuela, El Reventador, 1720 m (1 specimen CEMT; 2 specimens MUTPL). TUNGURAHUA: Baños, El Topo, 1590 m (1 specimen CEMT). ZAMORA CHINCHIPE: Tundayme campamento Mirador, La Escombrera, 1225 m (1 specimen MUTPL).

Literature records

UNDETERMINED PROVINCE: Santa Jnéz [= Santa Inés] (Schmidt 1922: 90).

Temporal data

Collected in January, August, October, November, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits the evergreen foothill forests and lower montane evergreen forests of the Amazon region from 1225–1720 m a.s.l. In the Andean region, it was registered in the montane cloud forests from 2000–2200 m a.s.l. Collected manually in horse feces and with canopy fogging methods.

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) plagiatus Harold, 1880

Canthon plagiatus Harold, 1880a: 15 (original description. Type locality: La Meza).

Canthon plagiatus : Gillet 1911a: 32 (complete list of species); Schmidt 1922: 78 (distribution); Balthasar 1939d: 201 (characters in key); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 625 (catalog of species); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 552 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 314–315 (cited for Ecuador).

Canthon plagiatum : Blackwelder 1944: 200 (list of species of Latin America); Contreras 1951: 221 (cited for Colombia).

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) plagiatus : Halffter and Martínez 1977: 80 (transferred to the subgenus Glaphyrocanthon Martínez, 1948); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (cited for Colombia); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 13 (cited for Bolivia); Krajcik 2012: 64 (complete list of species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Canthon plagiatus Harold, 1880. One syntype examined deposited at the MNHN (ex coll. E. Steinheil). Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Distribution

Bolivia, Colombia, and Ecuador.

Records examined

UNDETERMINED PROVINCE: Santa Inés (3 specimens CEMT).

Temporal data

It is not known when this species was collected.

Remarks

Habitat and collection methods unknown.

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) politus Harold, 1868

Plate 13C

Canthon politus Harold, 1868d: 60 (original description. Type locality: Columbien [= Colombia], Bogotá und das südliche Mexiko [= Mexico]).

Canthon politus : Gemminger and Harold 1869: 992 (list, distribution); Harold 1880a: 16 (cited for Nueva Granada [= Colombia]); Bates 1887: 31 (distribution); Gillet 1911a: 32 (complete list of species); Schmidt 1922: 79 (list, distribution); Balthasar 1939d: 205 (characters in key); Islas 1942: 304 (characters in key), 307 (description).

Canthon politum : Blackwelder 1944: 201 (list of species for Latin America); Roze 1955: 42 (cited for Venezuela).

Canthon politum var. granadense : Blackwelder 1944: 201 (cited as new combination, list of species for Latin America); Contreras 1951: 221 (cited for Colombia).

Geocanthon politus : Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 137 (cited as new combination, redescription); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 672 (catalog of species); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 550 (characters in key).

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) politus : Halffter and Martínez 1977: 80 (transferred to the subgenus Glaphyrocanthon Martínez, 1948); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (cited for Colombia); Medina et al. 2003: 64 (distribution); Carvajal et al. 2011: 314–315 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 64 (complete list of species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Canthon granadensis Lansberge, 1874a: 5 (original description); Gillet 1911a: 29 (complete list of species); Schmidt 1922: 79 (cited); Balthasar 1939d: 223 (characters in key).

Canthon granadense : Blackwelder 1944: 199 (list of species for Latin America).

Type specimens

Canthon politus Harold, 1868. One syntype examined deposited at the MNHN (ex coll. E Harold and ex coll. R Oberthur). Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Canthon granadensis Lansberge, 1874. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the MNHN (ex coll. V Lansberge and ex coll. R Oberthur). Locality: without specific locality. Examined.

Holotype (♂): “granadensis / Lansb type [hw]”, “Muséum Paris / ex Coll. / R. Oberthür / 1952 [p]”, “Ex-Musæo / VAN LANSBERGE [p, black margin]”, “Canthon (Glaphy- / rocanthon) / politus Harold. G.H. y A.M. det. 76 [hw, black margin]”, “♂ [hw] HOLOTYPE [p, red label, black margin]”.

Distribution

Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela.

Records examined

NAPO: B. P. La Cascada, Parque Nacional Sumaco, 1300 m (1 specimen CEMT). ZAMORA CHINCHIPE: Chito Río San Francisco, 1800 m (1 specimen CEMT); El Tambo Reserva El Colibri 2080 m (17 specimens CEMT).

Temporal data

Collected in March and May.

Remarks

Inhabits the evergreen foothill forests and lower evergreen montane forests throughout the Amazonian range from 1300–1800 m a.s.l. In the Andean region, it was recorded in the montane cloud forests from 1800–2080 m a.s.l. This species was collected with pitfall traps baited with human feces. According to Rivera-Cervantes and Halffter (1999), the previous records from Mexico are erroneous.

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) quadriguttatus (Olivier, 1789)

Plate 13D

Scarabeus quadriguttatus Olivier, 1789: 173 (original description. Type locality: Cayenne, Surinam).

Copris quadriguttatus : Olivier 1790: 178 (new combination, redescription).

Ateuchus bidens Fabricius, 1801: 62 (transferred to the genus Ateuchus Fabricius, 1801); Harold 1868d: 123 (synonym of C. quadriguttatus Oliv.).

Choeridium elegans Castelnau, 1840: 83 (transferred to the genus Choeridium Serville, 1825; redescription); Harold 1868d: 123 (synonym of C. quadriguttatus Oliv.).

Canthon quadriguttatus : Harold 1868d: 123 (transferred to the genus CanthonHoffmannsegg 1817, redescription); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 993 (list, distribution); Gillet 1911a: 32 (complete list of species); Schmidt 1920: 125 (comment, list of species); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (cited for Colombia); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru).

Glaphyrocanthon quadriguttatus : Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 132 (new combination, catalog of species); Martínez et al. 1964: 12 (characters in key); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 664 (catalog of species); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 560 (characters in key).

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) quadriguttatus : Halffter and Martínez 1977: 80 (list of species); Rivera-Cervantes and Halffter 1999: 44 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 191 (cited for Brazil, cited as C. quadriguttatum); Medina et al. 2003: 64 (distribution); Krajcik 2012: 64 (complete list of species); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 112 (figure 36); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Copris obliquatus Voet, 1806: 47 (original description).

Canthon obliquatus : Schmidt 1920: 125 (comment, list of species); Schmidt 1922: 78 (distribution); Boucomont 1928c: 2 (distribution [quadriguttatus Olivier], cited for Guyana); Balthasar 1939d: 205 (characters in key); Balthasar 1941: 342 (cited for Peru); 1951: 327 (cited for Peru); Halffter and Martínez 1977: 80 (synonym of Canthon quadriguttatus, (Olivier, 1789)); Vaz-de-Mello and Cupello 2018b: 49 (cited as junior objective synonym of Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) quadriguttatus (Olivier, 1789), comment).

Type specimens

Scarabeus quadriguttatus Olivier, 1789. Not found.

Ateuchus bidens Fabricius, 1801. One syntype examined deposited at the ZMUC (ex coll. E Harold and R Oberthur). Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Choeridium elegans Castelnau, 1840. Type material not examined.

Canthon obliquatus Schmidt, 1920. Two syntypes examined deposited at the NHRS. Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Distribution

Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Guyana, and Surinam.

Records examined

ORELLANA: El Dorado plataforma Guarango, 300 m (1 specimen MUTPL); El Dorado, plataforma Pitalala 1, 325 m (1 specimen MUTPL); road Auca Tiguino-Ñemenguno, Parque Nacional Yasuní, 350 m (1 specimen MUTPL). PASTAZA: Bosque Protector Oglán Alto, 545 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Pandanuque, 420 m (1 specimen CEMT). SUCUMBÍOS: Aucayacu Río El Eno, 16 km de Lago Agrio, 295 m (1 specimen MUTPL); El Dorado de Cascales, Pozo Cristal 1, 425 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Tarapoa Campo Marian, plataforma Fanny 5 (1 specimen MUTPL); Tarapoa Campo Marian, plataforma Fanny 18B60, 245 m (1 specimen MUTPL). TUNGURAHUA: Baños (1 specimen MUTPL). ZAMORA CHINCHIPE: Tundayme campamento Mirador, Las Maravillas, 1060 m (3 specimens MUTPL); Tundayme campamento Mirador, San Marcos, 900 m (1 specimen MUTPL).

Temporal data

Collected in March, May, July, June, August, October, November, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests and the foothill evergreen forests of the Amazon region from 245–1060 m a.s.l. Collected in aerial fruit traps, with canopy fogging methods and pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces.

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) semiopacus Harold, 1868

Plate 14A

Canthon semiopacus Harold, 1868d: 57 (original description, Type locality: Brazilien [= Brazil], Cayenne).

Canthon semiopacus : Gemminger and Harold 1869: 993 (list, distribution); Harold 1875a: 59 (comment); Gillet 1911a: 33 (complete list of species); Schmidt 1922: 80 (list, distribution); Balthasar 1939d: 208 (characters in key); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (cited for Colombia); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 13 (cited for Bolivia); Krajcik 2012: 64 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru).

Canthon semiopacum : Blackwelder 1944: 201 (erroneously cited, list of species from Latin America).

Geocanthon semiopacus : Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 170 (new combination, redescription); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 673 (catalog of species); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 550 (characters in key).

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) semiopacus : Halffter and Martínez 1977: 80 (list of species); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 191 (cited for Brazil); Medina et al. 2003: 64 (distribution); Chamorro et al. 2018: 86 (figure 9E), 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Canthon semiopacus Harold, 1868. Two syntypes examined deposited at the MNHN and ZSM (ex coll. E Harold and ex coll. R Oberthür). Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Distribution

Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Guyana.

Records examined

NAPO: Talag Marungachi, 750 m (3 specimens MQCAZ). SUCUMBÍOS: Cuyabeno, Jungla lodge, 230 m (18 specimens MQCAZ); Cuyabeno Río Cuyabeno, Campo Hormiga, 225 m (5 specimens MUTPL); Pacayacu Campo Libertador Tapi, 260 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Cuyabeno Laguna Grande, 270 m (20 specimens MQCAZ); Tarapoa Campo Marian, plataform Fanny 5, 260 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Tarapoa, Nuevo Manabí, 270 m (1 specimen MUTPL).

Temporal data

Collected in January, February, April, June, July, August, September, November, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests and the foothill evergreen forests of the Amazon region from 225–750 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with human feces.

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) subhyalinus Harold, 1867

Canthon subhyalinus Harold, 1867d: 79 (original description. Type locality: Nova Granada).

Canthon subhyalinus : Harold 1868d: 16 (characters in key), 124 (redescription); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 994 (list, distribution); Harold 1880a: 17 (list of species); Gillet 1911a: 34 (complete list of species); Schmidt 1922: 81 (cited for Ecuador, list of species); Balthasar 1939d: 205 (characters in key); Howden and Young 1981: 22 (characters in key), 31 (redescription).

Canthon subhyalinum : Blackwelder 1944: 202 (list of species for Latin America); Contreras 1951: 221 (cited for Colombia); Roze 1955: 43 (cited for Venezuela); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 665 (catalog of species); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 191 (cited for Brazil); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (cited for Colombia); Ratcliffe 2002: 13 (cited for Panama); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 13 (cited for Bolivia); Krajcik 2012: 63 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru).

Glaphyrocanthon (Glaphyrocanthon) subhyalinus : Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 132 (new combination, distribution).

Glaphyrocanthon (Coprocanthon) subhyalinus : Martínez et al. 1964: 12 (characters in key); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 560 (characters in key).

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) subhyalinus : Halffter and Martínez 1977: 80 (list of species); Medina et al. 2003: 64 (distribution); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) subhyalinus subhyalinus : Rivera-Cervantes and Halffter 1999: 63 (diagnosis); Solís and Kohlmann 2002: 5 (characters in key), 47 (redescription); Morón 2003: 33 (cited for Mexico); Carvajal et al. 2011: 314–315 (cited for Ecuador); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 3 (cited for Costa Rica).

Types specimens

Canthon subhyalinus Harold, 1867. One syntype examined deposited at the MNHN Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Distribution

Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guyana, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela.

Literature records

Without specific locality (Schmidt 1922: 81).

Temporal data

It is not known when this species was collected.

Remarks

Habitat and collection methods unknown.

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) subhyalinoides Balthasar, 1939

Plate 14B

Canthon subhyalinoides Balthasar, 1939d: 231 (original description, Type locality: Ecuador, Quevedo).

Canthon subhyalinoides : Blackwelder 1944: 202 (list of species from Latin America).

Glaphyrocanthon subhyalinoides : Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 665 (new combination, distribution).

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) subhyalinoides : Halffter and Martínez 1977: 80 (list of species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Canthon (Glaphyrocanthon) subhyalinus subhyalinoides : Rivera-Cervantes and Halffter 1999: 67 (cited as new status, diagnosis); Carvajal et al. 2011: 314–315 (cited for Ecuador); Bezdek and Hajek 2011: 365 (catalog of the types of the NMPC).

Type specimens

Canthon subhyalinoides Balthasar, 1939. One syntype examined deposited at the NMPC. Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Records examined

EL ORO: Salvias Río San José, 1200 m (2 specimens MUTPL). ESMERALDAS: Puerto Balao, 200 m (1 specimen MUTPL). GUAYAS: Río Congo, 35 m (4 specimens MUTPL). LOS RÍOS: Quevedo (1 specimen NMPC). MANABÍ: Ayampe, 35 m (1 specimen MUTPL); El Aromo, Río de los Napos, 280 m (2 specimens MGO-UC; 1 specimen CEMT); Embalse Daule Peripa, Bosque Protector Carrizal-Chone, 110 m (2 specimens MUTPL); RVS Pacoche, 340 m (7 specimens MGO-UC; 1 specimen CEMT); Puerto López Cerro La Gotera, Parque Nacional Machalilla, 350 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Puerto López Guale, 310 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Puerto López Las Tunas, 200 m (1 specimen MUTPL). SANTA ELENA: Olón, 50 m (2 specimens CEMT).

Literature records

LOS RÍOS: Quevedo, Pichilingue 450 m (Rivera-Cervantes and Halffter 1999: 67).

Temporal data

Collected in March, April, July, August, September, October, November, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland evergreen forests, coastal lowland semi-deciduous forests, and coastal evergreen foothill forests from 35–1200 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with human feces.

Subgenus Canthon (Goniocanthon) Pereira & Martínez, 1956

Canthon (Goniocanthon) Pereira & Martínez, 1956a: 109 (original description. Type species Scarabaeus smaragdulus Fabricius, 1781); Martínez 1959: 49 (list of species for Argentina); Halffter 1961: 231 (characters in key); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 592 (catalog of species); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 261 (catalog, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 551 (characters in key); Halffter and Martínez 1977: 39 (cited new status, subgenus of Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 139 (cited as subgenus of Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 191 (cited as subgenus of Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817); Ratcliffe 2002: 12 (synonym of Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817); Medina et al. 2003: 64 (cited as subgenus of Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 26 (characters in key); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 3 (cited as synonym of Canthon Hoffmannsegg, 1817); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 108 (characters in key); Chamorro et al. 2018: 76 (characters in key), 93 (list of species of Ecuador).

Canthon (Goniocanthon) fulgidus martinezi Nunes, Nunes & Vaz-de-Mello, 2018

Plate 14C

Canthon (Goniocanthon) fulgidus martinezi Nunes, Nunes & Vaz-de-Mello, 2018: 14 (original description. Type locality: Francisco de Orellana, Rodrigo Borja, IAMOE).

Canthon fulgidus Redtenbacher, 1868: 51 (original description, Type locality: Brazilien [= Brazil]); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 991 (list, distribution); Gillet 1911a: 29 (complete list of species); Schmidt 1922: 75 (distribution); Balthasar 1939d: 203 (characters in key); Balthasar 1941: 342 (cited for Peru); Guêrin 1953: 257 (diagnosis); Carvajal et al. 2011: 314–315 (cited for Ecuador); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru).

Canthon fulgidum : Blackwelder 1944: 199 (misspelled name, list of species of Latin America).

Goniocanthon fulgidus : Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 111 (new combination); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 593 (catalog of species); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 551 (characters in key).

Canthon (Goniocanthon) fulgidus : Halffter and Martínez 1977: 75 (list of species); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 191 (cited for Brazil); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (cited for Colombia); Medina et al. 2003: 64 (distribution); Krajcik 2012: 63 (complete list of species); Vaz-de-Mello and Cupello 2018: 47–48 (cited for Brazil); Chamorro et al. 2018: 87 (figure 10E), 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Canthon (Goniocanthon) fulgidus martinezi Nunes, Nunes & Vaz-de-Mello, 2018. The holotype is deposited at the CEMT (see Nunes et al. 2018: 15). Locality: Francisco de Orellana, Rodrigo Borja, IAMOE, Ecuador, not examined.

Canthon fulgidus Redtenbacher, 1867. The lectotype (sex unknown) is deposited at the MHMW (see Vaz-de-Mello and Cupello 2018a: 47–48). Locality: Brazil. Examined.

Lectotype, (sex unknown): “Nott. [hw]”, “fulgidus / det. [illegible]. 93 [p, black margin]”, “TYPUS [p, red label]”, “fulgidus / Redtb [hw]”, “Fulgidus / Brasil Redt. [hw, black margin]”, “LECTOTYPE / Canthon / fulgidus / Redtenb. / des. F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello, 2013 [hw and p, red label, black margin]”.

Distribution

Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Records examined

NAPO: Archidona, 500 m (4 specimens MQCAZ); Sunka (7 specimens MQCAZ). ORELLANA: Apaika Sur (8 specimens MQCAZ); Bloque 31 Pozo Petrolero PSCA 2, Parque Nacional Yasuní (6 specimens MECN); Bloque 31 Perez Companc línea 9, Parque Nacional Yasuní, 200 m (3 specimens MECN); Daimi 1 (28 specimens MQCAZ); Dayuma plataforma Ungurahua, 300 m (1 specimen MUTPL); El Dorado, 350 m, plataforma Pitala 1 (1 specimen MUTPL); Estación Río Huiririma (5 specimens MQCAZ); Loreto (2 specimens MQCAZ); Nashiño, 255 m (7 specimens MQCAZ); Río Rumiyacu Pozo Apaika I, Parque Nacional Yasuní (1 specimen MUTPL); Estación Científica Yasuní PUCE, 250 m (3 specimens CEMT; 168 specimens MQCAZ); Estación de Biodiversidad Tiputini, 215–285 m, Parque Nacional Yasuní (2 specimens MGO-UC; 21 specimens MQCAZ); Pozo Ginta 1, Parque Nacional Yasuní, 230 m (18 specimens MQCAZ); Parque Nacional Yasuní (1 specimen CEMT; 22 specimens MQCAZ); Río Tiputini, Yasuní Res. (1 specimen CEMT; 8 specimens MQCAZ); Rodrigo Borja IAMOE (7 specimens CEMT; 25 specimens MQCAZ); San Sebastian del Coca Comuna Shamanal, Campo Palo Azul, 345 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Zamona-Yuturi (10 specimens MQCAZ). PASTAZA: Campo Tiguino cerca al estero Ñemenguno, 300 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Kurintza, 300 m (3 specimens MECN). SUCUMBÍOS: Aucayacu Río El Eno, 16 km de Lago Agrio 290 m (3 specimens MGO-UC); Cuyabeno, 250–400 m (19 specimens MQCAZ); Cuyabeno Jungla Lodge, 230 m (12 specimens MQCAZ); Río Aguarico, 300 m (5 specimens MQCAZ); Tarapoa Campo Marian, plataforma Fanny 5, 255 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Tarapoa, Nuevo Manabí, 270 m (1 specimen MUTPL).

Literature records

ORELLANA: Francisco de Orellana (Nunes et al. 2018: 15); PUCE Yasuni, 250 m (Nunes et al. 2018: 15); Parque Nacional Yasuni (Nunes et al. 2018: 15); Mid. Rio Tiputini, Yasuni Res. Stn. (Nunes et al. 2018: 15); Yasuni National Park, 215 m (Nunes et al. 2018: 15).

Temporal data

Collected every month of the year.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests of the Amazon region from 215–345 m a.s.l. Collected with canopy fogging methods and pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces.

Canthon incertae sedis (sensu Halffter and Martínez 1977)

Canthon incertae sedis Halffter & Martínez, 1977: 70 (comment, list of species); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 139 (cited as Canthon not assigned to subgenera according to Halffter and Martínez 1977); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 191 (cited as incertae sedis); Medina et al. 2003: 64 (cited as incertae sedis); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 4 (cited as incertae sedis sensu Halffter & Martínez, 1977); Chamorro et al. 2018: 76–77 (characters in key), 93 (list of species of Ecuador).

Canthon balteatus Boheman, 1858

Plate 14D

Canthon balteatus Boheman, 1858: 41 (original description, type locality: Insula Ohau, Honolulu).

Canthon balteatus : Harold 1868d: 16 (characters in key); 125 (redescription); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 990 (species list, distribution); Gillet 1911a: 28 (complete list of species); Schmidt 1922: 73 (list, distribution); Balthasar 1939d: 209 (characters in key); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 604 (catalog of species, erroneously cited as Canthon baltheatus); Halffter and Martínez 1977: 70 (list of species); Medina et al. 2003: 65 (distribution); Carvajal et al. 2011: 314–315 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 63 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Canthon balteatum : Blackwelder 1944: 198 (misspelled name, list of species of Latin America).

Canthon balteatus var. lojanus Balthasar, 1939d: 210 (original description); Bezdek and Hajek 2011: 362 (catalog of the types of the NMPC); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Canthon lojanum : Blackwelder 1944: 200 (list of species from Latin America).

Type specimens

Canthon balteatus Boheman, 1858. Five syntypes examined deposited at the NHRS and IRSN. Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Canthon balteatus var. lojanus Balthasar, 1939. One syntype (♀) examined is deposited at the NMPC. Locality: Loja. Examined.

Syntype (♀): “ECUADOR / Loja / Ohaus S. [p]”, “Typus [p, red label, black margin] “, “var. lojanus m. [hw, green label, black margin]”.

Distribution

Ecuador and Peru.

Records examined

AZUAY: 5 km W and 3 km S de Sta Isabel, 1450 m (7 specimens CEMT). EL ORO: Arenillas, 15 m (100 specimens CEMT; 165 specimens MUTPL); GUAYAS: Guayaquil (5 specimens MQCAZ). MANABÍ: Aguas Blancas, 50 m (3 specimens MUTPL); Crucita (3 specimes MQCAZ); El Aromo, La Fabril, 290 m (2 specimens MUTPL); El Aromo, 370 m (2 specimens MQCAZ); Manta, 10 m (6 specimens MUTPL; 7 specimens MQCAZ); Montecristi, Pichihuama, 190 m (10 specimens MQCAZ); Puerto López (2 specimens MUTPL; 3 specimens MQCAZ); San Clemente (5 specimens MQCAZ). LOJA: Catamayo (3 specimens MQCAZ; 8 specimens MUTPL); Catamayo, Alamala, 1400 m (10 specimens CEMT; 18 specimens MUTPL); Celica (29 specimens MUTPL); Río Catamayo, 1500 m (1 specimen CEMT; 5 specimens MUTPL); Saraguro, Manú, 1300 m (16 specimens MUTPL); Zapotillo, Chaquiro, 310 m (15 specimens MUTPL). LOS RÍOS: CRP [= Centro Río Palenque] (1 specimen CEMT; 4 specimens MQCAZ). SANTA ELENA: Olón, 10 m (4 specimens CEMT; 12 specimens MUTPL).

Temporal data

Collected every month of the year.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland semi-deciduous forests and coastal lowland dry scrub from 10–1400 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces.

According to Bousquet (2016: 84) and subsequently Cupello (2018: 477) the reports by Boheman (1858) are possibly incorrect with regard to their type localities. Specifically, it is likely that some specimens collected in the Neotropics were mingled with others caught in the Hawaiian archipelago.

Canthon fuscipes Erichson, 1847

Canthon fuscipes Erichson, 1847: 105 (original description. Type locality: Peru).

Canthon fuscipes Harold, 1868d: 14 (characters in key); 75 (redescription); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 991 (list, distribution); Gillet 1911a: 29 (complete list of species); Schmidt 1922: 75 (list, distribution, written as cited as Canthon fuscips); Balthasar 1939d: 198 (characters in key); Balthasar 1941: 342 (cited for Peru); Blackwelder 1944: 199 (list of species for Latin America); Balthasar 1951: 327 (cited for Peru); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 613 (catalog of species); Halffter and Martínez 1977: 70 (list of species); Carvajal et al. 2011: 314–315 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 63 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Canthon fuscipes Erichson, 1847. Two syntypes examined deposited at the NMHU. Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Distribution

Ecuador and Peru.

Literature records

UNDETERMINED PROVINCE: without specific locality (Schmidt 1922: 75).

Temporal data

It is not known when this species was collected.

Remarks

Habitat and collection methods are unknown.

Canthon sericatus Schmidt, 1922

Plate 15A

Canthon sericatus Schmidt, 1922: 92 (original description, type locality: Argentinien [= Argentina], Salinas).

Canthon sericatus : Balthasar 1939d: 186 (characters in key); Martínez 1959: 42 (cited for Argentína); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 630 (catalog of species); Halffter and Martínez 1977: 71 (list of species); Krajcik 2012: 64 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador); Vaz-de-Mello and Cupello 2018b: 67 (lectotype designated), figs 97 and 98.

Canthon sericatum : Blackwelder 1944: 201 (misspelled name, list of species for Latin America).

Type specimens

Canthon sericatus Schmidt, 1922. The lectotype (♂) is deposited at the SMTD (see Vaz-de-Mello and Cupello 2018b: 67, figure 98). Locality: Salinas, Beni, examined.

Lectotype (♂): “Salinas / Beni B vii. 95 / M. Stuart [p]”, “Coll. C. Felsche / Kauf 20, 1918 [p, green label, black margin]”, “Typus [red label]”, “canthon / sericatus / n. sp. a. Schmidth [hw]”, “LECTOTYPE ♂ / Canthon / sericatus / Schmidt / des. F.Z.Vaz-de-Mello, 2014 [hw and p, red label, black margin]”.

Distribution

Argentina, Ecuador, and Peru.

Records examined

PASTAZA: Amazanga Norte del Puyo, 1000 m (1 specimen CEMT).

Temporal data

Collected in November.

Remarks

Inhabits the foothill evergreen forests in the Amazon region at 1000 m a.s.l. Collected with light trap.

Genus Canthonella Chapin, 1930

Canthonella Chapin, 1930: 1 (original description. Type species: Canthonella parva Chapin, 1930 by original designation).

Canthonella: Blackwelder 1944: 198 (list of species of Latin America); Martínez 1954b: 64 (comment); Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 94 (characters in key), 99 (list of species, distribution); Halffter 1961: 230 (characters in key); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 581 (catalog of species); Matthews 1965: 433 (characters in key), 447 (redescription); Zayas and Matthews 1966: 3 (characters in key), 16 (redescription); Matthews 1966: 7 (characters in key), 75 (redescription); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 260 (catalog, distribution); Halffter and Martínez 1967: 90 (redescription); Halffter and Martínez 1977: 34 (characters in key), 58 (comment); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 139 (catalog, distribution); Ratcliffe and Smith 1999; 2 (comment, list of species); Medina and Lopera 2000: 311 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 192 (list of species for Brazil); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (list of species for Colombia); Medina et al. 2003: 65 (distribution); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 25 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 115 (diagnosis), 314–315 (List of species for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 64 (complete list of species); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 107 (characters in key); Chamorro et al. 2018: 75 (characters in key), 84 (figure 7H), 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Ipselissus d’Olsouffief, 1935: 35 (nom. prov., comment); Martínez 1954b: 59 (redescription); Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 94 (characters in key), 99 (distribution); Halffter 1961: 230 (characters in key); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 581 (catalog of species); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 260 (catalog, distribution); Halffter and Martínez 1967: 103 (redescription); Halffter and Martínez 1968: 211 (comment); Halffter and Martínez 1977: 34 (characters in key), 51 (synonym of Canthonella Chapin).

Ipsepilissus Paulian, 1938: 235 (nom. nud., characters in key); Paulian 1939: 29 (nom. nud., description); Martínez 1947: 113 (nom. nud., cited).

Remarks. There are possibly three new Ecuadorian species from Orellana, Pichincha, and Sucumbíos provinces. Their description will be included in a future work on this genus.

Genus Copris Geoffroy, 1762

Copris Geoffroy, 1762: 87 (original description. Type species: Scarabaeus lunaris Linnaeus, 1758. Type subsequent designated by Latreille, 1810).

Copris: Fourcroy 1785: 13 (redescription, list of species); Olivier 1790: 144 (list of species); Geoffroy 1799: 87 (redescription); Fabricius 1801: 30 (redescription); Agassiz 1846: 282 (catalog); Lacordaire 1856: 96 (redescription); Leconte 1861: 126 (characters in key); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1013 (list, distribution); Reitter 1893: 160 (characters in key); Peringuey 1900: 110 (characters in key), 342 (redescription); Blatchey 1910: 915 (redescription); Gillet 1911a: 71 (complete list of species); Lucas 1920: 201 (catalog, distribution); Dawson 1922: 61 (characters in key); Paulian 1938: 232 (characters in key); Blackwelder 1944: 208 (list of species of Latin America); Roze 1955: 45 (list of species for Venezuela); Howden and Young 1981: 12 (characters in key); ICZN 1994: 61 (decision on the availability of the name Copris under the authorship of Geoffroy, 1762); Arnett et al. 2002: 49 (characters in key); Ratcliffe 2002: 15 (list of species for Panama); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 28 (characters in key); Krajcik 2012: 78 (complete list of species); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 6 (list of species for Costa Rica); Chamorro et al. 2018: 77 (characters in key), 90 (figure 13F), 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Copris “Müller, 1764”: XI (original description. Type species: Scarabaeus lunaris Linnaeus, 1758); Matthews 1961: 35 (redescription); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 258 (catalog, distribution); Howden and Young 1981: 130 (redescription); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 136 (catalog, distribution); Medina and Lopera 2000: 300 (characters in key); Medina et al. 2001: 133 (list of species for Colombia); Morón 2003: 45 (redescription); Carvajal et al. 2011: 136 (diagnosis, cited as Copris “Müller, 1764”), 320 (list of species for Ecuador); Marchisio and Zunino 2012: 23 (comment), 28 (redescription).

Litocopris Waterhouse, 1891b: 53 (original description. Type species: Litocopris punctiventris Waterhouse 1891); Peringuey 1900: 342 (cited as synonym); Blackwelder 1944: 208 (synonym of Copris Goeffr); Balthasar 1958: 474 (redescription); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 258 (cited as subgenus of CoprisMüller 1764”); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 136 (cited as subgenus of CoprisMüller 1764”); Ratcliffe 2002: 15 (cited as synonym of Copris Goeffroy, 1762); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 6 (cited as synonym of Copris Goeffroy, 1762).

Subgenus Copris (Copris) Geoffroy, 1762

Copris (Copris) s. str. Geoffroy, 1762: 87 (original description. Type species: Scarabaeus lunaris Linnaeus, 1758); Balthasar 1958: 473 (redescription); Marchisio and Zunino 2012: 28 (redescription); Chamorro et al. 2018: 77 (characters in key), 93 (list of species of Ecuador).

Copris (Copris) davidi Darling & Génier, 2018

Plate 15B

Copris davidi Darling & Génier, 2018: 31 (original description. Type locality: Pajonal, Esmeraldas, Ecuador).

Type specimens

Copris davidi Darling & Génier, 2018. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the CMNC (see Darling and Génier 2018: 32). Locality: Ecuador, Esmeraldas, Pajonal, not examined.

Distribution

Colombia and Ecuador.

Records examined

IMBABURA: Carolina, 1000 m (1 specimen CEMT); Lita, 500 m (2 specimens CEMT). ESMERALDAS: Colón del Ónzole (2 specimens CEMT); Gualpi (1 specimen CEMT); Gualpi el Pajonal (5 specimens CEMT); Jeyambi PMFC (1 specimen CEMT).

Literature records

IMBABURA: Carolina (Darling and Génier 2018: 32); Lita (Darling and Génier 2018: 32). ESMERALDAS: Chispero (Darling and Génier 2018: 32); Colón del Ónzole (Darling and Génier 2018: 32); Gualpí del Ónzole (Darling and Génier 2018: 32); Esmeraldas (Darling and Génier 2018: 32); Estación Forestal La Chiquita, 11km SE San Lorenzo, 5m (Darling and Génier 2018: 32); La Concordia (Darling and Génier 2018: 32); Majua (Darling and Génier 2018: 32), Pajonal (Darling and Génier 2018: 32); Jeyambi PMFC (Darling and Génier 2018: 32); Punta Venado (Darling and Génier 2018: 32). MANABÍ: 78 km NE Chone, 85 km WSW Santo Domingo, 450 m (Darling and Génier 2018: 32); 90 km WSW Santo Domingo, 73 km NE Chone, 300 m (Darling and Génier 2018: 32).

Temporal data

Collected in April, May, June, July, August, September, October, and November.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland evergreen forests and coastal evergreen foothill forests from 5–1000 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with human feces.

Copris (Copris) susanae Darling & Génier, 2018

Plate 15C

Copris susanae Darling & Génier, 2018: 28 (original description. Type locality: 20 km N Chone, 300 m, Manabí, Ecuador).

Type specimens

Copris susanae Darling & Génier, 2018. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the CMNC (see Darling and Génier 2018: 29). Locality: Ecuador, Manabí, 20 km N Chone, 300 m, not examined.

Distribution

Colombia and Ecuador.

Records examined

BOLIVAR: B. P. Filo Palanga (1 specimen CEMT). COTOPAXI: Guasaganda, 500 m (1 specimen CEMT). EL ORO: Piñas, 1200 m (5 specimens CEMT); Uzhcurrumi, 500 m (1 specimen CEMT). LOJA: 5 km N de Zambi, 1300 m (1 specimen CEMT). LOS RIOS: Río Palenque Station (6 specimens CEMT). SANTA ELENA: Olón, 10 m (76 specimens CEMT).

Literature records

BOLIVAR: Balzapamba (Darling and Génier 2018: 30); CANAR [= CAÑAR]: Route La Troncal-Canar [= Cañar], 300 m (Darling and Génier 2018: 30). ESMERALDAS: Esmeraldas (Darling and Génier 2018: 30); San Mateo (Darling and Génier 2018: 30). GUAYAS [= SANTA ELENA]: 27 km S Puerto Lopez, 76 km N Santa Elena, 150 m (Darling and Génier 2018: 30); GUAYAS: Bucay (Darling and Génier 2018: 30). LOS RÍOS: Estación Científica Río Palenque, 47 km S Santo Domingo, 250 m (Darling and Génier 2018: 30); Estación Experimental Tropical Pichilingue, Quevedo (Darling and Génier 2018: 30); Hacienda Ana María, Quevedo (Darling and Génier 2018: 30); MANABÍ: 20 km N Chone, 300 m (Darling and Génier 2018: 30); 78 km NE Chone, 85 km WSW Santo Domingo, 450 m (Darling and Génier 2018: 30); 90 km WSW Santo Domingo, 73 km NE Chone, 300 m (Darling and Génier 2018: 30); MORONA SANTIAGO: Macas (Darling and Génier 2018: 30). SANTA ELENA: Olón, 10 m (Darling and Génier 2018: 30). UNDETERMINED PROVINCE: San Rafael (Darling and Génier 2018: 30); without specific locality (Darling and Génier 2018: 30).

Temporal data

Collected in February, March, May, June, July, August, September, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland evergreen forests and coastal evergreen foothill forests from 10–1200 m a.s.l. In the Amazon region, this species has been collected in the foothill evergreen forests. Collected with pitfall traps baited with human feces. According to Darling and Génier (2018) the Macas record (Morona Santiago province) might be erroneous.

Genus Coprophanaeus d’Olsoufieff, 1924

Coprophanaeus d’Olsoufieff, 1924: 22 (original description. Type species: Scarabeus jasius Olivier, 1789, by original designation).

Coprophanaeus: Pessôa 1934: 295 (redescription); Pessôa and Lane 1941: 476 (characters in key); Blackwelder 1944: 209 (list of species from Latin America); Martínez 1959: 100 (cited as subgenus Coprophanaeus Olsuefieff); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 258 (cited as subgenus Coprophanaeus Olsuefieff); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 570 (characters in key, cited as subgenus Coprophanaeus Olsuefieff); Edmonds 1972: 820 (characters in key); 839 (redescription); Howden and Young 1981: 12 (characters in key); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 136 (catalog, distribution); Medina and Lopera 2000: 303 (characters in key); Vitolo 2000: 593 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 192 (list of species for Brazil); Medina et al. 2001: 140 (list of species for Colombia); Arnaud 2002a: 13 (characters in key); Arnett et al. 2002: 49 (characters in key); Ratcliffe 2002: 16 (list of species for Panama); Morón 2003: 59 (redescription); Edmonds 1994: 17 (characters in key); Vitolo 2004: 289 (redescription); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 17 (list of species for Bolivia); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2009: 56 (distribution of records for Bolivia); Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 8 (revision); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 24 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 138 (diagnosis), 320 (list of species for Ecuador); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 7 (list of species for Costa Rica); Krajcik 2012: 204 (complete list of species, cited as subgenus of Phanaeus Macleay, 1819); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 107 (characters in key); Chamorro et al. 2018: 75 (characters in key), 93 (list of species of Ecuador).

Subgenus Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) d’Olsoufieff, 1924

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) s. str. d’Olsoufieff, 1924: 22 (original description. Type species: Scarabeus jasius Olivier, 1789); Pessôa and Lane 1941: 476 (characters in key); Blackwelder 1944: 209 (list of species from Latin America); Martínez 1959: 100 (list of species from Argentina, cited as subgenus of Phanaeus Macleay, 1819); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 258 (catalog, distribution, cited as subgenus of Phanaeus Macleay, 1819); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 570 (characters in key, cited as subgenus of Phanaeus Macleay, 1819); Edmonds 1972: 840 (characters in key), 843 (redescription); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 136 (catalog, distribution); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 192 (list of species from Brazil); Arnaud 2002a: 24 (catalog of species); Vitolo 2004: 290 (diagnosis); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2009: 56 (distribution of records for Bolivia); Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 9 (characters in key), 38 (diagnosis); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 24 (characters in key); Krajcik 2012: 204 (complete list of species, cited as subgenus of Phanaeus Macleay, 1819); Carvajal et al. 2011: 318 (list of species from Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 75 (characters in key), 93 (list of species of Ecuador).

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) callegarii Arnaud, 2002

Plate 15D

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) callegarii Arnaud, 2002b: 4 (original description. Type locality: PERU, Iquitos).

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) callegarii : Arnaud 2002a: 53 (diagnosis, cited for Ecuador); Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 97 (characters in key, redescription); Carvajal et al. 2011: 320–321 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 204 (complete list of species, cited as subgenus of Phanaeus Macleay, 1819); Figueroa et al. 2014: 128 (distribution of records for Peru); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 197 (cited for Peru); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) callegarii Arnaud, 2002. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the CPFA (see Arnaud 2002b: 4). Locality: Iquitos, not examined.

Distribution

Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru.

Records examined

ORELLANA: Bloque 31, Parque Nacional Yasuni, 200 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Estación de Biodiversidad Tiputini, 220 m, Parque Nacional Yasuni (2 specimens MUTPL); Ginta Pompeya Sur-Iro, 250 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Cononaco, Bloque 16 YPF, Parque Nacional Yasuní, 250 m (1 specimen MUTPL).

Literature records

SUCUMBÍOS: without specific locality (Arnaud 2002a: 53).

Temporal data

Collected in May, June, September, and November.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests and the foothill evergreen forests of the Amazon region from 220–250 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces. Arnaud (2002a) cites Succumbios [= Sucumbíos] province but no specific locality is provided.

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) conocephalus (d’Olsoufieff, 1924)

Plate 16A

Phanaeus (C.) conocephalus d’Olsoufieff, 1924: 72 (original description. Type locality: Equateur [= Ecuador], Loja).

Coprophanaeus conocephalus : Blackwelder 1944: 209 (list of species from Latin America); Arnaud 1982a: 116 (list of types at the MNHN).

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) conocephalus : Arnaud 2002a: 48 (diagnosis); Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 59 (characters in key), 69 (redescription); Carvajal et al. 2011: 320–321 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 204 (complete list of species, cited as subgenus of Phanaeus Macleay, 1819); Arnaud, 2018: 6 (comment), 7 (figure 2a); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Phanaeus roubali Balthasar, 1939e: 241 (original description); Blackwelder 1944: 210 (list of species of Latin America); Arnaud 1997: 7 (synonym of Coprophanaeus conocephalus Ols); Arnaud 2002a: 48 (cited as synonym); Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 69 (cited as synonym); Bezdek and Hajek 2013: 433 (catalog of types NMPC).

Type specimens

Phanaeus (Coprophanaeus) conocephalus d’Olsoufieff, 1924. The holotype (♀) is deposited at the MNHN. Locality: Equateur Loja, examined.

Holotype (♀): “Equateur / Loja / Abbé Gaujon [p, black margin]”, “Ph. Conocephalus n. sp ♀ / det. G. Olsouffieff [hw and p]”, “HOLOTYPE [p, red label]”, “Coprophanaeus / conocephalus / Ols. / Holotype ♀ / P. Arnaud DET 1981 [p and hw]”.

Phanaeus roubali Balthasar, 1939. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the NMPC (see Bezdek and Hajek 2013: 433) Locality: Ecuador, Lola [= Loja], not examined.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Records examined

BOLIVAR: Bosque Protector Filo Palanga, 970 m (1 specimen MUTPL). CAÑAR: Javin. La Trancel [= La Troncal], 850–1300 m (3 specimens CEMT; 1 specimen MQCAZ). GUAYAS: Cerecita Pta Chapella (3 specimens CEMT; 1 specimen MQCAZ). LOJA: without specific locality (1 specimen MNHN). MANABÍ: El Aromo, Río de los Napos, 280 m (1 specimen CEMT); El Aromo, 370 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Refugio de Vida Silvestre Pacoche, 340 m (3 specimens CEMT); Puerto López, Río Blanco, 272 m (1 specimen MUTPL).

Literature records

GUAYAS: Balzar (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 71)

Temporal data

Collected in January, February, April, August, and September.

Remarks

Inhabits the coastal montane cloud forests and coastal evergreen foothill forests from 280–1300 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces.

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) edmondsi Arnaud, 1997

Plate 16B

Coprophanaeus edmondsi Arnaud, 1997: 5 (original description. Type locality: Pich. 4600 feet [= 1400 m], 23 km E of Alluriquín, Chiriboga Road).

Coprophanaeus edmondsi : Carvajal et al. 2011: 320–321 (cited for Ecuador).

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) edmondsi : Medina et al. 2001: 140 (cited for Colombia); Arnaud 2002a: 47 (diagnosis); Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 69 (cited as synonym of Coprophanaeus conocephalus d’Olsoufieff, 1924); Arnaud, 2018: 6 (revalidated name), 7 (figure 2b).

Type specimens

Coprophanaeus edmondsi Arnaud, 1997. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the CMNC (formerly in A and H Howden collection, see Arnaud 1997: 6). Locality: Pich. 4600 feet [= 1400 m], 23 km E of Alluriquín, Chiriboga Road, not examined. One paratype is deposited in the MQCAZ. Javin, examined.

Paratype (♂): “ECUADOR (CAN) / Javin II. 92 / 850 – 1400m / P. Arnaud leg [p]”, “Coprophanaeus / edmondsi / 94 / P.ARNAUD DET /PARATYPE ♂ [p, pink margin]”.

Distribution

Colombia and Ecuador.

Records examined

CAÑAR: Javin, 850–1400 m (3 specimens CEMT; 1 specimen MQCAZ). CARCHI: Goaltal, Hacienda San Francisco, 1200 m (5 specimens MECN); Maldonado, 1830 m (2 specimens CEMT). PICHINCHA: Curipoglio, Cerro San Cristobal (1 specimen MUTPL); Mindo, 1500 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Estación Biológica la Hesperia (1 specimen MUTPL).

Literature records

PICHINCHA: 4600 feet [1400 m], 23 km E de Alluriquin, Chiriboga Road (Arnaud, 1997: 6); Chiriboga Road 1200–1830, km 12–20 m (Arnaud, 1997: 6).

Temporal data

Collected in February, March, June, September, October, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal foothill evergreen forests from 850–1200 m a.s.l. In the Andean region it has been registered in montane evergreen forests from 1400–1800 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces.

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) jasius (Olivier, 1789)

Scarabeus jasius Olivier, 1789: 109 (original description. Type locality: Cayenne, Curaçao).

Copris jasius : Olivier 1790: 156 (transferred to the genus Copris “Müller, 1764”, redescription); Sturm 1802: 66 (redescription).

Phanaeus jasius : Macleay 1819: 126 (transferred to the PhanaeusMacleay 1819, redescription); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1018 (list, distribution, cited as C. Jasius Oliv); Nevinson 1892: 4 (list of species for the genus Phanaeus Macleay, 1819, written as Phanaeus Jasius Olivier); Gillet 1911a: 83 (complete list of species, cited as Phanaeus Jasius Ol).

Phanaeus (Coprophanaeus) jasius : d’Olsoufieff 1924: 24 (characters in key), 64 (distribution); Pessôa 1934: 296 (characters in key, redescription); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 571 (characters in key).

Coprophanaeus jasius : Vitolo 2000: 599 (characters in key); Medina et al. 2001: 140 (cited for Colombia); Vitolo 2004: 291 (diagnosis); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 17 (cited for Bolivia); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2009: 47 (comment); Boilly et al. 2016: 88 (figures 3a, 3b and 3c); 89 (characters in key); 90 (cited for Guyana).

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) jasius : Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 192 (cited for Brazil); Arnaud 2002a: 26 (diagnosis); Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 43 (characters in key); 48 (diagnosis); Carvajal et al. 2011: 320–321 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 204 (complete list of species, cited as species of the genus Phanaeus Macleay, 1819); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Phanaeus satyrus Castelnau, 1840: 80 (original description); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1018 (cited as Coprophanaeus Satyrus Casteln, synonym of Coprophanaeus jasius Olivier, 1790); Nevinson 1892: 1 (cited and proposed as synonym of Phanaeus Acrisinus Macleay); Gillet 1911a: 84 (cited as synonym of Coprophanaeus jasius Olivier); d’Olsoufieff 1924: 141 (cited as synonym of Coprophanaeus jasius Olivier); Pessôa 1934: 296 (cited as synonym of Coprophanaeus jasius Olivier); Arnaud 2002a: 26 (cited as Phanaeus satyrus Laporte, 1840 synonym of Coprophanaeus jasius Olivier); Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 48 (synonym of Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) jasius (Olivier, 1789)).

Type specimens

Scarabeus jasius Olivier, 1789. The neotype is deposited at the MNHN. Guyane, Cayenne, examined.

Neotype (♂): “VII. 78 [hw]”, “GUYANE F se / CAYENNE / La Chaumière / Leg: P. ARNAUD [p, black margin]”, “Scarabeus / jasius Ol. / P. ARNAUD DET 2001 / NEOTYPE ♂”.

Phanaeus satyrus Castelnau, 1840. Type material not examined.

Distribution

Brazil, Colombia, Guyana, and Ecuador.

Literature records

NAPO: without specific locality (Arnaud, 2002a: 26).

Temporal data

It is not known when this species was collected.

Remarks

Arnaud (2002a) cited Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) jasius (Olivier, 1789) as a species distributed in the Napo province with no specific locality. Although Edmonds and Zídek (2010) did not report this species from Ecuador, it could occur in the Amazon lowlands.

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) morenoi Arnaud, 1982

Plate 16C

Coprophanaeus morenoi Arnaud, 1982b: 121 (original description. Type locality: Equateur [= Ecuador], km 36 route Sto Domingo-Quevedo).

Coprophanaeus morenoi : Vitolo 2000: 599 (characters in key); Medina et al. 2001: 140 (cited for Colombia); Arnaud 2002a: 42 (diagnosis); Vitolo 2004: 290 (redescription); Donoso et al. 2009: Appendix II. 16 (catalog of type MQCAZ); Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 57 (characters in key), 60 (redescription); Kohlmann and Solís 2012: 46 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 204 (complete list of species, cited as subgenus of Phanaeus Macleay, 1819);

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) morenoi : Carvajal et al. 2011: 320–321 (cited for Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 83 (figure 6C), 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Coprophanaeus morenoi Arnaud, 1982. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the MNHN. Locality: Equateur [= Ecuador], Sto. Domingo km 36, examined. One Paratype is deposited in the MQCAZ, examined.

Holotype (♂): “EQUATEUR / STO DOMINGO K. 36 / JANV. 1982 / P&L ARNAUD coll [p and hw, black margin]”, “Coprophanaeus / morenoi Mihi / HOLOTYPE ♂ / P. ARNAUD DET 1982 [p and hw, pink margin]”, “HOLOTYPE [p, red label]”.

Paratype (♀): “ECUADOR (PICH) / TINA LANDIA / I. 82 650 m / P & L ARNAUD leg [p]”, “Coprophanaeus / morenoi Mihi / P. ARNAUD DET / PARATYPE ♀ [p and hw, pink margin]”.

Distribution

Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and Panama.

Records examined

CARCHI: Tobar Donoso, 300 m (8 specimens MECN). COTOPAXI: Guasaganda La Mana, 500 m (1 specimen CEMT; 3 specimens MQCAZ). ESMERALDAS: Colón del Onzole (17 specimens MECN); Charco Vicente (13 specimens MGO-UC; 28 specimens MECN); Gualpi (15 specimens MECN); Gualpi Pajonal (17 specimens MECN); Palma Real (1 specimen MGO-UC; 15 specimens MECN); Playa de Oro (1 specimen MUTPL; 10 speciemens MECN); Playa de Oro, Padre Santo (19 specimens MGO-UC; 31 specimens MECN); Playa de Oro, Estero Pote, 200 m (3 specimen CEMT; 16 specimens MECN); road Ibarra-San Lorenzo, El Placer, 670 m (1 specimen CEMT). PICHINCHA: Guayabilla Río Guayllabamba, Manduriacus, 520 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Llurimaguas Río Guayllabamba, Pedro Vicente Maldonado, 290 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Mangaloma, San Miguel de los Bancos, 820 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Tortugo Río Guayllabamba, Pedro Vicente Maldonado, 450 m (1 specimen MUTPL). SANTO DOMINGO DE LOS TSÁCHILAS: Tinalandia, 650 m (1 specimen MQCAZ).

Literature records

ESMERALDAS: 11 km SE San Lorenzo, La Chiquita Sta, 5 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 62; Kohlmann and Solís 2012: 46); Yalare (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 62; Kohlmann and Solís 2012: 46); Punta Venado (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 62; Kohlmann and Solís 2012: 46); Playa de Oro (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 62; Kohlmann and Solís 2012: 46); La Concordia (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 62); Palma Real (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 62). GUAYAS: Los Ceibos (Kohlmann and Solís 2012: 46); Borbón, 25 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 62); San Miguel (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 62). PICHINCHA: [= LOS RÍOS]: Station Río Palenque (Arnaud 1982b: 122); 47 km S Sto. Domingo, Río Palenque (Kohlmann and Solís 2012: 46); 113 km NW Quito on Puerto Quito road, 800 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 62). LOS RÍOS: Quevedo (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 62); Quevedo Pichilinge (Kohlmann and Solís 2012: 46); Río Palenque Research Station, 200 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 62). SANTO DOMINGO DE LOS TSÁCHILAS: km 36 route Sto. Domingo-Quevedo (Arnaud 1982b: 122); Tina Landia [= Tinalandia] (Env. Sto. Domingo) (Arnaud 1982b: 122); i1 km E Tinalandia, 600 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 62) 16 km E Sto. Domingo, Tinalandia (Kohlmann and Solís 2012: 46).

Temporal data

Collected every month of the year.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland evergreen forests and coastal evergreen foothill forests from 5–850 m a.s.l. Species was collected with flight interception traps and pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces.

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) ohausi (Felsche, 1911)

Plate 16D

Phanaeus ohausi Felsche, 1911: 138 (original description. Type locality: Oscordillere Teremotillo, zwichen Baños und Canelos [= between Baños and Canelos]).

Phanaeus ohausi : Gillet 1911a: 85 (complete list of species, cited as Phanaeus Ohausi Felsche); d’Olsoufieff 1924: 74 (distribution).

Coprophanaeus ohausi : Blackwelder 1944: 209 (list of species of Latin America); Vitolo 2000: 599 (characters in key); Medina et al. 2001: 140 (cited for Colombia); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 197 (cited for Peru).

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) ohausi : Arnaud 2002a: 44 (diagnosis); Vitolo 2004: 291 (redescription); Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 97 (characters in key); 104 (redescription); Carvajal et al. 2011: 320 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 204 (complete list of species, cited as subgenus of Phanaeus Macleay, 1819); Figueroa et al. 2014: 128 (distribution of records for Peru); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) florenti Arnaud, 2002b: 5 (original description); Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 104 (synonym of Coprophanaeus ohausi Felsche, 1911); Carvajal et al. 2011: 320–321 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Phanaeus ohausi Felsche, 1911. The lectotype (♂) is deposited at the SMTD (see Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 104). Locality: without specific locality, not examined.

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) florenti Arnaud, 2002b. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the CPFA (see Arnaud 2002b: 4). Locality: Napo, Rte de Loretko Pk 21, 1200 m, not examined.

Distribution

Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Records examined

LOJA: Loja-Zamora, 1400 m (4 specimens CEMT). MORONA SANTIAGO: Comunidad Ángel Rouby, 1300–1700 m, Cordillera del Kutukú (1 specimen MUTPL, 18 specimens MECN); Comunidad Untsuants, 1100 m, Cordillera del Kutukú (14 specimens MECN); Cumanda (1 specimen CEMT); Chiguinda Río Blanco, 1750 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Nuevo Israel, Cordillera del Kutukú, 1290 m (1 specimen MUTPL). NAPO: Quebrada Granadillas Bosque Protector la Cascada, 1300 m, Parque Nacional Sumaco (1 specimen MUTPL); Pacto Sumaco, 1620 m (3 specimens MUTPL). NAPO: Cotundo, 1070 m Río Osayacu, sector Shamato (2 specimens MUTPL); ORELLANA: Ines Arango road Tiwino-río Shiripuno, 250 m (3 specimens MECN). PASTAZA: Chuyayacu Oleoducto km 25, 200 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Ñemenguno, 280 m (2 specimens CEMT). PASTAZA: Mera, Estación Biológica de la UTE Pindo Mirador, 1000 m (1 specimen MUTPL). SUCUMBÍOS: Gonzalo Pizarro, Simon Bolivar, 1200 m (4 specimens MECN). TUNGURAHUA: Baños El Topo, 1590 m (33 specimens CEMT). ZAMORA CHINCHIPE: Cordillera la Curintza, Parque Nacional Podocarpus, 1790 m (9 specimens MECN); RVS El Zarza campamento las Peñas conseción El Colibri 1530 m, Cordillera del Cóndor (1 specimen MUTPL); Romerillos Sendero Nangaritza, 2200 m, Parque Nacional Podocarpus (12 specimens MECN); Tundayme campamento Mirador La Mina, 1320 (1 specimen MUTPL); Tundayme campamento Mirador, Tambo 3, 1055 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Tundayme campamento Mirador, Condor Mirador, 1420 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Zamora km 12–18, 1500 m (5 specimens MECN); Zurmi Comunidad Miazi, 1380 m (1 specimen MEPN); Zurmi, Pachikuntza, 1685 m (1 specimen MEPN); Zurmi, Comunidad La Wants, 1010 m (1 specimen MEPN).

Literature records

MORONA SANTIAGO: Angel Rouby, Cordillera Cutucú [= Kutukú] (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 104); Cordillera Cutucú [= Kutukú] (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 104). NAPO: Río Hollin, 1068 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 104); Aliñahui (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 104), Puerto Napo (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 104). NAPO: Rte de Loreto Pk 21, 1200 m (Arnaud, 2002b: 5, cited as Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) florenti Arnaud, 2002); Rte de Loreto Pk 11, 1380 m (Arnaud, 2002b: 5, cited as Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) florenti Arnaud, 2002). NAPO [= ORELLANA]: Loreto road, 7.9 km E Narupa junction, 1380 m. (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 104); Yasuní National Park, Yasuní Research Station, 215 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 104); Limoncocha, 250m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 104); Puerto Francisco de Orellana [= El Coca] (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 104); km 11.1 road Sarayacu-Loreto, 1200 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 104). PASTAZA: 22 km SE Puyo, 900 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 104); 17 km N Puyo, Llandia 1000 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 104). TUNGURAHUA: 6 km and 8 km E Río Negro, 1400 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 104). ZAMORA CHINCHIPE: Bombuscaro, Parque Nacional Podocarpus 1146 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 104). UNDETERMINED PROVINCE: Oscordillere Teremotillo, between Baños and Canelos (Felsche 1911: 138)

Temporal data

Collected in January, February, March, April, May, July, September, November, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests, evergreen foothill forests, and lower evergreen montane forests throughout the Amazonian range from 225–1700 m a.s.l. In the Andean region, it was registered in the montane cloud forests from 1800–2200 m a.s.l. Species was collected with flight interception traps and pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces.

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) suredai Arnaud, 1996

Plate 17A

Coprophanaeus suredai Arnaud, 1996: 6 (original description. Type locality: BRAZIL, Amazonas Río Javari).

Coprophanaeus suredai : Medina et al. 2001: 140 (cited for Colombia); Arnaud 2002a: 51 (diagnosis); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2009: 58 (cited for Bolivia); Krajcik 2012: 204 (complete list of species, cited as subgenus of Phanaeus Macleay, 1819); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 197 (cited for Peru).

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) suredai : Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 192 (cited for Brazil); Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 97 (characters in key); 102 (diagnosis); Carvajal et al. 2011: 320–321 (cited for Ecuador); Figueroa et al. 2014: 128 (distribution of records for Peru); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Coprophanaeus suredai Arnaud, 1996. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the CPFA (see Arnaud 1996: 7). Locality: Amazonas Río Javari, not examined.

Distribution

Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Literature records

SUCUMBÍOS: Lago Agrio (Arnaud 1996: 7).

Temporal data

Collected in August.

Remarks

There are no specimens of this species in entomological collections in Ecuador. However, Arnaud (1996) cited Lago Agrio as its distribution and it is possible that it may inhabit other lowland evergreen forests. Edmonds and Zídek (2010) also cited several records from Amazon localities in Colombia and Peru. The collection method is unknown.

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) telamon (Erichson, 1847)

Plate 17B

Phanaeus telamon Erichson, 1847: 106 (original description, without type locality).

Phanaeus telamon : Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1019 (list, distribution, written as C. Telamon Erichs); Kirsch 1873: 341 (cited for Peru, written as C. Telamon Erichs); Bates 1887: 56 (diagnosis); Nevinson 1892: 7 (list of species for the genus Phanaeus Macleay, 1819, written as C. Telamon Erichson); Gillet 1911a: 86 (complete list of species, written as C. Telamon Er); d’Olsoufieff 1924: 26 (characters in key), 68 (distribution); Balthasar 1941: 350 (cited for Peru); Blackwelder 1944: 210 (list of species for Latin America); Balthasar 1951: 336 (cited for Peru); Pereira 1953: 391 (catalog of species).

Phanaeus (Coprophanaeus) telamon : Pessôa 1934: 296 (characters in key); 299 (redescription); Martínez 1947: 114 (cited); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 572 (characters in key).

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) telamon var. telamon : Pereira and Martínez 1956b: 233 (cited as new combination); Arnaud 2002a: 35 (redescription); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 17 (cited for Bolivia); Carvajal et al. 2011: 320–321 (cited for Ecuador); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 197 (cited for Peru).

Coprophanaeus telamon : Vitolo 2000: 599 (characters in key); Medina et al. 2001: 140 (cited for Colombia); Vitolo 2004: 290 (redescription); Krajcik 2012: 204 (complete list of species, cited as species of the genus Phanaeus Macleay, 1819).

Coprophanaeus (Coprophanaeus) telamon : Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 192 (cited for Brazil); Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 77 (characters in key); 91 (cited as recombination, redescription); Cupello and Vaz-de-Mello 2013a: 367 (distribution); Figueroa et al. 2014: 127 (distribution of records for Peru); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Phanaeus telamon Erichson, 1847. The holotype (♂) is deposited in the SMTD (see Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 91). Locality: without specific locality, not examined.

Distribution

Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela.

Records examined

MORONA SANTIAGO: Comunidad Untsuants, 700 m, Cordillera del Kutukú (21 specimens MECN); Nuevo Israel, Cordillera del Kutukú (1 specimen MUTPL); km 8 road Mendez-Paute, 1250 m (1 specimen CEMT). NAPO: La Merced de Jondachi Río Jondachi, 1100 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Pacto Sumaco, Cotundo, 1500 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Shiqui cerca al Tena, 485 m, Pungarayacu (1 specimen MQCAZ); Tena, 400 m (15 specimens CEMT). ORELLANA: Bloque 16, Parque Nacional Yasuní (1 specimen MUTPL); Bloque 31, Parque Nacional Yasuní, 210 m (3 specimens MECN); Dayuma Campo Hormiguero, plataforma Hormiguero, 320 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Dayuma Campo Palanda, LLumpac, 295 m (1 specimen MGO-UC); Dayuma, Campo Palanda Yuca 13, 255 m (1 specimen MGO-UC); Dayuma plataforma Ungurahua, 300 m (1 specimens MUTPL); Eden Yuturí Bloque 15, 225 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Estación Biológica Yasuní, 215 m (3 specimens MQCAZ); Estación de Biodiversidad Tiputini Torre, 220 m, Parque Nacional Yasuni (3 specicmen MUTPL); Rodrigo Borja IAMOE (7 specimens CEMT; 19 specimens MECN); San Sebastian del Coca, 345 m, Comuna Guataraco Campo Pata (2 specimens MUTPL). PASTAZA: Bosque Protector Oglán Alto, 660–810 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Nuevo San Jose del Curaray, 245 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Mera Estación Pindo Mirador UTE, 1000 m (4 specimens CEMT). SUCUMBÍOS: Aucayacu Río El Eno, 16 km de Lago Agrio, 290 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Bermejo plataforma ER-A road to Lumbaqui (1 specimen MUTPL); Laguna Grande de Cuyabeno, 250 m, Reserva de Producción Faunística Cuyabeno (10 specimens MECN); Pacayacu Campo Libertador, 260 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Sacha, 270 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Sansahuari, 255–290 m, Pozo Singüe (1 specimen MUTPL); Tarapoa plataforma Fanny 18B60, 245 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Tarapoa, Nuevo Manabí, 270 m (1 specimen MUTPL). ZAMORA CHINCHIPE: Tundayme, 800 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Tundayme, campamento Mirador, Tambo 3, 1055 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Zurmi, Comunidad La Wants, 1010 m (2 specimens MGO-UC; 1 specimen MEPN).

Literature records

MORONA SANTIAGO: Untsuants, Cordillera de Cutucú [= Kutukú], 600 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 92). NAPO: 0.6 km E Río Arajuno, 380 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 93); 3.3 km E Puerto Napo (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 92); 12 km WSW Tena, 600 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 92); 20 km S Tena (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 92); 21 km E Puerto Napo, Jatun Sacha Biological Station (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 92); 24.5 km E Ahuano (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 93); 29 km E, 1.5 km N San Pedro de Arajuno, 360 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 93); Aliñahui, 24 km E Atahualpa (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 93); Archidona (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 93); Ávila (Pereira and Martínez 1956b: 234); Talag Pimpilata, 750 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 92); Tena, 400 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 92). ORELLANA: Daimi (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 93); Payamino Research Station, 400 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 93); Puerto Franciso de Orellana [= El Coca] (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 92); Tiputini Biological Station, 220 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 93); Yampuna (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 93); Yasuní Biological Station, 215 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 92). PASTAZA: 22 km SE Puyo (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 93); Llandia, 17 km N Puyo, 1000 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 93); Puyo, 940 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 93). SUCUMBÍOS: 2 km N Limoncocha, 250 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 93); Dureno, Río Aguarico (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 92); Lago Agrio, 200 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 93); Limoncocha, 250 m (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 93). TUNGURAHUA: Baños (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 93); Río Negro (Edmonds and Zídek 2010: 93).

Temporal data

Collected in collected every month of the year.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests, varzea forests, the foothill evergreen forests and lower evergreen montane forests in the Amazonian range from 200–1500 m a.s.l. Species was collected with flight interception traps and pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces.

Genus Cryptocanthon Balthasar, 1942

Cryptocanthon Balthasar, 1942: 36 (original description. Type species: Cryptocanthon paradoxus Balthasar, 1942 by primary monotypy).

Cryptocanthon: Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 96 (characters in key), 181 (distribution); Halffter 1961: 231 (characters in key); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 673 (catalog of species); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 261 (catalog, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 548 (characters in key); Howden 1973: 39 (redescription); Halffter and Martínez 1977: 35 (characters in key), 60 (list of species); Howden and Young 1981: 13 (characters in key), 39 (redescription); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 139 (catalog, distribution); Medina and Lopera 2000: 306 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 192 (list of species for Brazil); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (list of species for Colombia); Cook 2002: 4 (revision); Ratcliffe 2002: 13 (list of species for Panama); Morón 2003: 24 (redescription); Medina et al. 2003: 65 (distribution); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 14 (list of species for Bolivia); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 23 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 118 (diagnosis), 316 (list of species from Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 82 (complete list of species); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 3 (list of species from Costa Rica); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 106 (characters in key); Chamorro et al. 2018: 74 (characters in key), 93 (list of species of Ecuador).

Cryptocanthon curticrinis Cook, 2002

Plate 17C

Cryptocanthon curticrinis Cook, 2002: 59 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador, Napo Prov. Limoncocha, 250 m [= currently Sucumbíos Prov]).

Cryptocanthon curticrinis : Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 82 (complete list of species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Cryptocanthon curticrinis Cook, 2002. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the CMNC (see Cook 2002: 59). Locality: Napo Prov. Limoncocha, not examined.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Literature records

NAPO [= ORELLANA]: Río Tiputini, Parque Nacional Yasuní (Cook 2002: 59). NAPO [= SUCUMBÍOS]: Limoncocha, 250 m (Cook 2002: 59).

Temporal data

Collected in June.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests of the Amazon region at 250 m a.s.l. According to Cook (2002), this species was collected by sifting leaf litter and processing samples with Berlese method.

Cryptocanthon genieri Cook, 2002

Plate 17D

Cryptocanthon genieri Cook, 2002: 66 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador, Napo, 1200 m, km 7.3 Sarayacu-Loreto Rd).

Cryptocanthon genieri : Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 82 (complete list of species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Cryptocanthon genieri Cook, 2002. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the CMNC (see Cook 2002: 66). Locality: Napo, 1200 m, km 7.3 Sarayacu-Loreto Rd, not examined.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Literature records

NAPO: km 7.3 Sarayacu-Loreto, 1200 m (Cook 2002: 66); Jatun Sacha Estación Biológica, 21 km E of Puerto Napo, 400 m (Cook 2002: 66). PASTAZA: 17 km N del Puyo, Llandia, 1000 m (Cook 2002: 66); 25 km N del Puyo, 1000 m (Cook 2002: 66).

Temporal data

Collected in July.

Remarks

Inhabits the foothill evergreen forests of the Amazon region from 1000–1200 m a.s.l. According to Cook (2002), this species was collected with pitfall traps baited with human feces.

Cryptocanthon napoensis Cook, 2002

Plate 18A

Cryptocanthon napoensis Cook, 2002: 76 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador, Napo, 4200’/ 17 km NE Baeza; 4 km SW Chaco).

Cryptocanthon napoensis : Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 82 (complete list of species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 81 (figures 4A and 4E), 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Cryptocanthon napoensis Cook, 2002. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the CMNC (see Cook 2002: 76). Locality: Ecuador, Napo, 4200’/ 17 km NE Baeza; 4 km SW Chaco, not examined.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Records examined

NAPO: Las Palmas, Cuchilla San Pedro, 2000 m (2 specimens CEMT; 12 specimens MUTPL).

Literature records

NAPO: 7 km S Baeza 2000 m (Cook 2002: 76); 17 km NE Baeza; 4 km SW Chaco, 4200’ (Cook 2002: 76).

Temporal data

Collected in February, March, and April.

Remarks

Inhabits the montane cloud forests of the Andean region at 1300 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with human feces.

Cryptocanthon otonga Cook, 2002

Plate 18B

Cryptocanthon otonga Cook, 2002: 77 (original description. Type locality: Cotopaxi, Otonga, 2000 m).

Cryptocanthon otonga : Donoso et al. 2009: Appendix II. 16 (catalog of types of the MQCAZ); Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 82 (complete list of species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Cryptocanthon otonga Cook, 2002. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the MQCAZ. Locality: Otonga, 2000 m, examined.

Holotype (♂): “COTOPAXIECUADOR / OTONGA 2000m / 0°25'S, 79°0'W / 24MAR 1999 TEnríquez [p]”, “Ex: Primary forest / Pitfall Trap / Human dung [p]”, “HOLOTYPE / Cryptocanthon / otonga / Cook [p, red label]”.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Records examined

COTOPAXI: Bosque Integral Otonga, 2000 m (9 specimens CEMT); Bosque Integral Otonga 2000 m (2 specimens MQCAZ).

Literature records

COTOPAXI: Bosque Integral Otonga (Cook 2002: 77; Donoso et al. 2009: Appendix II. 16).

Temporal data

Collected in February, March, April, and August.

Remarks

Inhabits the montane cloud forests of the Andean region at 2000 m a.s.l. According to Cook (2002), this species was collected with pitfall traps baited with human excrements and NTP80 traps (necrotrap).

Cryptocanthon paradoxus Balthasar, 1942

Plate 18C

Cryptocanthon paradoxus Balthasar, 1942: 37 (original description. Type locality: Loja, Villonaco).

Cryptocanthon paradoxus : Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 551 (distribution); Howden 1973: 40 (characters in key, redescription); Cook 2002: 10 (characters in key), 78 (revision); Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Bezdek and Hajek 2011: 366 (catalog of types NMPC); Krajcik 2012: 82 (complete list of species); Albuquerque et al. 2017 (cited for Peru); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Cryptocanthon paradoxus Balthasar, 1942. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the NMPC. Locality: Loja Villonaco, examined.

Holotype (♂): “(Ecuad.) [p]”, “Loja Villonaco / F. Ohs. 23.8.05 [p]”, “TYPUS [p, red label, black margin]”, “Cryptocanthon / paradoxus / n. gen. n. sp. / mihi / Dr. V. Balthasar det. [p and hw]”, “Cryptocanthon / paradoxus Balth. [hw, green label, black margin]”.

Distribution

Ecuador and Peru.

Records examined

LOJA: Villonaco (1 specimen NMPC).

Temporal data

Collected in August.

Remarks

Inhabits the montane cloud forests of the Andean region at 2000 m a.s.l. The collection method is unknown.

Cryptocanthon urguensis Cook, 2002

Plate 18D

Cryptocanthon urguensis Cook, 2002: 86 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador, Napo, Misahualli Rumi Urgu Mt).

Cryptocanthon urguensis : Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 82 (complete list of species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Cryptocanthon urguensis Cook, 2002. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the CMNC (see Cook 2002: 86). Locality: Ecuador, Napo, Misahualli Rumi Urgu Mt, not examined.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador

Literature records

NAPO: Misahualli Rumi Urgu Mt (Cook 2002: 86).

Temporal data

Collected in February.

Remarks

Inhabits the foothill evergreen forests of the Amazon region. The collection method is unknown.

Genus Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822

Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822: 37 (original description. Type species: Deltochilum dentipes Eschscholtz, 1822 by monotypy).

Deltochilum: Agassiz 1846: 341 (catalog); Burmeister 1848: 134 (redescription); Lacordaire 1856: 79 (redescription); LeConte 1861: 125 (characters in key); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 995 (list of species, distribution); Burmeister 1873a [= 1874]: 408 (redescription); Lansberge 1874b: 188 (characters in key); Kolbe 1893: 191 (redescription); Shipp 1897: 194 (comment); Gillet 1911a: 35 (complete list of species); Lucas 1920: 228 (catalog, distribution); Paulian 1938: 235 (characters in key), 237 (redescription); Pessôa and Lane 1941: 411 (characters in key), 426 (redescription); Blackwelder 1944: 202 (list of species of Latin America); Lane 1946: 171 (comment); Roze 1955: 43 (list of species from Venezuela); Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 96 (characters in key); Martínez 1959: 50 (list of species for Argentina); Halffter 1961: 231 (characters in key); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 639 (catalog of species); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 261 (catalog, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 549 (characters in key); Halffter and Martínez 1977: 36 (characters in key); Howden and Young 1981: 14 (characters in key); 36 (redescription); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 139 (catalog, distribution); Medina and Lopera 2000: 311 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 192 (list of species from Brazil); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (list of species from Colombia); Arnett et al. 2002: 49 (characters in key); Ratcliffe 2002: 13 (list of species from Panama); Morón 2003: 26 (redescription); Medina et al. 2003: 64 (distribution); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 14 (list of species from Bolivia); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 25 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 123 (diagnosis), 316 (list of species from Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 88 (complete list of species); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 4 (list of species from Costa Rica); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 107 (characters in key); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (list of species from Peru); Chamorro et al. 2018: 76 (characters in key), 93–94 (list of species of Ecuador).

Anamnesis Vigors, 1826: 510 (original description. Type species: Anamnesis Macleayii Vigors, 1826); Agassiz 1846: 58 (catalog); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 995 (cited as synonym, cited as Annamesis Vigors); Shipp 1897: 194 (comment); Gillet 1911a: 35 (cited as synonym, cited as Annamesis Vigors); Paulian 1938: 237 (cited as synonym, cited as Annamesis Vigors); Blackwelder 1944: 202 (cited as synonym, cited as Annamesis Vigors); Lane 1946: 171 (comment); Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 120 (cited as synonym); Martínez 1959: 50 (cited as synonym); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 639 (cited as synonym); Ratcliffe 2002: 13 (cited as synonym); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 4 (cited as synonym, cited as Annamesis Harold, 1869).

Meghyboma Kolbe, 1893: 192 (original description. Type species: Deltochilum dentipes Eschscholtz, 1822); Shipp 1897: 194 (comment); Paulian 1938: 243 (characters in key); 246 (redescription); Blackwelder 1944: 202 (cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschz.); Lane 1946: 174 (synonym of Deltochilum Eschz.); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 139 (cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 4 (cited as synonym).

Eudactylides Paulian, 1939: 8 (original description. Type species: Deltochilum carinatum Westwood, 1837); Lane 1946: 173 (synonym of Calhyboma Kolbe 1893); Pereira and D’Andretta 1955a: 7 (synonym of Calhyboma Kolbe, 1893); Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 121 (cited as synonym of Calhyboma Kolbe, 1893., cited as nom. nud.); Martínez 1959: 52 (cited as synonym of Calhyboma Kolbe, 1893., cited as nom. nud.); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 642 (cited as synonym of Calhyboma Kolbe, 1893., cited as nom. nud.); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 139 (cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschz.); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 4 (cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschz).

Subgenus Deltochilum (Aganhyboma) Kolbe, 1893

Deltochilum (Aganhyboma) Kolbe, 1893: 192 (original description. Type species by later designation: Deltochilum trisignatum Harold 1881); Shipp 1897: 194 (comment); Paulian 1938: 243 (characters in key), 252 (redescription); Blackwelder 1944: 202 (cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschz.); Lane 1946: 172 (comment); Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 120 (characters in key); Martínez 1959: 51 (list of species from Argentina); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 641 (catalog of species); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 261 (distribution, cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 555 (characters in key); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 139 (cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 26 (characters in key); Krajcik 2012: 88 (cited as synonym of Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822); Silva et al. 2015: 459 (revision); Chamorro et al. 2018: 76 (characters in key), 93 (list of species of Ecuador).

Deltochilum (Aganhyboma) arturoi Silva, Louzada & Vaz-de-Mello, 2015

Plate 19A

Deltochilum (Aganhyboma) arturoi Silva, Louzada & Vaz-de-Mello, 2015: 477 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador, Pichincha, BP Milpe, 1200 m).

Deltochilum (Aganhyboma) arturoi : Silva et al. 2018: 5 (figure 5), 8 (characters in key, cited for Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Deltochilum (Aganhyboma) arturoi Silva, Louzada & Vaz-de-Mello, 2015. The holotype (♀) is deposited at the CEMT. Locality: Pichincha: BP Milpe, 1200 m, examined.

Holotype (♀): “ECUADOR: PICHINCHA: B.P. / Milpe, 1200m, IV.2003 / Fumigación dosel. PAraujo y / William Chamorro [p, black margin]”.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Records examined

PICHINCHA: Bosque Potector Milpe-Río Pachijal, 1200 m (1 specimen CEMT). SANTO DOMINGO DE LOS TSÁCHILAS: Puerto Limón, 395 m (1 specimen CEMT).

Temporal data

Collected in April, May, and October.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland evergreen forests and coastal evergreen foothill forests from 395–1200 m a.s.l. Collected with canopy fogging methods and malayse traps baited with pig feces.

Deltochilum (Aganhyboma) larseni Silva, Louzada & Vaz-de-Mello, 2015

Plate 19B

Deltochilum (Aganhyboma) larseni Silva, Louzada & Vaz-de-Mello, 2015: 478 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador, SUCUMBIOS [= SUCUMBÍOS], RPF Cuyabeno, Trocha Zábalo-Güepí, km 10).

Deltochilum (Aganhyboma) larseni : Chamorro et al. 2018: 85 (figure 8E), 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Deltochilum (Aganhyboma) larseni Silva, Louzada & Vaz-de-Mello, 2015. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the CEMT. Locality: Ecuador, Sucumbíos: RPF Cuyabeno, Trocha Zábalo-Güepí, km 10, examined.

Holotype (♂): “ECUADOR, Sucumbios, R.P.F. / Cuyabeno, Trocha Zábalo-Güepí, / km 10. 9-Agosto-2000 / Colección Manual nocturna / Bosque de tierra firme colinado / Pablo Araujo / LOTE 557 [p,]”.

Distribution

Ecuador and Peru.

Records examined

PASTAZA: Bosque Protector Oglán Alto, 555–605 m (2 specimens CEMT). SUCUMBÍOS: Trocha Zábalo-Guepi km 10, 220 m, Reserva de Producción Faunística Cuyabeno (1 specimen CEMT).

Temporal data

Collected in January and August.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests and the foothill evergreen forests of the Amazon region from 220–605 m a.s.l. Collected using dead chilopods as bait.

Subgenus Deltochilum (Calhyboma) Kolbe, 1893

Deltochilum (Calhyboma) Kolbe, 1893: 191 (original description. Type species: Deltochilum burmeisteri Harold, 1867 = Deltochilum mexicanum Burmeister, 1848, subsequent designation by Paulian, 1939: 18); Shipp 1897: 194 (comment); Paulian 1938: 239 (diagnosis); Blackwelder 1944: 202 (cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschz.); Lane 1946: 172 (comment); Pereira and D’Andretta 1955a: 8 (redescription); Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 121 (characters in key); Martínez 1959: 52 (list of species from Argentina); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 642 (catalog of species); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 261 (catalog, distribution, cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 555 (characters in key); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 139 (cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822); González et al. 2009: 254 (characters in key, redescription); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 26 (characters in key); Krajcik 2012: 88 (cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822); Chamorro et al. 2018: 76 (characters in key), 93–94 (list of species of Ecuador).

Deltochilum (Calhyboma) arrowi Paulian, 1939, stat. n.

Plates 19C, 57A

Deltochilum (E.) tessellatum var. Arrowi Paulian, 1939: 18 (original description. Type locality: Équateur [= Ecuador], Río Pescado).

Deltochilum tessellatum var. arrowi : Blackwelder 1944: 203 (list of species from Latin America); Pereira and D’Andretta 1955a: 43 (redescription); Chamorro et al. 2018: 94 (cited for Ecuador).

Deltochilum var. arrowi : Contreras 1951: 222 (cited for Colombia).

Types specimens

Deltochilum (E.) tessellatum var. Arrowi Paulian, 1939. The holotype (♂) and one paratype are deposited at the NHML (see Paulian 1939: 18). Locality: Ecuador Río Pescado. Examined.

Holotype (♂): “Ecuador / Río- / Pescado [p]”, “v-17-1922 / 15000 ft / GHTate [p]”, “Frank R. Manson / Collection [p]”, “Ex coll. / F.R.Manson. / Brit. Mus. / 1923-141 [p]”, “Deltochilum / tessellatum / var. arrowi Paulian / Type [hw]”, “Holo- / type [p, red margin]”.

Paratype (♀): “Ecuador / Río- / Pescado [p]”, “v-17-1922 / 15000 ft / GHTate [p]”, “Ex coll. / F.R.Manson. / Brit. Mus. / 1923-141 [p]”, “Para- Type [p, yellow margin]”.

Distribution

Colombia and Ecuador.

Records examined

CAÑAR: Javin, 1400 m (4 specimens CEMT). COTOPAXI: San Francisco de las Pampas (1 specimen CEMT). MANABÍ: Río Pescado (2 specimens NHML). PICHINCHA: E B La Hesperia, 1200 m (1 specimen CEMT); Pacto, 1000 m (1 specimen CEMT).

Temporal data

Collected in January, February, March, and October.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal evergreen foothill forests from 850–1200 m a.s.l. Collected using pitfall traps baited with pig feces.

Paulian in 1939 described Deltochilum (E.) tessellatum var. arrowi (written Arrowi, type locality Río Pescado, Ecuador) as a variety of Deltochilum tessellatum Bates, 1870 (type locality Gualaquiza, Ecuador, Amazonian region), which made the former name available as a subspecific category (see: ICZN 1999, Article 45.6.4). However, upon examining the external and genital morphology of the type specimens of D. tessellatum arrowi (holotype ♂, deposited at the NHML, Plate 57A) and D. tessellatum (lectotype ♂ here designated, deposited at the MNHN, Plate 57B) (specifically, the differences observed in the elytral striae and shape of the aedeagus) we determined them to be two distinct species. Therefore, to maintain the subspecific name originally proposed by Paulian (1939), we elevate the variation arrowi to species level as follows: Deltochilum (Calhyboma) arrowi Paulian, 1939 stat. n. The holotype is here illustrated (♂ Plate 57A) and originates from the locality Río Pescado, Ecuador (Manabí province, in the coastal region).

Deltochilum (Calhyboma) carinatum (Westwood, 1837)

Plate 19D

Hyboma carinata Westwood, 1837: 256 (original description. Type locality: America Meridionali [= South America]).

Hyboma carinata : Burmeister 1848: 135 (redescription).

Hyboma carinatum : Gemminger and Harold 1869: 995 (list of species, distribution); Gillet 1911a: 35 (complete list of species).

Deltochilum (Eudactyles) carinatum : Paulian 1939: 11 (redescription).

Deltochilum carinatum : Pessôa and Lane 1941: 428 (characters in key), 435 (redescription); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (cited for Colombia); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru); Boilly 2015a: 85 (characters in key); 87 (figure 2), 88 (cited for Guyana).

Deltochilum (Calhyboma) carinatum : Pereira and D’Andretta 1955a: 8 (characters in key), 22 (redescription); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 643 (catalog of species, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 556 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 192 (cited for Brazil); González et al. 2009: 263 (redescription); 264 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 88 (complete list of species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 85 (figure 8D), 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Hyboma monstrosa Dejean, 1837: 151 (nom. nud.); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 995 (cited as synonym of Deltochilum carinatum Westwood, 1837); González et al. 2009: 263 (cited as synonym of Deltochilum (Calhyboma) carinatum (Westwood, 1837)).

Hyboma dromedarium Castelnau, 1840: 74 (original description); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 995 (cited as synonym of Deltochilum carinatum Westwood, 1837).

Type specimens

Hyboma carinata Westwood, 1837. The holotype is deposited at the OUMNH. Locality: America Meridionali [= South America]), examined.

Holotype (sex unknown): “Hyboma / carinata / Westw : / Am: Merid : / Mag: / Zool & Bot /30/ : / Vol / page 256 [hw, red label]”, “Deltochilum / Carinatum West. / J.J.E Gillet. / t.1910-1912. / (type) / [p and hw]”, “TYPE COL : 454 / Hyboma / carinatum / Westw. / HOPE DEPT. OXFORFD [p, black margin]”.

Hyboma monstrosa Dejean, 1837. Type material not examined.

Hyboma dromedarium Castelnau, 1840. One syntype examined deposited at the IRSN. Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Distribution

Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, and Venezuela.

Records examined

MORONA SANTIAGO: Nuevo Israel, Cordillera del Kutukú, 1290 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Untsuants sitio 1, Cordillera del Kutukú 700 m (7 specimens MECN; 4 specimens MQCAZ). NAPO: Chalcanapuni (1 specimen CEMT); sector Talac, 730 m, Pungarayacu (1 specimen MQCAZ). ORELLANA: Bosque Daimi Sendero 3 (4 specimens MQCAZ); Bloque 31, Parque Nacional Yasuní, 200 m (5 specimens MECN); Cononaco, Bloque 16 YPF, Parque Nacional Yasuní, 250 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Daimi (6 specimens MQCAZ); Dayuma Campo Hormiguero, plataforma Hormiguero, 320 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Dayuma Campo Palanda, LLumpac, 295 m (1 specimen MGO-UC); Dayuma Campo Palanda, Yuca 13, 255 m (1 specimen MGO-UC); Estación Científica Yasuní, 250 m (37 speciemens MQCAZ); San Sebastián del Coca, 345 m, Comuna Guataraco, Campo Pata (1 specimen MGO-UC); San Sebastian del Coca, 345 m, Comuna Shamanal, Campo Palo Azul (1 specimen MGO-UC). PASTAZA: Bosque Protector Oglán Alto, 590 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Ñemenguno, 280 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Nuevo San José del Curaray, cercanias Río Villano, 245 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Villano, Tarangaro, 330 m (3 specimens MQCAZ). SUCUMBÍOS: Aucayacu Río El Eno 16 km de Lago Agrio, 290 m (2 specimens MGO-UC); Campo Drago Shushufindi (1 specimen MGO-UC); Pacayacu Campo Libertador, 290 m, Tetete (1 specimen MGO-UC); Tarapoa Campo Marian plataforma Fanny 5, 260 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Tarapoa, Nuevo Manabí, 270 m (1 specimen MUTPL). ZAMORA CHINCHIPE: Tundayme campamento Mirador, Las Maravillas, 1060 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Zurmi, Comunidad La Wants, 1010 m (1 specimen MEPN).

Temporal data

Collected every month of the year.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests, evergreen foothill forests, and lower evergreen montane forests of the Amazon region from 245–1290 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces.

Deltochilum (Calhyboma) hypponum (Buquet, 1844)

Plate 20A

Hyboma hyppona Buquet, 1844: 19 (original description. Type locality: Colombie [= Colombia]).

Deltochilum hypponum : Gemminger and Harold 1869: 996 (list, distribution); Harold 1880a: 17 (cited for Colombia); Heyne and Taschenberg 1907 [= 1908]: 61 (redescription); Gillet 1911a: 36 (complete list of species); Blackwelder 1944: 203 (list of species from Latin America); Contreras 1951: 222 (cited for Colombia); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (cited for Colombia).

Deltochilum hypponum var. arrogans : Gemminger and Harold 1869: 996 (list, distribution); Heyne and Taschenberg 1907 [= 1908]: 61 (cited); Gillet 1911a: 36 (complete list of species); Blackwelder 1944: 203 (list of species of Latin America); Contreras 1951: 222 (cited for Colombia).

Deltochilum (Eudactyles) hypponum : Paulian 1939: 9 (characters in key), 16 (redescription).

Deltochilum (Calhyboma) hypponum : Pereira and D’Andretta 1955a: 8 (characters in key), 26 (redescription); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 643 (catalog of species, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 556 (characters in key); Medina et al. 2003: 65 (distribution); González et al. 2009: 255 (redescription); 264 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 88 (complete list of species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Hyboma arrogans Buquet, 1844: 20 (original description); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 996 (cited as Deltochilum var. arrogans Buquet).

Hyboma speciosum Burmeister, 1848: 135 (original description); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 996 (cited as synonym of D. hypponum).

Type specimens

Hyboma hyppona Buquet, 1844. One syntype examined deposited at the MNHN (ex coll. Guér-Ménev). Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Hyboma arrogans Buquet, 1844. One syntype examined deposited at the MNHN (ex coll. D. Sharp). Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Hyboma speciosum Burmeister, 1848. Type material not examined.

Distribution

Colombia and Ecuador.

Records examined

SUCUMBÍOS: road La Alegría-La Bonita km 32 (1 specimen MECN); La Sofía, 1800 m (1 specimen MUTPL).

Temporal data

Collected in April and May.

Remarks

Inhabits the montane cloud forests of the Andean region at 1800 m a.s.l. Collected manually.

Deltochilum (Calhyboma) luederwaldti Pereira & D’Andretta, 1955

Plate 20B

Deltochilum (Calhyboma) luederwaldti Pereira & D’Andretta, 1955a: 29 (original description. Type locality Equador [= Ecuador]).

Deltochilum (Calhyboma) luederwaldti : Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 644 (catalog of species); González et al. 2009: 257 (redescription); 264 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 93 (cited for Ecuador).

Deltochilum luederwaldti : Krajcik 2012: 88 (complete list of species).

Type specimens

Deltochilum (Calhyboma) luederwaldti Pereira & D’Andretta, 1955. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the MZUSP (see González and Molano 2009: 257). Locality: Equador, Quito, not examined.

Distribution

Colombia and Ecuador.

Literature records

PICHINCHA: Quito (González et al. 2009: 257).

Temporal data

It is not known when this species was collected.

Remarks

González et al. (2009) cited the distribution of this species as Quito. However, among the scientific collections we examined, we did not find any specimen collected in this locality. The collection method is unknown.

Deltochilum (Calhyboma) mexicanum Burmeister, 1848

Plate 20C

Deltochilum mexicanum Burmeister, 1848: 135 (original description. Type locality: Mexico).

Deltochilum mexicanum : Gemminger and Harold 1869: 996 (list of species, distribution); Bates 1887: 37 (cited for Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama); Gillet 1911a: 36 (complete list of species); Blackwelder 1944: 203 (list of species from Latin America); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (cited for Colombia); Ratcliffe 2002: 13 (list of species from Panama); Morón 2003: 30 (redescription); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 14 (list of species from Bolivia); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru).

Deltochilum (Eudactyles) mexicanum : Paulian 1939: 9 (characters in key), 18 (redescription); Balthasar 1941: 345 (cited for Peru); Islas 1942: 334 (cited for Mexico); Balthasar 1951: 330 (cited for Peru).

Deltochilum (Calhyboma) mexicanum : Pereira and D’Andretta 1955a: 9 (characters in key), 44 (redescription); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 642 (catalog of species, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 556 (characters in key); Howden and Young 1981: 36 (characters in key), 37 (redescription); Medina et al. 2003: 65 (distribution); González et al. 2009: 258 (characters in key), 264 (redescription); Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 88 (complete list of species); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 4 (list of species from Costa Rica); Chamorro et al. 2018: 94 (cited for Ecuador).

Deltochilum burmeisteri Harold, 1867d: 76 (original description); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 995 (list, distribution, cited as Deltochilum Burmeisteri); Harold 1880a: 17 (cited for Colombia, cited as D.Burmeisteri); Shipp 1897: 195 (cited as type of Calhyboma Kolbe); Gillet 1911a: 35 (complete list of species, cited as D.Burmeisteri); Paulian 1939: 19 (synonym of Deltochilum mexicanum Burmeister); Blackwelder 1944: 202 (list of species for Latin America); Lane 1946: 173 (cited as synonym of D. mexicanum Burmeister); Pereira and D’Andretta 1955a: 44 (cited as synonym of D. mexicanum Burmeister); Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 122 (cited as synonym of D. mexicanum Burmeister); Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru).

Type specimens

Deltochilum mexicanum Burmeister, 1848. One syntype examined deposited in the MLUH. Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Deltochilum burmeisteri Harold, 1867. Two syntypes examined deposited at the MNHN. Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Distribution

Belize, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, and Peru.

Literature records

GUAYAS: Bucay (Pereira and D’Andretta 1955a: 44). PICHINCHA: Quito (Paulian 1939: 19).

Temporal data

It is not known when this species was collected.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal evergreen foothill forests. Paulian (1939) cited this species from Quito; however, among the scientific collections we visited, we did not find any specimen collected in this locality. The collection method is unknown.

Deltochilum (Calhyboma) robustus Molano & González, 2009

Plate 20D

Deltochilum (Calhyboma) robustus Gonzáles et al. 2009: 259 (original description. Type locality: Colombia, Caquetá. San José del Fragua. Vda. La Esmeralda Alto del Río Yurayaco 1500 m).

Deltochilum robustus : Krajcik 2012: 88 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 196 (cited for Peru).

Deltochilum (Calhyboma) robustus : Chamorro et al. 2018: 94 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Deltochilum (Calhyboma) robustus González & Molano, 2009. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the IAvH (see González et al. 2009: 259). Locality: Colombia, Caquetá. San José del Fragua. Vda. La Esmeralda Alto del Río Yurayaco, 1500 m, not examined.

Distribution

Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Records examined

LOJA: Parque Nacional Podocarpus, 2800 m (3 specimens MQCAZ). NAPO: Quebrada Granadillas Bosque Protector La Cascada, 1300 m, Parque Nacional Sumaco (1 specimen MUTPL); Río Quijos, 1400 m, Parque Nacional Sumaco (1 specimen CEMT). MORONA SANTIAGO: Angel Rouby sitio 8, 1300 m (4 specimens MQCAZ); Nuevo Israel, Cordillera del Kutukú (2 specimens MUTPL); Untsuants sitio 6, 1100 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Unsuants sitio 7, 900 m (3 specimen MQCAZ); Unsuants sitio 4, 1100 m (1 specimen CEMT). PASTAZA: Merá, Estación Biológica Pindo Mirador, 1100 m (1 specimen MUTPL). ZAMORA CHINCHIPE: Tundayme campamento Mirador, La Mina, 1320 m (5 specimens MUTPL); Tundayme campamento Mirador, Condor Mirador, 1460 m (1 specimen MUTPL); RVS El Zarza campamento las Peñas, Cordillera del Cóndor, conseción El Colibri, 1530 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Zurmi Comunidad Miazi, 1380 m (1 specimen MEPN; 1 specimen MUTPL); Zurmi, Pachikuntza, 1685 m (1 specimen MEPN; 2 specimens MUTPL).

Temporal data

Collected in January, March, April, May, September, November, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits the foothill evergreen forests and lower evergreen montane forests in the Amazonian range from 1100–1685 m a.s.l. In the Andean region, it was collected in the montane cloud forests from 1800–2800 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces and flight interception traps.

Deltochilum (Calhyboma) tessellatum Bates, 1870

Plates 21A, 57B

Deltochilum tessellatum Bates, 1870: 175 (original description. Type locality: Gualaquiza, Equador [= Ecuador]).

Deltochilum tessellatum : Gillet 1911a: 36 (complete list of species); Campos 1921: 55 (cited for Ecuador); Blackwelder 1944: 203 (list of species from Latin America); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (cited for Colombia); Krajcik 2012: 88 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 196 (cited for Peru).

Deltochilum (Eudactyles) tessellatum : Paulian 1939: 9 (characters in key), 17 (redescription); Balthasar 1941: 345 (cited for Peru); Balthasar 1951: 330 (cited for Peru).

Deltochilum (Calhyboma) tessellatum : Pereira and D’Andretta 1955a: 9 (characters in key), 41 (redescription); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 645 (catalog of species, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 556 (characters in key); González et al. 2009: 260 (redescription); 264 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 85 (figure 8F), 94 (cited for Ecuador).

Types specimens

Deltochilum tessellatum Bates, 1870. The lectotype (♂) (here designated) and one paralectotype are deposited at the MNHN. Locality: Ecuador. Examined.

Lectotype (here designated) (♂): “Ecuador / Buckley [hw]”, “Ex Musæo / H.W. BATES / 1892 [p, black margin]”, “Muséum Paris / ex Coll. / R. Oberthür [p, green label, black margin]”, “Deltochilum / tessellatum / Bates – type [hw]”, “LECTOTYPE ♂ / Deltochilum / tesselatum / Bates / des. F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello. 2014 [p and hw, red label, black margin]”.

Paralectotype (♀): “near / Cuenca [hw]”, “Ex Musæo / H.W. BATES / 1892 [p, black margin]”, “R. PAULIAN / Vidit [p, black margin]”, “Museum Paris / ex Coll. / R. Oberthur [p, green label, black margin]”, “tessellatum / Bates T. E. S 1870 [hw, black margin]”, “tesellatum Bates / Paulian vd. [hw]”, “PARALECTOTYPE / Deltochilum ♀ / teselatum / Bates / des. F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello, 2014 [hw and p, yellow label, black margin]”.

Distribution

Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Records examined

CARCHI: El Corazón 2100 m (1 specimen MQCAZ). MORONA SANTIAGO: Angel Rouby sitio 9, 2000 m, cordillera del Kutukú (7 specimens MECN); Angel Rouby sitio 10, 1700 m, cordillera del Kutukú (2 specimens MQCAZ); San Antonio, Limón Indaza, Centro Shuar Wuarints (2 specimens MECN). NAPO: Archidona (1 specimen MQCAZ); Pacto Sumaco, Cotundo, 1500 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Quebrada Granadillas, 1300 m, Bosque Protector la Cascada, Parque Nacional Sumaco (1 specimen MUTPL); Río Quijos, 1400 m, Parque Nacional Sumaco (1 specimen MUTPL); Río Hollín (2 specimens MQCAZ). TUNGURAHUA: Baños El Topo, 1590 m (29 specimens CEMT). ZAMORA CHINCHIPE: Chamusquin, 2080 m (1 specimen CEMT; 3 specimens MQCAZ); Cordillera de Curintza, 1790 m, Parque Nacional Poducarpus (12 specimens MECN); La Pituca Cuenca del Río Curitza, 1830 m (1 specimen MUTPL); RVS El Zarza campamento las Peñas, Cordillera del Cóndor, conseción El Zarza, Parcela 5, 1525 m (3 specimens MUTPL); Romerillos senderos Nangaritza, 2200 m (9 specimens MECN); Tundayme campamento Mirador, Condor Mirador, 1460 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Tundayme campamento Mirador, Cara de Indio, 1670 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Zurmi, Pachikuntza, 1685 m (1 specimen MEPN); Zamora km 12–18 (3 specimens MQCAZ).

Literature records

AZUAY: Cuenca (Paulian 1939: 18). CHIMBORAZO: Riobamba (Pereira and Andretta 1955a: 41). MORONA SANTIAGO: Gualaquiza (Paulian 1939: 18); Macas (Paulian 1939: 18). NAPO: Archidona (Pereira and Andretta 1955a: 41); between Archidona and Napo (Paulian 1939: 18). PASTAZA: Sarayacu (Paulian 1939: 18). UNDETERMINED PROVINCE: Santa Inez (Pereira and Andretta 1955a: 41).

Temporal data

Collected in January, February, March, April, May, August, September, October, and November.

Remarks

Inhabits the evergreen montane forests in the Amazonian range from 1300–1700 m a.s.l. In the Andean region, it was registered in the montane cloud forests from 1830–2200 m a.s.l. Collected with flight interception traps and pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces.

The lectotype (without specific locality for Ecuador) is here designated and illustrated (♂, deposited at the MNHN, Plate 57B).

Subgenus Deltochilum (Deltochilum) Eschscholtz, 1822

Deltochilum s. str. Eschscholtz, 1822: 37 (original description. Type species: Deltochilum dentipes Eschscholtz, 1822); Kolbe 1893: 191 (redescription); Shipp 1897: 194 (comment); Paulian 1938: 243 (characters in key), 268 (redescription); Lane 1946: 172 (comment); Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 120 (characters in key); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 261 (cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschz.); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 555 (characters in key); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 139 (cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschz.); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 192 (cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschz.); González et al. 2009: 254 (characters in key), Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 25 (characters in key); Génier 2012: 26 (redescription, catalog); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 107 (characters in key); Chamorro et al. 2018: 76 (characters in key), 94 (list of species of Ecuador).

Telhyboma Kolbe, 1893: 192 (original description. Type species: Deltochilum orbiculare Lansberge, 1874); Shipp 1897: 194 (comment); Paulian 1938: 243 (characters in key), 244 (redescription); Blackwelder 1944: 202 (cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschz.); Lane 1946: 172 (comment); Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 120 (characters in key); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 647 (catalog of species); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 261 (catalog, distribution, cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 139 (cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822); González et al. 2009: 254 (characters in key), 271 (redescription); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 25 (characters in key); Krajcik 2012: 88 (cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 4 (cited as synonym); Génier 2012: 26 (synonym of Deltochilum s. str.).

Deltochilum (Deltochilum) orbiculare Lansberge, 1874

Plate 21B

Deltochilum orbiculare Lansberge, 1874a: 6 (original description. Type locality: Bahia).

Deltochilum orbiculare : Kolbe 1893: 194 (distribution); Gillet 1911a: 36 (complete list of species); Pessôa and Lane 1941: 428 (characters in key), 429 (redescription); Blackwelder 1944: 203 (list of species from Latin America); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (cited for Colombia); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 14 (cited for Bolivia); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 196 (cited for Peru); Boilly 2015a: 85 (characters in key); 87 (figure 7), 88 (cited for Guyana).

Deltochilum (Telhyboma) orbiculare : Paulian 1938: 244 (redescription); Balthasar 1941: 344 (cited for Peru); Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 121 (cited); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 647 (catalog of species); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 555 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 192 (cited for Brazil); Medina et al. 2003: 65 (distribution); González et al. 2009: 271 (redescription); Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador).

Deltochilum (Deltochilum) orbiculare : Génier 2012: 31 (distribution); Chamorro et al. 2018: 84 (figure 7G), 94 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Deltochilum orbiculare Lansberge, 1874. One syntype examined deposited at the MNHN (ex coll. V Lansberge). Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Distribution

Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Records examined

MORONA SANTIAGO: Comunidad Unsuants, 1100 m, Cordillera del Kutukú (5 specimens MQCAZ). NAPO: cerca al Tena, 505 m, Pungarayacu (1 specimen MQCAZ); Estación Científica Jatun Sacha, 450 m (11 specimens MQCAZ). ORELLANA: Dayuma Campo Hormiguero, plataforma Hormiguero, 320 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Dayuma Campo Palanda-Yuca Sur, Estación Palanda 5, 320 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Dayuma Campo Pindo Suyana, 270 m (1 specimen MUTPL); El Dorado plataforma Guarango, 300 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Estación Científica Yasuní PUCE, 250 m (36 specimens MQCAZ); Ines Arango road Tiwino-río Shiripuno, 250 m (1 specimen MUTPL); road to Maxus km 117 Iro, Parque Nacional Yasuní (1 specimen MUTPL); Estación de Biodiversidad Tiputini, 215 m, Parque Nacional Yasuní (4 specimens MUTPL); San Sebastian de Coca, 345 m, Comuna Guataraco, Campo Pata (1 specimen MUTPL); Yampuna (4 specimens MQCAZ). PASTAZA: Bosque Protector Oglán Alto, 660 m (1 specimen MUTPL). SUCUMBÍOS: Aucayacu Río El Eno, 16 km de Lago Agrio, 290 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Quebrada Mansoya, 200 m, Río Putumayo Cuyabeno (1 specimen MUTPL).

Literature records

MORONA SANTIAGO: Untsuants sitio 7, 900 m (Génier 2012: 31).

Temporal data

Collected in January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, November, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests and evergreen foothill forests of the Amazon region from 200–1100 m a.s.l. Collected with canopy fogging methods and pitfall traps baited with human feces.

Deltochilum (Deltochilum) rosamariae Martínez, 1991

Plate 21C

Deltochilum rosamariae Martínez, 1991: 390 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador, provincia Los Ríos, Quevedo, Pichilingue).

Deltochilum rosamariae : Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 88 (complete list of species).

Deltochilum (Deltochilum) rosamariae : Génier 2012: 32 (comment); Chamorro et al. 2018: 85 (figure 8G), 94 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Deltochilum rosamariae Martínez, 1991. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the AMIC (see Martínez 1991: 392, figure 3) [= name-bearing types now in the MACN]. Locality: Ecuador, provincia Los Ríos, Quevedo, Pichilingue, not examined.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Records examined

ESMERALDAS: Puerto Balao, 200 m (3 specimens MUTPL). GUAYAS: Cerecita Pta Chapella (3 specimens CEMT); Guayaquil (1 specimen MQCAZ); Guayaquil Los Ceibos (1 specimen CEMT). LOS RÍOS: Quevedo, 45 m, Estación Experimental Pichilingue (1 specimen CEMT); Estación Científica rio Palenque, 200 m (2 specimens MQCAZ). MANABÍ: Ayampe, 35 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Montecristi, Pichihuama, 120 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Puerto López, Guale, 110 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Puerto López, Las Tunas, 100 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Puerto López, Puerto Rico, 115 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Puerto López, Río Blanco, 270 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Reserva Jama Coaque, 15 m (3 specimens MQCAZ). SANTA ELENA: Olón, 50 m (2 specimens CEMT). SANTO DOMINGO DE LOS TSÁCHILAS: Santo Domingo (1 specimen MQCAZ).

Temporal data

Collected in all months except October.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland evergreen forests and coastal lowland semi-deciduous forests from 45–200 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces.

Subgenus Deltochilum (Deltohyboma) Lane, 1946

Deltochilum (Deltohyboma) Lane, 1946: 175 (cited as subgen. n. Type species: Deltochilum submetallicum (Castelnau, 1840), cited as ortotipo); Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 121 (characters in key); Martínez 1959: 53 (cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschz.); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 652 (cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschz.); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 261 (cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschz.); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 555 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 192 (cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschz); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 26 (characters in key); Krajcik 2012: 88 (complete list of species, cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschz); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 107 (characters in key); Chamorro et al. 2018: 76 (characters in key), 94 (list of species of Ecuador).

Deltochilum (Deltohyboma) aequinoctiale (Buquet, 1844)

Plate 21D

Hyboma aequinoctialis Buquet, 1844: 21 (original description. Type locality: Colombie [= Colombia]).

Deltochilum aequinoctiale : Burmeister 1848: 135 (redescription); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 995 (list, distribution); Gillet 1911a: 35 (complete list of species); Balthasar 1941: 344 (cited for Peru); Blackwelder 1944: 202 (list of species from Latin America); Balthasar 1951: 329 (cited for Peru); Contreras 1951: 221 (cited for Colombia, cited as D. aequinoctiale); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (cited for Colombia); Medina et al. 2003: 65 (distribution); Krajcik 2012: 88 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru).

Deltochilum (Deltohyboma) aequinoctiale : Paulian 1938: 270 (characters in key), 278 (redescription); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 652 (catalog of species, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 557 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 85 (figure 8H), 86 (figure 9A), 94 (cited for Ecuador).

Deltochilum erodioides Harold, 1867d: 77 (original description); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 995 (list, distribution); Harold 1880a: 18 (cited for Colombia); Kirsch 1885: 212 (cited for Ecuador); Gillet 1911a: 36 (complete list of species); Paulian 1938: 278 (synonym of D. (D.) aequinoctiale Buq.); Blackwelder 1944: 202 (list of species of Latin America); Contreras 1951: 222 (cited for Colombia); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 652 (cited as synonym of Deltochilum aequinotiale Buquet); Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru).

Type specimens

Hyboma aequinotialis Buquet, 1844. One syntype examined deposited at the MNHN (ex coll. D Sharp). Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Deltochilum erodioides Harold, 1867. Two syntypes examined deposited at the MNHN (ex coll. E Steinheil, ex coll. E Harold, ex coll. R Oberthur). Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Distribution

Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Records examined

COTOPAXI: Bosque Integral Otonga, 2080 m (78 specimens CEMT: 7 specimens MQCAZ; 4 specimens MUTPL). PICHINCHA: Chespi, Bellavista, 1380 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Yunguilla, Loma La Liberia, 2400 m (2 specimens MUTPL); Reserva Orquideológica El Pahuma, 1975 m (1 specimen MUTPL).

Literature records

BOLIVAR: au dessus de Chimbo, 1900 m (Paulian 1938: 280). MORONA SANTIAGO: Macas (Paulian 1938: 280).

Temporal data

Collected in January, February, March, April, June, July, September, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits the evergreen lower montane forests and montane cloud forests of the Andean region from 1300–2400 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces. It is possible that the records cited by Paulian (1938) from Macas, Morona Santiago province, in the Ecuadorian Amazon, is a different species belonging to the same subgenus. A review of these species is needed.

Deltochilum (Deltohyboma) barbipes Bates, 1870

Plate 22A

Deltochilum barbipes Bates, 1870: 177 (original description. Type locality: Upper Amazons).

Deltochilum barbipes : Gillet 1911a: 35 (complete list of species); Paulian 1938: 271 (characters in key); Paulian 1939: 4 (redescription); Blackwelder 1944: 202 (list of species from Latin America).

Deltochilum (Deltohyboma) barbipes : Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 653 (catalog of species, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 560 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello, 2000: 192 (cited for Brazil); Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Krajcik 2012: 88 (complete list of species); Chamorro et al. 2018: 94 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Deltochilum barbipes Bates, 1870. Two syntypes examined deposited at the MNHN (ex coll. HW Bates and ex coll. R Oberhür). Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Distribution

Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Venezuela.

Records examined

MORONA SANTIAGO: Nuevo Israel, Cordillera del Kutukú, 1290 m (1 specimen MUTPL). PASTAZA: Bosque Protector Oglán, 600 m (1 specimen CEMT; 2 specimens MUTPL).

Temporal data

Collected in January, June, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits the foothill evergreen forests of the Amazon region from 600–1290 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with carrion and/or dead chilopods.

Deltochilum (Deltohyboma) batesi Paulian, 1938

Plate 22B

Deltochilum (D.) batesi Paulian, 1938: 286 (original description. Type locality: Équateur [= Ecuador], Sarayacu, Macas, Loja).

Deltochilum (Deltohyboma) batesi : Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 653 (catalog of species, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 557 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Chamorro et al. 2018: 94 (cited for Ecuador).

Deltochilum batesi : Blackwelder 1944: 202 (list of species from Latin America); Krajcik 2012: 88 (complete list of species).

Type specimens

Deltochilum (Deltochilum) batesi Paulian, 1938. Three syntypes are deposited at the MNHM (ex coll. D. Sharp). Lectotype to be designated in a future work on this species group.

Syntype (♂): “Sarayacu Ecuador / Bucley 1879 [hw]”, “Ex-Musæo / D. Sharp 1890 [p, black margin]”, “R. Paulian / Vidit [p, black margin]”, “MUSÉUM PARIS / 1952 / coll. R. OBERTHÜR [p]”, “-TYPE- / DELTOCHILUM / BATESI / PAULIAN / Dét. F. Génier, 1998 [p and hw, black margin]”, “SYNTYPE [p, red label]”, “MNHN / EC2493 [p, black margin]”.

Syntype (♀): “Equateur / Loja / Abbe Gaujon [p, black margin]”, “D. Batesi Paul. / R. Paulian det. [p and hw]”, “MUSÉUM PARIS / 1952 / coll. R. OBERTHÜR [p]”, “SYNTYPE [p, red label]”, “MNHN / EC2497 [p, black margin]”.

Syntype (♂): “Sarayacu Ecuador / Bucley 1879 [hw]”, “Ex-Musæo / D. Sharp 1890 [p, black margin]”, “Museun Paris / ex Coll. / R. Oberthur [p, green label]”.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Records examined

ORELLANA: Estación Científica Yasuní, 250 m (1 specimen CEMT); Río Tiputini Yasuní Res. (1 specimen CEMT); Rodrigo Borja IAMOE (5 specimens CEMT); Yampuna (1 specimen CEMT). PASTAZA: Sarayacu (2 specimens MNHN). LOJA: without specific locality (1 specimen MNHN).

Literature records

MORONA SANTIAGO: Macas (Paulian 1938: 286).

Temporal data

Collected in January and September.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests of the Amazon region at 250 m a.s.l. Collected with flight interception traps and pitfall traps baited with carrion.

Deltochilum (Deltohyboma) crenulipes Paulian, 1938

Plate 22C

Deltochilum (D.) crenulipes Paulian, 1938: 286 (original description. Type locality: Pérou [= Peru], Poazu-Pozuzo, Chanchamayo, Amazones Yurimaguas).

Deltochilum crenulipes : Balthasar 1941: 345 (cited for Peru); Blackwelder 1944: 202 (list of species from Latin America); Balthasar 1951: 330 (cited for Peru); Krajcik 2012: 88 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru).

Deltochilum (Deltohyboma) crenulipes : Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 653 (catalog of species, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 558 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 192 (cited for Brazil); Génier 2001: 5 (comment); Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Bezdek and Hajek 2011: 368 (catalog of the types of the NMPC); Chamorro et al. 2018: 94 (cited for Ecuador).

Deltochilum (s. str.) obenbergeri Balthasar, 1939f: 13 (original description); Blackwelder 1944: 203 (list of species for Latin America); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 657 (catalog of species, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 558 (characters in key); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (cited for Colombia); Génier 2001: 5 (synonym of Deltochilum crenulipes Paulian, 1938); Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Bezdek and Hajek 2011: 367 (catalog of the types of the NMPC).

Type specimens

Deltochilum crenulipes Paulian, 1938. The lectotype is deposited at the MNHN (ex coll. R Oberthür). Locality: Amazones Yurimaguas, examined.

Lectotype (sex unknown): “Amazones / Yurimaguas [p, black margin]”, “R. PAULIAN / Vidit [p, black margin]”, “D. crenulipes n. sp / Type [hw]”, “MUSÉUM PARIS / 1952 / coll. R. OBERTHÜR [p, black margin]”, “LECTOTYPE [p, red label]”, “MNHN / EC2496 [p, black margin]”, “DELTOCHILUM / CRENULIPES / PAULIAN / LECTOTYPE / Dés. F. Génier, 2000 [p and hw, black margin]”.

Deltochilum (s. str.) obenbergeri Balthasar, 1939. The holotype is deposited at the NMPC. Locality: Mera Ecuador, examined.

Holotype (sex unknown): “Mera / Ecuador [p]”, “TYPUS [p, red label]”, “HOLOTYPE [p, red label]”, “1324 / Dok. L. Mencl, 2011 [p, green label]”, “Obenbergeri / m. [hw, green label, black margin]”, “DELTOCHILUM / OBENBERGERI / BALTHASAR / HOLOTYPE [hw] / Det. F. Génier [p] 2000 [hw]”.

Distribution

Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Records examined

MORONA SANTIAGO: Angel Rouby, Codillera del Kutuku, 1300 m (12 specimens MECN); Untsuants sitio 3, Cordillera del Kutuku (7 specimens MQCAZ). NAPO: Archidona (11 specimens MQCAZ); Río Hollín, 1100 m (1 specimen CEMT); Bloque 20, Pungarayacu, 610 m (1 specimen MQCAZ); Santo Domingo de Hollín, Río Hollin, 635 m (3 specimens MQCAZ); Cotundo, La Merced de Jondachi Río Jondachi, 1100 m (1 specimen MGO-UC); Misahualli Jungle Lodge unión río Napo y río Misahualli, 1900 m (2 specimens MQCAZ); Río Osayacu, 1070 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Sunka, 300 m (5 specimens MQCAZ). ORELLANA: Bloque 31, Parque Nacional Yasuní, 200 m (9 specimens MECN); Daimi (1 specimen CEMT); Dayuma Campo Palanda, Llumpac, 295 m (3 specimens MGO-UC); Dayuma plataforma Ungurahua, 300 m (1 specimen MUTPL); El Dorado plataforma Guarango, 300 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Rodrigo Borja IAMOE (33 specimens CEMT; 11 specimens MQCAZ); Estación Científica Yasuní PUCE 215 m (2 specimen CEMT; 84 specimens MQCAZ); Estación de Biodiversidad Tiputini USFQ (4 specimens MGO-UC; 1 specimen MUTPL); Lago San Pedro, plataforma Copal, 310 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Río Tiputini Yasuní Res. Stn. (2 specimens CEMT); San Sebastián del Coca, Comuna Guataraco, Campo Pata (1 specimen MGO-UC); Yuturi Lodge Río Napo, 270 m (3 specimens MQCAZ). PASTAZA: Bosque Protector Oglan Alto, 540 m (1 specimen MGO-UC); Campo Tiguino, cerca al estero Ñemenguno, 300 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Chuyayacu Oleoducto km 25, 200 m (1 specimen MGO-UC); E. B. Pindo Mirador UTE, 1000 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Mera (1 specimen NMPC); road El Triunfo-Arajuno (1 specimen CEMT); Villano Pandanuque, 420 m (1 specimen MUTPL); SUCUMBÍOS: 6 km de Dureno, Precooperativa Los Vergeles, 290 m (7 specimens MGO-UC); Aucayacu Río El Eno, 16 km de Lago Agrio, 275 m (2 specimens MGO-UC); Bermejo plataforma ER-A road to a Lumbaqui (1 specimen MUTPL); La Selva Bio. Station 175 km ESE del Coca (4 specimens MQCAZ); Nueva Loja, plataforma Iguana, 310 m (1 specimen MQCAZ); Pichira, Limoncocha (1 specimen MQCAZ); Sacha Lodge, 270 m (4 specimens MQCAZ); Tarapoa, Nuevo Manabí, 270 m (1 specimen MUTPL). ZAMORA CHINCHIPE: Tundayme, Cara de Indio, 1670 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Tundayme Ecsa, road to Polvorín, 1300 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Tundayme Ecsa vivero, 820 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Zurmi Las Orquideas Río Nangaritza, 870 m (1 specimen MUTPL).

Temporal data

Collected every month of the year.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests and evergreen foothill forests of the Amazon region from 200–1680 m a.s.l. Collected with flight interception traps and pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces.

Deltochilum (Deltohyboma) peruanum Paulian, 1938

Plate 22D

Deltochilum (Deltochilum) peruanum Paulian, 1939: 2 (original description. Type locality: Pérou [= Peru], Pozuzo-Chanchamayo, Amazones).

Deltochilum (s. str.) peruanum : Paulian 1938: 271 (characters in the key); Balthasar 1941: 345 (cited for Peru); Balthasar 1951: 330 (cited for Peru).

Deltochilum peruanum : Blackwelder 1944: 203 (list of species from Latin America); Krajcik 2012: 88 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 196 (cited for Peru).

Deltochilum (Deltohyboma) peruanum : Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 657 (catalog of species, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 559 (characters in key); Génier 2001: 2 (comment); Carvajal et al. 2011: 316 (cited for Ecuador); Bezdek and Hajek 2011: 367 (catalog of type NMPC); Chamorro et al. 2018: 94 (cited for Ecuador).

Deltochilum (s. str.) laevigatum Balthasar, 1939f: 7 (original description); Balthasar 1941: 345 (cited for Peru); Balthasar 1951: 330 (cited for Peru); Bezdek and Hajek 2011: 367 (catalog of the types of the NMPC).

Deltochilum (Deltohyboma) laevigatum : Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 656 (catalog of species, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 558 (characters in key).

Deltochilum laevigatum : Blackwelder 1944: 203 (list of species from Latin America); Génier 2001: 2 (synonym of Deltochilum peruanum Paulian, 1939).

Type specimens

Deltochilum (Deltochilum) peruanum Paulian, 1938. The lectotype (sex unknown) is deposited at the MNHN. Locality: Chanchamayo Peru, examined.

Lectotype (sex unknown): “Chanchamayo [hw]”, “Ex-Musæo / D. Sharp 1890 [p, black margin]”, “R. Paulian / Vidit [p, black margin]”, “D. peruanum n. sp / Type [hw]”, “MUSÉUM PARIS / 1952 / coll. R. Oberthur [p]”, “MNHN / EC2492 [p, black margin]”, “LECTOTYPE [p, red label]”, “DELTOCHILUM / PERUANUM / PAULIAN / LECTOTYPE / Dés. F. Génier, 2000 [p and hw, black margin]”.

Deltochilum (s. str.) laevigatum Balthasar, 1939. The lectotype (♂) and one paralectotype are deposited at the NMPC. Locality: Peru Chanchamayo, examined.

Lectotype (♂): “O. PERU / Chanchamayo / 1000 m [p]”, “Kolbe determ. / Deltochilum / laevigatum / cotype Kolbe [p and hw]”, “Typus [p, red label, black margin]”, “laevigatum / m. [hw, green label, black margin]”, “1321 / Dok. L Menci, 2001 [p, green label]”, “Senckenberg / Museum [p]”, “LECTOTYPE [p, red label black margin]”, “DELTOCHILUM ♂ / LAEVIGATUM / BALTHASAR / LECTOTYPE [hw] / Des. F. Génier 2000 [p and hw]”.

Paralectotype (♀): “Mera / Ecuador [p]”, “Typus [p, red label, black margin]”, “PARALECTOTYPE [p, yellow label]”, “DELTOCHILUM ♀ / LAEVIGATUM / BALTHASAR / Det. F. Génier, 2000 [p and hw]’.

Distribution

Ecuador and Peru.

Records examined

PASTAZA: Mera (1 specimen NMPC).

Literature records

MORONA SANTIAGO: Macas (Balthasar 1939f: 8; Paulian 1939: 3).

Temporal data

It is not known when this species was collected.

Remarks

Inhabits the foothill evergreen forests in the Amazon. The collection method is unknown.

Deltochilum (Deltohyboma) speciosissimum Balthasar, 1939

Plate 23A

Deltochilum (s. str.) speciosissimum Balthasar, 1939f: 16 (original description. Type locality: Ecuador).

Deltochilum speciosissimum : Blackwelder 1944: 203 (list of species from Latin America); Krajcik, 2012: 88 (complete list of species).

Deltochilum (Deltohyboma) speciosissimum : Lane 1847: 110 (synonym of Deltochilum (s. str.) speciosissimum Balthasar, 1939); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 659 (catalog of species, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 557 (characters in key); Génier 2001: 7 (comment); Carvajal et al. 2011: 316–317 (cited for Ecuador); Bezdek and Hajek 2011: 368 (catalog of the types of the NMPC); Chamorro et al. 2018: 94 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Deltochilum (s. str.) speciosissimum Balthasar, 1939. The lectotype (♂) and one paralectotype are deposited at the NMPC. Locality: Ecuador Canelos, examined.

Lectotype (♂): “ECUADOR / Canelos / F. Ohaus S. [p]”, “Kolbe determ. / Deltochilum / pretiosum / ? ♂ Har. [p and hw]”, “LECTOTYPE [p, red label]”, “Speciosissimun / m [hw, green label, black margin]”, “1323 / Dok L. Mencl, 2001 [p, green label]”, “DELTOCHILUM / SPECIOSISSIMUM / BALTHASAR / LECTOTYPE / Dés F. Génier 2000 [p and hw]”.

Paralectotype (♂): “ECUADOR / Sabanilla / F. Ohaus S. / 20. 9. 05 [p and hw]”, “Typus [p, red label]”, “PARALECTOTYPE [p, yellow label]”, “DELTOCHILUM / SPECIOSISSIMUM / BALTHASAR / PARALECTOTYPE / Dés. F. Génier 2000 [p and hw]’.

Distribution

Only known from Ecuador.

Records examined

PASTAZA: Canelos (1 specimen NMPC). ZAMORA CHINCHIPE: Sabanilla [= El Tambo] (1 specimen NMPC).

Temporal data

Collected in September and December.

Remarks

This species may be distributed in the foothill evergreen forests as well as on the low-montane evergreen forests of the Amazon region. The collection method is unknown.

Subgenus Deltochilum (Hybomidium) Shipp, 1897

Deltochilum (Hybomidium) Shipp, 1897: 195 (cited as nom. n. Type species: Deltochilum gibbosum (Fabricius 1775) according to Lane, 1846); Gillet 1911a: 35 (cited as synonym of Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822); Lucas 1920: 339 (synonym of Deltochilum Eschz.); Paulian 1938: 237 (cited as synonym of Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822); Pessôa and Lane 1941: 426 (cited as synonym of Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822); Blackwelder 1944: 202 (cited as synonym of Deltochilum Esch); Lane 1946: 172 (comment); Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 121 (characters in key); Martínez 1959: 55 (list of species from Argentina); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 647 (catalog of species); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 261 (catalog, distribution, cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 555 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 192 (list of species from Brazil, cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822); Ratcliffe 2002: 13 (cited as synonym of Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822); González et al. 2009: 254 (characters in key), 265 (redescription); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 26 (characters in key); Krajcik 2012: 88 (cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 107 (characters in key); González-Alvarado and Vaz-de-Mello 2014: 432: (revision); Chamorro et al. 2018: 76 (characters in key), 94 (list of species of Ecuador).

Hyboma Audinet-Serville, 1825: 352 (original description. Type species: Ateuchus gibbosus Fabricius, 1801); Dejean 1837: 151 (catalog, distribution); Castelnau 1840: 73 (redescription); Reiche 1841: 212 (characters in key); Sturm 1843: 103 (catalog, distribution); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 995 (cited as synonym); Shipp 1897: 195 (synonym of Hybomidium Shipp); Gillet 1911a: 35 (cited as synonym); Lucas 1920: 339 (catalog, distribution); Paulian 1938: 237 (cited as synonym); Pessôa and Lane 1941: 426 (cited as synonym); Blackwelder 1944: 202 (cited as synonym); Lane 1946: 172 (comment); Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 120 (cited as synonym); Martínez 1959: 50 (cited as synonym); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 639 (cited as synonym); Ratcliffe 2002: 13 (cited as synonym); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 4 (cited as synonym); González et al. 2009: 432 (cited as synonym of Deltochilum (Hybomidium) Shipp, 1897).

Tetradontides Paulian, 1938: 259 (original description. Type species: Deltochilum gibbosum Fabricius 1775, cited as Deltochilum gibbosum (F.), 1775); Lane, 1946: 173 (comment), 175 (synonym of Hybomidium Shipp, 1897); Pereira and Martínez 1956a: 125 (cited as synonym of Hybomidium Shipp, 1897); Martínez, 1959: 55 (cited as synonym of Hybomidium Shipp, 1897); Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 647 (cited as synonym of Hybomidium Shipp, 1897); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 139 (cited as subgenus of Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822).

Deltochilum (Hybomidium) loperae González & Molano, 2009

Plate 23B

Deltochilum (Hybomidium) loperae González et al. 2009: 268 (original description. Type locality: Colombia. Valle del Cauca. Estación forestal Bajo Calima. 50 m.).

Deltochilum loperae : Krajcik 2012: 88 (complete list of species).

Deltochilum (Hybomidium) loperae : González-Alvarado and Vaz-de-Mello 2014: 454 (redescription), 472 (characters in key); Chamorro et al. 2018: 94 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Deltochilum (Hybomidium) loperae González & Molano, 2009. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the CECC (see González et al. 2009: 268). Locality: Colombia. Valle del Cauca. Estación forestal Bajo Calima. 50 m, not examined.

Distribution

Colombia and Ecuador.

Records examined

CARCHI: Tobar Donoso, 300 m (2 specimens MECN). COTOPAXI: km 4 Guasaganda, 500 m (1 specimen CEMT). ESMERALDAS: Playa de Oro, Estero Pote, 200 m (4 specimens CEMT); Playa de Oro, La Tabla (1 specimen MECN); Tsejpi (1 specimen MECN); Tsejpi, Rio Zapallo (1 specimen MECN).

Temporal data

Collected in March, April, February, October, November, and December.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland evergreen forests from 200–500 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces.

Deltochilum (Hybomidium) orbignyi amazonicum Bates, 1887

Plate 23C

Deltochilum amazonicum Bates, 1887: 37 (original description. Type locality: Amazons, Ega [= Tefé], Pebas).

Deltochilum amazonicum : Gillet 1911a: 35 (complete list of species); Boucomont 1928c: 3 (distribution); Blackwelder 1944: 202 (list of species from Latin America); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (cited for Colombia); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 14 (list of species from Bolivia); Krajcik 2012: 88 (complete list of species); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 195 (cited for Peru).

Deltochilum gibbosum Subsp. amazonicum : Kolbe 1905: 534 (distribution).

Deltochilum (Tetraodontides) amazonicum : Paulian 1938: 262 (redescription).

Deltochilum (Hybomidium) amazonicum : Vulcano and Pereira 1964: 647 (catalog of species); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 560 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 192 (cited for Brazil); González et al. 2009: 265 (redescription), 270 (characters in key).

Deltochilum (Hybomidium) orbignyi amazonicum : González-Alvarado and Vaz-de-Mello 2014: 450 (cited as new status, distribution), 472 (characters in key); Chamorro et al. 2018: 86 (figure 9B, C), 94 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Deltochilum amazonicum Bates, 1887. The lectotype and four paralectotypes are deposited at the MNHN (ex coll. HW Bates, ex coll. R Oberthur) (see González-Alvarado and Vaz-de-Mello 2014: 450). Locality: Pebas Amazonas, examined.

LECTOTYPE, (♂): “Pebas / Amaz. [hw]”, “Deltochilum / amazonicum / Bates ♂ major [hw]”, “Ex Musæo / H.W. BATES / 1892 [p, black margin]”, “R. PAULIAN / Vidit [p, black margin]”, “LECTOTYPE [p, red label]”, “Museum Paris / ex Coll. / R. Oberthur [p, green label, black margin]”, “LECTOTYPE ♂ / Deltochilum / amazonicum / Bates / des. F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello. 2014 [p and hw, red label, black margin]”.

Distribution

Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Records examined

MORONA SANTIAGO: Bosque Domoso, 1650 (1 specimen CEMT; 6 specimens MQCAZ); Nuevo Israel, Cordillera del Kutukú, 1290 m (1 specimen MGO-UC); Untsuants, sitio 7, 900 m, Cordillera del Kutukú (8 specimens MQCAZ); road Mendez-Paute km 8 (1 specimen CEMT; 7 specimens MQCAZ). NAPO: cerca al Tena, 505 m, Pungarayacu (1 specimen MQCAZ); Estación Jatun Sacha, 450 m (19 specimens MQCAZ); Puerto Misahualli Jungle (6 specimens MQCAZ); Tena (4 specimens CEMT; 7 specimens MQCAZ). ORELLANA: Bloque 31, Parque Nacional Yasuní, 200 m (3 specimens MQCAZ); Cononaco, Bloque 16 YPF Parque Nacional Yasuní, 250 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Daimi, Pozo Daimi (5 specimens MQCAZ); Dayuma Campo Hormiguero, plataforma Hormiguero, 320 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Dayuma Campo Palanda-Yuca Sur, plataforma Yuca 13, 255 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Dayuma plataforma Ungurahua, 300 m (1 specimen MUTPL); El Dorado plataforma Guarango, 300 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Estación de Biodiversidad Tiputini USFQ, Río Tiputini, 270 m (1 specimen MGO-UC); Estación Científica Yasuní PUCE, 250 m (58 specimens MQCAZ); Lago San Pedro, plataforma Copal, 310 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Rodrigo Borja IAMOE (1 specimen CEMT; 9 specimens MQCAZ); San Sebastian del Coca, Comuna Guataraco, 345 m, Campo Pata (2 specimen MGO-UC); San Sebastian del Coca, Comuna Shamanal, 345 m, Campo Palo Azul (1 specimen MUTPL); Yampuna (2 specimens MQCAZ). PASTAZA: Bosque Protector Oglán Alto, 510 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Nuevo San José del Curaray, cercanias Río Villano, 245 m (1 specimen MGO-UC); San Virgilio (2 specimen MGO-UC). SUCUMBÍOS: 6 km de Dureno, 290 m, Precooperativa Los Vergeles (1 specimen MGO-UC); Nueva Loja plataforma Iguana, 310 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Pacayacu Campo Libertador, 260 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Shushufindi Campo Drago, 295 m (1 specimen MGO-UC); Tarapoa Campo Marian, plataforma Fanny 5, 260 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Tarapoa, Nuevo Manabí, 270 m (1 specimen MUTPL). TUNGURAHUA: Baños, El Topo, 1590 m (1 specimen MUTPL). ZAMORA CHINCHIPE: Tundayme, campamento Mirador, Valle del Quimi, 1000 m (1 specimen MUTPL); road Mendes-Paute km 8, 1250 m (4 specimens MQCAZ); road Zumbi-Yantzaza km 4, 900 m (1 specimen CEMT; 6 specimens MQCAZ); road Cumbaritza-Gualaquiza km 1, 1100 m (4 specimens MQCAZ).

Literature records

FCO. DE ORELLANA [= ORELLANA]: Rodrigo Borja, IAMOE (González and Vaz-de-Mello 2014: 451). MORONA SANTIAGO: Bosque Domono [= Bosque Domoso], 1650 m (González and Vaz-de-Mello 2014: 451); Via Mendez-Paute km 8, 1250 m (González and Vaz-de-Mello 2014: 451). NAPO: Tena (González and Vaz-de-Mello 2014: 451); Jatun, Sacha Biol. Station, 21 km E Puerto Napo, 400 m (González and Vaz-de-Mello 2014: 451); 3.3 km E Puerto Napo, 400 m (González and Vaz-de-Mello 2014: 451). PASTAZA: 9 km ESE Veracruz, 900 m (González and Vaz-de-Mello 2014: 451). ZAMORA CHINCHIPE: Via Zumbi-Yantzaza km 4, 900 m (González and Vaz-de-Mello 2014: 451). UNDETERMINED PROVINCE: Dureno, 150 m (González and Vaz-de-Mello 2014: 451).

Temporal data

Collected every month of the year.

Remarks

Inhabits the lowland evergreen forests, varzea forests, foothill evergreen forests, and lower evergreen montane forests of the Amazon region from 250–1590 m a.s.l. Collected with flight interception traps and pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces.

Deltochilum (Hybomidium) panamensis Howden, 1966

Plate 23D

Deltochilum (Hybomidium) gibbosum panamensis Howden, 1966: 736 (original description. Type locality: Río Changuena [= Río Changuinola], 2400 feet [= 730 m], Bocas del Toro, Panama).

Deltochilum gibbosum panamensis : Howden and Young 1981: 36 (characters in key), 37 (redescription); Medina et al. 2001: 136 (cited for Colombia); Ratcliffe 2002: 13 (cited for Panama); Krajcik 2012: 88 (complete list of species); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 4 (cited for Costa Rica).

Deltochilum (Hybomidium) gibbosum panamensis : González et al. 2009: 270 (redescription, characters in key).

Deltochilum (Hybomidium) panamensis : González-Alvarado and Vaz-de-Mello 2014: 440 (cited as new status, redescription), 472 (characters in key); Chamorro et al. 2018: 94 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Deltochilum (Hybomidium) gibbosum panamensis Howden, 1966. The holotype (♂) is deposited at the CMNC (see Howden 1966: 736, fig 20). Locality: Río Changuena [= Río Changuinola], 2400 feet [= 730 m], Bocas del Toro, Panama, not examined.

Distribution

Colombia, Ecuador, Costa Rica, and Panama.

Records examined

BOLIVAR: Bosque Protector Filo Palanga, 970 m (1 specimen MUTPL). EL ORO: San Roque, 930 m (3 specimens MQCAZ). ESMERALDAS: Alto Tambo, 850 m (4 specimens MQCAZ); Carondelet (5 specimens MECN); Colón del Ónzole (25 specimens MQCAZ, 7 specimens MECN); Charco Vicente (15 specimens MGO-UC; 11 specimens MECN; 17 specimens MQCAZ); Chispero (17 specimnes MQCAZ; 13 specimens MECN); El Progreso (7 specimens MQCAZ; 3 specimens MECN); Guadal (5 specimens MQCAZ); Gualpi (12 specimens MQCAZ; 18 specimens MECN); Majua (19 specimens MQCAZ, 7 specimens MECN); Palma Real (7 specimens MGO-UC; 15 specimens MECN; 11 specimens MQCAZ); Playa de Oro (1 specimen CEMT; 8 specimens MQCAZ); Playa de Oro, Estero Pote, 200 m (14 specimens CEMT; 21 specimens MQCAZ); Playa de Oro, Padre Santo (58 specimens MGO-UC; 15 specimens MECN; 33 specimens MQCAZ); Playa de Oro, Playa Rica (30 specimens MGO-UC; 17 specimens MQCAZ; 4 specimens MECN); Playa de Oro Pistolas (2 specimens MQCAZ); Playa de Oro, Río Santiago, 200 m (4 specimens MQCAZ); Ricauter (8 specimens MQCAZ; 2 specimens MECN); Tsejpi (17 specimnes MQCAZ; 7 specimens MECN); Tsejpi rio Zapallo (5 specimens MQCAZ); Vainilla (5 specimens MQCAZ). IMBABURA: El Chontal, El Cauchero, 900 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Lita, 680 m (3 specimens MQCAZ). MANABÍ: Ayampe, 35 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Puerto López Comunidad Agua Blanca, 245 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Puerto López, Guale, 200 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Puerto López Río Chico (1 specimen MUTPL). PICHINCHA: Llurimaguas, Río Guayllabamba, 290 m, Pedro Vicente Maldonado (1 specimen MGO-UC); El Tigre Río Guayllabamba, Pedro Vicente Maldonado (1 specimen MUTPL); Guayabilla, 520 m, Río Guayllabamba Manduriacus (1 specimen MGO-UC). SANTA ELENA: Olón, 50 m (1 specimen MUTPL). SANTO DOMINGO DE LOS TSÁCHILAS: Valle Hermoso km 24 road to Santo Domingo (1 specimen MGO-UC).

Literature records

ESMERALDAS: Pajonal (González and Vaz-de-Mello 2014: 439) Playa de Oro, Estero Pote (González and Vaz-de-Mello 2014: 439); Playa de Oro (González and Vaz-de-Mello 2014: 440); 5 m, 11 km SE S. Lorenzo [= San Lorenzo] (González and Vaz-de-Mello 2014: 440); La Chiquita, For. Stat (González and Vaz-de-Mello 2014: 440). Pichincha: 113 km N Puerto Quito, 2420–2680 m (González and Vaz-de-Mello 2014: 440).

Temporal data

Collected every month of the year.

Remarks

Inhabits coastal lowland evergreen forests, coastal lowland semi-deciduous forests, and coastal evergreen foothill forests from 200–930 m a.s.l. Collected with pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces.

Genus Dendropaemon Perty, 1830

Dendropaemon Perty, 1830: 38 (original description. Type species: Eurysternus piceus Perty, 1830 by subsequent designation by Blut, 1939: 267).

Dendropaemon: Agassiz 1846: 343 (catalog, unjustifiably cited as Dendropemon); Lacordaire 1856: 102 (redescription); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1020 (list, distribution); Gillet 1911a: 88 (complete list of species); Lucas 1920: 230 (catalog, distribution, cited as Dendropemon O Perty); d’Olsoufieff 1924: 19 (characters in key), 121 (redescription); Blut 1939: 267 (redescription); Pessôa and Lane 1941: 470 (characters in key); Blackwelder 1944: 210 (list of species of Latin America); Martínez 1959: 106 (list of species from Argentina); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 258 (catalog, distribution); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 566 (characters in key); Edmonds 1972: 843 (description); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 136 (catalog, distribution); Edmonds 1994: 17 (characters in key); Medina and Lopera 2000: 301 (characters in key); Vitolo 2000: 593 (characters in key); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 192 (list of species from Brazil); Medina et al. 2001: 140 (list of species from Colombia); Arnaud 2002a: 14 (characters in key); Vitolo 2004: 292 (redescription); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2006: 17 (list of species from Bolivia); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2009: 59 (distribution of records from Bolivia); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 24 (characters in key); Carvajal et al. 2011: 142 (diagnosis); Krajcik 2012: 89 (complete list of species); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 107 (characters in key); Figueroa et al. 2014: 136 (distributional records from Peru); Génier and Arnaud 2016: 6 (revision); Chamorro et al. 2018: 75 (characters in key), 94 (list of species of Ecuador).

Tetramereia Klages, 1907: 141 (original description. Type species: Tetramereia fredereckii Klages 1907 = Dendropaemon convexum Harold, 1869); Gillet 1911a: 88 (cited as synonym of genus Dendropaemon Perty, 1830); Lucas 1920: 634 (catalog, cited as synonym of genus Dendropaemon Perty, 1830); d’Olsoufieff 1924: 159 (cited as synonym of genus Dendropaemon Perty, 1830); Pessôa and Lane 1941: 490 (cited as synonym of genus Dendropaemon Perty, 1830); Blackwelder 1944: 210 (catalog, cited as synonym of genus Dendropaemon Perty, 1830); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 258 (catalog, cited as genus Tetramereia Klages); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 566 (characters in key; cited as genus Tetramereia Klages); Edmonds 1972: 819 (characters in key; cited as genus Tetramereia Klages), 851 (description); Halffter and Edmonds 1982: 137 (catalog, distribution, cited as genus Tetramereia Klages); Edmonds 1994: 17 (characters in key, cited as genus Tetramereia Klages); Vitolo 2000: 593 (characters in key, cited as genus Tetramereia Klages); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 195 (list of species from Brazil, cited as genus Tetramereia Klages); Arnaud 2002a: 16 (characters in key, cited as genus Tetramereia Klages); Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 24 (characters in key, cited as genus Tetramereia Klages); Krajcik 2012: 253 (complete list of species, cited as genus Tetramereia Klages); Boilly and Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 106 (characters in key, cited as genus Tetramereia Klages); Figueroa et al. 2014: 137 (distributional records from Peru, cited as genus Tetramereia Klages); Génier and Arnaud 2016: 88 (cited as synonym of the genus Dendropaemon Perty, 1830).

Boucomontius d’Olsoufieff, 1924: 120 (original description. Type species: Dendropaemon convexum Harold, 1869); Blut 1939: 296 (redescription, cited as genus Boucomontius d’Olsoufieff, 1924); Pessôa and Lane 1941: 488 (redescription, cited as genus Boucomontius d’Olsoufieff); Blackwelder 1944: 21 (catalog, cited as synonym of genus Eurypodea Klages, 1906); Halffter and Matthews 1966: 258 (catalog, cited as synonym of genus Tetramereia Klages, 1907); Edmonds 1972: 851 (cited as synonym of genus Tetramereia Klages, 1907); Génier and Arnaud 2016: 41 (cited as synonym of genus Dendropaemon Perty, 1830).

Subgenus Dendropaemon (Crassipaemon) Cupello & Génier, 2017

Dendropaemon (Crassipaemon) Cupello & Génier, 2017: 823 (redescription, distribution, cited as new subgenus of Dendropaemon Perty, 1830. Type species: Dendropaemon amyntas Lacordaire, 1856); Chamorro et al. 2018: 75 (characters in key), 94 (list of species of Ecuador).

Dendropaemon (Onthoecus) Dejean, 1833: 140 (nom. nud.); Agassiz 1846: 749 (catalog); Lacordaire 1856: 103 (original description. Type species: Dendropaemon amyntas Harold, 1868 = Dendropaemon (Onthoecus) attalus Génier & Arnaud, 2016); Burmeister 1861: 56 (cited as synonym of genus Enicotarus Lap.); Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1020 (list, cited as synonym of genus Dendropaemon Perty, 1830); Blut 1939: 267 (cited as synonym of genus Dendropaemon Perty); Edmonds 1972: 850 (cited as synonym of subgenus Dendropaemon Perty, s. str.); Génier and Arnaud 2016: 55 (cited as subgenus of Dendropaemon Perty, 1830), 86 (characters in key).

Dendropaemon (Crassipaemon) morettoi Génier & Arnaud, 2016

Plate 24A

Dendropaemon (Onthoecus) morettoi Génier & Arnaud, 2016: 61 (original description. Type locality: Santé Fé/ de Bogota).

Dendropaemon (Crassipaemon) morettoi : Cupello and Génier 2017: 823 (comment, distribution); Chamorro et al. 2018: 82 (figure 5C), 94 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens

Dendropaemon (Onthoecus) morettoi Génier & Arnaud, 2016. The lectotype (♂) is deposited at the MNHN (see: Génier and Arnaud 2016: 62). Locality: Santé Fé/ de Bogota [= Santa Fé de Bogotá], not examined.

Distribution

Colombia and Ecuador.

Literature records

MORONA SANTIAGO: Macas (Génier and Arnaud 2016: 62).

Temporal data

It is not known when this species was collected.

Remarks

It is possible that this species occurs in the evergreen foothill forests of the Amazon region. The collection method is unknown.

Subgenus Dendropaemon (Glaphyropaemon) Génier & Arnaud, 2016

Dendropaemon (Glaphyropaemon) Génier & Arnaud, 2016: 46 (original description. Type species: Dendropaemon angustipennis Harold, 1869), 85 (characters in key); Chamorro et al. 2018: 75 (characters in key), 94 (list of species of Ecuador).

Dendropaemon (Glaphyropaemon) angustipennis Harold, 1869

Plate 24B

Dendropaemon angustipennis Harold, 1869a: 99 (original description. Type locality: Ega [= Tefé]).

Dendropaemon angustipennis : Gemminger and Harold 1869: 1020 (list, distribution); Waterhouse 1891b: 57 (redescription); Gillet 1911a: 88 (list, distribution); d’Olsoufieff 1924: 161 (cited as synonym of Dendropaemon bahianus Har.); Blut 1939: 277 (synonym of Dendropaemon silvanus Blut, 1939); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 567 (characters in key); Edmonds 1972: 851 (comment); Arnaud 1982a: 115 (catalog of the types of the MNHN); Krajcik 2012: 89 (complete list of species); Figueroa et al. 2014: 136 (cited for Peru); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 197 (cited for Peru).

Dendropaemon angustipenne : Blackwelder 1944: 210 (misspelled name, list, distribution).

Dendropaemon (Dendropaemon) angustipenne : Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 192 (misspelled name, cited for Brazil).

Dendropaemon (Glaphyropaemon) angustipennis : Génier and Arnaud 2016: 47 (redescription, transferred to the subgenus Glaphyropaemon Génier & Arnaud, 2016), 48 (distribution), 85 (characters in key); Chamorro et al. 2018: 82 (figures 5A and 5B), 94 (cited for Ecuador).

Dendropaemon silvanus Blut, 1939: 277 (cited as nom. nov., original description); Edmonds 1972: 851 (comment); Génier and Arnaud 2016: 47 (synonym of Dendropaemon angustipennis Harold, 1869).

Dendropaemon silvanum : Blackwelder 1944: 210 (list, distribution).

Dendropaemon (Dendropaemon) silvanum : Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 192 (cited for Brazil).

Type specimens

Dendropaemon (Glaphyropaemon) angustipennis Harold, 1869. The lectotype (♀) is deposited at the MNHN (see: Génier and Arnaud 2016: 48). Locality: Ega [= Tefé], not examined.

Dendropaemon silvanus Blut, 1939. Type material not examined.

Distribution

Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Records examined

ORELLANA: Estación Científica Yasuní, 250 m (1 specimen MQCAZ).

Literature records

ORELLANA: Estación Científica Yasuní PUCE, 250 m (Génier and Arnaud 2016: 48); Estación de Biodiversidad Tiputini USFQ, Parque Nacional Yasuní (Génier and Arnaud 2016: 48). SUCUMBÍOS: Cuyabeno (Génier and Arnaud 2016: 48).