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A taxonomic study of Muscidifurax Girault & Sanders from China (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae)
expand article infoHui Xiao, Shi-yu Zhou§, Yan-feng Tong§
‡ Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
§ Shenyang Normal University, Liaoning, China
Open Access

Abstract

Five species of Muscidifurax Girault & Sanders (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are studied from mainland China, of which three new species, M. similadanacus Xiao & Zhou, sp. n., M. sinesensilla Xiao & Zhou, sp. n., M. neoraptorellus Xiao & Zhou, sp. n., and one newly recorded species, M. adanacus Doganlar, are reported. All species have been reared from pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus. A key to Chinese Muscidifurax and illustrations of external features of the species are provided.

Keywords

China mainland, key, Muscidifurax, new species, Pteromalidae, taxonomy

Introduction

Muscidifurax was described by Girault and Sanders in 1910 to include M. raptor Girault and Sanders, parasitizing the common house fly (Musca domestica Linnaeus) from Illinois, USA. The genus can be recognized by the female antenna with one anellus and seven funicular segments (two anelli and six funicular segments in male), head protuberant at level of antennal toruli, marginal vein thickened in proximal half and progressively thinner in distal half. Since then, several researchers have studied the genus, including Graham (1969), Dzhanokmen (1978) and Bouček (1991). Kogan and Legner (1970) studied the genus and described four new species from Nearctic region. Doganlar (2007) described a new species of Muscidifurax which probably parasites Fannia sp. Thus, six valid species are described in the genus. All species are parasitoids of species of Calliphoridae and Muscidae (Diptera). Some species, such as M. raptor, were used in the biological control of the house fly (Legner 1971; Doganlar 2007). Until now, only one species, Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, has previously been recorded in China.

Materials and methods

All specimens were collected in the laboratory where they have been reared from pupae of house flies, and preserved in 75% ethanol. They were subsequently air-dried, point-mounted, and examined with a LEICA M10 stereomicroscope. Photographs were taken by using a Nikon Multizoom AZ100 system, and plates of illustrations were compiled using Adobe Photoshop® software. Five species have been identified, including three new species (M. similadanacus sp. n., M. sinesensilla sp. n., M. neoraptorellus sp. n.) and one newly recorded species (M. adanacus Doganlar). All type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China (IZCAS).

Morphological terminology follows that of Graham (1969), Bouček (1988), and Gibson et al. (1997). All specimens were examined and identified based on the studies of Kogan and Legner (1970), Doganlar (2007) and Girault and Sanders (1910). Body length (i.e. the length of body excluding the ovipositor sheaths) is measured in millimeters (mm), other measurements are given as ratios.

Abbreviations of morphological terms used are:

Fun funicular segment number;

POL posterior ocellar distance;

OOL ocellocular distance;

Gtn gastral tergite number.

Taxonomy

Key to species

1 Fore wing without marginal fringe and usually with reduced pilosity (Fig. 6); inner margins of eyes not angularly produced upwards near vertex 2
Fore wing with marginal fringe well developed, or at least with marginal fringe at posterior margin (Fig. 12); inner margins of eyes angularly produced upwards (small angle shape) near vertex (Figs 9, 14) 4
2 Second funicular segment without sensilla (Fig. 24); gaster 1.65× as long as broad, Gt1 about 1/3 length of gaster; median area of propodeum without coarse rugae M. neoraptorellus sp. n.
Second funicular segment with sensilla; gaster at least 1.9× as long as broad; Gt1 about 1/4 length of gaster; median area of propodeum with weak or strong coarse rugae 3
3 Each funicular segment longer than broad; head width 1.25× head height; Fu1 slightly longer than Fu2; propodeum with distinct costula (Fig. 5) M. similadanacus sp. n.
Fu1-Fu5 or Fu1-Fu6 longer than broad, Fu7 quadrate; head width 1.17× head height; Fu1 shorter or as long as Fu2; propodeum without costula (Fig. 19) M. adanacus Doganlar
4 Antennal insertion under the lower ocular line, Fu1 without sensilla (Fig. 10); head 1.82× as broad as long in dorsal view; propodeum without coarse rugae; gaster 1.8× as long as broad M. sinesensilla sp. n.
Antennal insertion on the lower ocular line, Fu1 with sensilla; head 2× as broad as long in dorsal view; propodeum with coarse rugae; gaster 2× as long broad M. raptor Girault & Sanders

Muscidifurax Girault & Sanders, 1910

Muscidifurax Girault & Sanders, 1910: 146.

Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders, 1910: 146; original designation and monotypy. Kogan and Legner 1970: 1268–1290; Propp 1984: 705; Narendran et al. 2006: 29–34. [Type species.]

Smeagolia Hedqvist, 1973: 237. Type species: Smeagolia perplexa Hedqvist. Synonymized by Bouček 1991: 203.

Diagnosis

Body dark green, head, and mesosoma with distinctly white hairs, eye glabrous. Head wider than mesosoma, occipital carina strong. Antennal insertion placed on lower ocular line and face distinctly protuberant at antennal insertion; lower face receding almost horizontally. Antenna slender, formula 11173 in females, 11263 in males; lower margin of clypeus more or less incised medially, without median tooth. Pronotal collar margined; notauli incomplete; scutellum flattened; propodeum with median carina and complete plicae, nucha short but distinct. Marginal vein strongly thickened in proximal half (its lower margin distinctly sinuate) and progressively thinner in distal half. Gaster flattened dorsally, hind margin of Gt1 trilobed.

Biology

Hosts include Calliphoridae (Chrysomya sp., Phormia sp.) and Muscidae (Fannia canicularis, Fannia femoralis, Musca domestica, Stomoxys sp. and Stomoxys calcitrans) (Noyes 2017).

Distribution

Palaearctic, Nearctic, Afrotropics, Neotropics, and Australasian regions (Noyes, 2017). China: Beijing, Shandong (Guo et al. 1997).

Muscidifurax similadanacus Xiao & Zhou, sp. n.

Figs 1–7

Diagnosis

Fore wing without marginal fringe; each funicular segment longer than broad; head width 1.25× head height; Fu1 slightly longer than Fu2; Fu1 without sensilla; median area of propodeum with distinct costula; gaster 2.1× as long as broad, Gt1 1/4 length of gaster.

Description

Holotype. Female. 3.4 mm (Fig. 1). Head and mesosoma dark green, with metallic reflections and white hairs; gaster brown with yellow spot. Antennal scape brown, flagellum dark brown; legs yellow except coxae concolorous with body, femora and pretarsi brown; fore wings hyaline, venation brown except marginal vein dark brown.

Figures 1–7. 

Muscidifurax similadanacus sp. n., 1–6 female holotype 1 Body in dorsal view 2 Head in frontal view 3 Head in lateral view 4 Head in dorsal view 5 Propodeum 6 Fore wing 7 Male, Body in lateral view.

Head in frontal view 1.25× as wide as high (Fig. 2); eyes with inner margins parallel, eye height 0.6× head height, eyes separated by 1.5× their height; antennal scrobes deep, reaching anterior ocellus. Antennal insertion on lower ocular line. Clypeal margin slightly protruded, straight; oral fossa 0.44× as wide as head; right mandible with four teeth, left mandible with three teeth. Head in lateral view with malar sulcus inconspicuous, eye height 1.74× malar space. Antennal scape length 1.44× eye height, exceeding vertex (Figs 2, 3); pedicel in lateral view 2.38× as long as broad; anellus transverse; Fu1 1.8× as long as broad, slightly longer than Fu2; each funicular segment with sensilla except Fu1; clava not clavate, 2.25× as long as broad. Head in dorsal view (Fig. 4), 1.82× as wide as long; vertex convex; eye length 2.86× temple length; POL 1.33× OOL.

Head as broad as mesosoma. Mesosoma not distinctly convex, 2.13× as long as broad. Pronotum 0.85× as broad as mesoscutum, anteriorly margined, posterior band smooth. Mesoscutum 1.74× as broad as long, anterior half weakly reticulate and posterior half with deep reticulation; notauli incomplete, only distinct basally. Scutellum 1.18× as broad as long, frenal line absent; reticulation shallow. Propodeum (Fig. 5) medially 0.6× as long as scutellum, reticulation irregular on median area, with short irregular carinae; plicae distinct and complete, separated by 1.2× medial length of propodeum; median carina complete, costula distinct; nucha short; propodeal spiracles oval, 1.5× as long as broad. Fore wing 2.53× as long as broad, without marginal fringe (Fig. 6); basal vein and basal cell bare; upper surface of costal cell bare, lower surface with scattered setae; submarginal vein 1.75× marginal vein, marginal vein 1.8× postmarginal vein, postmarginal vein longer than stigmal vein (1.33×); stigmal vein slightly capitate.

Gaster spindle-shaped (Fig. 1) with apex pointed, 2.1× as long as broad, 1.49× as wide as mesosoma; Gt1 covering 1/4 of gaster, each segment with hind margin entire except hind margin of Gt1 trilobed.

Male. As female, with the following differences. Body length 3.0–3.5 mm (Fig. 7). Antennal insertion above the lower ocular line, each funicular segment longer than broad, with 3–4 rows setae.

Variability

Females: body length 2.9–3.5 mm, others same as holotype. Males: body length 2.6–3.0 mm.

Remarks

This new species is similar to M. raptor and M. sinesensilla sp. n., but noticeably different by the absence of a marginal fringe on the fore wing. It is also very close with M. adanacus in having the fore wing without a fringe, but can be recognized with the characters listed in the key.

Material examined

Holotype. ♀, China: Xinjiang: Urumqi, 43.45°N 87.36°E, VII.2016, ex. Pupa of Musca domestica, leg. Hao-yuan Hu, IOZ(E)1812530 (2016-WJ-066). Paratypes. 7♂, IOZ(E)1812531-1812537 (2016-WJ-062), 7♀, IOZ(E)1812538-1812544(2016-WJ-066), same data to holotype.

Etymology

The name refers to the similarity of this species with M. adanacus, and is to be treated as an adjective.

Hosts

Pupa of Musca domestica.

Distribution

China (Xinjiang).

Muscidifurax sinesensilla Xiao & Zhou, sp. n.

Figs 8–14

Diagnosis

Fore wing with marginal fringe; inner margins of eyes angularly produced upwards (small angle shape) near the vertex; Fu1 without sensilla; head 1.82× as broad as long dorsally; propodeum without coarse rugae; gaster 1.8× as long as broad.

Description

Holotype. Female. 2.5 mm (Fig. 8). Head and mesosoma dark blue, with metallic reflections; gaster brown with yellow spot. Antennal scape yellowish brown, flagellum dark brown; legs yellow except coxae concolorous with body, and femora and pretarsi brown; fore wings hyaline, venation brown except marginal vein dark brown.

Figures 8–14. 

Muscidifurax sinesensilla sp. n., 8–12 female holotype 8 Body in lateral view 9 Head in frontal view 10 Head in lateral view 11 Propodeum 12 Fore wing 13–14 Male 13 Body in lateral view 14 Head in frontal view.

Head in frontal view 1.17× as wide as high; inner margins of eyes angularly produced upwards (small angle shape) near the vertex (Fig. 9); eye height 0.54× head height, eyes separated by 1.53× their height; antennal scrobes deep, not reaching anterior ocellus; reticulation in antennal scrobe smaller than that on parascrobe. Antennal insertion on lower ocular line, distance from upper margin of torulus to lower margin of anterior ocellus 1.78× distance from lower margin of torulus to lower margin of clypeus. Clypeus with longitudinal striation; clypeal margin slightly protruded, straight; oral fossa 0.5× as wide as head; right mandible with four teeth, left mandible with three teeth. Head in lateral view with malar sulcus conspicuous, eye height 1.25× malar space. Antennal scape length 1.34× eye height, reaching anterior ocellus, but not exceeding vertex; length of flagellum and pedicel combined longer than head width (1.2×); pedicel in lateral view 2× as long as broad; anellus transverse; Fu1 1.67× as long as broad, slightly longer than Fu2; each funicular segment with sensilla except Fu1 (Fig. 10); clava not clavate, 2.35× as long as broad. Head in dorsal view, 1.82× as wide as long; vertex convex; eye length 2.55× temple length; POL 0.76× OOL.

Head 1.04× as broad as mesosoma. Mesosoma not distinctly convex, 1.41× as long as broad. Pronotum 0.74× as broad as mesoscutum, anteriorly margined, posterior band smooth and with a row of hairs. Mesoscutum 1.91× as broad as long; notauli incomplete, only distinct basally. Scutellum with reticulation shallow, frenal line absent. Propodeum (Fig. 11) medially 0.65× as long as scutellum, reticulation irregular; plicae complete, separated by 1.23× medial length of propodeum; median carina raised and complete; nucha short; propodeal spiracles oval, 1.5× as long as broad. Fore wing 2.35× as long as broad, with marginal fringe (Fig. 12); basal vein and basal cell bare; upper surface of costal cell hairy, lower surface with scattered setae; submarginal vein 1.32× marginal vein, marginal vein 1.82× postmarginal vein, postmarginal vein longer than stigmal vein (1.3×); stigmal vein straight, stigmal slightly capitate.

Gaster sessile, spindle-shaped with apex pointed, 1.8× as long as broad, 1.45× as wide as thorax; each segment with hind margin entire except hind margin of Gt1 trilobed.

Male. As female, with the following differences. Body length 2.0 mm (Fig. 13). Antennal insertion above the lower ocular line (Fig. 14), Fu1 0.44× as long as scape, each funicular segment longer than broad, with 3–4 rows of setae.

Variability

Females: body length 2.3–2.5 mm, others same as holotype. Males: body length 1.4–2.2 mm.

Remarks

This new species is very similar to M. raptor having fore wing with marginal fringe and inner margins of eyes angularly produced upwards near the vertex. It differs from M. raptor in having the first funicular segment without sensilla, propodeum without coarse rugae.

Material examined

Holotype. ♀, China: Xinjiang: Urumqi, 43.45°N 87.36°E, VII.2016, ex. Pupa of Musca domestica, leg. Hao-yuan Hu, IOZ(E)1812546 (2016-WJ-044). Paratypes. 7♂, IOZ(E)1812547-1812553(2016-WJ-045), 2♀, IOZ(E)1812554-1812555(2016-WJ-044), same data to holotype.

Etymology

The specific name is derived from the Latin sine- and sensilla, referencing the character of Fu1 without sensilla. The name is to be treated as a noun in apposition.

Hosts

Pupa of Musca domestica.

Distribution

China (Xinjiang).

Muscidifurax adanacus Doganlar, 2007

Figs 15–21

Muscidifurax adanacus Doganlar, 2007: 245–246. Holotype ♀, MKUT. Not examined.

Diagnosis

Antenna with scape longer than eye height (Figs 16, 17), exceeding vertex; each funicular segment longer than broad except Fu7 subquadrate; Fu1 without sensilla, longer than Fu2 (Fig. 18); Fu2 with sensilla. Propodeum with two slim median carinae, plicae present, nucha developed (Fig. 19); median area of propodeum with weakly or strong coarse rugae. Fore wing without marginal fringe, and with reduced pilosity. Gaster at least 1.9× as long as broad; Gt1 about 1/4 length of gaster (Fig. 15). Male antennae with each funicular segment longer than broad, and with dense hairy (Figs 20, 21).

Figures 15–21. 

Muscidifurax adanacus Doganlar, 2007, 15–19 female 15 Body in dorsal view 16 Body in lateral view 17 Head in frontal view 18 Head in lateral view 19 Propodeum 20–21 Male 20 Body in lateral view 21 Head in frontal view.

Material examined

China: 1♂ (2016-WJ-067), 4♀ (2016-WJ-004), Shandong: Jinan, 22.III.2016, reared from pupa of Musca domestica (captured on 27.II.2016), leg. Zhang-ze Hu.

Hosts

Pupa of Musca domestica.

Distribution

China (Shandong); Palearctic region (Turkey).

Muscidifurax neoraptorellus Xiao & Zhou, sp. n.

Figs 22–27

Diagnosis

Clypeus with longitudinal striation; clypeal margin not protruded; antenna with each funicular segment longer than broad, each funicular segment with sensilla except Fu1 and Fu2; median area of propodeum without coarse rugae; fore wing without marginal fringe, usually with reduced pilosity; gaster 1.65× as long as broad, Gt1 1/3 length of gaster.

Description

Holotype. Female. 2.2 mm (Fig. 22). Head and mesosoma black, with blue metallic reflections; gaster dark brown with metallic reflections basally. Antennal scape brown, flagellum dark brown; legs brown except coxae concolorous with body; fore wings hyaline, venation brown except marginal vein dark brown.

Figures 22–27. 

Muscidifurax neoraptorellus sp. n., 22–26 female holotype 22 Body in lateral view 23 Head in frontal view 24 Head and antenna in lateral view 25 Propodeum 26 Fore wing 27 Male, Body in dorsal view.

Head in frontal view 1.13× as wide as high (Fig. 23); eye height 0.54× head height, eyes separated by 1.63× their height; antennal scrobes deep, not reaching anterior ocellus; reticulation in antennal scrobe smaller than that on parascrobe. Antennal insertion on lower ocular line, distance from upper margin of torulus to lower margin of anterior ocellus 1.56× distance from lower margin of torulus to lower margin of clypeus. Clypeus with longitudinal striation; clypeal margin straight, not protruded; oral fossa 0.46× as wide as head; right mandible with four teeth, left mandible with three teeth. Head in lateral view (Fig. 24) with malar sulcus inconspicuous, eye height 1.24× malar space. Antennal scape length 1.33× as long as broad, reaching vertex; length of flagellum and pedicel combined longer than head width (1.28×); anellus transverse; each funicular segment longer than broad, Fu1 1.38× as long as broad, as long as Fu2; each funicular segment with sensilla except Fu1 and Fu2 (Fig. 24); clava not clavate, 2.67× as long as broad. Head in dorsal view, 1.75× as wide as long; vertex convex and with coarse reticulation; eye length 2.47× temple length; POL 0.75× OOL.

Head as broad as mesosoma. Mesosoma 1.33× as long as broad. Pronotum 0.83× as broad as mesoscutum, anteriorly margined, posterior band smooth and with a row of hairs. Mesoscutum 1.83× as broad as long; notauli only distinct basally. Scutellum with reticulation shallow, frenal line absent. Propodeum (Fig. 25) medially 0.8× as long as scutellum, reticulation irregular; plicae distinct and complete, separated by 1.44× medial length of propodeum; median carina raised and complete; nucha short, with coarse reticulation; propodeal spiracles oval. Fore wing 2.62× as long as broad, without marginal fringe (Fig. 26); basal vein and basal cell bare; submarginal vein 1.37× marginal vein, marginal vein 1.73× postmarginal vein, postmarginal vein longer than stigmal vein (1.32×); stigmal vein straight, stigmal slightly capitate.

Gaster sessile, spindle-shaped with apex pointed, 1.65× as long as broad, 1.14× as wide as mesosoma; each segment with hind margin entire except Gt1 trilobed; Gt1 covering 1/3 length of gaster.

Male. As female, with the following differences. Body length 2.5 mm. Antennal insertion above the lower ocular line, each funicular segment longer than broad; Fu1 0.5× as long as scape, longer than other funicular segments, 2.46× as long as wide. Lateral panel of metanotum golden (Fig. 27). Gaster dorsum yellow in median area.

Remarks

This new species is very close to M. raptorellus, but noticeably different from M. raptorellus in having the first and second funicular segments without sensilla (only Fu1 without sensilla in M. raptorellus), and the median area of propodeum without coarse rugae (with distinctly coarse rugae in M. raptorellus).

Material examined

Holotype. ♀, China: Shandong: Jinan, 36.40°N 117.00°E, 22.III.2016, reared from pupa of Musca domestica (captured on 27.II.2016), leg. Zhang-ze Hu, IOZ(E)1812557 (2016-WJ-002). Paratypes. 1♂, IOZ(E)1812559 (2016-WJ-005), 1♀, IOZ(E)1812558 (2016-WJ-002), same data as holotype.

Etymology

The species is intended to show similarities with M. raptorellus, hence the specific name is compound of ‘neo-’ and ‘raptorellus’. It is to be treated as an adjective.

Hosts

Pupa of Musca domestica.

Distribution

China (Shandong).

Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders, 1910

Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders, 1910: 146; Doganlar 2007: 243–252.

Smeagolia perplexa Hedqvist, 1973: 237; Bouček, 1991: 203 (synonymy).

Diagnosis

Body black green. Head 2× as long as broad in dorsal view. Antennal scrobes deep, extending upwards and not reaching anterior ocellus; clypeus with shallowly longitudinal striation, lower margin slightly protruded. Antenna with each funicular segment longer than broad and with sensilla. Propodeum with plicae distinct and complete, median carina raised and complete; costula distinct. Fore wing with marginal fringe; stigmal vein straight, slightly capitate. Gaster 2× as long as broad, slightly broader than mesosoma width; Gt1 covering 1/3 length of gaster.

Material examined

China: 1♂, 2♀, Shandong: Jinan, 22.III.2016, reared from pupa of Musca domestica (captured on 27.II.2016), leg. Zhang-ze Hu (2016-WJ-003); 1♀, Australia, N.S.W. Sydney, 10.I.1984, leg. R. Rilansow, det. B.R. Subba Rao, 1985.

Hosts

Pupa of Musca domestica.

Distribution

China (Beijing, Shandong) (Guo et al. 1997); Afrotropics, Australasian, Nearctic, Neotropics and Palearctic regions.

Acknowledgements

We thank Dr. Hao-yuan Hu, Anhui Normal University, and Dr. Meng Sun, Institute of Plant Protection, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, for supplementing specimens. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under grant numbers 31672328, 31372238, and 31750002.

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