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Systematics of the new genus Spinosuncus Chen, Zhang & Li with descriptions of four new species (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Pyraustinae)
expand article infoKai Chen, Dandan Zhang§, Houhun Li§
‡ Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
§ Nankai University, Tianjin, China
Open Access

Abstract

The new genus Spinosuncus gen. n. is proposed for three known species, S. contractalis (Warren, 1896), comb. n., S. praepandalis (Snellen, 1890), comb. n., and S. aureolalis (Lederer, 1863), comb. n. and four new species, S. rectacutus sp. n., S. brevacutus sp. n., S. curvisetaceus sp. n., and S. quadracutus sp. n. from the Oriental Region. An identification key is provided for all species. The habiti and genitalia of all species are figured. The monophyly of the genus is well supported by a phylogenetic analysis based on sequence data of the COI, 16S rRNA, and EF-1α genes. The potential sister groups of the new genus, the interspecific relationships and some intraspecific variations within the genus are discussed.

Keywords

Aglaops, China, molecular phylogeny, new combinations, Ostrinia, Paratalanta, Placosaris, Pseudebulea, Pseudopagyda, Thliptoceras

Introduction

Pyraustinae is the third largest subfamily in the family Crambidae, containing 173 genera that include more than 1176 described species (Nuss et al. 2003–2018). The monophyly of the Pyraustinae is well supported by phylogenetic analyses based on both morphological characters and molecular data (Solis and Maes 2002, Regier et al. 2012). Based on specialized genitalic characters, e.g. the valva bearing sella and editum in the male genitalia and a rhomboidal signum in the female genitalia, pyraustine species are easily distinguished from members of its sister group, Spilomelinae (Regier et al. 2012). However, the taxa belonging to Pyraustinae sensu stricto still have not been all associated on a worldwide basis (Solis and Maes 2002), partly because they were for a long time placed into Pyraustinae sensu lato along with various Spilomelinae. This group has been relatively well studied in Europe and North America. In other regions, however, particularly the Oriental Region, this work is far from complete. One of the major contributions to the knowledge of the Pyraustinae of East Asia is a series of papers by Munroe and Mutuura (1968, 1969, 1970, 1971) treating many pyraustine genera of temperate East Asia, a historical milestone in the study of the Pyraustinae of this area. Both authors’ generic concepts, however, were narrow, so that many genera recognized by these authors were united by Tränkner et al. (2009) in a wider concept of the genus Anania Hübner.

In recent years, a series of similar yellowish specimens collected from the south of China, all superficially resembling species of Pseudopagyda Slamka, 2013, attracted our attention. By examining the genitalia, three described species, Paliga contractalis Warren, 1896, Botys aureolalis Lederer, 1863, Botys praepandalis Snellen, 1890 and four unknown species were recognized. According to characters of male and female genitalia, they are congeneric, but obviously do not match the genitalic morphology of Pseudopagyda or Paliga Moore, 1886. Bänziger (1995) placed Paliga contractalis and Botys aureolalis in genus Microstega Meyrick, 1890 along with Pionea acutangulata Swinhoe, 1901 and Microstega homoculorum Bänziger, 1995. Bänziger (1995) also pointed out that M. homoculorum and M. acutangulata are congeneric, but that M. contractalis and M. aureolalis probably each belong to a different genus, and that Pionea praepandalis resembles M. aureolalis superficially, without giving any details. Microstega was synonymized with Paratalanta Meyrick, 1890 by Kirpichnikova (1986) and Maes (1994) based on “the characteristic sclerotized hook (spicula-shaped sella) on the valvae of the male genitalia”. This taxonomic decision is commonly accepted, but Zhang et al. (2014) excluded the above five species from Paratalanta because they share no generic synapomorphies with Paratalanta. Almost at the same time, Slamka (2013) proposed genus Pseudopagyda for M. homoculorum. Subsequently, M. acutangulata was transferred to Pseudopagyda (Chen and Zhang 2017). Slamka (2013) also suggested that Paliga contractalis and Botys aureolalis should belong to Pseudopagyda. However, in a revision of Pseudopagyda (Chen and Zhang 2017), several putative synapomorphic characters of the genus were summarized, and it was found that Paliga contractalis and Botys aureolalis are not congeneric with species of Pseudopagyda based on genitalia characters.

After comparing these species with taxonomic treatments, faunal surveys, and checklists of Spilomelinae and Pyraustinae (Hampson 1893, 1896, 1898, 1899, Caradja 1925, Shibuya 1928, 1929, Munroe and Mutuura 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, Munroe 1976a, 1976b, Wang 1980, Inoue 1982, Heppner and Inoue 1992, Munroe 1995, Speidel 1996, Shaffer et al. 1996, Kirpichnikova 1999, 2009, Wang and Speidel 2000, Mathew 2006, Shaffer and Munroe 2007, Bae et al. 2008, Leraut 2012, Slamka 2013, Yamanaka et al. 2013, Scholtens and Solis 2015) and type specimens deposited in the Natural History Museum, London, the Zoological Institute, Academy of Sciences of Russia, St. Petersburg, the Australian National Insect Collection and the National Museum of Natural History Grigore Antipa, Bucharest, Romania, our efforts of placing these species in a suitable genus were unsuccessful. Moreover, they can’t be placed in any African pyraustine genus (Dr Koen VN Maes, pers. comm.). The seven species treated here, currently with no appropriate generic placement, could be easily separated from other pyraustine taxa by several genital traits in both males and females, especially the peculiar uncus, for which the erection of a new genus is considered warranted.

Thus, the aim of this study is to propose a new genus, provide several synapomorphic characters, present an identification key based on external features and genitalia, redescribe three known species, and describe four new ones. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the genus and of several potentially related genera, is also proposed based on molecular data.

Materials and methods

Molecular material and methods

All species of the genus Spinosuncus, two species of the genus Pseudopagyda, and four species of other genera of Pyraustinae were included for molecular phylogenetic analysis (Table 1). Pseudebulea fentoni Butler, 1881 was chosen as outgroup because it was considered as a basal lineage of the Pyraustinae (Zhang 2003).

Species sampled for the molecular phylogenetic analysis.

Genus Species Voucher number Locality GenBank accession number Reference
COI 16S EF-1α
Pseudebulea fentoni SYSU-LEP0074 Hunan Prov. MG739570 MG739582 MG739594 Chen et al. 2018
Paratalanta ussurialis SYSU-LEP0158 Hunan Prov. MK000093 MK000070 MK000116 present study
Ostrinia furnacalis SYSU-LEP0157 Jiangxi Prov. MK000094 MK000071 MK000117 present study
Placosaris rubellalis SYSU-LEP0087 Jiangxi Prov. MK000095 MK000072 MK000118 present study
Thliptoceras sinense SYSU-LEP0080 Jiangxi Prov. MK000096 MK000073 MK000119 present study
Aglaops youboialis SYSU-LEP0068 Jiangxi Prov. MK000097 MK000074 MK000120 present study
Pseudopagyda homoculorum SYSU-LEP0116 Yunnan Prov. MK000098 MK000075 MK000121 present study
acutangulata SYSU-LEP0011 Jiangxi Prov. MK000099 MK000076 MK000122 present study
acutangulata SYSU-LEP0126 Jiangxi Prov. MK000100 MK000077 MK000123 present study
Spinosuncus aureolalis SYSU-LEP0132 Yunnan Prov. MK000101 MK000078 MK000124 present study
aureolalis SYSU-LEP0146 Yunnan Prov. MK000102 MK000079 MK000125 present study
quadracutus SYSU-LEP0001 Hainan Prov. MK000103 MK000080 MK000126 present study
quadracutus SYSU-LEP0002 Hainan Prov. MK000104 MK000081 MK000127 present study
curvisetaceus SYSU-LEP0129 Jiangxi Prov. MK000105 MK000082 MK000128 present study
praepandalis SYSU-LEP0006 Guizhou Prov. MK000106 MK000083 MK000129 present study
praepandalis SYSU-LEP0131 Yunnan Prov. MK000107 MK000084 MK000130 present study
brevacutus SYSU-LEP0009 Guizhou Prov. MK000108 MK000085 MK000131 present study
brevacutus SYSU-LEP0010 Guizhou Prov. MK000109 MK000086 MK000132 present study
brevacutus SYSU-LEP0156 Jiangxi Prov. MK000110 MK000087 MK000133 present study
rectacutus SYSU-LEP0134 Guizhou Prov. MK000111 MK000088 MK000134 present study
rectacutus SYSU-LEP0155 Guizhou Prov. MK000112 MK000089 MK000135 present study
contractalis SYSU-LEP0133 Yunnan Prov. MK000113 MK000090 MK000136 present study
contractalis SYSU-LEP0135 Yunnan Prov. MK000114 MK000091 MK000137 present study
contractalis SYSU-LEP0153 Yunnan Prov. MK000115 MK000092 MK000138 present study

Total DNA was extracted from one hindleg and one midleg of 24 specimens using the TIANGEN DNA extraction kit following the manufacturer’s instructions. The nucleotide sequences of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA), and one nuclear gene, elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α), were selected for study. Primers used in this study were chosen according to Simon et al. (2006), Wahlberg and Wheat (2008) and Hundsdörfer et al. (2009). PCR cycle conditions were an initial denaturation of 5 min at 95 °C, 30 s at 94 °C, 30 s at 48 °C (COI and 16S rRNA) or 51 °C(EF-1α), and 1 min at 72 °C for 35 cycles, and a final extension at 72 °C for 10 min. All amplifications were confirmed by gel electrophoresis on a 1.5% W/V agarose gel in TAE buffer. PCR products were direct-sequenced at Majorbio Bio-pharm Technology Co., Ltd (Guangzhou), utilizing the same primers used for PCR amplification.

The sequences were aligned using Clustal W (Thompson et al. 1994) under default settings. Gaps were treated as missing data in all analyses. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using Bayesian inference (BI) method and Maximum likelihood (ML). The BI analysis was run in MrBayes 3.2.6 (Ronquist et al. 2012) with independent parameters for the gene partitions for COI and 16S rRNA under the GTR+G model and for the EF-1α gene partition under the SYM+I+G model as suggested by jModelTest 0.1.1 (Posada 2008). Two independent runs, each with four Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations, were performed for 3 million generations sampled every 1000th step. The first 25% of the trees were discarded as burn-in, and posterior probabilities (PP) were determined from remaining trees. The ML analysis was executed in RAxML 8.2.10 (Stamatakis 2014) for all gene partitions under the GTR + G model proposed by jModelTest 0.1.1 (Posada 2008) and with 1000 iterations for bootstrap test. The pairwise Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) distances between species were calculated from the COI gene using MEGA 6 (Tamura et al. 2013).

Morphological materials and methods

The specimens studied, including the types of the newly described species, are all deposited at the Museum of Biology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (SYSBM) except those specified as being in the Insect Collection of the College of Life Sciences, Nankai University (NKU), the Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom (NHMUK) and the Forest Canopy Ecology Lab, Yunnan (FCEL). Slides of genitalic dissections were prepared according to Robinson (1976) and Li and Zheng (1996), with some modifications. Genitalia terms follow Klots (1970), Munroe (1976a), Maes (1995), and Kristensen (2003). Specimen images at different focal levels were made using a Canon EOS 1DX camera (provided with a Canon 100 mm macro lens) in combination with Helicon Remote. Genitalia pictures were taken using a Zeiss Axio Scope.A1 in combination with a Zeiss AxioCam camera and the Axio Vision SE64 program on a Windows PC; source images were then aligned and stacked on Helicon Focus to obtain a fully sharpened composite image. All the pictures were edited using Adobe Photoshop CS5.

Results

Phylogenetic relationships

The concatenated dataset of three genes consisted of 1863 nucleotide positions (658 for COI, 434 for 16S rRNA and 771 for EF-1α, respectively). Pairwise distances of the barcode region (COI) are given in Table 2. The genetic distances between the genus Spinosuncus (described below) and the other genera range from 9.0% (Aglaops) to 17.0% (Pseudebulea). Interspecific genetic distances within Spinosuncus range from 2.5% (S. contractalis to S. rectacutus) to 13.8% (S. aureolalis to S. rectacutus) while intraspecific genetic distances in Spinosuncus range from 0% (S. contractalis) to 2.7% (S. aureolalis).

The BI and ML analyses of the concatenated dataset inferred congruent topologies with only subtle differences in posterior probability and bootstrap values probability (Figure 1). The monophyly of Spinosuncus is robustly supported (PP = 1.00, BS = 98). Within Spinosuncus, three well-supported clades are identified. The clade S. aureolalis + S. quadracutus, clade S. curvisetaceus + S. praepandalis and clade S. brevacutus + (S. rectacutus + S. contractalis) are each recovered with robust supports (PP = 1.00, BS = 100). Clade Aglaops youboialis + (Pseudopagyda homoculorum + P. acutangulata) is in a sister position to clade Spinosuncus with robust support as well (PP = 1.00, BS = 77). Distances between Spinosuncus and Pseudopagyda range from 10.2% to 13.3%, and between Spinosuncus and Aglaops from 9.0% to 12.9%.

Pairwise distances of the COI barcode region based on Kimura-2-parameter model (intraspecific distances are highlighted in bold).

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
1 LEP0132 Spinosuncus aureolalis
2 LEP0146 Spinosuncus aureolalis 0.027
3 LEP0001 Spinosuncus quadracutus 0.044 0.037
4 LEP0002 Spinosuncus quadracutus 0.046 0.035 0.002
5 LEP0129 Spinosuncus curvisetaceus 0.111 0.092 0.109 0.107
6 LEP0006 Spinosuncus praepandalis 0.115 0.100 0.107 0.105 0.041
7 LEP0131 Spinosuncus praepandalis 0.117 0.107 0.105 0.107 0.050 0.024
8 LEP0009 Spinosuncus brevacutus 0.129 0.104 0.118 0.116 0.083 0.101 0.109
9 LEP0010 Spinosuncus brevacutus 0.131 0.106 0.120 0.118 0.085 0.103 0.111 0.002
10 LEP0156 Spinosuncus brevacutus 0.125 0.104 0.114 0.116 0.083 0.101 0.105 0.003 0.005
11 LEP0134 Spinosuncus rectacutus 0.138 0.112 0.120 0.118 0.094 0.100 0.109 0.049 0.047 0.049
12 LEP0155 Spinosuncus rectacutus 0.138 0.112 0.120 0.118 0.094 0.100 0.109 0.047 0.046 0.047 0.005
13 LEP0133 Spinosuncus contractalis 0.131 0.106 0.118 0.116 0.089 0.095 0.099 0.049 0.048 0.049 0.027 0.025
14 LEP0135 Spinosuncus contractalis 0.127 0.106 0.114 0.112 0.089 0.095 0.095 0.049 0.048 0.049 0.027 0.025 0.003
15 LEP0153 Spinosuncus contractalis 0.127 0.106 0.114 0.112 0.089 0.095 0.095 0.049 0.048 0.049 0.027 0.025 0.003 0.000
16 LEP0068 Aglaops youboialis 0.129 0.112 0.118 0.116 0.090 0.100 0.104 0.094 0.096 0.094 0.098 0.098 0.100 0.100 0.100
17 LEP0116 Pseudopagyda homoculorum 0.131 0.124 0.133 0.130 0.102 0.114 0.114 0.124 0.126 0.124 0.118 0.118 0.120 0.116 0.116 0.085
18 LEP0011 Pseudopagyda acutangulata 0.129 0.122 0.126 0.126 0.108 0.122 0.120 0.124 0.126 0.122 0.130 0.130 0.122 0.118 0.118 0.092 0.058
19 LEP0126 Pseudopagyda acutangulata 0.129 0.122 0.126 0.126 0.108 0.122 0.120 0.124 0.126 0.122 0.130 0.130 0.122 0.118 0.118 0.092 0.058 0.000
20 LEP0080 Thliptoceras sinense 0.149 0.138 0.135 0.133 0.129 0.138 0.134 0.131 0.133 0.131 0.137 0.135 0.131 0.129 0.129 0.096 0.118 0.123 0.123
21 LEP0087 Placosaris rubellalis 0.133 0.124 0.135 0.137 0.100 0.110 0.119 0.114 0.116 0.110 0.116 0.120 0.116 0.116 0.116 0.087 0.112 0.112 0.112 0.127
22 LEP0157 Ostrinia furnacalis 0.142 0.124 0.120 0.118 0.126 0.130 0.137 0.116 0.118 0.116 0.133 0.133 0.130 0.130 0.130 0.108 0.114 0.132 0.132 0.120 0.112
23 LEP0158 Paratalanta ussurialis 0.143 0.126 0.143 0.141 0.122 0.133 0.139 0.122 0.124 0.122 0.124 0.128 0.124 0.124 0.124 0.102 0.120 0.112 0.112 0.135 0.106 0.102
24 LEP0074 Pseudebulea fentoni 0.148 0.135 0.148 0.146 0.159 0.161 0.159 0.161 0.158 0.161 0.170 0.170 0.161 0.158 0.158 0.158 0.133 0.143 0.143 0.161 0.145 0.145 0.157
Figure 1. 

Phylogenetic hypothesis inferred from Bayesian inference. Numbers on branches indicate Bayesian posterior probabilities (values ≥ 0.8 are labelled) and ML bootstrap values probabilities (values ≥ 50% are labelled), respectively.

Since the monophyly of Spinosuncus is well-supported and species within the clade are morphologically and genetically distinct from the potential sister groups, a new genus is proposed. The taxonomic details are provided below.

Taxonomy

Spinosuncus gen. n.

Type species

Paliga contractalis Warren, 1896

Diagnosis

Species of Spinosuncus can be recognized externally by the yellow to fulvous wing ground colour, the fulvous to brown lines, the distinct subterminal lines usually arched to CuA2 then obviously angled or concave near the tornus. Diagnostic characters in the male genitalia are the short and stout, strongly sclerotized uncus distally with two spines or teeth, the lamellate, distally inflated sella set with fin-shaped setae forming editum, the dorsally inflated sacculus with the dorsal margin sclerotized and usually spinulose, the distally broad and usually spinulose phallus, and the spine-like cornuti appear funnel-shaped in the distal end of the vesica. The female genitalia are characterized by the strongly sclerotized lamella postvaginalis always extended dorsolaterally, and the sclerotized transverse band posteriorly in the cup-shaped antrum.

Spinosuncus moths are most similar in appearance to Pseudopagyda Slamka, 2013. Some species of Spinosuncus can be distinguished by the much smaller wingspan (usually less than 24 mm). However, some Spinosuncus species have a similar body size to Pseudopagyda, but they can still be differentiated by the wavy or dentate lines on the wings dorsally, especially the sinuate (rather than oblique, or slightly curved as in Pseudopagyda) anterior part of the postmedial line near the costa. In the male genitalia, the sclerotized uncus, the fin-shaped setae (editum) of the sella, and the inflated sacculus distinguish Spinosuncus from Pseudopagyda. In the female genitalia, the long and slender ductus bursae is distinct from the extremely short ductus bursae of Pseudopagyda.

Description

Head. Frons oblique, yellowish brown, with white lateral bands. Vertex with moderately raised scales projecting between antennae. Labial palpus obliquely upturned, exceeding frons by 2/3 length of head or slightly less, third palpomere porrect, yellowish brown with base contrastingly white. Maxillary palpus small, yellowish brown, tips pale yellow, sometimes mixed with white. Proboscis well developed, with basal scaling white. Antenna pale yellow, with cilia as long as width of corresponding flagellomeres in male. Thorax. With appressed scales, yellow. Legs unmodified. Foreleg brown, tibia white with brown cross band medially, tarsus white; midleg pale brown, tibia and tarsus white ventrally; hind leg pale yellow, tinged with white, basal inner spur longer than apical inner spurs. Forewing subtriangular, termen gently arched; retinaculum a tuft of curved bristles from below base of discal cell. Hindwing fan-shaped, costal margin translucent whitish; frenulum simple in male, with two acanthae in female. Wing venation (Figure 2) in forewing with cell about half length of wing; R1 free, from 4/5 of anterior margin of cell, R2 free but adjacent to stem of R3+R4 in about basal half, R3 and R4 stalked to about 2/3, R4 to just before apex, R5 parallel to stalked R3+R4 at base then diverging; M1 moderately close to R5 at base, M2 widely separate from M1, closing vein concavely curved; M2, M3 and CuA1 from posterior angle of cell, M3 closer to M2 at base than to CuA1, then diverging; CuA2 from 3/5 of posterior margin of cell; 1A faintly sinuate to tornus, 2A forming complete loop and distally recurved before joining 1A, sometimes disconnected. Hindwing with cell about 1/3 length of wing; Sc+R1 and Rs anastomosing for 1/3 beyond end of discal cell, Rs and M1 short-stalked, closing vein concave, angled medially; M3 closer to M2 at base than to CuA1, parallel with M2 at base, then diverging; 1A complete but weak, 3A curved. Abdomen. Slender, usually yellowish, sometimes dark brown, apical margin of segments usually tinged with white. Male genitalia. Uncus short and stout, nearly quadrate, with wide base; usually strongly sclerotized; distal end with two or four sharp spines laterally or distally bifid forming two teeth; glabrous or ventrolaterally set with few setae, or densely setose at base of teeth. Tegumen quadrate. Vinculum U-shaped. Saccus short, near triangular, rounded at apex. Valva tongue-shaped, varying in width, tapering towards apex, set with hair-like setae on inner side; transtilla sub-triangular, meeting in middle, usually with setae on dorsal margin; costa simple, costal sclerotized band narrow to broad, extended to beyond 2/3 of dorsal margin; sacculus broad, expanded except basal part, with dorsal margin strongly sclerotized and often spinose; sella slender to broad, lamellate, distally inflated, set with modified setae (editum), varying from fin-shaped to thick, needle-shaped. Juxta heart-shaped to nearly pentagonal. Phallus with distal part broad and moderately setose, usually spinulose; vesica in distal part with numerous spine-like cornuti appear funnel-shaped, sometimes with several large spicules. Female genitalia. Ovipositor lobes flat, densely setose. Sinus vaginalis well developed, membranous, usually with sclerotized, streak-like or hook-like notches anterolaterally (absent in S. praepandalis and S. curvisetaceus); lamella postvaginalis band-shaped, sclerotized (weakly sclerotized in S. contractalis, S. rectacutus and S. brevacutus), always extended dorsolaterally. Antrum membranous or sclerotized and granulated, cup-shaped, with sclerotized transverse band posteriorly. Ductus seminalis originating from anterior end of colliculum. Ductus bursae with base slightly rotated, as long as or longer than length or diameter of corpus bursae; colliculum ring-shaped, sclerotized. Corpus bursae drop-shaped or globular; accessory bursa present, sometimes with second signum at base; main signum rhomboid.

Figure 2. 

Wing venation of Spinosuncus praepandalis.

Biology

All of the Chinese material has been collected during the night at light. Host information is currently unavailable. Spinosuncus aureolalis and S. contractalis occur sympatrically with species of Pseudopagyda in some places. According to Bänziger (1995), they are not lachryphagous.

Distribution

Spinosuncus occurs in South China (Figure 28), India, and Thailand.

Etymology

The generic name is a compound word that refers to the uncus distally with spines (“spinosus” in Latin). The resultant name is masculine in gender.

Spinosuncus contractalis (Warren, 1896), comb. n.

Figs 3, 10, 19, 28

Paliga contractalis Warren, 1896, 18(6): 123.

Microstega contractalis (Warren) Bänziger, 1995: 270.

Material examined

Type material. Lectotype, 1♂; Khasis, Warren Type, Pyralidae Brit. Slide No. 8677 (NHMUK), designated by Bänziger (1995).

Other material examined

CHINA, Hainan: 2♂, 1♀, Bawangling, Changjiang, 19.12N, 109.08E, alt. 161 m, 22.VII.2014, leg. Cong Peixin, Hu Sha and Liu Linjie, genitalia slide no. ZDD12049 (♂) (NKU); 1♀, Bawangling, 11.VI.2010, leg. Kang Li, genitalia slide no. SYSU0185; 1♂, 1♀, Jianfengling, 5.VI.2010, leg. Kang Li, genitalia slide no. SYSU0174 (♂); 1♀, Jianfengling, 18.75N, 108.85E, alt. 969 m, 12.IX.2013, leg. Xie Weicai, genitalia slide no. SYSU0067; 1♂, Bangxi Reserve, 19.37N, 109.10E, alt. 97 m, 2.IX.2013, leg. Chen Xiaohua, genitalia slide no. SYSU0017; 1♂, Nankai Town, Baisha, 19.05N, 109.40E, alt. 294 m, 19.V.2013, leg. Li Jinwei, genitalia slide no. SYSU0065; 1♂, Sanya Village, Fanjia, 19.25N, 109.65E, alt. 302 m, 27.X.2013, leg. Chen Kai and Chen Xiaohua, genitalia slide no. SYSU0040; 1♀, Mt. Diaoluoshan, alt. 500 m, 24.V.2014, leg. Xu Dan and Xu Lijun, genitalia slide no. SYSU0914; 1♀, Wuzhishan Natural Reserve, 18.88N, 109.65E, alt. 742 m, 21.V.2015, leg. Cong Xinpei, Guan Wei and Hu Sha (NKU); Yunnan: 3♂, Bawan, Baoshan, alt. 1040 m, 9.VIII.2007, leg. Zhang Dandan, genitalia slide no. SYSU0019; 5♂, 1♀, Baihualing, Baoshan, alt. 1520 m, 11,13.VII.2007, leg. Zhang Dandan, genitalia slides no. CXH12155 (♂), SYSU0039 (♂), SYSU0047 (♂), SYSU0073 (♀); 2♂, Baihualing, Mt. Gaoligongshan, Baoshan City, 25.30N, 98.80E, alt. 1473 m, 29.VII.2013, leg. Liu Shurong, Teng Kaijian and Wang Yuqi (NKU); 1♂, Baihualing, Mt. Gaoligongshan, Baoshan City, 25.30N, 98.80E, alt. 1473 m, 7.VIII.2014, leg. Liu Shurong, Rong Hua and Teng Kaijian (NKU); 1♂, Dahaoping, alt. 2020 m, 6.VIII.2007, leg. Zhang Dandan; 1♂, Jingpozhai, Nabang, Yingjiang, 24.71N, 97.39E, alt. 231 m, 3.VIII.2013, leg. Liu Shurong, Teng Kaijian and Wang Yuqi (NKU); 2♂, 1♀, 55 km site, Xishuangbanna Natural Reserve, 23.V.2015, leg. Zhang Zhenguo, genitalia slide no. ZDD12053 (♂, molecular voucher no. SYSU-LEP0153) (NKU); 1♂, Yexiang Valley, Xishuangbanna, 22.17N, 100.87E, alt. 762 m, 18.VII.2014, leg. Guan Wei, Liu Shurong and Wang Xiuchun (NKU); 2♂, 1♀, Yexiang Valley, Xishuangbanna, 22.17N, 100.87E, alt. 762 m, 10–12.VII.2015, leg. Bai Xia and Teng Kaijian, genitalia slide no. ZDD12048 (♂, molecular voucher no. SYSU-LEP0135) (NKU); 1♂, Guanping, Mengyang, alt. 1200 m, 20.VIII.2005, leg. Ren Yingdang, genitalia slide no. CYP12056 (NKU); 1♂, Nanla River, Bubang, Mengla, 21.59N, 101.58E, alt. 652 m, 15.VII.2013, leg. Liu Shurong, Teng Kaijian and Wang Yuqi (NKU); 1♀, Yaoqu Town, Xishuangbanna, alt. 780 m, 26.V.2015, leg. Tao Manfei, genitalia slide no. SYSU0913, molecular voucher no. SYSU-LEP0133; Tibet: 1♀, Medog, alt. 1103 m, 8.VII.2013, leg. Li Jinwei, genitalia slide no. SYSU0915.

Diagnosis

Within the genus, S. contractalis resembles S. rectacutus and S. brevacutus in the relatively small wingspan, the almost indistinguishable wing pattern, the glabrous uncus, a row of dense setae on the transtilla dorsally, the two sclerotized notches anterolaterally on the sinus vaginalis and the short ductus bursae (approximately as long as the length of the corpus bursae). However, it can be differentiated from S. rectacutus by the somewhat more sinuate postmedial line of the forewing near costa, in the male genitalia by the shorter, excurved spines of the uncus and the acinaciform, densely spinous extension of the sacculus distally. In the female genitalia, it is characterized by the curved sclerotized notches anterolaterally on the sinus vaginalis. The differences between S. contractalis and S. brevacutus are given in the diagnosis of the latter species.

Redescription

Head. As for the genus. Thorax. Yellow. Legs as described for the genus. Wingspan 18–22 mm. Wings yellow, lines fulvous. Forewing broadly triangular with moderately arched termen; antemedial line weakly sinuate from about 1/4 of costa to 2/5 of posterior margin; orbicular stigma small, sometimes faint; reniform stigma a fulvous, slightly curved streak; posterior angle of cell outwardly followed by a fulvous mark; postmedial line from 3/5 of costa slightly sinuate to beyond basal half of CuA1, bent inwardly to 1/3 of CuA2, then to 2/3 of posterior margin; subterminal line from distal end of R2, arched to about 4/5 of CuA2, then concave to 4/5 of posterior margin; fringe yellowish brown. Hindwing with costa and posterior margin translucent whitish; posterior angle of cell outwardly followed by a fulvous mark; postmedial line straight from basal half of M1 to distal third of CuA2, bent inwardly to basal third of CuA2, then straight to near end of 2A; subterminal line from distal third of RS, arched, tapering to CuA2, then concave to distal end of 1A; fringe as in forewing. Abdomen. Yellow dorsally, apical margin of segments tinged with white. Male genitalia (Figure 10). Uncus with lateral margin strongly bulging near distal end, with a sharply widened base; without setae; with two outwardly curved, pointed spines, weakly dentate between the spines. Valva of medium width, slightly narrowing towards apex, length approximately 2× its maximal width; transtilla dorsally strongly sclerotized and set with dense setae; costal sclerotized band narrow, slightly expanded to 2/3 of dorsal margin; sacculus with distal half expanded, forming acinaciform sclerotized process, dorsally set with dense spines; sella long and slender, rod-like, distal end strongly inflated, set with several narrow, fin-shaped setae forming editum, each seta with apex evenly divided into several filaments. Juxta heart-shaped, deeply divided distally. Phallus with distal 1/3 expanded and spinulose; vesica in distal part with numerous spine-like cornuti appear funnel-shaped (Figure 10C). Female genitalia (Figure 19). Posterior apophysis with small expansion at basal third; anterior apophysis with small expansion beyond basal half. Sinus vaginalis with two curved, sclerotized notches anterolaterally; lamella postvaginalis weakly sclerotized medially, most strongly sclerotized dorsolaterally. Antrum membranous. Ductus bursae moderately broad, nearly as long as length of corpus bursae; colliculum narrow medially. Corpus bursae approximatively drop-shaped; accessory bursa arising from posterior 1/3 of corpus bursae, with small, densely spinulose second signum beside its base; rhombic signum with two opposing angles bearing well developed carinae and closely separated medially, the other two angles bearing dense spines.

Figures 3–9. 

Adults of Spinosuncus spp. 3 S. contractalis, male (Dahaoping, Yunnan) 4 S. rectacutus, holotype, male (Weng’ang Town, Guizhou) 5 S. brevacutus, holotype, male (Weng’ang Town, Guizhou) 6 S. praepandalis, male (Weng’ang Town, Guizhou) 7 S. curvisetaceus, paratype, male (Tongmu Village, Fujian) 8 S. aureolalis, male (Bubang, Yunnan) 9 S. quadracutus, paratype, male (Mt. Limu, Hainan). Scale bars: 5.0 mm.

Figures 10–12. 

Male genitalia of Spinosuncus spp. 10 S. contractalis, Hainan (genitalia slide no. SYSU0017) 11 S. rectacutus, Guangxi (genitalia slide no. SYSU0044) 12 S. brevacutus, Guizhou (genitalia slide no. SYSU0910). A: Whole genitalia. B: Base of valva dorsally. C: Apex of phallus. Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Distribution

(Figure 28). China (Hainan, Yunnan, Tibet), India, Thailand.

Spinosuncus rectacutus sp. n.

Figs 4, 11, 20, 28

Material examined

Type material. Holotype ♂ (Fig. 4); CHINA, Guizhou: Weng’ang Town, Maolan Reserve, Libo, 25.25N, 107.90E, alt. 814 m, 25.VII.2015, leg. Chen Kai, genitalia slide no. SYSU0060. Paratypes: Hubei: 1♂, Pingbaying, Xianfeng, alt. 1280 m, 21.VII.1999, leg. Li Houhun et al., genitalia slide no. ZDD12055 (NKU); 3♂, Mahe Town, Xianfeng, alt. 400 m, 24–26.VII.1999, leg. Li Houhun et al., genitalia slide no. ZDD12056 (NKU); 1♂, Maobaqu, Lichuan, alt. 700 m, 29.VII.1999, leg. Li Houhun et al., genitalia slide no. ZDD12057 (NKU); Guangxi: 1♂, Nanchao, Yachang Forest Farm, Leye, alt. 1160 m, 26.VII.2004, leg. Xu Jiasheng (NKU); 1♂, Huaping, Yachang Forest Farm, Leye, alt. 910 m, 28.VII.2004, leg. Xu Jiasheng, genitalia slide no. CYP12058 (NKU); 15♂, 2♀, Nonggang, Longzhou, 22.47N, 106.96E, alt. 271 m, 19.IV.2012, leg. Li Jinwei, genitalia slides no. SYSU0036 (♀), 0188 (♀), 0009, 0014, 0024, 0041, 0042, 0043, 0044, 0054, 0055; 8♂, 2♀, Nonggang, Longzhou, alt. 188 m, 25,27,28,31.VII.2011, leg. He Guiqing, genitalia slides no. SYSU0189 (♂), 0194 (♀), 0979 (♀); 1♂, Nonggang Reserve, 21.VIII.2011, leg. Yang Lijun, genitalia slide no. SYSU0053; 1♂, Nonggang Reserve, 21.VIII.2011, leg. Cheng Muchun, genitalia slide no. CXH12165; 1♂, Nonggang, Longzhou, 20.VIII.2011, leg. Cheng Muchun; 1♂, Nonggang, Longzhou, alt. 280 m, 29.VII.2012, leg. Yang Xiaofei (NKU); 1♂, Sanlian, Longzhou, alt. 180 m, 1.VIII.2011, leg. He Guiqing; 1♂, Tongling Valley, 23.02N, 106.65E, alt. 535 m, 22.VII.2013, leg. Chen Xiaohua, genitalia slide no. SYSU0259; 1♂, Longrui Reserve, 18.VIII.2011, leg. Li Jinwei, genitalia slide no. SYSU0021; 1♂, Longrui Reserve, 19.VIII.2011, leg. Zhang Dandan; 2♂, Bangliang, Jingxi, 1,5.VIII.2010, leg. Huang Jianhua, genitalia slide no. ZDD12047 (NKU); Guizhou: 2♂, Xian’nv’dong, Dashahe, Daozhen, alt. 600 m, 28–29.V.2004, leg. Hao Shulian, genitalia slide no. CYP12057 (NKU); 1♂, Baishao Village, Qinggangtang, Suiyang, alt. 800 m, 11.VIII.2010, leg. Du Xicui, genitalia slide no. CYP12063 (NKU); 1♂, Baishao, Kuankuoshui, alt. 800 m, 10.VIII.2010, leg. Du Xicui, genitalia slide no. SYSU0187; 1♂, Mt. Leigongshan, 26.35N, 108.15E, alt. 1198 m, leg. Chen Xiaohua, genitalia slide no. SYSU0057, molecular voucher no. SYSU-LEP0155; 1♂, Dongdai, Shuizu Town, Limingguan, Libo, alt. 720 m, 19.VII.2015, leg. Li Jia’en and Yang Meiqing, genitalia slide no. ZDD12050, molecular voucher no. SYSU-LEP0134 (NKU); 1♀, Weng’ang Town, Maolan Reserve, Libo, 25.25N, 107.90E, alt. 814 m, 25.VII.2015, leg. Chen Kai, genitalia slide no. SYSU0072; Chongqing: 2♂, 1♀, Xiaonanhai, Qianjiang, alt. 370 m, 21.VII.2012, Xu Lijun and Zhang Jun, genitalia slides no. SYSU0186 (♂), 0193 (♀).

Diagnosis

Spinosuncus rectacutus resembles S. contractalis and S. brevacutus, for which details are provided in the diagnosis of S. contractalis. It can be best distinguished from S. brevacutus by the dorsally densely setose transtilla (moderately setose in S. brevacutus), and the saddle-shaped sacculus with sclerotized margin densely set with a row of spinules. The distal spines of the uncus are straight and longer than those of S. brevacutus, and the lateral margin near the distal end of the uncus is less bulging. In the female genitalia, the length of the colliculum is approximately 1.5× as long as its minimal width and the notches on the sinus vaginalis are strongly sclerotized whereas in S. brevacutus, the length of the colliculum is approximately as long as its minimal width and the notches on the sinus vaginalis are weakly sclerotized.

Description

Head. As for the genus. Thorax. Yellow. Legs as described for the genus. Wingspan 18–22.5 mm. Wing pattern as in S. contractalis. Abdomen. Yellow dorsally, apical margin of segments tinged with white. Male genitalia (Figure 11). Uncus with lateral margin slightly bulging near distal end, with base sharply widened; setae absent; distal two corners with straight, pointed spines, outer margin between spines dentate. Valva of medium width, length approximately 2.3× its maximal width; transtilla with dorsal margin strongly sclerotized and set with dense setae; costal sclerotized band wide, slightly expanded to 2/3 of dorsal margin; distal half of sacculus expanded to a saddle-shaped structure, with sclerotized margin, basal half of margin slightly twisted, set with dense spines; sella long and slender, rod-like, distal end slightly inflated, set with several narrow, fin-shaped setae forming editum, each seta with apex evenly divided into several filaments. Juxta heart-shaped. Phallus as in S. contractalis. Female genitalia (Figure 20). Posterior apophysis with small expansion at basal third; anterior apophysis with small expansion beyond basal half. Sinus vaginalis with two straight, sclerotized notches anterolaterally; lamella postvaginalis weakly sclerotized medially, most strongly sclerotized dorsolaterally. Antrum membranous. Ductus bursae slender, nearly as long as length of corpus bursae; colliculum narrow medially. Corpus bursae drop-shaped, slightly spinulose; accessory bursa arising from posterior 1/3 of corpus bursae, with small, densely spinulose second signum beside its base; rhombic signum with carinae almost connected.

Etymology

The specific name is derived from the Latin recti- for straight and acutus, pointed, referring to the straight, pointed spines of the uncus.

Distribution

(Figure 28). China (Hubei, Guangxi, Guizhou, Chongqing).

Spinosuncus brevacutus sp. n.

Figs 5, 12, 21, 28

Material examined

Type material. Holotype ♂ (Fig. 5); CHINA, Guizhou: Weng’ang Town, Maolan Reserve, Libo, 25.25N, 107.90E, alt. 814 m, 25.VII.2015, leg. Chen Kai, genitalia slide no. SYSU0056, molecular voucher no. SYSU-LEP0009. Paratypes: Jiangxi: 1♂, Main Peak, Mt. Jinggangshan, 28.IV.2011, leg. Liu Ping and Mei Yan, genitalia slide no. CXH12192; 1♂, Main Peak, Mt. Jinggangshan, 30.VI.2011, leg. Yang Lijun, genitalia slide no. CXH12161; 1♂, Main Peak, Mt. Jinggangshan, 1.IX.2011, leg. Cheng Muchun, genitalia slide no. SYSU0064; 1♂, 1♀ (Abdomen lost), Reservoir of Mt. Jinggangshan, 19.IX.2010, leg. Tong Bo, Zhang Dandan and Zhao Shuang; 1♂, 1♀, Mt. Guanggushan, Wuzhifeng Town, Shangyou, 25.92N, 114.05E, alt. 846 m, 22.VI.2015, leg. Chen Kai, genitalia slides no. SYSU0015 (♂), 0062 (♀, molecular voucher no. SYSU-LEP0156); 1♂, Mt. Jiulianshan, Longnan, 24.54N, 114.46E, alt. 625 m, 28.IV.2012, leg. Li Jinwei, genitalia slide no. SYSU0049; Hunan: 1♀, Visitors’ center, Taoyuandong, 26.47N, 114.04E, alt. 870 m, 20.V.2014, leg. Chen Xiaohua, genitalia slide no. SYSU0063; Guizhou: 1♂, Maolan Reserve, 1.IX.2011, leg. Li Jinwei, genitalia slide no. CXH12162; 4♂, Maolan Reserve, 25.13N, 107.87E, alt. 797 m, 12.VII.2013, leg. Chen Xiaohua, genitalia slides no. SYSU0020, 0023, 0074, 0910; 1♂, 2♀, Weng’ang Town, Maolan Reserve, Libo, 25.25N, 107.90E, alt. 814 m, 25.VII.2015, leg. Chen Kai, genitalia slides no. SYSU0046 (♂), 0071 (♀, molecular voucher no. SYSU-LEP0010), 0978 (♀).

Diagnosis

Spinosuncus brevacutus is similar to S. contractalis and S. rectacutus. Differences with S. rectacutus are given in the diagnosis of S. rectacutus. It can be distinguished from S. contractalis by the minute and weakly outwardly curved spines of the apical uncus, the concave margin between those spines, the moderately setose transtilla and the semicircular sacculus distally with sclerotized, sparsely toothed margin in the male genitalia, by the straight, weakly sclerotized notches of the sinus vaginalis (curved, strongly sclerotized in S. contractalis) and the relatively broad ductus bursae in the female genitalia.

Description

Head. As for the genus. Thorax. Yellow. Legs as described for the genus. Wingspan 19–24 mm. Wing pattern as in S. contractalis. Abdomen. Yellow dorsally, apical margin of segments tinged with white. Male genitalia (Figure 12). Uncus with the lateral margin strongly bulging near distal end, with base sharply widened; setae absent; distal two corners slightly extended, forming minute spines. Valva of medium width, length approximately 2.5× its maximal width; transtilla with dorsal margin slightly sclerotized, set with few setae; costal sclerotized band rather wide, slightly expanded to 2/3 of dorsal margin; distal half of sacculus expanded, semicircular, with strongly sclerotized margin, sometimes set with few tiny teeth, distal third of margin twisted; sella long and slender, rod-like, distal end slightly inflated and upcurved, set with several narrow, fin-shaped setae forming editum, each seta with apex evenly divided into several filaments. Juxta heart-shaped, distal half divided. Phallus as in S. contractalis. Female genitalia (Figure 21). Posterior apophysis with small expansion at basal third; anterior apophysis with small expansion beyond basal half. Sinus vaginalis with two straight, weakly sclerotized notches anterolaterally; lamella postvaginalis weakly sclerotized medially, most strongly sclerotized dorsolaterally. Antrum membranous. Ductus bursae moderately broad, as long as length of corpus bursae; colliculum somewhat constricted medially. Corpus bursae drop-shaped; accessory bursa arising from posterior 1/3 of corpus bursae, with small, weakly spinulose second signum beside its base; rhombic signum with two opposing angles bearing weak, narrow carinae almost connected medially, the other two angles set with spines.

Etymology

The specific name is derived from the Latin brevi-, short, and acutus for pointed, referring to the short, pointed spines of the uncus.

Distribution

(Figure 28). China (Jiangxi, Hunan, Guizhou).

Spinosuncus praepandalis (Snellen, 1890), comb. n.

Figs 6, 13, 22, 28

Botys praepandalis Snellen, 1890: 573–574.

Material examined

Type material. Lectotype, 1♀; Sikkim, O. Miller., [18]89, collection of H. J. Elwes, Pyralidae Brit. Slide no. 9711 (NHMUK).

Other material examined

CHINA, Hubei: 1♂, 1♀, Shayuan, Hefeng, alt. 1260 m, 15,17.VII.1999, leg. Li Houhun, genitalia slides no. ZDD02388 (♂), 02389 (♀) (NKU); Hunan: 1♀, Jiangping, Mt. Hupingshan, Shimen County, alt. 480 m, 6.V.2002, leg. Yu Haili (NKU); Sichuan: 1♂, Wannian Temple, Mt. E’meishan, 29.59N, 103.38E, alt. 830 m, 14.VII.2014, leg. Guan Wei, Liu Shurong and Wang Xiuchun (NKU); Chongqing: 1♂, Dawopu, Mt. Simianshan, 28.58N, 106.35E, alt. 1059 m, 12.VII.2016, leg. Chen Kai; 1♂, Tiantangba, Mt. Simianshan, 28.64N, 106.35E, alt. 921 m, 13.VII.2016, leg. Chen Kai; 1♂, Mt. Jinfoshan, alt. 1700 m, 13.VII.2010, leg. Du Xicui and Shi Shengwen, genitalia slide no. SYSU0191; 1♀, Wuli Town, Qianjiang, alt. 870 m, 23.VII.2012, leg. Xu Lijun and Zhang Jun, genitalia slide no. SYSU0196; Guizhou: 1♂, Heiwan, Jiangkou, alt. 600 m, 28.VII.2001, leg. Li Houhun and Wang Xinpu, genitalia slide no. ZDD02061 (NKU); 2♂, Huguo Temple, Mt. Fanjingshan, alt. 1390 m, 28.V.2002, leg. Wang Xinpu, genitalia slide no. CYP12041 (NKU); 3♂, Weng’ang Town, Maolan Reserve, Libo, 25.25N, 107.90E, alt. 814 m, 25.VII.2015, leg. Chen Kai, genitalia slide no. SYSU0038, molecular voucher no. SYSU-LEP0006; 1♂, Weng’ang Town, Libo, alt. 1345 m, 18.VII.2015, leg. Wan Jiping; Yunnan: 4♂, 2♀, Mt. Jizushan, Binchuan, 25.93N, 100.38E, alt. 1831 m, 29.VI.2012, leg. Li Jinwei, genitalia slides no. CXH12156 (♂), SYSU0045 (♂), 0076 (♀), 0980 (♀); 5♂, 1♀, Mt. Gaoligongshan, Baoshan, 24.82N, 98.78E, alt. 1700 m, 22.V.2016, leg. Duan Yongjiang, genitalia slides no. SYSU0190 (♂), 0195 (♀, molecular voucher no. SYSU-LEP0131); 2♀, Dahaoping, Tengchong, alt. 2020 m, 6.VIII.2007, leg. Zhang Dandan, genitalia slides no. SYSU0078, 0183; 1♂, Pianma Village, Lushui, Nujiang, alt. 1889 m, 16.VIII.2015, leg. Wei Xueli; 1♀, Malipo County, alt. 1098 m, 4.VI.2015, leg. Tao Manfei, genitalia slide no. SYSU0911; Tibet: 1♂, 1♀, Hanmi, Medog, alt. 2380 m, 9.VIII.2003, leg. Wang Xinpu and Xue Huaijun, genitalia slide no. CYP12062 (♂) (NKU); 1♂, Shangzayü, Nyingchi, alt. 1936 m, 16.VIII.2015, leg. Xu Dan. INDIA: 1♂, India, Sikkim, Elwes, collection of H. J. Elwes, Pyralidae Brit. Slide no. 8674 (NHMUK); 1 ♂, Sikkim, O. Miller., [18]89, collection of H. J. Elwes (NHMUK).

Diagnosis

Spinosuncus praepandalis has a larger wingspan (24–30 mm) than in the species described above. It has a wingspan similar to that of S. aureolalis, but can be differentiated by the dentate lines and the thickened anterior part of the postmedial line of the forewing near the costa. In the male genitalia, it is distinguished by the distally bifid uncus, forming two sclerotized, large outwardly curved teeth with a hairy basal margin (as in S. curvisetaceus), the two to three straight, thick needle-shaped setae dorsally set on each side of the transtilla and the semicircular sacculus distally with the margin sclerotized and with a small process distally. In the female genitalia, it is distinguished by the sinus vaginalis without sclerotized, streak-like or hook-like notches (as in S. curvisetaceus) and the long and slender ductus bursae, which is more than twice as long as the diameter of the corpus bursae, differs from that of the species described above (the ductus bursae is almost as long as the length of the corpus bursae). The differences between S. praepandalis and S. curvisetaceus are given in the diagnosis of the latter species.

Redescription

Head. As for the genus. Thorax. Yellow. Legs as described for the genus. Wingspan 24–30 mm. Wing pattern as in S. contractalis, apart from: wings yellowish brown; lines brown and wavy; postmedial line of forewing thickened near costa, strongly sinuate to half of CuA1; postmedial line of hindwing curved to distal third of CuA2. Abdomen. Yellowish to brown, apical margin of segments tinged with white. Male genitalia (Figure 13). Uncus tapering towards apex; distal 3/4 bifid, forming two outwardly curved, strongly sclerotized teeth, medially set with dense setae, arranged in a curved line. Valva of medium width, ventral margin beyond sacculus slightly concave, length approximately 2.3× its maximal width; transtilla extended ventrally into a projection, each lobe set with two to three straight, thick needle-shaped setae at dorsal base (one seta occasionally falls off), with one much bigger than other(s); costal band moderately wide, slightly expanded to 2/3 of dorsal margin; distal half of sacculus expanded, semicircular, with dorsal margin sclerotized, apically with small, triangular process; sella long and slender, rod-like, upcurved (bent in Figs 13A–B), distal end slightly inflated, set with a few broad, fin-shaped setae forming editum, each seta with apex evenly divided into several filaments. Juxta pentagonal, weakly bifid distally. Phallus with distal 1/4 slightly expanded and spinulose; vesica in distal part with numerous spine-like cornuti appear funnel-shaped (Figure 13C). Female genitalia (Figure 22). Posterior apophysis with distinct hook-like expansion at basal 2/5. Sinus vaginalis without sclerotized, streak-like or hook-like notches; lamella postvaginalis band-shaped, well developed, extended to cover entire eighth segment ventrally. Antrum membranous, with a narrow sclerotized transverse band posteriorly. Ductus bursae long and slender, more than three times as long as diameter of corpus bursae; colliculum almost evenly wide. Corpus bursae small, globular; accessory bursa arising from posterior 1/3 of corpus bursae; rhombic signum with well developed, moderately separated carinae, other two angles bearing spines medially, the anterior angle smaller than the posterior angle; second signum absent.

Figures 13–14. 

Male genitalia of Spinosuncus spp. 13 S. praepandalis, Guizhou (genitalia slide no. SYSU0038) 14 S. curvisetaceus, Fujian (genitalia slide no. ZDD12051). A: Whole genitalia. B: Base of valva dorsally. C: Apex of phallus. Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Distribution

(Figure 28). China (Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan, Tibet), India.

Spinosuncus curvisetaceus sp. n.

Figs 7, 14, 23, 28

Material examined

Holotype ♂; CHINA, Jiangxi: Mt. Sanqingshan, Jinsha County, Shangrao, alt. 380–390 m, 20.IV.2007, leg. Bai Haiyan and Du Xicui, genitalia slide no. ZDD12058 (NKU). Paratypes: Fujian: 1♂, Tongmu Village, Mt. Wuyishan, 3.V.2014, leg. Yang Xiaofei, genitalia slide no. ZDD12051 (NKU); Jiangxi: 1♂, Shiguling Power Plant, Mt. Sanqingshan, Jinsha County, Shangrao, alt. 410–420 m, 15.IV.2007, leg. Bai Haiyan and Du Xicui, genitalia slide no. CYP12066 (NKU); 6♂, Mt. Sanqingshan, Jinsha County, Shangrao, alt. 380–390 m, 19, 20.IV.2007, leg. Bai Haiyan and Du Xicui, genitalia slides no. CYP12060, 12074, ZDD12026 (NKU); 1♂, Shixi Town, Fengxin, 28.44N, 114.54E, alt. 506 m, 22.IX.2012, leg. Yang Lijun, genitalia slide no. CXH12167; 1♀, Nanfengmian Reserve, Qianmo Village, Suichuan, 26.28N, 114.06E, alt. 816 m, 19.VI.2015, leg. Chen Kai, genitalia slide no. SYSU0061, molecular voucher no. SYSU-LEP0129; Guangxi: 1♂, Jiuniutang, Mt. Mao’ershan, alt. 550 m, 20.IV.2002, leg. Hao Shulian and Xue Huaijun, genitalia slide no. ZDD02245 (NKU); 1♂, Huawang Villa, Jinxiu, alt. 550 m, 13.IV.2002, leg. Hao Shulian and Xue Huaijun, genitalia slide no. ZDD02241 (NKU).

Diagnosis

Spinosuncus curvisetaceus resembles S. praepandalis in wing pattern. The wingspan of S. curvisetaceus is usually smaller than that of S. praepandalis, S. aureolalis and S. quadracutus, but larger than in S. contractalis, S. rectacutus and S. brevacutus. The ground colour of the wings is paler than that of S. praepandalis. In the male genitalia, it can be differentiated from S. praepandalis by the straight mediobasal margin of the distal teeth of the uncus (curved in S. praepandalis), the curved setae on the transtilla dorsally (straight in S. praepandalis) and the expanded, rectangular distal half of sacculus, with sclerotized and densely spinulose dorsal margin. In the female genitalia, the anterior apophysis is thicker than that of S. praepandalis. It can be distinguished from other Spinosuncus species (except S. praepandalis) by the distally strongly bifid uncus, forming two sclerotized, large excurved teeth bearing hair-like setae basally, two thick needle-shaped setae on the transtilla dorsally and the absence of sclerotized, streak-like or hook-like notches anterolaterally on the sinus vaginalis.

Description

Head. As for the genus. Thorax. Yellowish brown. Legs as described for the genus. Wingspan 24–26 mm. Wing pattern as in S. praepandalis, ground colour paler than that of S. praepandalis. Abdomen. Yellowish to brown, apical margin of segments tinged with white. Male genitalia (Figure 14). Uncus sharply tapering towards apex; distal half bifid, forming two slightly outwardly curved and sclerotized teeth, basally set with dense setae, arranged in a curved line. Valva of medium width, ventral margin beyond sacculus slightly concave, length approximately 2.1× its maximal width; transtilla extended ventrally into long and curved projection, set with two thick and curved, needle-shaped setae at base dorsally; costal sclerotized band moderately wide, slightly expanded to 3/4 of dorsal margin; distal half of sacculus expanded, rectangular, with dorsal margin strongly sclerotized and densely spinulose, distally twisted; sella long and slender, rod-like, upcurved, distally set with few broad, fin-shaped setae, each seta with apex evenly divided into several filaments. Juxta shield-shaped, distal half divided medially. Phallus as in S. praepandalis. Female genitalia (Figure 23). Posterior apophysis with hook-like expansion at basal 2/5. Sinus vaginalis without sclerotized, streak-like or hook-like notches; lamella postvaginalis band-shaped, well developed, extended to cover entire eighth segment ventrally. Antrum membranous. Ductus bursae long and slender, more than two times as long as length of corpus bursae; colliculum narrower at anterior end. Corpus bursae small, ovoid; accessory bursa arising from posterior 1/3 of corpus bursae; rhombic signum as in S. praepandalis; second signum absent.

Etymology

The specific name is derived from the Latin curv- (curved) and setaceus (setaceous), referring to the curved setae set at the dorsal base of the transtilla.

Distribution

(Figure 28). China (Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi).

Spinosuncus aureolalis (Lederer, 1863), comb. n.

Figs 8, 15–16, 24–25, 28

Botys aureolalis Lederer, 1863: 473.

Pyralis ochrealis Moore, 1877: 614.

Microstega aureolalis (Lederer): Bänziger, 1995: 270.

Material examined

Type material. Lectotype of Pyralis ochrealis: 1♂; Sikkim, Moore Coll. 94-106, Pyralidae Brit. Slide No. 8678 (NHMUK), designated by Bänziger (1995).

Other material examined

CHINA, Guangxi: 2♂, Nonggang, Longzhou, alt. 188 m, 26.VII.2011, leg. He Guiqing, genitalia slide no. SYSU0909; Yunnan: 1♀, Baihualing, Baoshan, alt. 1251 m, 13.VIII.2007, leg. Zhang Dandan, genitalia slide no. SYSU0075; 2♂, Baihualing, Baoshan, alt. 1520 m, 11,13.VIII.2007, leg. Zhang Dandan, genitalia slides no. SYSU0050, 0066; 1♂, 1♀, Mengla, alt. 800 m, 6,8.VII.2012, leg. Kitching and Ashton, genitalia slide no. FCEL0002 (♀) (FCEL); 2♂, 1♀, Bubang, Xishuangbanna, 21.60N, 101.59E, alt. 656 m, 23.VII.2014, leg. Guan Wei, Liu Shurong, Teng Kaijian and Wang xiuchun, genitalia slide no. ZDD12052 (♀, molecular voucher no. SYSU-LEP0146), ZDD12054 (♂) (NKU); 1♂, Nabang, Yingjiang County, 24.75N, 97.56E, alt. 239 m, 27.V.2016, leg. Duan Yongjiang, genitalia slide no. SYSU0958, molecular voucher no. SYSU-LEP0132; 1♂, Pianma Village, Lushui, Nujiang, alt. 1889 m, 16.VIII.2015, leg. Wei Xueli, genitalia slide no. SYSU0959; 1♂, Daxichang, Malipo County, alt. 1465 m, 7.VI.2015, leg. Tao Manfei, genitalia slide no. SYSU0173.

Diagnosis

Spinosuncus aureolalis has a large wingspan (more than 26 mm). The ground colour of the wings is the darkest within the genus. Though S. aureolalis has a similar wingspan as S. praepandalis, it can be distinguished by the sinuate but not thickened anterior part of the postmedial line of the forewing near costa and the smooth, not dentate wing lines. In the male genitalia, it is characterized by the uncus distally with two large spines, the cheliform sacculus projections, and the fin- and needle-shaped setae forming editum on the sella distally (as in S. quadracutus). In the female genitalia, the two large, hook-like notches anterolaterally on the sinus vaginalis and the laterally broad, granulated antrum (as in S. quadracutus) are diagnostic. The appearance of S. aureolalis is most similar to that of S. quadracutus, both having the same wing pattern. The differences between these two species are given in the diagnosis of S. quadracutus.

Redescription

Head. As for the genus. Thorax. Yellow. Legs as described for the genus. Wingspan 26–32 mm. Wings yellow, with fulvous tinge, lines fulvous to yellowish brown, venation somewhat darker than the ground colour, making wings impressively reticulated. Wing pattern as in S. contractalis, apart from: postmedial line of forewing more sinuate, of hindwing more curve. Abdomen. Fulvous dorsally, apical margin of segments tinged with white. Male genitalia (Figs 15, 16). Uncus gradually tapering from base to middle; laterally membranous and set with several setae ventrally, other areas strongly sclerotized; distal 1/3 divided into two sharp teeth, thick, straight or slightly curved (weakly folded in Figs 15A, 16A), between two teeth usually two small and short spines (Figure 16A), sometimes invisible (Figure 15A) (longish, distinct in S. quadracutus, Figs 17A, 18A); with two caniniform teeth medioventrally. Valva narrow, length approximately 2.7× its maximal width; transtilla extended ventrally into long and narrow projection, dorsal margin with sparse setae; costal sclerotized band rather narrow, extended to near distal end of valva; sacculus with median caniniform projection and distal cheliform projection, distal half set with dense setae ventrally, distal projection with dorsal margin strongly sclerotized, set with dense and flat-lying spines (except distal half, Figs 15C, 16C) and two moderately downcurved spines pointing towards juxta (sometimes the longer one absent, Figure 16C); sella short and broad, distally inflated, set with modified setae forming editum, varying from fin-shaped to thick needle-shaped, ventral margin upcurved, thickened and sclerotized, distally spinose, ended in long, curved spine. Juxta shield-shaped, pentagonal, distal margin sometimes slightly indented medially. Phallus with distal 1/4 slightly expanded, vesica distally with numerous spinules and several large spicules arranged into funnel-shaped bunch of cornuti (Figs 15D, 16D, rotated in Figure 16D). Female genitalia (Figs 24, 25). Anterior apophysis sclerotized, slightly sinuate at distal third; posterior apophysis oblong, slender, strongly sclerotized. Sinus vaginalis with two large, thick, hook-like notches anterolaterally; lamella postvaginalis sclerotized, band-shaped, extended dorsolaterally to about 1/4 width of sinus vaginalis. Antrum granulated and broad. Ductus bursae long and wide, about two times as long as diameter of corpus bursae; colliculum well-developed, with anterior end narrower. Corpus bursae globular; accessory bursa arising from posterior end of corpus bursae; rhombic signum with carinae weak and widely separated, other two angles bearing dense spines; second signum absent.

Figures 15–16. 

Male genitalia of Spinosuncus aureolalis. 15 Yunnan (genitalia slide no. ZDD12054) 16 Yunnan (genitalia slide no. SYSU0173). A: Whole genitalia. B: Base of valva dorsally. C: Projections of sacculus. D: Apex of phallus. Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Distribution

(Figure 28). China (Guangxi, Yunnan), India (Sikkim), Thailand (Chiang Mai).

Spinosuncus quadracutus sp. n.

Figs 9, 17–18, 26–27, 28

Material examined

Type material. Holotype ♂; CHINA, Hainan: Mt. Limushan, 19.16N, 109.73E, alt. 662 m, 20.V.2013, leg. Li Jinwei, genitalia slide no. SYSU0048, molecular voucher no. SYSU-LEP0002. Paratypes: CHINA, Fujian: 1♂, Guadun, Mt. Wuyishan, 27.74N, 117.64E, alt. 1220 m, 17.V.2012, leg. Li Jinwei, genitalia slide no. SYSU0034; Hainan: 2♂, Mt. Limushan, 19.16N, 109.73E, alt. 662 m, 20.V.2013, leg. Li Jinwei, genitalia slide no. SYSU0032; 1♂, 1♀, Jianling Reserve, 18.87N, 110.27E, alt. 143 m, 8.IX.2013, leg. Chen Xiaohua, genitalia slides no. SYSU0029 (♂), SYSU0035 (♀, molecular voucher no. SYSU-LEP0001); 1♀, Mt. Diaoluoshan, 18.65N, 109.93E, alt. 98 m, 3.XI.2013, leg. Chen Kai and Chen Xiaohua, genitalia slide no. SYSU0912; 1♀, Nankai Town, Baisha, 19.05N, 109.24E, alt. 294 m, 19.V.2013, leg. Li Jinwei, genitalia slide no. SYSU0077.

Diagnosis

This species is indistinguishable from S. aureolalis in wing pattern. In the male genitalia, it can be distinguished from S. aureolalis by the uncus with four prominent pointed spines distally (the median two small and indistinct in S. aureolalis), the blunt distal projection of sacculus (pointed in S. aureolalis) always set with one long spine pointing towards juxta (often with two long spines in S. aureolalis, Figure 15C) and the more spinulose and with arched dorsal margin distal projection (smooth, less arched in S. aureolalis, Figs 15C, 16C). In the female genitalia, it can be differentiated from S. aureolalis by the more closely set dorsolateral extensions of lamella postvaginalis and relatively larger and more closely set hook-like notches of the sinus vaginalis anterolaterally (Figs 26B, 27B).

Description

Head. Frons brown, vertex with moderately raised scales projecting between antennae, labial palpus brown, white at base ventrally. Maxillary palpus brown, with apex pale yellow. Thorax. Yellow. Legs as described for the genus. Wingspan 26–30 mm. Wing pattern as in S. aureolalis. Abdomen. Fulvous dorsally, apical margin of segments tinged with white. Male genitalia (Figs 17, 18). Uncus tapering from base to middle; laterally membranous and set with several setae ventrally; otherwise strongly sclerotized; with two caniniform teeth medioventrally; distally with four sharp and slender spines, the lateral two longer, about two times as long as the median two. Valva narrow, as in S. aureolalis; transtilla extended ventrally into a long and narrow projection, dorsal margin with sparse setae; costal sclerotized band rather narrow, extended to near distal end of valva; sacculus with central caniniform projection and distal cheliform projection, distal half set with dense setae ventrally, distal projection strongly sclerotized, set with dense and slightly raised spines and one moderately downcurved spine pointing towards juxta; sella short and broad, distally inflated, set with modified setae forming editum, varying form fin-shaped to thick needle-shaped, ventral margin upcurved, thickened and sclerotized, distally spinose, ending in long, curved spine. Juxta shield-shaped, pentagonal, distal margin slightly bifid. Phallus as in S. aureolalis. Female genitalia (Figs 26, 27). Anterior apophysis sclerotized, slightly sinuate in distal third; posterior apophysis oblong, slender, and strongly sclerotized. Sinus vaginalis with two large, thick, hook-like notches anterolaterally; lamella postvaginalis sclerotized, band-shaped, extended dorsolaterally to approximately 1/3 width of sinus vaginalis. Antrum granulated and broad. Ductus bursae long and moderately wide, about two times as long as diameter of corpus bursae; colliculum well-developed, with anterior end narrower. Corpus bursae globular; accessory bursa arising from posterior end of corpus bursae; rhombic signum with carinae well-developed and connected (Figure 26A) or weak and wide separated (Figure 27A), other two angles densely bearing spines, sometimes smooth medially (Figure 27A); second signum absent.

Figures 17–18. 

Male genitalia of Spinosuncus quadracutus. 17 Fujian (genitalia slide no. SYSU0034) 18 Hainan (genitalia slide no. SYSU0048). A: Whole genitalia. B: Base of valva dorsally. C: Projections of sacculus. D: Apex of phallus. Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Figures 19–21. 

Female genitalia of Spinosuncus spp. 19 S. contractalis, Hainan (genitalia slide no. SYSU0185) 20 S. rectacutus, Guangxi (genitalia slide no. SYSU0979) 21 S. brevacutus, Guizhou (genitalia slide no. SYSU0978). A–B: Ventral views. B: Posterad of colliculum. Scale bars: 1.0 mm.

Figures 22–23. 

Female genitalia of Spinosuncus spp. 22 S. praepandalis, Yunnan (genitalia slide no. SYSU0980) 23 S. curvisetaceus, Jiangxi (genitalia slide no. SYSU0061). A–B: Ventral views. B: Posterad of colliculum. Scale bars: 1.0 mm.

Figures 24–25. 

Female genitalia of Spinosuncus aureolalis. 24 Yunnan (genitalia slide no. ZDD12052) 25 Yunnan (genitalia slide no. FCEL0002) A–B: Ventral views. B: Posterad of colliculum. Scale bars: 1.0 mm.

Figures 26–27. 

Female genitalia of Spinosuncus quadracutus. 26 Hainan (genitalia slide no. SYSU0912) 27 Hainan (genitalia slide no. SYSU0035). A–B: Ventral views. B: Posterad of colliculum. Scale bars: 1.0 mm.

Etymology

The specific name is derived from the Latin quadri- (four) and acutus (pointed), referring to the distal uncus with four pointed spines.

Distribution

(Figure 28). China (Fujian, Hainan)

Figure 28. 

Distribution of Spinosuncus species in China. A Distance between Bubang and Nabang.

Key to species of Spinosuncus

1 Wingspan large, usually more than 24 mm. Uncus with setae. Ductus bursae at least twice as long as length or diameter of corpus bursae 2
Wingspan small, usually less than 24 mm. Uncus without setae. Ductus bursae approximately as long as length or diameter of corpus bursae 5
2 Forewing with postmedial line thickened near costa. Uncus without teeth ventrally; transtilla with two to three thick needle-shaped setae; sella distally only with fin-shaped setae. Antrum membranous; sinus vaginalis without notch 3
Forewing with postmedial line not thickened near costa. Uncus with two caniniform teeth ventrally; transtilla with few normal setae; sella distally with fin-shaped and thick needle-shaped setae. Antrum granulated; sinus vaginalis with two large, hook-like notches 4
3 Wings with lines somewhat dentate; ground color dark yellow (Fig. 6). Transtilla with two to three straight setae, the longer one about twice as long as the shorter one (Fig. 13B); distal half of sacculus expanded, semicircular, with margin sparsely set with teeth (Fig. 13A) S. praepandalis (Snellen, 1890), comb. n.
Wings with lines not dentate, background color pale yellow (Fig. 7). Transtilla with two curved setae, the longer one less than twice as long as the shorter one (Fig. 14B); distal half of sacculus expanded, rectangular, with margin densely set with teeth (Fig. 14A) S. curvisetaceus sp. n.
4 Uncus distally with two thick teeth, with two very minute spines, often indistinct (Figs 15A, 16A); sacculus with distal projection relatively pointed, often bearing two long spines pointing towards juxta (Figs 15C, 16C) S. aureolalis (Lederer, 1863), comb. n.
Uncus distally with four slender spines, the lateral two about two times as long as the median two (Figs 17A, 18A); sacculus with distal projection blunt, bearing one long spine pointing towards juxta (Figs 17C, 18C) S. quadracutus sp. n.
5 Uncus distally blunt, with two minute spines (Fig. 12A); transtilla dorsally with a row of sparse setae (Fig. 12B) S. brevacutus sp. n.
Uncus distally with two distinct spines laterally; transtilla dorsally densely setose 6
6 Distal spines of uncus excurved, lateral margins below spines strongly bulging; distal half of sacculus with acinaciform process (Fig. 10A). Notches of sinus vaginalis curved (Fig. 19B) S. contractalis (Warren, 1896), comb. n.
Distal spines of uncus straight, lateral margins below spines slightly bulging; distal half of sacculus without acinaciform process (Fig. 11A). Notches of sinus vaginalis straight (Fig. 20B) S. rectacutus sp. n.

Discussion

The results of the molecular analysis robustly support the monophyly of Spinosuncus. The monophyly of the genus is further supported morphologically by the following potential synapomorphies: the sclerotized uncus distally with two spines or teeth, the lamellate, distally inflated sella with fin-shaped setae forming editum, the dorsally expanded sacculus with the dorsal margin sclerotized, the distally expanded, spinulose phallus, the funnel-shaped bunch of cornuti, the sclerotized lamella postvaginalis always extended dorsolaterally and the sclerotized transverse band at the posterior end of the antrum.

According to the tree topology (Figure 1), Paratalanta is not so closely related to Spinosuncus, and as already discussed by Zhang et al. (2014), species of Spinosuncus share no synapomorphy with Paratalanta. The relationship between Pseudopagyda + Aglaops and Spinosuncus is well supported (PP = 1.00, BS = 77), but the clade Pseudopagyda + Aglaops is only weakly supported (PP = 0.81, BS = 50). Morphologically, Aglaops species are similar to Pseudopagyda in the campanulate uncus and the distally inflated sella (which is also similar in Spinosuncus), but other genitalia traits differ. The wing pattern of Aglaops species lacks a subterminal line, whereas Pseudopagyda and Spinosuncus species have such a line. Pseudopagyda species resemble Spinosuncus species in the wing pattern. In the male genitalia, the distally inflated sella is similar to that of Spinosuncus; the needle-shaped setae forming editum and the presence of several large spines in the phallus distally are also found in S. aureolalis and S. quadracutus; the heart-shaped juxta is similar in S. contractalis, S. rectacutus, S. brevacutus, S. praepandalis and S. curvisetaceus. Based on the molecular phylogenetic results and morphological characters, Pseudopagyda could be the most closely related genus to Spinosuncus.

Other genera included in the molecular analysis, represented by Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, 1854), Placosaris rubellalis (Caradja, 1925), Thliptoceras sinense (Caradja, 1925) and Aglaops youboialis (Munroe & Mutuura, 1968), all lack a forewing subterminal line. Placosaris rubellalis and Thliptoceras sinense have a rod-like sella similar to that of Spinosuncus in the male genitalia, but the editum are different. Ostrinia furnacalis has a weakly sclerotized uncus, distally divided into three small, laterally setose processes, which is somewhat similar in some Spinosuncus species. However, other traits of the male genitalia of O. furnacalis are quite different from those of Spinosuncus species. At present, it is impossible to confirm the generic position of Spinosuncus within the subfamily since only few genera of Pyraustinae were included in this study.

Taxonomically, Spinosuncus can be divided into three species groups: the contractalis group, the praepandalis group and the aureolalis group. The monophyly of these three species groups is well supported by the phylogenetic analysis (Figure 1). The aureolalis group, comprising S. aureolalis and S. quadracutus, is well characterized by the laterally setose uncus, distally with two or four spines, ventrally with two large teeth; the lamellate, distally inflated sella with fin- and needle-shaped setae forming editum; the cheliform sacculus with a long spine pointing towards juxta; and the two thick, hook-like notches anterolaterally on the sinus vaginalis. The contractalis group comprises S. contractalis, S. rectacutus and S. brevacutus. This species group is well defined by several characters: the glabrous, sclerotized uncus distally with two spines; a row of setae on the transtilla dorsally; and two streak-like sclerotized notches anterolaterally on the sinus vaginalis. Within the contractalis group, S. contractalis is closer to S. rectacutus than to S. brevacutus based on the relatively long spines on the uncus distally and the densely setose transtilla dorsally. The praepandalis group, comprising S. praepandalis and S. curvisetaceus, can be recognized by the following characters: the bifid uncus with two basally setose teeth; the two needle-shaped setae on the transtilla dorsally; a long, narrowly triangular lobe projecting from the transtilla ventrally; and the long and slender ductus bursae which is about twice as long as the diameter of the corpus bursae. Within the genus, the praepandalis group is closer to the contractalis group than to the aureolalis group.

In this study, four new species are described based on morphological and genetic differences from related species. The morphological differences are given above in the diagnoses of the new species. The genetic distance between species in Lepidoptera are ordinarily greater than 3% (Hebert et al. 2003) in the COI barcode. Among the new species, S. quadracutus, S. curvisetaceus and S. brevacutus are well recognized by distance values greater than 3% from their most closely related species (Table 2). Another new species, S. rectacutus showed relatively low genetic distance (2.5%–2.7%) to its most closely related species S. contractalis. However, S. rectacutus can be distinguished from S. contractalis as mentioned above under the diagnosis of S. rectacutus and by the key. Moreover, such cases of low genetic divergence are also observed in some other studies in Lepidoptera (Hebert et al. 2003, 2010, Yang et al. 2016). The low interspecific divergence of congeneric species pairs may indicate their recent origin or introgression (Hebert et al. 2003, Zahiri et al. 2014). Based on the covariation between barcodes and morphological traits, S. rectacutus is treated as a distinct species.

A relatively high intraspecific divergence was observed in S. aureolalis (2.7%). The two specimens concerned, a male and a female, were collected in two localities in Yunnan that are distant by approximately 550 km (Figure 28A). According to the genitalia (Figure 24), the female specimen belongs to the aureolalis species group and it can be distinguished from S. quadracutus by the two hook-like notches more widely separated from each other. Moreover, no obvious genital variation could be found in the males found in these two localities. Consequently, they are here treated as conspecific. Genital variation is observed in two male specimens collected in Daxichang, Yunnan and Nonggang, Guangxi (genitalia slides no. SYSU0173, SYSU 0909, respectively), both places which are near the north of Vietnam. The distal projection of the sacculus has only one large spine, as in those of S. quadracutus, whereas those specimens collected in other places of Yunnan, Thailand and India have two spines. However, other genital traits, as given in the redescription, are all uniform, suggesting their recognition as the same species, S. aureolalis.

In the present study, four new species are discovered which are superficially similar to the three described species. Considering the lack of sufficient generic revisions, especially in Oriental region, there is little doubt that many described species have been misplaced and more cryptic species will be revealed within the subfamily. As Munroe (1976a) pointed out, inclusion of genitalia structures and careful analyses of the interspecific and intraspecific differences will certainly help to move ahead to natural classifications as opposed to artificial arrangements. However, the understanding of the phylogenetic relationships between most genera of Pyraustinae is still very imperfect. Phylogenetic systematics based on morphology helps little as pyraustine genera are separated in most cases only by minute morphological differences which are difficult to interpret as apo- or plesiomorphic. The use of genetic data will facilitate species identification and help to understand the interspecific and intergeneric relationships. It calls for more comprehensive investigations on Pyraustinae in the future in order to understand this species-rich subfamily better.

Acknowledgements

Grateful thanks go to Mr Geoff Martin (NHMUK) for helping to access type specimens, to Dr Koen Maes (Agrobiosys International, Belgium) for giving helpful scientific comments, to Dr Hans Bänziger (Chiang Mai University, Thailand) for providing some images of genitalia and specimens, and to Dr Xicui Du (Southwest University, China) for providing some specimens. We are also grateful to Dr Wolfgang Speidel (Department of Entomology, Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Germany), Dr Robert B. Angus (NHMUK), Dr Richard Mally (University Museum of Bergen, Natural History Collections, Norway) and Dr Bernard Landry (Muséum d’histoire naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland) for their critical reviews and linguistic assistance on the manuscript.

This project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31672330), the Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China. (2015FY210300) and the Basic Work Special Project of the National Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2013FY111500).

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