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Research Article
A new species of Lobellina and first record of Vietnura from China (Collembola: Neanuridae: Neanurinae)
expand article infoJi-Gang Jiang, Cheng-Wang Huang§, Yun-Xia Luan|
‡ Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changde, China
§ Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
| South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China
Open Access

Abstract

A new species of Lobellina Yosii, 1956 and a key to all species of the genus is provided. It is distinguished from all known members of the genus by its unique set of morphological characters: mandible with six teeth, cephalic chaeta O present, and free from tubercle Fr, cephalic tubercle Oc with three chaetae, cephalic tubercle Di separate, and tubercle Dl with four (sometimes three) chaetae, Ant. I with eight chaetae, and claw with an inner tooth. Vietnura caerulea Deharveng & Bedos, 2000 is recorded from China for the first time. New localities of Rambutanura hunanensis Jiang & Dong, 2018 and Vitronura paraacuta Wang, Wang & Jiang, 2016 from southwest China are also provided.

Keywords

key, Lobellina yinae sp. n., new records, taxonomy

Introduction

Maolan National Nature Reserve is located at Libo County, Qiannan Buyi and Miao Nationalities Autonomous Region of Guizhou Province, southwest China. It covers area of 212.85 km2 and is located in the subtropical monsoon humid climate zone. The main objectives of Maolan National Nature Reserve are the protection of the karst forest, and its rare animals and plants. It is from 430 to 1078 m above sea level. So far, no Neanuridae was reported from this reserve. During the field research at Maolan National Nature Reserve in 2015, four species of the subfamily Neanurinae were collected. They are described in the present paper.

Materials and methods

Specimens were extracted from soil samples with the aid of Tullgren funnels or directly collected with an aspirator, and preserved in 95% ethanol. They were cleared in Nesbitt’s fluid and mounted on slides in Hoyer’s medium. Preparations were dried for 7–15 days in oven at 55 °C, then ringed with lacquer. The morphological characters were observed and figures were drawn using a phase contrast microscope Nikon 80i. Material is deposited in Shanghai Entomological Museum, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

The terminology and layout of the tables used in this paper follow Deharveng (1983), Deharveng and Weiner (1984), Smolis and Deharveng (2006), and Smolis (2008). The abbreviations used are listed below.

General morphology

Abd. abdomen

Ant. antenna

AOIII sensory organ of antennal segment III

Cx coxa

Fe Femur

Scx2 subcoxa 2

Ti tibiotarsus

Th. thorax

Tr trochanter

VT ventral tube

Groups of chaetae

Ag antegenital

An anal lobes

ap apical

ca centroapical

cm centromedial

cp centroposterior

d dorsal

Fu furcal

Vc ventrocentral

Veorve ventroexternal

Vea ventroexternoanterior

Vem ventroexternomedial

Vep ventroexteroposterior

Vel ventroexternolateral

Vec ventroexternocentral

Vei ventroexternointernal

Viorvi ventrointernal

Vl ventrolateral

Tubercles

An antennal

Fr frontal

Af antenno-frontal

Cl clypeal

De dorsoexternal

Di dorsointernal

Dl dorsolateral

L ateral

Oc ocular

So subocular

Types of chaetae

Ml long macrochaeta

Mc short macrochaeta

Mcc very short macrochaeta

me mesochaeta

mi microchaeta

ms s-microchaeta

s s-chaeta

bs s-chaeta on Ant. IV

miA microchaetae on Ant. IV

iv ordinary chaetae on ventral Ant. IV

or organite of Ant. IV

brs border s-chaeta on Ant. IV

i ordinary chaeta on Ant. IV

mou thin cylindrical chaetae on Ant. IV (“soies mousses”)

x labial sensory papilla

L’ ordinary lateral chaeta on Abd. V

Taxonomy

Tribe Lobellini Cassagnau, 1983

Genus Lobellina Yosii, 1956

Lobellina yinae sp. n.

Figs 1, 2, 3, 4–9, Tables 1, 2, 3, 4

Material

Holotype, male, on slide. Maolan National Nature Reserve, Libo County, Guizhou Province, China. 25°16.400'N, 107°53.864'E, ca. 780 m above sea level, 22 July 2015. Collected by Cheng-Wang Huang, Yan Liang and Ai-Min Liu. Paratype, one subadult, same slide and data as holotype.

Etymology

The species is named after Prof. Wen-Ying Yin, in honor of her important contributions to the study of Chinese soil animals.

Diagnosis

Three pigmented eyes, mandible with six teeth, cephalic chaeta O present and free from tubercle Fr, cephalic tubercle Oc with three chaetae, cephalic tubercle Di separate, tubercle Dl with four (sometimes three) chaetae, Ant. I with eight chaetae, and claw with single inner tooth.

Description

General (Figs 13). Body length (without antenna) 1.8–2.1 mm. Cuticular granulations medium, tertiary granules absent, body without reticulations. Tubercles well developed on dorsal side of body. Body color red when alive, white in alcohol. Eyes 3+3, pigmented (Fig. 1). Chaetal morphology (Fig. 9). Dorsal ordinary chaetae of five types: Ml, Mc, Mcc, me, and mi. Macrochaetae Ml long, sheathed, weakly toothed and knobbed at apex. Macrochaetae Mc morphologically of two types: one is similar to Ml, but shorter, the other one with slightly pointed apex. Macrochaetae Mcc morphologically similar to Ml and shorter than Mc. Mesochaetae similar to ventral chaetae, thin, smooth, and pointed, with various length. Microchaetae shorter than mesochaetae, with acuminate tip. S-chaetae on terga thin, smooth, shorter than Mc, longer than Mcc. Antenna (Fig. 4 and Table 3). Antenna 4-segmented. Ant. I with eight chaetae. Ant. II with eleven chaetae and dorsally with a smooth circular area. Ant. III dorsally fused to Ant. IV. AOIII consists of two short rods, ventral ms and two longer sensory chaetae (sgd and sgv), sgd on the same level position of the two rods, each rod exposed in separate pit. Ant. IV dorsally with eight thickened and blunt sensilla, slender i-chaeta, and minute capitate organite (or). Apical bulb distinct, trilobed. Each of the eight sensilla distinctly differentiated, larger and two times shorter than “mou”-chaetae. Ventral chaetotaxy of Ant. III–IV is shown in Table 3, ap with eight bs and three miA, ca with two bs and two miA, cm with three bs and one miA, cp with six bs and seven miA. On ventral side of Ant. III, Vi, Vc, Ve respectively with four, four, five chaetae, Ant. III dorsally with 4–5 d chaetae, d1, d2, d3 as me, d4 as mi, d5 as mi and sometimes absent. Mouthparts. Buccal cone moderately long, labrum ventral sclerifications truncated (Fig. 8). Labrum chaetotaxy: 0/2, 2. Labium with normal chaetotaxy, and chaeta F almost three times as long as chaeta A, without papillae x (Fig. 8). Maxilla styliform, consisting of two fused lamellae, apically with two tiny teeth (Fig. 7). Mandible with four apical teeth, one middle tooth, and one large basal tooth (Fig. 6). Dorsal chaetotaxy and tubercles of head (Fig. 1 and Table 1). Head with 14 tubercles. Tubercle Cl with four chaetae: 2G+2F; tubercle An with four chaetae: B, C, D, E; tubercle Oc with three chaetae; tubercle Fr with three chaetae, chaeta O present, shifting between the two tubercles An; tubercle Di with a single chaeta; De with three chaetae; tubercle Dl separate from tubercle L+So, with four (or three) chaetae; tubercle L+So with 13 chaetae. Dorsal chaetotaxy and tubercles of thorax (Fig. 2 and Table 4). Thoracic dorsal tubercles complete. Th. I with three tubercles, tubercle Di with one chaeta; tubercle De with two chaetae; tubercle Dl with one chaeta. Th. II with four tubercles, tubercle Di with three chaetae; tubercle De with five chaetae (4+s); tubercle Dl with five chaetae and one ms (4+s+ms); tubercle L with three chaetae. Th. III with four tubercles, tubercle Di with three chaetae; tubercle De with five chaetae (4+s); tubercle Dl with five chaetae (4+s); tubercle L with three chaetae. Dorsal chaetotaxy and tubercles of abdomen (Fig. 3 and Table 4). Dorsum of Abd. I with four tubercles, tubercle Di with two chaetae; tubercle De with four chaetae (3+s); tubercle Dl with three chaetae; tubercle L with four chaetae. Tubercles and chaetae arrangements of Abd. II–III as on Abd. I. Abd. IV with four tubercles, tubercle Di with two chaetae; tubercle De with three chaetae (2+s); tubercle Dl with three chaetae; tubercle L with 5–7 chaetae. Abd. V with four tubercles, tubercle Di with three chaetae; tubercle De with one chaeta (s); tubercle Dl with four chaetae; tubercle L with seven chaetae (without s chaeta). Abd. VI bilobed, each side of Abd. VI with one tubercle, each tubercle with seven chaetae. No cryptopygy. S-chaetae formula on tergites as 0, 2+ms, 2/1, 1, 1, 1, 1. Ventral chaetotaxy (Fig. 5, Table 2). On ventral side of head, groups Vea, Vem, and Vep with five, four, four chaetae respectively. Group Vi on head with five chaetae. On Abd. I, VT with one proximal and three distal chaetae. On Abd. III, furca rudimentary with three chaetae, and without microchaeta. On Abd IV, group Vei, Vec, Vel respectively with one, two, four chaetae. On Abd. V, group Vl with 2–3 chaetae, Ag with 3–4 chaetae, chaeta L’ absent. Anal lobe with 14–15 chaetae and three mi. Legs (Table 4). Unguis with an inner tooth and without lateral tooth. Chaeta M on tibiotarsus present. Tibiotarsus of foreleg, midleg, and hindleg with 19, 19, 18 chaetae respectively.

Figure 1. 

Lobellina yinae sp. n. dorsal tubercle and chaetotaxy of head.

Table 1.

Cephalic dorsal tubercles and chaetotaxy of Lobellina yinae sp. n.

Tubercle Number of chaetae Types of chaetae Names of chaetae
Cl 4 Ml F
me G
An 4 M B
Mcc E
me C, D
Fr 3 Ml A
me O
Oc 3 Ml Ocm
Mcc Ocp
me or mi Oca
Di 1 Ml Di1
Chaetal homology uncertain
De 3 Ml De1
Mc De2
mi Di2
Dl 4 (3) Mc+Mcc+2me (ormi) Chaetal homology uncertain
L+So 13 4Ml+9me Chaetal homology uncertain
Figure 2. 

Lobellina yinae sp. n. dorsal tubercles and chaetotaxy on Th. I–III.

Figure 3. 

Lobellina yinae sp. n. dorsal tubercles and chaetotaxy on Abd. IV–VI.

Figures 4–9. 

Lobellina yinae sp. n. 4 dorsal chaetotaxy of antenna 5 ventral chaetotaxy of head 6 mandible 7 maxilla 8 Labium 9 types of body chaetae.

Table 2.

Cephalic ventral chaetotaxy of Lobellina yinae sp. n.

Group Number of chaetae
Vi 5
Vea 5
Vem 4
Vep 4
Labium 11, 0 X
Table 3.

Chaetotaxy of antenna of Lobellina yinae sp. n.

Segment, group Number of chaetae Segment, group Number of chaetae
I 8 IV or, 8 s, 12 mou, ? brs, 2 iv
II 11
III 5 sensilla AOIII
Ve 5 ap 8 bs, 3 miA
Vc 4 ca 2 bs, 2 miA
Vi 4 cm 3 bs, 1 miA
d 4(2me+2mi)–5(2me+3mi) cp 1brs, 7 miA
Table 4.

Postcephalic tubercles and chaetotaxy of Lobellina yinae sp. n.

Terga Legs
Di De Dl L Scx2 Cx Tr Fe T
Th. I Ml Ml+me Ml 0 3 6 13 19
Th. II Ml+Mc+mi Ml+Mc+Mcc+me+ s 3Ml+Mcc+s+ms Ml+2Mcc 2 7 6 12 19
Th. III Ml+Mc+mi Ml+Mc+Mcc+me+ s 3Ml+Mcc+s Ml+2Mcc 2 8 6 11 18
Terga Sterna
Abd. I Ml+Mc Ml+Mc+ me+s Ml+Mc+Mcc Ml+Mc+2me VT: 4
Abd. II Ml+Mc Ml+Mc+me+s Ml+Mc +Mcc Ml+Mc+2me Ve: 4–5, V1: 0
Abd. III Ml+Mc Ml+Mc+me+s Ml+Mc+Mcc Ml+Mc+3me Ve: 4, Fu: 3, 0 mi
Abd. IV Ml+Mc Ml+Mc+s Ml+Mc+Mcc 3Ml+2me or (3Ml+2me+2Mc) Vei: 1, Vec: 1, Vel: 2 , Vl: 4
Abd. V Ml+Mc+me s 2Ml+Mc+Mcc 7me or 1Mc+6me Ag:3–4, Vl: 2–3, L’: 0
Abd. VI 2Ml+5me Ve: 14–15, An: 3 mi

Ecology and distribution

In fallen leaves of bamboo. Lobellina yinae sp. n. is only known from Libo (Fig. 16).

Remarks

To date, 15 species of the genus Lobellina are known from Asia and one from Central America (Cuba) (Deharveng and Weiner 1984, Ma and Chen 2008, Smolis 2017, Jiang et al. 2018). The new species is similar to L. montana Deharveng & Weiner, 1984 and L. paraminuta Deharveng & Weiner, 1984 from Korea by the following characters: cephalic chaeta O free from tubercle Fr (shifting between two tubercles An), cephalic tubercle Dl separate from tubercle L+So, tubercle Oc with three chaetae, Abd. V with 3+3 dorsal tubercles and De separate from Dl, and claw with a distinct basal inner tooth. However, L. yinae sp. n. can be distinguished from L. montana and L. paraminuta by its mandible with six teeth versus seven, cephalic tubercle Dl with three or four chaetae versus five, tubercle De on Abd. I–III with four chaetae (3+s) versus three (2+s), and tubercle Dl on Abd. I–III with three chaetae versus two.

The new species is also similar to L. fusa Jiang, Wang & Xia, 2018 from China by the following characters: mandible with six teeth, maxilla styliform, tubercle Fr on head with three chaetae, tubercle Oc on head with three chaetae, Abd.V with 3+3 dorsal tubercles and De separate from Dl, and claw with a distinct basal inner tooth. However, the new species can be differentiated from L. fusa by the cephalic chaeta O of tubercle Fr free (not free in L. fusa), cephalic tubercles Di separated (fused in L. fusa), cephalic tubercle Dl with four chaetae (five in L. fusa), and each tubercle Dl on Abd. I–III with three chaetae (two chaetae in L. fusa).

Key to species of the genus Lobellina Yosii, 1956 (Modified from Jiang et al. 2018)

1 Cephalic chaeta O present 2
Cephalic chaeta O absent 7
2 Chaeta O included in tubercle Fr 3
Chaeta O free on tubercle Fr 4
3 Body color yellow, mandible with seven teeth, tubercle Oc with 2 chaetae, ventral tube with 5+5 chaetae, cephalic tubercles Di separate L. nanjingensis Ma & Chen, 2008 (China)
Body color red, mandible with six teeth, tubercle Oc with three chaetae, ventral tube with 4+4 chaetae, cephalic tubercles Di fused L. fusa Jiang, Wang & Xia, 2018 (China)
4 Mandible with six teeth, Cephalic tubercle Dl with four (or three) chaetae L. yinae sp. n. (China)
Mandible with seven teeth, Cephalic tubercle Dl with five chaetae 5
5 Tubercle Dl on Th. II with six chaetae (4 +s+ms) L. montana Deharveng & Weiner, 1984 (Korea)
Tubercle Dl on Th. II with five chaetae (3+s+ms) 6
6 Tubercle Oc with mesochaeta Oca, Abd.V dorsally with 4+4 tubercles L. paraminuta Deharveng & Weiner, 1984 (Korea)
Tubercle Oc without chaeta Oca, Abd.V dorsally with 3+3 tubercles L. weinerae Smolis, 2017 (Vietnam)
7 Body macrochaetae smooth 8
Body macrochaetae serrate 13
8 Cephalic tubercle Oc with three chaetae 9
Cephalic tubercle Oc with two chaetae 10
9 Abd. V with 2+2 dorsal tubercles L. chosonica Deharveng & Weiner, 1984 (Korea)
Abd. V with 3+3 dorsal tubercles L. proxima Deharveng & Weiner, 1984 (Korea)
10 Tubercle Di on Abd. V with two chaetae 11
Tubercle Di on Abd. V with three chaetae L. minuta (Lee, 1980) (Korea)
11 Mandible with three teeth L. ipohensis (Yosii, 1976) (Malaysia)
Mandible with 6–8 teeth 12
12 Mandible with six teeth, tubercle De+Dl with six chaetae (5+s) L. pomorskii Smolis, 2017 (Vietnam)
Mandible with eight teeth, tubercle De+Dl with five chaetae (4+s) L. musangensis (Yosii, 1976) (Malaysia)
13 Cephalic tubercle Oc with two chaetae 14
Cephalic tubercle Oc with three chaetae 15
14 Abd. V with 2+2 dorsal tubercles L. ionescui (Massoud & Gruia, 1974) (Cuba)
Abd. V with 3+3 dorsal tubercles L. perfusionides (Stach, 1965) (Vietnam)
15 Abd. V with 2+2 dorsal tubercles L. roseola (Yosii, 1954) (Japan)
Abd. V with 3+3 dorsal tubercles L. kitazawai (Yosii, 1969) (Japan)

Tribe Neanurini Börner, 1901 (sensu Cassagnau, 1983)

Vietnura Deharveng & Bedos, 2000: new record to China

Vietnura caerulea Deharveng & Bedos, 2000: 209–214, figs 1–4 (Vietnam) new record to China

Material

Two males on the same slide, one of them submature, 25°17.453'N, 107°56.359'E, elevation 880–900 m. Three individuals in alcohol, Coordinates: 25°17.516'N, 107°56.371'E, elevation 840 m. One specimen in alcohol, 25°17.483'N, 107°56.245'E, elevation 731 m. All of them were collected by Cheng-Wang Huang, Yan Liang & Ai-Min Liu, from Maolan National Nature Reserve, Libo County, Guizhou Province, China, on 19 July 2015. Material deposited in Shanghai Entomological Museum, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Description of the Chinese specimens

(Figs 1015, Tables 57). Body length (without antenna) 0.9–1.1 mm. Cuticular granulations medium, tertiary granules developed, body with reticulations. Tubercles well developed on dorsal side of body. Body color blue alive and in alcohol. Eyes 2+2, small and pigmented, all on tubercles Oc. Chaetal morphology (Fig. 14). Dorsal ordinary chaetae of four types: Ml, Mc, Mcc, and me. Macrochaetae Ml long, sheathed, distinctly toothed and knobbed at apex (Fig. 14a). Macrochaetae Mc morphologically similar to long macrochaetae, but shorter. Macrochaetae Mcc morphologically similar to Mc and shorter than Mc. Mesochaetae similar to ventral chaetae, thin, smooth, and pointed, with various lengths. S-chaetae of tergites thin, smooth, shorter than Mc and slightly longer than Mccmou” (Fig. 14b). S-chaetae formula on tergites as 0, 2+ms, 2/1, 1, 1, 1, 1. Antenna. Antenna 4-segmented. Ant. I with seven chaetae. Ant. II with 10–11 chaetae. Ant. III dorsally fused to Ant. IV. AOIII consists of two short rods, one ventral msand two longer sensilla (sgd and sgv), sgd shifted basally to the back of the two rods, each rod exposed in separate pit (Fig. 10). Ant. IV dorsally with eight sensilla, slender i-chaeta, and minute capitate organite (or), apical bulb small, trilobed (Fig. 10). Sensilla thicker and shorter than “mou”-chaetae (Fig. 10). Ventral chaetotaxy of Ant. III–IV as in Fig. 11 and Table 6, group ap with seven bs and four miA, ca with two bs and two miA, cm with three bs and one miA, cp with eight miA and brs5. On ventral side of Ant. III, Vi, Vc, Ve respectively with four, four, three chaetae; dorsally with three d chaetae, d3 as mesochaeta (Fig. 10). Mouthparts. Buccal cone short, labral sclerifications not ogival. Labrum chaetotaxy: ?/2, 4. Labium with four basal, three distal, four lateral chaetae, without papillae x. Maxilla reduced, styliform (Fig. 13). Mandible reduced, tridentate (Fig. 12).

Dorsal chaetotaxy and tubercles (Table 7). Head with six tubercles. Tubercle Cl with four chaetae: two G and two F; tubercle Af+Oc with four chaetae: two B and two Ocm, chaeta O absent; tubercle Di+De with four chaetae: two Di1, two De1; tubercle Dl+L+So with eleven chaetae (5Ml+6me). Thorax and abdomen tubercles and chaetotaxy as in Table 7. Cryptopygy.

Ventral chaetotaxy (Fig. 15 and Table 5). On head, groups Vea, Vem and Vep with two, two, two chaetae respectively. Group Vi on head with five chaetae. VT with one proximal and three distal chaetae. On Abd. III, furca rudimentary with 3–4 chaetae, Vel with 3–4 chaetae. On Abd. IV, group Vei, Vec, Vel respectively with one, two, three chaetae, Vl with three or four chaetae. On Abd. V, group Vl with two chaetae, chaeta L’ absent, Ag with two chaetae. Anal lobe with twelve chaetae and one mi.

Appendages. Unguis without tooth. Chaeta M on tibiotarsus present. Tibiotarsus of foreleg, midleg and hindleg, respectively with 19, 19, 18 chaetae. Chaetotaxy of ventral tube and furcular remnant as in Table 7.

Figures 10–14. 

Vietnura caerulea Deharveng & Bedos, 2000 10 dorsal side of antenna 11 ventral side of Ant. III–IV 12 mandible 13 maxilla 14 body setae, a: macrochaeta, b: S-chaeta.

Figure 15. 

Vietnura caerulea Deharveng & Bedos, 2000, ventral side of Abd. II–VI.

Table 5.

Cephalic ventral chaetotaxy of Vietnura caerulea Deharveng & Bedos, 2000.

Group Number of chaetae
Vi 5
Vea 2
Vem 2
Vep 2
Labium 11, 0×
Table 6.

Chaetotaxy of antenna of Vietnura caerulea Deharveng & Bedos, 2000.

Segment, group Number of chaetae Segment, group Number of chaetae
I 7 IV or, 8 s, 12 mou, ? brs, 2 iv
II 10–11
III 5 sensilla AOIII
Ve 3 ap 7 bs, 4 miA
Vc 4 ca 2 bs, 2 miA
Vi 4 cm 3 bs, 1 miA
d 3 cp 1 brs, 8 miA
Table 7.

Postcephalic tubercles and chaetotaxy of Vietnura caerulea Deharveng & Bedos, 2000.

Terga Legs
Di De Dl L Scx2 Cx Tr Fe T
Th. I Mc Mc+Mcc Mc 0 3 6 13 19
Th. II Ml+Mcc Mc+Mcc +s Ml+2Mcc +s+ms Ml+Mc+ Mcc 2 7 6 12 19
Th. III Ml+MccorMl+2Mcc Mc+Mcc +s Ml+2Mcc +s Ml+Mc+ Mcc 2 8 6 11 18
Terga Sterna
Abd. I Ml+Mcc Ml+Mcc +s Ml+Mcc Ml+Mcc+me VT: 4
Abd. II Ml+Mcc Ml+Mcc +s Ml+Mcc Ml+Mcc+me Ve: 3
Abd. III Ml+Mcc Ml+Mcc +s Ml+Mcc Ml+Mcc+me Ve: 3–4, Fu: 3–4 me, mi: 0
Abd. IV Ml+Mcc Ml+Mcc +s Ml+Mcc 4me Vei: 1, Vec: 2, Vel: 3, Vl: 3–4
Abd. V 2(Ml+Mcc)* Ml+Mcc+ 2me+s Ag: 2, Vl: 2
Abd. VI 7 (8) Ve: 12, An: 1 mi

Ecology and distribution

Among fallen leaves of bamboo and under broad-leaved trees in the forest. The species is described from Vietnam. In China, it is only known from Maolan National Nature Reserve, Libo County (Fig. 16).

Figure 16. 

Map of China, with localities of Lobellina yinae sp. n. (A), Rambutanura hunanensis (B), Vitronura paraacuta (C) and Vietnura caerulea (D).

Remarks

Vietnura caerulea is easily distinguished among Chinese Neanurinae by its blue body color, six tubercles on the head, 2+2 pigmented eyes on tubercle Af+Oc, and reduced mandible and maxilla. Additionally, Ve chaetal group of Abd. IV has 3–5 shortened, thickened, and distally ciliated chaetae (male), claw is toothless, and hypotrichosis is developed on body tubercles.

Tribe Paleonurini Cassagnau, 1989

Genus Rambutanura Deharveng, 1988

Rambutanura hunanensis Jiang & Dong, 2018

Rambutanura hunanensis Jiang & Dong, 2018: 377–386, figs 1 –14 (China)

Material

One juvenile, body length 2.2 mm, on slide; two specimens in alcohol, probably juvenile. Maolan National Nature Reserve, Libo County, Guizhou Province, China, 25°16.400'N, 107°53.864'E, ca. 890 m above sea level. 19 July 2015. Collected by Cheng-Wang Huang, Yan Liang, and Ai-Min Liu.

Diagnosis

The specimen from Libo County is characterized by its body without long digitate tubercles and tertiary granules, 2+2 depigmented eyes, mandible with four teeth, maxilla styliform, head with eight tubercles (Cl, Af, 2 Oc, 2 Di+De, 2 Dl+L+So), claw with a big inner tooth, and ventral tube with 5–6 chaetae. These characters are similar to those of Rambutanura hunanensis Jiang & Dong, 2018 from Hunan Province; however, the presence of only four chaetae on genital plate reveals the immaturity of the Maolan specimens.

Remarks

The distribution of R. hunanensis is given in Fig. 16. The species has been collected from other localities in China, such as Huping Mountain, Shimen County, Hunan Province (unpublished). It is probably widely distributed in central and southwest China.

Genus Vitronura Yosii, 1969

Vitronura paraacuta Wang, Wang & Jiang, 2016

Vitronura paraacuta Wang, Wang & Jiang, 2016: 183–196, figs 1–7 (China)

Material

Two females, submature, on slides, five specimens in alcohol, Maolan National Nature Reserve, Libo County, Guizhou Province, China, 25°16.400'N, 107°53.864'E, ca. 880 m above sea level. 19 July 2015. Collected by Cheng-Wang Huang, Yan Liang, and Ai-Min Liu.

Diagnosis

The characters of the specimens from Maolan are consistent with those of Vitronura paraacuta Wang, Wang & Jiang, 2016: body tubercles well differentiated, head with 14 tubercles (only cephalic tubercle L fused to So), 2+2 depigmented eyes, mandible with four teeth, maxilla styliform, tubercles Fr and Oc with three chaetae each, and claw with an inner tooth.

Remarks

The arrangement of the dorsal body tubercles and numbers of chaetae on dorsal tubercles of V. paraacuta are very similar to those of V. dentata Deharveng & Weiner, 1984 from Korea. However, V. paraacuta can be differentiated from V. dentata by almost smooth body macrochaetae, four teeth on mandible, chaetae Di2, De2 on cephalic tubercle De and chaeta Oca on cephalic tubercle Oc being mesochaetae (vs serrated body macrochaetae, three teeth on mandible, chaetae Di2, De2 on cephalic tubercle De and chaeta Oca on cephalic tubercle Oc being microchaetae in V. dentata). The distribution of V. paraacuta is given in Fig. 16.

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31772510, 31501849, 31471958), the Open Fund Project of Innovation Platform for University of Hunan Province (No. 14k065), the Natural Science Fund of Hunan Province (No. 2016JJ2091) and the Science Research Fund of Hunan University of Arts and Science (13ZD05). We thank two referees, Adrian Smolis (University of Wrocław, Poland) and Louis Deharveng (Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, France), for their valuable suggestions and comments on the manuscript.

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