Zookeys 62: 1–124, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.62.430
Catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Bulgaria
Albena Lapeva-Gjonova1, Vera Antonova2, Alexander G. Radchenko3, Maria Atanasova1
1 Sofia University, Department of Zoology and Anthropology, 8 Dragan Tzankov blvd., 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria
2 Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Researches, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 2 Gagarin str., 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
3 Museum and Institute of Zoology of Polish Academy of Sciences, 64 Wilcza str., 00-679, Warsaw, Poland

Corresponding author: Albena Lapeva-Gjonova (gjonova@abv.bg).

Academic editor: Donat Agosti

received 8 March 2010 | accepted 1 September 2010 | Published 15 October 2010


(C) 2010 Albena Lapeva-Gjonova. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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Abstract

The present catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria is made on a base of critical reconsideration of literature (covering the period from 1892 till 2009 and part of 2010) as well as on examination of the authors‘ and several museum‘s collections. A lot of data were omitted in the previous Bulgarian monograph on ants, lots of new data were recently added and many important additions and alterations were made due to taxonomic revisions of Eurasian Formicidae during the last three decades. Two new species are reported for the country [Temnothorax graecus (Forel, 1911) and Temnothorax cf. korbi (Emery, 1924)].

This catalogue contains a list of 163 ant species belonging to 40 genera of 6 subfamilies now known from Bulgaria. Synonyms and information on the previously reported names in relevant publications are given. Known localities of the species are grouped by geographic regions. Maps with concrete localities or regions for each species were prepared. The conservation status of 13 ant species is given as they are included in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and Bulgarian Biodiversity Act. In comparison with adjacent Balkan regions the ant fauna of Bulgaria is quite rich and its core is composed of South European elements.

Keywords

ants, Formicidae, Bulgaria, catalogue, new records, fauna, conservation status, geographical distribution

Introduction

The Bulgarian myrmecofauna is among the richest of the local faunas of Southern Europe. This is a result of the high diversity of natural habitats, variability of climate and orography, and by the complicated history of the origin of the ant fauna of this relatively small territory. Despite a comparatively large number of publications concerning myrmecological investigation in this country, including monographic synthesizing, a lot of data has been omitted by previous authors and much new data has been added recently. To make a complete synopsis of all the existing information we have summarized it and compiled modern Catalogue of Bulgarian ants.

Early studies of the myrmecofauna of Bulgaria started more than 100 years ago, when Auguste Forel (1892) recorded 54 ant species from various regions of the country: the city of Sofia, Rila Mountain, Rhodopi Mountains, Stara Planina Mountains, and South Black Sea coast. Three new species were also described in this paper: Temnothorax bulgaricus (as Leptothorax), Cardiocondyla bulgarica (as Cardiocondyla elegans Emery var. bulgarica), and Cardiocondyla stambuloffii.

The most significant contribution to the fauna and biology of the ants in Bulgaria over the past century was made by Dr. Neno Atanassov, whose first papers were published in the 1930s (Atanassov 1934, 1936), where he reported 57 species. After World War II his monographic work on the fauna and biology of ants of the Vitosha Mountain was published (Atanassov 1952). A couple of other faunistic papers for the Bulgarian territory (Atanassov and Vassileva 1976), particularly of South Dobrudzha (Atanassov and Bulgurkov 1955), Petrich basin (Atanassov 1964), Lozenska Planina Mountain (Vassilev and Evtimov 1973), Rachene river valley (Vassilev 1984) made important additions to our knowledge of the Bulgarian myrmecofauna. Further contributions were also provided by (Wesselinoff (1936, 1968, 1972, 1979), (Atanassov (1957, 1965, 1982), Urbański (1975), (Baroni Urbani (1977, 1978).

In the 1960s and 1980s myrmecological investigations in Bulgaria were concerned mostly with the distribution and biology of red wood ants (Otto et al. 1962, Ronketi and Penev 1966, Wesselinoff 1967, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1979, Keremidchiev et al. 1971, 1972, Bobev 1972, 1973, Atanassov 1974, 1979, 1983, 1990, Gateva 1974, 1975, 1978, Vatov and Bobev 1976, Vesselinov 1981).

Over the last three decades many important additions and alterations to the taxonomy of Eurasian Formicidae, that also include data on Bulgarian ants, have been published (Seifert 1983, 1988a, b, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997a, b, 2000a, b, c, 2002a, b, 2003a, b, 2005, 2006, Radchenko 1989, 1991, 1995a, b, 1997a, b, 2000, 2001, 2007, Radchenko and Elmes 2003, 2004, Schlick-Steiner et al. 2003, 2006a, Seifert and Schultz 2009, Seifert et al. 2009). Two new species have been described from the territory of the country: Lasius balcanicus Seifert, 1988 and Lasius nitidigaster Seifert, 1996.

The first attempt to summarize data on Balkan ants, including the Bulgarian fauna, was made by Agosti and Collingwood (1987a, b). They reported 112 species for Bulgaria based on data from their own and some other Museum collections, as well as on literature data. However, much of the data from these two papers needs revision and correction.

By far, the most comprehensive information on the Bulgarian myrmecofauna is contained in the book “Fauna of Bulgaria. Hymenoptera, Formicidae” by Atanassov and Dlusskij (1992). It includes data on the taxonomy, distribution and ecology of 111 ant species from 36 genera and 4 subfamilies, with identifications keys of all taxa. However, some species, recorded previously for Bulgaria (Sadil 1952, Barrett 1970, Seifert 1983, 1988a, b, 1990, Agosti and Collingwood 1987a, Buschinger et al. 1988) are omitted from this monograph.

Not surprisingly, a lot of essential additions to Bulgarian ant fauna have been published since 1992. These include faunistic and ecological data of the myrmecofauna of Sofia city and its environs (Antonova 2004, 2005, Lapeva-Gjonova and Atanasova 2004, Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008), Rhodopi Mountains (Lapeva-Gjonova 2004a, Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)), Strandzha Mountain (Antonova et al. in press), Plana Mountain (Vagalinski and Lapeva-Gjonova in press). Beside this, many ant species have been recorded for Bulgaria for the first time (Seifert 1992, Buschinger and Douwes 1993, Radchenko 1994, Seifert 1995, 1997a, Czechowska et al. 1998, Seifert 2000a, b, Markó and Csősz 2002, Csősz and Seifert 2003, Radchenko and Antonova 2004, Stankiewicz and Antonova 2005, Csősz and Markó 2005, Steiner et al. 2005, Seifert 2006, Antonova 2009, Bezděčka and Bezděčková 2009, Csősz and Schulz 2010, Lapeva-Gjonova in press (b)).

As a result, we now include in the List of Bulgarian fauna 163 ant species belonging to 40 genera of 6 subfamilies.

Materials and order of the Catalogue

The Catalogue we present here is based on the investigation of ants collected personally by the authors in various regions of Bulgaria during last decade, as well as on the material, preserved in the following Museums and Institutions: private collection of A. Lapeva-Gjonova, Faculty of Biology, Sofia University; private collection of V. Antonova, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Researches, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (IBER); Zoological Museum of the Moscow State University, Russia (ZMMU); Museum and Institute of Zoology of Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland (MIZ); shmalhausen Institute of Zoology of Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine (SIZK); National Museum of Natural History, Prague, Czech Republic (NMNHP). All the available literature was also surveyed and the data therein used and in some cases critically reviewed.

Dr. Neno Atanassov’s collection of ants is kept in the National History Museum in Sofia and includes a few thousands of mounted specimens. Unfortunately, the collection is almost useless as the specimens have no locality labels but only numbers.

This catalogue contains a list of ant species, currently known in Bulgaria. Synonyms, information on the previously reported names and localities are included. Two new species [Temnothorax graecus (Forel, 1911) and Temnothorax cf. korbi (Emery, 1924)] for the country are reported.

The arrangement of genera in the subfamilies in the catalog is given by tribes. The species within each genus are listed in alphabetical order. Actual names of genera and species, and their authors are consistent with the most recent world catalogues of ants (Bolton 2003, Bolton et al. 2006) or, in the case of subsequent publications, with the most recent publications of the relevant authors.

Publications by both Bulgarian and foreign authors concerning Bulgarian ants covering the period from 1892 till 2009 (2010, part) have been considered. After the actual name of the species, a list of synonyms and names used in relevant publications is given. Known localities of the species are grouped by geographic regions and subregions, arranged in the order given by Hubenov (1997) (Map 1). We have introduced additional regions and/or subregions for localities, which are not adequately covered by that classification system. Some of the localities, given in the references with obsolete names in older references, have been updated here. A few of the names could not be associated with any city or geographical location in the country due to typographical errors or incorrect transliteration. We have cited them in an italic font in the text. Publications without any reference to particular localities in the country are included before all other localities as referring generally to Bulgaria. Notes with comments on taxonomic position and distribution are added for some species.

IUCN species categories are given by the last “1994 Red List Categories & Criteria (version 2.3)” (IUCN 2009). It incorporates changes as a result of comments from IUCN members and was adopted by the IUCN Council in December 1994. In the recent catalogue the global status category for a given taxon is included. The national status of all the species recorded from Bulgaria that are listed in the IUCN report need updating.

Maps with concrete localities or regions for each species have been prepared. Whenever the number of localities for a species is very low, the information for two or more species is combined on a common map. In some cases species have been reported without a specific locality and only region or subregion were noted. In these cases the species are assigned to the whole area (region or subregion).

Catalogue
Subfamily Amblyoponinae
Genus Amblyopone Erichson, 1842
Amblyopone denticulata (Roger, 1859)
= Amblyopone gheorghieffi Forel, 1892
Records

(Map 2): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a); Eastern Stara Planina Mts: Sliven [Forel 1892 (as A. gheorghieffi), Baroni Urbani 1978]; Surnena Sredna Gora Mts: the slopes of Sredna Gora Mts by Stara Zagora (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Amblyopone impressifrons (Emery, 1869)
Records

(Map 2): Thracian Lowland: Svilengrad district, Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Kulata (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Subfamily Ponerinae Emery, 1893
Cryptopone ochracea (Mayr, 1855)
Records

(Map 3): Eastern Danubian Plain; Thracian Lowland; Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley:Petrich (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Genus Hypoponera Santschi, 1938
Hypoponera eduardi (Forel, 1894)
Records

(Map 4): Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Petrich district (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Notes:

Atanassov and Dlusskij (1992) on page 69 noted that this species is widespread in Southern Europe but is absent from Bulgaria, while on a page 71 they report it from the Petrich region.

Hypoponera punctatissima (Roger, 1859)
Records

(Map 4): Eastern Danubian Plain: Silistra (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Sofia Basin: Sofia [Atanassov 1936 (as Ponera punctatissima), Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992]; Sredna Gora Mts (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Sushtinska Sredna gora Mts: Hisarya [Atanassov 1936 (as Ponera punctatissima)]; Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Kulata, Melnik (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Genus Ponera Latreille, 1804
Ponera coarctata (Latreille, 1802)
Records

(Map 5): Bulgaria (Emery 1914, Taylor 1967, Agosti and Collingwood 1987a, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Eastern Danubian Plain: Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen (Wesselinoff 1936); Sofia Basin: Sofia (Atanassov 1936, Lapeva-Gjonova and Atanasova 2004, Antonova 2005, Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008); Strandzha Mt. (Wesselinoff 1936); Belasitsa Mt. (Atanassov 1964, Hubenov et al. 1998); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Petrich (Atanassov 1964); Western Rhodopi Mts: Asenovgrad (Wesselinoff 1936), Peshtera (Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)); Eastern Rhodopi Mts: Zvezdel vill. (Momchilgrad) (Lapeva-Gjonova 2004a); Northern Black Sea coast: Varna district (Wesselinoff 1936); Southern Black Sea coast: Rezovo (Atanassov 1936).

Notes:

See Ponera testacea.

Ponera testacea Emery, 1895
Records

(Map 5): Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Melnik, Melnik river valley, Rozhen (Csősz and Seifert 2003).

Notes:

Csősz and Seifert (2003) revived the name Ponera coarctata var. testacea from synonymy and raised it to species. Ponera testacea is a more thermophilous species than Ponera coarctata and seems to be widely distributed in Southern Europe. We are pretty sure that many of the previous records of Ponera coarctata for Bulgaria might belong to Ponera testacea.

Subfamily Proceratiinae
Genus Proceratium Roger, 1863
Proceratium melinum (Roger, 1860)
Records

(Map 6): Eastern Danubian Plain: Dobrudzha (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Thracian Lowland: Svilengrad (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Petrich, Sandanski (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Southern Black Sea coast: Burgas [(Forel 1895 (as Proceratium europaeum), Baroni Urbani 1977, Baroni Urbani and De Andrade 2003, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992].

Proceratium numidicum Santschi, 1912
Records:

Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a).

Notes:

This species was omitted by Atanassov and Dlusskij (1992). It was described from Tunisia and reported for Albania (Brown 1958), Turkey (Egridir) (Baroni Urbani 1977) and Cyprus (Baroni Urbani and De Andrade 2003). Agosti and Collingwood (1987a) recorded this species without any comments on Bulgaria. The presence of Proceratium numidicumin Bulgaria needs confirmation.

Subfamily Myrmicinae
Genus Pyramica Roger, 1862
Pyramica baudueri (Emery, 1875)
Records

(Map 6): Eastern Rhodopi Mts: near Shiroko pole vill. (Momchilgrad) (Bezděčka and Bezděčková 2009).

Notes:

After revision of the tribe Dacetini and proposed synonymisation of many generic names (e.g. Bolton 1999, 2000, 2003, Bolton et al. 2006) this species was considered to be in the genus Pyramica. However, recently, Baroni Urbani and De Andrade (2007) provided a new reassessment of the tribe Dacetini and formally synonymised Pyramica with Strumigenys F. Smith. This system is not fully accepted currently (2010) and, perhaps, needs additional revisions and we use here the system, proposed by (Bolton (2000, 2003).

Genus Manica Jurine, 1807
Manica rubida (Latreille, 1802)
Records

(Map 7): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a); Central Predbalkan: Dermantsi vill. (Lukovit) [Atanassov 1934 (as Myrmica rubida), Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992]; Central Stara Planina Mts: Botev peak (Ray hut) [Atanassov 1936 (as Myrmica rubida)]; Vitosha Mt. [Atanassov 1936 (as Myrmica rubida), Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992]; Podbalkan Basins: Karlovo gorge [Atanassov 1934 (as Myrmica rubida)]; Osogovska Planina Mt.: Ruen peak [Atanassov 1934 (as Myrmica rubida)], Kamen peak [Atanassov 1936 (as Myrmica rubida)]; Rila Mt.: Elenin peak, Rilska river valley (Forel 1892), Borovets [Atanassov 1934 (as Myrmica rubida)], Musala peak [Atanassov 1936 (as Myrmica rubida), Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992]; Slavianka Mt.: Alibotush reserve (Antonova 2009); Western Rhodopi Mts: Peshtera, Smolyan, Dospat, Rakitovo, Batak (Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)); Southern Black Sea coast: Maslen nos (Atanassov 1934, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Notes:

The locality Maslen nos (20 m asl) is the lowest one for the species in Bulgaria (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992). We did not examine correspondent material, but based on the current knowledge of the distribution and ecology of this species we may expect that this record is based on mislabeling or misidentification.

Genus Myrmica Latreille, 1804
Myrmica constricta Karavajev, 1934
Records

(Map 8): Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Melnik (Seifert et al. 2009).

Myrmica gallienii Bondroit, 1920
= Myrmica limanica Arnoldi, 1934
Records

(Map 8): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a, Seifert 1988a: the Balkans); Western Predbalkan: Rachene river valley [Vassilev 1984 (as Myrmica limanica)]; Vitosha Mt. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Myrmica hellenica Finzi, 1926
= Myrmica rugulososcabrinodis Karawajew, 1929
Records

(Map 8): Thracian Lowland: Maritsa river valley (near by Haskovo), Betova (Seifert 1988a, Seifert et al. 2009); Sofia Basin: Sofia [Radchenko and Antonova 2004, Antonova 2005, Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008 (all as Myrmica rugulososcabrinodis)]; Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Melnik, Sandanski [Seifert 1988a, Radchenko and Antonova 2004 (as Myrmica rugulososcabrinodis), Seifert et al. 2009]; Northern Black Sea coast: Obzor (Seifert et al. 2009); Southern Black Sea coast: Burgas (Seifert et al. 2009).

Notes:

Very recently Seifert et al. (2009) synonymised Myrmica rugulososcabrinodis with Myrmica hellenica. This species was omitted by Atanassov and Dlusskij (1992).

Myrmica lobicornis Nylander, 1846
Records

(Map 8): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a, Seifert 1988a: entire Europe excluding Italy and Greece); Central Stara Planina Mts: Karlovo Balkan (Atanassov 1936, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Vitosha Mt. (Atanassov 1936, 1952, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Plana Mt.: Plana vill., Tsiganka peak (Pasarel vill.) (Vagalinski and Lapeva-Gjonova in press); Osogovska Planina Mt., Belasitsa Mt. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Rila Mt.: Elenin peak, Rilska river valley (Forel 1892, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Pirin Mt. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Slavianka Mt.: Alibotush reserve (Antonova 2009); Rhodopi Mts (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Western Rhodopi Mts: Peshtera (Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)).

Myrmica lonae Finzi, 1926
Records

(Map 9): Bulgaria (Seifert 2005); Sofia Basin: Sofia, surroundings of Sofia (Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008); Lozenska Planina Mt. near German monastery (Antonova and Penev 2008); Strandzha Mt. (Antonova et al. in press); Western Rhodopi Mts: Dobrostan (Seifert 2000b), Rakitovo (Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)).

Notes:

Since Myrmica lonae was for a long time considered to be a junior synonym of Myrmica sabuleti, some old records of the latter species (see below) may belong to Myrmica lonae.

Myrmica rubra (Linnaeus, 1758)
= Myrmica laevinodis Nylander, 1846
Records

(Map 9): Bulgaria (Emery 1914, Agosti and Collingwood 1987a, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Central Stara Planina Mts: along Kostinya river (Teteven Balkan) [Atanassov 1936 (as Myrmica rubra laevinodis)]; Eastern Stara Planina Mts: Sliven [Forel 1892 (as Myrmica laevinodis)]; Sofia Basin: Sofia (Lapeva-Gjonova and Atanasova 2004, Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008); Vitosha Mt. [Atanassov 1952 (as Myrmica laevinodis)]: Knyazhevo [Forel 1892 (as Myrmica laevinodis)], Zheleznitsa vill. [Atanassov 1936 (as Myrmica rubra laevinodis)]; Plana Mt.: Plana vill., Kokalyane monastery (Kokalyane vill.), Ivanova mogila peak (Alino vill.) (Vagalinski and Lapeva-Gjonova in press); Western Rhodopi Mts: Batak, Velingrad, Rakitovo, Peshtera, Smolyan (Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)).

Myrmica ruginodis Nylander, 1846
Records

(Map 10): Bulgaria (Emery 1914, Agosti and Collingwood 1987a, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Sofia Basin: Sofia (Lapeva-Gjonova and Atanasova 2004, Antonova 2005, Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008), surroundings of Sofia near Vladaya vill. (Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008); Vitosha Mt. (Atanassov 1936, 1952); Plana Mt.: Kokalyane monastery (Kokalyane vill.), Astronomical observatory (between Plana vill. and Dolni Okol vill.), east of Zheleznitsa vill., under Muhchel peak (Dolni Okol vill.), Tsiganka peak (Pasarel vill.), Peyova buka hut (Pasarel vill.) (Vagalinski and Lapeva-Gjonova in press); Belasitsa Mt.: at the foot of Belasitsa Mt. (Atanassov 1964); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: plain by Strumeshnitsa river (Atanassov 1964); Rila Mt.: Rila monastery (Forel 1892), Borovets (Atanassov 1936); Slavianka Mt.: Alibotush reserve (Antonova 2009); Western Rhodopi Mts: Devin, Chepelare (Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)).

Myrmica rugulosa Nylander, 1849
Records

(Map 10): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a, Seifert 1988a: north of 41 o N in the Balkans); Western Stara Planina Mts: above Berkovitsa (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Central Stara Planina Mts: under Vezhen peak (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Eastern Stara Planina Mts: Chumerna (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Sofia Basin: Sofia (Lapeva-Gjonova and Atanasova 2004, Antonova 2005, Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008), surroundings of Sofia near Vladaya vill. (Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008); Lozenska Planina Mt. near German monastery (Antonova and Penev 2008); Thracian Lowland: Pazardzhik (Forel 1892); Rila Mt.: Raduil, Rila monastery (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Western Rhodopi Mts: Asenovgrad (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992), Peshtera, Chepelare, Smolyan (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Eastern Rhodopi Mts: Momchilgrad (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Myrmica sabuleti Meinert, 1861
Records

(Map 11): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a, Seifert 2005); Western Predbalkan: Rachene river valley (Vassilev 1984); Stara Planina Mts (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Sofia Basin: Sofia (Antonova 2004, 2005, Lapeva-Gjonova and Atanasova 2004, Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008); Vitosha Mt. (Atanassov 1952, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992, Hubenov et al. 1998); Plana Mt.: Tsiganka peak (Pasarel vill.), Bukov dol loc. (Pasarel vill.), Pasarel vill., Alino vill., Peyova buka hut (Pasarel vill.)(Vagalinski and Lapeva-Gjonova in press); Lozenska Planina Mt.: near German monastery (Antonova and Penev 2008); Strandzha Mt. (Antonova et al. in press); Rila Mt., Pirin Mt., Rhodopi Mts (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Western Rhodopi Mts: Batak, Dospat, Rakitovo (Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)); Eastern Rhodopi Mts: Byal Izvor vill. (Arda), Zvezdel vill. (Momchilgrad), Malki Voden vill. (Madzharovo), Kokiche vill. (Kardzhali) (Lapeva-Gjonova 2004a); South Bulgaria (Seifert 1988a).

Myrmica scabrinodis Nylander, 1846
Records

(Map 11): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a, Seifert 1988a, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Central Predbalkan: Dermantsi vill. (Lukovit) (Atanassov 1934); Eastern Stara Planina Mts: Sliven (Forel 1892); Sofia Basin: Sofia (Forel 1892, Lapeva-Gjonova and Atanasova 2004, Antonova 2005, Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008); Vitosha Mt. (Atanassov 1934, 1952); Plana Mt.: Pasarel vill. (Vagalinski and Lapeva-Gjonova in press); Lozenska Planina Mt. (Vassilev and Evtimov 1973), near German monastery (Antonova and Penev 2008); Bakadzhik-Burgas district: Aytos (Forel 1892); Belasitsa Mt.: slopes of Belasitsa Mt. (Atanassov 1964, Hubenov et al. 1998); Western Rhodopi Mts: Smolyan, Peshtera, Batak (Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)).

Myrmica schencki Viereck, 1903
Records

(Map 12): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a, Seifert 1988a); Stara Planina Mts (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Sofia Basin: Sofia (Lapeva-Gjonova and Atanasova 2004, Antonova 2005, Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008); surroundings of Sofia near Vladaya vill. (Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008); Vitosha Mt. (Atanassov 1952, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Plana Mt.: Tsiganka peak (Pasarel vill.), Bukov dol loc. (Pasarel vill.), Pasarel vill., Alino vill., Turmachka neighbourhood (Plana vill.) (Vagalinski and Lapeva-Gjonova in press); Lozenska Planina Mt. near German monastery (Antonova and Penev 2008); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: west of Petrich, around Mitino vill. (Atanassov 1964, Hubenov et al. 1998); Rila Mt. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Pirin Mt. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992): Rozhen vill. (Seifert 2003a); Rhodopi Mts (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Western Rhodopi Mts: Chepelare, Smolyan, Rakitovo (Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)).

Myrmica slovaca Sadil, 1952
Myrmica salina: Seifert 1988a, 2002a, Antonova 2005, Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008, nec Ruzsky, 1905
Records

(Map 12): Sofia Basin: Sofia [Antonova 2005, Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008 (all as Myrmica salina)]; Strandzha Mt.: Tirnovo [Seifert 2002a (as Myrmica salina)]; Western Rhodopi Mts: Bachkovo [Sadil 1952, Seifert 1988a (as Myrmica salina)].

Notes:

During the last decade Myrmica slovaca has been considered as a junior synonym of Myrmica salina Ruzsky, 1905, but very recently Radchenko and Elmes (2009) based on the finding of Ruzsky’s original type material of Myrmica salina showed that these two species are not conspecific and revived the name Myrmica slovaca from synonymy.

Despite the fact that one of the type localities of Myrmica slovaca is in Bulgaria, this species was omitted by Atanassov and Dlusskij (1992).

Myrmica specioides Bondroit, 1918
= Myrmica sancta Karawajew, 1926
Myrmica bessarabica: Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992, nec Nasonov, 1889
Records

(Map 13): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a); Sofia Basin: Sofia (Antonova 2005, Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008), near Vladaya vill. (Antonova and Penev 2008); Lyulin Mt. [Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992 (as Myrmica bessarabica)]; Strandzha Mt.: Malko Tarnovo (Seifert 1988a); Rila Mt.: Kostenets [Atanassov and Vassileva 1976 and Hubenov et al. 1998 (as Myrmica sancta)]; Southern Black Sea coast: Sozopol (Seifert 1988a).

Notes:

After examination of the “holotype” of Myrmica bessarabica Seifert (2002a) found that there is a discrepancy between Nasonov’s original description and the characteristics of this specimen, and proposed considering Myrmica bessarabica incertae sedis in the genus Myrmica, and revived the name Myrmica specioides from synonymy (see also Radchenko and Elmes 2004).

Myrmica sulcinodis Nylander, 1846
Records

(Map 13): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a, Seifert 1988a, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Western Stara Planina Mts: Milanovo vill. (Vratsa) (Atanassov 1936); Sofia Basin: surroundings of Sofia near Vladaya vill. (Antonova 2004, Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008); Lyulin Mt. (Atanassov 1936); Vitosha Mt. (Atanassov 1952); Plana Mt.:Astronomical observatory (between Plana vill. and Dolni Okol vill.)(Vagalinski and Lapeva-Gjonova in press); Belasitsa Mt.: the slopes of Belasitsa (Atanassov 1964, Hubenov et al. 1998); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Luda Mara river valley (Atanassov 1964); Rila Mt.: Elenin peak (Forel 1892), Kostenets (Atanassov 1936); Western Rhodopi Mts: Smolyan, Peshtera, Rakitovo (Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)).

Myrmica vandeli Bondroit, 1920
Records

(Map 13): Vitosha Mt.:above Selimitsa hut (Stankiewicz and Antonova 2005).

Notes:

The locality for this species in Bulgaria is the southernmost in Europe (Stankiewicz and Antonova 2005).

Genus Stenamma Westwood, 1839
Stenamma debile (Förster, 1850)
Stenamma westwoodi: Emery 1914, Atanassov 1964, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992, Hubenov et al. 1998, Lapeva-Gjonova and Atanasova 2004, nec Westwood, 1839
Records

(Map 14): Bulgaria (Emery 1914); Western Danubian Plain: Vidin (Atanassov 1964); Western Stara Planina Mts: under Todorini Kukli peak (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992), Chepan (Dragoman) (Borisova et al. 2005); Eastern Stara Planina Mts:Karandila, under Razboyna peak (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Sofia Basin: Sofia [Lapeva-Gjonova and Atanasova 2004 (as Stenamma westwoodi), Antonova 2005, Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008]; Plana Mt.: Peyova buka hut (Pasarel vill.) (Vagalinski and Lapeva-Gjonova in press.); Sushtinska Sredna Gora Mts: under Bratiya peak (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Belasitsa Mt. [Atanassov 1964 (as Stenamma westwoodi), Hubenov et al. 1998]; Western Rhodopi Mts: Asenovgrad (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992), Peshtera (Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)); Eastern Rhodopi Mts: Momchilgrad (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Notes:

According to DuBois (1993)Stenamma westwoodii is distributed only in Western Europe, so all previous records for it in Bulgaria should refer to Stenamma debile, which is a more widespread European species.

Genus Aphaenogaster Mayr, 1853
Aphaenogaster epirotes (Emery, 1895)
Records

(Map 15): Eastern Danubian Plain: Dobrich (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Eastern Rhodopi Mts: Svirachi vill. (Ivaylovgrad), between Odrintsi and Svirachi vill. (Lapeva-Gjonova 2004a).

Aphaenogaster gibbosa (Latreille, 1798)
Records

(Map 15): Western Stara Planina Mts: Chepan (Dragoman) (Borisova et al. 2005); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: west of Petrich, along Strumeshnitsa river (Atanassov 1964), Petrich (Hubenov et al. 1998); Slavianka Mt.: above Paril vill. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Eastern Rhodopi Mts: Momchilgrad, Ivaylovgrad (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Northern Black Sea coast: Obzor vill. district (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Aphaenogaster pallida (Nylander, 1849)
Records

(Map 16): Western Predbalkan: Rachene river valley (Vassilev 1984).

Notes: This species is distributed in France, Canary Islands, Italy, Corsica, Sicily, Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. The record of this species for Bulgaria is quite doubtful and needs confirmation.

Aphaenogaster subterranea (Latreille, 1798)
Records

(Map 16): Bulgaria (Emery 1914, Agosti and Collingwood 1987a); Western Predbalkan: Rachene river valley (Vassilev 1984); Eastern Stara Planina Mts: Sliven (Forel 1892), Byala vill. (Sliven) (Atanassov 1936), Karandila (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Vitosha Mt. (Atanassov 1952); Bakadzhik-Burgas district: Aytos (Forel 1892); Strandzha Mt. (Antonova et al. in press): Papia peak (Atanassov 1936, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Osogovska Planina Mt.: Hisarlaka (Atanassov 1936, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Belasitsa Mt.: at the foot of Belasitsa Mt. (Atanassov 1964, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992, Hubenov et al. 1998); Slavianka Mt. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Rhodopi Mts (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Western Rhodopi Mts: Smolyan (Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)); Eastern Rhodopi Mts: Madzharovo district, Malko Popovo and Malki Voden vill. (Madzharovo municipality), between Dabovets and Kamilski dol vill. (Ivaylovgrad), between Odrintsi vill. and Svirachi vill. (Ivaylovgrad) (Lapeva-Gjonova 2004a); Northern Black Sea coast: Obzor vill. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Genus Messor Forel, 1890
Notes:

Taxonomy of the genus Messor, particularly in Europe, is poorly resolved and many taxonomic problems need further elaboration. Therefore (see below) we left all the species names recorded by previous authors without comments, but we stress that many of the records need confirmation.

Messor atanassovii Atanassov, 1982
Records

(Map 17): Thracian Lowland: Zagore vill. (Stara Zagora), Belozem vill. (Plovdiv) (Atanassov 1982, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Strandzha Mt. (Antonova et al. in press); Mesta Valley: Dolno Dryanovo (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Western Rhodopi Mts: Asenovgrad (Atanassov 1982, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Messor barbarus (Linnaeus, 1767)
Aphaenogaster (Messor) barbara L. var. barbaro-structor Dalla Tore, 1893 (nomen nudum): Forel 1892.
Aphaenogaster (Messor) barbara L. var. sordida Forel, 1892: Forel 1895.
Records

(Map 17): Bulgaria (Csősz and Markó 2005); Thracian Lowland: Pazardzhik (Forel 1892); Bakadzhik-Burgas district: Aytos (Forel 1892); Dupnitsa Basin: Dupnitsa (Forel 1892); Northern Black Sea coast: Kavarna (Markó and Csősz 2002); Southern Black Sea coast: Pomorie, Veselie vill. (Forel 1892), Burgas (Forel 1895).

Notes:

This species was omitted by Atanassov and Dlusskij (1992).

Messor caducus (Motschoulsky, 1839)
Messor semirufus meridionalis: Atanassov 1936, 1964, Atanassov and Vassileva 1976, Hubenov et al. 1998, nec André, 1883
Records

(Map 18): Bulgaria (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Podbalkan Basins: Sotirya vill. (Sliven) [Atanassov and Vassileva 1976 (as Messor semirufus meridionalis)]; Thracian Lowland: Harmanli [Atanassov and Vassileva 1976 and Hubenov et al. 1998 (as Messor semirufus meridionalis)]; Ograzhden Mt. [Atanassov and Vassileva 1976 (as Messor semirufus meridionalis)]; Belasitsa Mt. (Hubenov et al. 1998): east slopes of Belasitsa Mt. [Atanassov 1964 (as Messor semirufus meridionalis)]; Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Petrich [Atanassov and Vassileva 1976 (as Messor semirufus meridionalis)]; Eastern Rhodopi Mts: Kardzhali [Atanassov and Vassileva 1976 (as Messor semirufus meridionalis)]; Northern Black Sea coast: Obzor [Atanassov and Vassileva 1976 and Hubenov et al. 1998 (as Messor semirufus meridionalis)]; Southern Black Sea coast: Ropotamo river – Sozopol [Atanassov 1936 (as Messor semirufus var. meridionalis)].

Messor capitatus (Latreille, 1798)
Records

(Map 18): Bulgaria (Csősz and Markó 2005); Northern Black Sea coast: Kavarna, Kaliakra (Markó and Csősz 2002).

Messor concolor Santschi, 1927
Records

(Map 19): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a); Thracian Lowland: Klokotnitsa (Schlick-Steiner et al. 2006a).

Notes:

This species was omitted by Atanassov and Dlusskij (1992).

Messor oertzeni Forel, 1910
= Messor oertzeni Forel var. amphigea Forel, 1911: Atanassov 1934, 1964
Records

(Map 19): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a); Ihtimanska Sredna Gora Mts: Benkovski peak (Atanassov 1934); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Petrich (Atanassov 1934), above Marino pole vill. [Atanassov 1964 (as Messor oertzeni var. amphigea)]; Ograzhden Mt., Belasitsa Mt. [Atanassov 1964 (as Messor oertzeni var. amphigea)]; Slavianka Mt. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Western Rhodopi Mts (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Eastern Rhodopi Mts: Senoklas vill. (Madzharovo), Svirachi vill. (Ivaylovgrad) (Lapeva-Gjonova 2004a); Northern Black Sea coast: Evksinograd palace (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Messor structor (Latreille, 1798)
= Messor muticus Nylander, 1849
= Messor barbarus varrialei Emery, 1921
= Messor clivorum Ruzsky, 1905
= Messor rufitarsis Fabricius, 1804
Records

(Map 20): Bulgaria [Agosti and Collingwood 1987a (as Messor muticus), Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992]; Western Predbalkan:Rachene river valley [Atanassov and Vassileva 1976 (as Messor clivorum), Vassilev 1984]; Central Predbalkan:Dermantsi vill. (Lukovit) [Atanassov 1936 (as Messor barbarus varrialei and Messor structor rufitarsis), Atanassov and Vassileva 1976 (as Messor rufitarsis romanus)]; Western Stara Planina Mts: Milanovo vill., Lakatnik station [Atanassov 1934, 1936 (as Messor barbarus varrialei and Messor structor rufitarsis), Atanassov and Vassileva 1976 (as Messor clivorum)], Vrattsata loc., Zgorigrad vill. [Atanassov and Vassileva 1976 (as Messor clivorum)], Vratsa [Hubenov et al. 1998 (as Messor clivorum)], Chepan Mt. (Dragoman) (Borisova et al. 2005); Zemen Gorge: Skakavitsa waterfall, Zemen station [Atanassov 1936 (as Messor barbarus varrialei and Messor structor rufitarsis)], Zemen (Schlick-Steiner et al. 2006a); Sofia Basin: surroundings of Sofia (Antonova and Penev 2006); Lyulin Mt. (Vassilev and Evtimov 1973); Vitosha Mt. [Hubenov et al. 1998 (as Messor clivorum)]: Boyana [Atanassov 1934 (as Messor barbarus structor var. mutica), 1952 (as Messor rufitarsis)]; Plana Mt.: Pasarel vill., Peyova buka hut (Pasarel vill.), Grobat peak (Vagalinski and Lapeva-Gjonova in press); Podbalkan Basins: Rose valley [Atanassov et al. 1955 (as Messor rufitarsis)]; Ihtimanska Sredna Gora: Benkovski peak [Atanassov 1936 (as Messor barbarus varrialei and Messor structor rufitarsis)]; Lozenska Planina Mt. (Vassilev and Evtimov 1973); north of Pasarel vill. (Antonova and Penev 2008); Thracian Lowland: Pazardzhik (Forel 1892), Plovdiv (Forel 1911), Harmanli [Urbanski 1975 (as Messor rufitarsis)]; Bakadzhik-Burgas district: Aytos (Forel 1892), Mandra lake [Atanassov and Vassileva 1976 (as Messor clivorum)]; Osogovska Planina Mt.: Hisarlaka [Atanassov 1936 (as Messor barbarus varrialei and Messor structor rufitarsis)]; Ograzhden Mt. [Atanassov 1964 (as Messor barbarus varrialei and Messor structor rufitarsis)]; Belasitsa Mt.: at the foot of Belasitsa Mt. [Atanassov 1964 (as Messor barbarus varrialei and Messor structor rufitarsis)]; Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Kresna gorge [Atanasov 1936 (as Messor structor rufitarsis)], surroundings of Parvomay vill., along Strumeshnitsa river [Atanassov 1964 (as Messor barbarus varrialei)], Petrich [Atanassov and Vassileva 1976 (as Messor rufitarsis romanus)]; Slavianka Mt.: Petrovo vill. [Atanassov and Vassileva 1976 (as Messor rufitarsis romanus)]; Western Rhodopi Mts: Asenovgrad (Forel 1892), Smilyan vill. (Smolyan) (Hlaváč et al. 2007); Eastern Rhodopi Mts: Dedets vill. (Zlatograd), Byal Izvor vill. (Arda), Momchilgrad, Madzharovo, between Dabovets and Kamilski dol vill. (Ivaylovgrad), Odrintsi vill. (Ivaylovgrad), Padalo vill. (Krumovgrad) (Lapeva-Gjonova 2004a), Daskalovo (Schlick-Steiner et al. 2006a); Northern Black Sea coast: Evksinograd palace [Atanassov 1936 (as Messor barbarus varrialei and Messor rufitarsis)], Balchik (Schlick-Steiner et al. 2006a); Southern Black Sea coast: Nesebar (Barrett 1970), Mandra lake (Burgas) [Atanassov and Vassileva 1976 (as Messor rufitarsis romanus)].

Genus Pheidole Westwood, 1839
Pheidole pallidula (Nylander, 1849)
Records

(Map 21): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a, Csősz and Markó 2005, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Western Predbalkan: Rachene river valley (Vassilev 1984); Central Predbalkan: Dermantsi vill. (Lukovit) [Atanassov 1934, 1936 (as Pheidole pallidula arenarum var. orientalis)]; Western Stara Planina Mts: Lakatnik station [Atanassov 1934, 1936 (as Pheidole pallidula arenarum var. orientalis)]; Central Stara Planina Mts: Zhaltets peak [Atanassov 1934, 1936 (as Pheidole pallidula arenarum var. orientalis)]; Eastern Stara Planina Mts: Sliven (Forel 1892); Zemen Gorge: Skakavitsa waterfall [Atanassov 1936 (as Pheidole pallidula arenarum var. orientalis)]; Podbalkan Basins: Rose valley [Atanassov et al. 1955 (as Pheidole pallidula arenarum var. orientalis)]; Strandzha Mt.: Ropotamo river (Atanassov 1934); Dupnitsa Basin: Dupnitsa (Forel 1892); Rila Mt.: Rila (Forel 1892); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Kresna, Kresna gorge [Atanassov 1934, 1936 (as Pheidole pallidula arenarum var. orientalis)]; west of Petrich [Atanassov 1964 (as Pheidole pallidula arenarum var. orientalis)]; Ograzhden Mt. [Atanassov 1964 (as Pheidole pallidula arenarum var. orientalis)]; Belasitsa Mt.: at the foot of Belasitsa Mt. [Atanassov 1964 (as Pheidole pallidula arenarum var. orientalis)]; Western Rhodopi Mts: Asenovgrad (Forel 1892); Eastern Rhodopi Mts: Dedets vill. (Zlatograd), Malko Popovo vill. (Madzharovo), Madzharovo, between Dabovets and Kamilski dol vill. (Ivaylovgrad), between Odrintsi vill. and Svirachi vill. (Ivaylovgrad), Svirachi vill. (Ivaylovgrad), Padalo vill. (Krumovgrad) (Lapeva-Gjonova 2004a); Northern Black Sea coast: Evksinograd palace [Atanassov 1936 (as Pheidole pallidula arenarum var. orientalis)], Kavarna (Markó and Csősz 2002); Southern Black Sea coast: Sozopol (Forel 1892), Burgas (Forel 1895), near Ropotamo river (Atanassov 1934).

Genus Myrmecina Curtis, 1829
Myrmecina graminicola (Latreille, 1802)
= Myrmecina latreillei Curtis, 1829
Records

(Map 22): Bulgaria (Emery 1914, Agosti and Collingwood 1987a); Western Predbalkan: Belogradchik (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Sofia Basin: Sofia, surroundings of Sofia (Lapeva-Gjonova and Atanasova 2004, Antonova 2005, Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008); Plana Mt.: Pasarel vill. (Vagalinski and Lapeva-Gjonova in press); Thracian Lowland: Svilengrad (Atanassov and Vassileva 1976, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992, Hubenov et al. 1998); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Sandanski (Atanassov and Vassileva 1976, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992, Hubenov et al. 1998); Pirin Mt.: Mechkul vill. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Western Rhodopi Mts: Peshtera (Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)); Southern Black Sea coast: Burgas [Forel 1895 (as Myrmecina latreillei)], Tsarevo (Atanassov and Vassileva 1976, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Genus Crematogaster Lund, 1831
Crematogaster auberti Emery, 1869
Records

(Map 23): Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Kamenitsa vill. (Lapeva-Gjonova in press (b)).

Crematogaster schmidti (Mayr, 1853)
= Cremastogaster scutellaris var. christowitchii Forel, 1892
Records

(Map 23): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Western Stara Planina Mts: Lakatnik station (Atanassov 1936); Eastern Stara Planina Mts: Sliven [Forel 1892 (as Crematogaster scutellaris)]; Podbalkan Basins: Rose valley (Atanassov et al. 1955); Thracian Lowland: Pazardzhik [Forel 1892 (as Crematogaster scutellaris var. christotwitchii)]; Bakadzhik-Burgas district: Aytos [Forel 1892 (as Crematogaster scutellaris var. christotwitchii)]; Strandzha Mt. (Antonova et al. in press): Papia peak [Atanassov 1934 (as Crematogaster scutellaris var. christotwitchii)]; Belasitsa Mt. (Atanassov 1964); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: west of Petrich, along Strumeshnitsa river (Atanassov 1964); Slavianka Mt.: St. Vrach – Petrovo vill. (Atanassov 1936); Western Rhodopi Mts: Asenovgrad [Forel 1892 (as Crematogaster scutellaris var. christotwitchii)], Dospat (Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)); Eastern Rhodopi Mts: Zhelezino vill. (Ivaylovgrad), Madzharovo municipality, Malko Popovo vill. (Madzharovo), Malki Voden vill. (Madzharovo), between Dabovets and Kamilski dol vill. (Ivaylovgrad), Odrintsi vill. (Ivaylovgrad), between Odrintsi and Svirachi vill. (Ivaylovgrad), Kokiche vill. (Kardzhali), Meden buk vill. (Ivaylovgrad) (Lapeva-Gjonova 2004a); Southern Black Sea coast: Veselie vill. [Forel 1892 (as Crematogaster scutellaris var. christotwitchii)], Burgas [Forel 1895 (as Crematogaster scutellaris)], Rezovo [Atanassov 1934 (as Crematogaster scutellaris and Crematogaster scutellaris var. christotwitchii)].

Notes:

According to Atanassov and Dlusskij (1992) the records of Forel (1892) and Atanassov (1934) for Crematogaster scutellaris should be refer to Crematogaster schmidti.

Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier, 1792)
Records:

Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a).

Notes:

This species was omitted by Atanassov and Dlusskij (1992).

Crematogaster sordidula (Nylander, 1849)
Records

(Map 23): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992, Csősz and Markó 2005); Eastern Stara Planina Mts: Sliven (Forel 1892); Bakadzhik-Burgas district: Aytos (Forel 1892); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Petrich plain (Atanassov 1964); Western Rhodopi Mts: Asenovgrad (Forel 1892); Eastern Rhodopi Mts: Beli Plast vill. (Kardzhali), Madzharovo municipality, Malko Popovo vill. (Madzharovo), between Dabovets and Kamilski dol vill. (Ivaylovgrad), Svirachi vill. (Ivaylovgrad) (Lapeva-Gjonova 2004a); Northern Black Sea coast: Kavarna (Markó and Csősz 2002).

Genus Monomorium Mayr, 1855
Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Records

(Map 24): Eastern Danubian Plain: Ruse, Shumen (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Sofia Basin: Sofia (Atanassov 1965, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Thracian Lowland: Svilengrad (Atanassov 1965), Plovdiv (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Strandzha Mt.: Malko Tarnovo (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Northern Black Sea coast: Varna (Atanassov 1965, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992), Obzor vill. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Southern Black Sea coast: Burgas, Tsarevo (Atanassov 1965, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992), Sozopol, Ahtopol (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Genus Solenopsis Westwood, 1840
Solenopsis fugax (Latreille, 1798)
Records

(Map 25): Bulgaria [Emery 1914, Agosti and Collingwood 1987a, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992 (as Diplorhoptrum fugax)]; Western Predbalkan: Rachene river valley [Vassilev 1984 (as Diplorhoptrum fugax)]; Central Predbalkan: Dermantsi vill. (Lukovit) (Atanassov 1934); Western Stara Planina Mts: Milanovo vill. (Vratsa) (Atanassov 1934); Sofia Basin: Sofia [Forel 1892, Atanassov 1936, Antonova 2004, 2005, Lapeva-Gjonova and Atanasova 2004 (as Diplorhoptrum fugax); Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008], surroundings of Sofia (Antonova and Penev 2006); Vitosha Mt. (Atanassov 1936, 1952): Dragalevtsi (Atanassov 1934); Podbalkan Basins: Rose valley (Atanassov et al. 1955); Ihtimanska Sredna Gora Mts: Benkovski peak (Atanassov 1936); Lozenska Planina Mt. (Vassilev and Evtimov 1973); Osogovska Planina Mt.: Hisarlaka (Kyustendil) (Atanassov 1936); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: west of Petrich, along Strumeshnitsa river (Atanassov 1964); Western Rhodopi Mts: Asenovgrad (Forel 1892), Peshtera (Atanassov 1934, Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)); Eastern Rhodopi Mts: Zvezdel vill. (Momchilgrad), between Dabovets and Kamilski dol vill. (Ivaylovgrad), between Odrintsi and Svirachi vill. (Ivaylovgrad), Svirachi vill. (Lapeva-Gjonova 2004a); Southern Black Sea coast: Burgas (Forel 1895).

Genus Formicoxenus (Nylander, 1846)
Formicoxenus nitidulus (Nylander, 1846)
Records

(Map 26): Central Predbalkan: Dermantsi vill. (Lukovit) (Atanassov 1936); Stara Planina Mts (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Western Stara Planina Mts: Zgorigrad vill. (Vratsa) (Atanassov 1936); Vitosha Mt. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992): Knyazhevo (Csősz and Markó 2005); Osogovska Planina Mt.: Hisarlaka (Atanassov 1936, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Belasitsa Mt. (Atanassov and Vassileva 1976, Hubenov et al. 1998); Slavianka Mt. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Rhodopi Mts (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Western Rhodopi Mts: Peshtera (Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)).

Conservation Status:

Vulnerable A2c (IUCN).

Genus Harpagoxenus Forel, 1893
Harpagoxenus sublaevis (Nylander, 1849)
Records

(Map 27): Slavianka Mt.: Alibotush reserve (Antonova 2009).

Conservation Status:

Vulnerable A2c (IUCN).

Genus Leptothorax Mayr, 1855
Leptothorax acervorum (Fabricius, 1793)
Records

(Map 28): Bulgaria (Emery 1914, Agosti and Collingwood 1987a, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Central Stara Planina Mts: Bratanitsa peak (Atanassov 1936); Vitosha Mt. (Atanassov 1952); Plana Mt.: Tsiganka peak (Pasarel vill.), Alino vill. (Vagalinski and Lapeva-Gjonova in press); Rila Mt.: Rila monastery (Forel 1892); Western Rhodopi Mts: Rakitovo, Peshtera, Batak (Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)).

Leptothorax muscorum (Nylander, 1846)
Records

(Map 28): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a); Stara Planina Mts (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Vitosha Mt. (Atanassov 1952, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992, Hubenov et al. 1998); Rila Mt. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Slavianka Mt.: Alibotush reserve (Antonova 2009); Rhodopi Mts (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Genus Temnothorax Mayr, 1861
Notes:

Till recently Temnothorax was considered as a junior synonym of Leptothorax, but Bolton (2003) has divided the latter genus to two: Leptothorax (which includes the former subgenus Leptothorax s. str.) and Temnothorax (which includes, among others, the former subgenus Myrafant M. R. Smith). Therefore all authors before 2003 and some after this date have placed Temnothorax species in the genus Leptothorax (except of Temnothorax recedens).

Temnothorax affinis (Mayr, 1855)
Records

(Map 29): Bulgaria (Emery 1914, Agosti and Collingwood 1987a); Western Stara Planina Mts: Chepan (Dragoman) (Borisova et al. 2005); Eastern Stara Planina Mts (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Sofia Basin: Sofia (Forel 1892, Antonova 2005, Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008), surroundings of Sofia (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Lyulin Mt. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Vitosha Mt. (Atanassov 1952, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Plana Mt.: Bukov dol loc. (Pasarel vill.), Peyova buka hut (Pasarel vill.), Tsiganka peak (Pasarel vill.), Pasarel vill., Alino vill. (Vagalinski and Lapeva-Gjonova in press); Belasitsa Mt., Pirin Mt., Slavianka Mt. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Rhodopi Mts (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Eastern Rhodopi Mts: Beli Plast vill. (Kardzhali), Zvezdel vill. (Momchilgrad), Zhelezino vill. (Ivaylovgrad), between Dabovets and Kamilski dol vill. (Ivaylovgrad) (Lapeva-Gjonova 2004a).

Temnothorax bulgaricus (Forel, 1892)
Records

(Map 29): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a); Eastern Stara Planina Mts: Sliven (Forel 1892, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Zemen Gorge: Zemen station (Atanassov and Vassileva 1976), Zemen (Hubenov et al. 1998); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Petrich (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Western Rhodopi Mts: Asenovgrad (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Northern Black Sea coast: Obzor vill. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Temnothorax clypeatus (Mayr, 1853)
Records

(Map 30): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a); Zemen Gorge: Zemen district (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Lyulin Mt. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Plana Mt.: Pasarel vill. (Vagalinski and Lapeva-Gjonova in press); Osogovska Planina Mt.: slopes of Osogovska Planina Mt. by Kyustendil (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: west of Petrich, near by Strumeshnitsa river, around Parvomay vill. (Atanassov 1964, Hubenov et al. 1998, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Belasitsa Mt.: at the foot of Belasitsa Mt. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Northern Black Sea coast: Obzor vill. (Atanassov and Vassileva 1976, Hubenov et al. 1998).

Temnothorax corticalis (Schenck, 1852)
Records

(Map 30): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a); Vitosha Mt.: Dragalevtsi monastery (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: west of Petrich, along Strumeshnitsa river (Atanassov 1964, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992, Hubenov et al. 1998); Northern Black Sea coast: Balchik (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Southern Black Sea coast: Tsarevo (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Temnothorax crassispinus (Karavaiev, 1926)
Records

(Map 31): Sofia Basin: Sofia (Lapeva-Gjonova and Atanasova 2004, Antonova 2004); Plana Mt.: Pasarel vill., Bukov dol loc. (Pasarel vill.), Muhchel peak (Dolni okol vill.), Peyova buka hut (Pasarel vill.), Alino vill. (Vagalinski and Lapeva-Gjonova in press); Western Rhodopi Mts: Peshtera (Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)); Southern Bulgarian mountains: [Seifert 1995 (as Leptothorax nylanderi slavonicus)].

Notes:

For many years Temnothorax crassispinus was considered as a junior synonym of Temnothorax nylanderi, but Radchenko (2000) showed that it is a good species, distributed mainly in the Eastern Europe including Bulgaria, while Temnothorax nylanderi is mainly West European species. Nevertheless, we recently found Temnothorax nylanderi in parks in Sofia. Therefore although most of the records of Temnothorax nylanderi for Bulgaria from before 2000 should be Temnothorax crassispinus, some of them might include also “true” Temnothorax nylanderi, this question may be definitely resolved only after investigation of the correspondent material.

Temnothorax graecus (Forel, 1911)
Records

(Map 31): Central Stara Planina Mts: Gabrovo monastery (Gabrovo) (Antonova, MIZ collection, det. A. Schultz, unpublished data).

Temnothorax interruptus (Schenck, 1852)
Records

(Map 31): Western Predbalkan: Belogradchik (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Western Stara Planina Mts: Berkovitsa (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Eastern Stara Planina Mts: Kotel (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Plana Mt.: Kokalyane monastery (Kokalyane vill.) (Vagalinski and Lapeva-Gjonova in press); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Petrich (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Northern Black Sea coast: Obzor vill., Balchik (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Temnothorax cf. korbi (Emery, 1924)
Records

(Map 32): Southern Black Sea coast: Ahtopol (Antonova, MIZ collection, det. A. Schultz, unpublished data).

Temnothorax melanocephalus (Emery, 1870)
Records

(Map 32): Bulgaria (Emery 1922, Agosti and Collingwood 1987a); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley:Petrich (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Rila Mt.: Borovets (Emery 1914).

Notes:

Bolton (1995) and Bolton et al. (2006) erroneously considered Temnothorax melanocephalus as a junior synonym of Temnothorax tuberum, referring this synonymy to Casevitz-Weulersse (1990), but at the same time noted that Atanassov and Dlusskij (1992) considered Temnothorax melanocephalus as a good species. Since 1992 its status has not been formally changed by any subsequent authors and we consider it as a good species.

Temnothorax nadigi (Kutter, 1925)
Records

(Map 32): Western Rhodopi Mts: Chervenata stena reserve (Dobrostan) (Czechowska et al. 1998).

Temnothorax nigriceps (Mayr, 1855)
Records:

Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a).

Notes:

This species was omitted by Atanassov and Dlusskij (1992).

Temnothorax nylanderi (Förster, 1850)
Records

(Map 32) definitely belonging to Temnothorax nylanderi: Sofia Basin: Sofia (Antonova 2005, Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008); near Vladaya vill. (Antonova and Penev 2008); Lozenska Planina Mt.: near German monastery (Antonova and Penev 2008); Strandzha Mt. (Antonova et al. in press).

The following records of Temnothorax nylanderi most likely mainly belong to Temnothorax crassispinus, but might include also Temnothorax nylanderi: Bulgaria (Emery 1914, Agosti and Collingwood 1987a); Western Predbalkan: Belogradchik (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Western Stara Planina Mts: Vratsa (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Sofia Basin: Sofia (Forel 1892, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Petrich (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Northern Black Sea coast: Byala vill. (Varna), Balchik (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Southern Black Sea coast: Burgas (Forel 1895).

Temnothorax parvulus (Schenck, 1852)
Records

(Map 33): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Western Stara Planina Mts: Chepan Mt. (Dragoman) (Borisova et al. 2005); Eastern Stara Planina Mts: Sliven (Forel 1892); Vitosha Mt.: Knyazhevo (Forel 1892); Plana Mt.: Bukov dol loc. (Pasarel vill.) (Vagalinski and Lapeva-Gjonova in press).

Temnothorax recedens (Nylander, 1856)
Records

(Map 33): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a); Eastern Stara Planina Mts (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992): Sliven (Forel 1892, Dlussky and Soyunov 1988); Bakadzhik-Burgas district:Aytos (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Kresna (Dlussky and Soyunov 1988, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Northern Black Sea coast: Balchik, Kavarna, Batova river valley, Kaliakra, Obzor vill. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Southern Black Sea coast: Pomorie (Forel 1892, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992), Burgas, Tsarevo, Rezovo (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Conservation Status:

Lower Risk/least concern (IUCN).

Temnothorax saxonicus (Seifert, 1995)
Records

(Map 34): Bulgaria (Seifert 1995); Western Stara Planina Mts: Tompsan (Seifert 2006); Vitosha Mt.: Chuypetlyovo (Seifert 2006); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Kresna, Petrich (Seifert 2006); Northern Black Sea coast: Aladzha monastery (Seifert 2006).

Notes:

Seifert (1995) described Temnothorax saxonicus as an eastern subspecies of Temnothorax sordidulus, but later he (Seifert 2006) raised it to the species rank.

Temnothorax semiruber (André, 1881)
= Leptothorax rottenbergi var. balcanica Santschi, 1909
Records

(Map 34): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Eastern Stara Planina Mts: Sliven (Forel 1892); Boboshevo-Simitli Valley: Kocherinovo [Atanassov and Vassileva 1976 and Hubenov et al. 1998 (as Leptothorax rottenbergi var. balcanica)]; Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Kresna gorge [Atanassov 1936 (as Leptothorax rottenbergi var. balcanica)], Sandanski [Atanassov and Vassileva 1976 and Hubenov et al. 1998 (as Leptothorax rottenbergi var. balcanica)]; Belasitsa Mt.: slopes of Belasitsa Mt. [Atanassov 1964 (as Leptothorax rottenbergi var. balcanica)]; Western Rhodopi Mts: Asenovgrad (Forel 1892); Eastern Rhodopi Mts: Dedets vill. (Zlatograd), Byal Izvor vill. (Arda), Momchilgrad, Madzharovo (Lapeva-Gjonova 2004a).

Temnothorax sordidulus (Müller, 1923)
Records

(Map 34): Western Predbalkan: Cherven bryag (Seifert 2006); Western Stara Planina Mts: Lakatnik, Dragoman, Tri ushi, Tompsan (Seifert 2006).

Temnothorax tauricus Ruzsky, 1902
Records

(Map 35): Bulgaria (Radchenko 1994, 1995a); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley:Petrich; Western Rhodopi Mts: Bagnovski monastery (=Bachkovski monastery) (materials at ZMMU, A. Radchenko).

Temnothorax tuberum (Fabricius, 1775)
Records

(Map 35): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a); Sofia Basin:Sofia (Antonova 2005, Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008), surroundings of Sofia near Vladaya vill. (Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008); Thracian Lowland: Pazardzhik (Forel 1892); Rila Mt. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992): Elenin peak (Forel 1892); Pirin Mt., Rhodopi Mts (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Temnothorax unifasciatus (Latreille, 1798)
Leptothorax tuberum r. unifasciatus var. unifasciatotuberum Forel, 1892 (nomen nudum and unavailable name)
Leptothorax tuberum r. unifasciatus var. interruptotuberum Forel, 1892 (nomen nudum and unavailable name)
Records

(Map 35): Bulgaria (Emery 1914, Agosti and Collingwood 1987a); Central Predbalkan: Dermantsi vill. (Lukovit) (Atanassov 1936); Stara Planina Mts (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Eastern Stara Planina Mts: Sliven (Forel 1892); Sofia Basin: Sofia (Forel 1892, Antonova 2004, 2005, Lapeva-Gjonova and Atanasova 2004, Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008), surroundings of Sofia (Antonova and Penev 2006); Vitosha Mt. (Atanassov 1952, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Plana Mt.: Alino vill. (Vagalinski and Lapeva-Gjonova in press); Lozenska Planina Mt.: near German monastery and north of Pasarel vill. (Antonova and Penev 2008); Strandzha Mt. (Antonova et al. in press); Belasitsa Mt. (Atanassov 1964, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992, Hubenov et al. 1998); Rila Mt. (Forel 1892, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Rhodopi Mts (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Western Rhodopi Mts: Peshtera (Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)); Southern Black Sea coast: Burgas (Forel 1892).

Genus Chalepoxenus Menozzi, 1923
Chalepoxenus muellerianus (Finzi, 1922)
Records

(Map 27): Bulgaria (Buschinger and Douwes 1993); Western Rhodopi Mts: Dobrostan hill (Buschinger et al. 1988).

Notes:

This species is not included in Fauna of Bulgaria (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Conservation Status:

Vulnerable D2 (IUCN).

Genus Myrmoxenus Ruzsky, 1902
Myrmoxenus gordiagini Ruzsky, 1902
Records

(Map 27): Western Predbalkan: Reselets vill. (Cherven Bryag) (Buschinger and Douwes 1993).

Conservation Status:

Vulnerable D2 (IUCN).

Myrmoxenus ravouxi (André, 1896)
Records

(Map 27): Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Kresna [Buschinger and Douwes 1993 (as Epimyrma ravouxi)].

Conservation Status:

Vulnerable D2 (IUCN).

Genus Cardiocondyla Emery, 1869
Cardiocondyla bulgarica Forel, 1892
Records

(Map 36): Bulgaria [Agosti and Collingwood 1987a, Radchenko 1995b (as junior synonym of Cardiocondyla elegans)]; Pirin Mt.: Rozhen (Seifert 2003b); Northern Black Sea coast: Obzor vill. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Southern Black Sea coast: Pomorie, Sozopol (Forel 1892, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992, Seifert 2003b), Arkutino (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Cardiocondyla elegans Emery, 1869
Records

(Map 36): Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: Sandanski (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Pirin Mt.: Mechkul vill. (Simitli) (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992), Melnik (Seifert 2003b); Northern Black Sea coast: Kavarna, Byala, the mouth of Batova river (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Southern Black Sea coast: Nesebar, Primorsko (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Cardiocondyla nigra Forel, 1905
Records:

Bulgaria [Agosti and Collingwood 1987a, Radchenko 1995b (as junior synonym of Cardiocondyla batesii Forel)].

Notes:

Agosti and Collingwood (1987a) recorded Cardiocondyla nigra for Bulgaria and Turkey (Thrace), and Radchenko (1995b) repeated this record (under the name Cardiocondyla batesii that he considered as a senior synonym of Cardiocondyla nigra). However, Seifert (2003b) regarded Cardiocondyla batesii and Cardiocondyla nigra as separate species. According to him, the first species is distributed in Iberian Peninsula and NW Africa [Agosti and Collingwood (1987a) recorded it also for Greece], and the latter – in the Iberian Peninsula, North Africa and Turkey. Most probably, both species have distributions that include Mediterranean areas and are absent from Bulgaria; their occurrence in this country needs confirmation.

Cardiocondyla stambuloffii Forel, 1892
Records

(Map 36): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a); Eastern Stara Planina Mts: Sliven (Hubenov et al. 1998); Northern Black Sea coast: Albena, St. St. Konstantin and Elena, Varna, Obzor vill. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Southern Black Sea coast: Burgas (Forel 1892, Pisarski 1962, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992, Radchenko 1995b, Hubenov et al. 1998, Seifert 2003b), Pomorie, Sozopol (Forel 1892, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992, Seifert 2003b), Tsarevo (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992, Hubenov et al. 1998), Arkutino, Ahtopol (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Genus Anergates Forel, 1874
Anergates atratulus (Schenck, 1852)
Records

(Map 37): Western Stara Planina Mts, Vitosha Mt., Osogovska Planina Mt., Rhodopi Mts, Northern Black Sea coast, Southern Black Sea coast (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992).

Conservation Status:

Vulnerable D2 (IUCN).

Genus Tetramorium Mayr, 1855
Tetramorium caespitum (Linnaeus, 1758)
Records

(Map 38): Bulgaria (Emery 1914, Agosti and Collingwood 1987a, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Western Predbalkan: Rachene river valley (Vassilev 1984); Central Predbalkan: Dermantsi vill. (Lukovit) (Atanassov 1934, 1936); Western Stara Planina Mts: Vrattsata loc., Milanovo vill. (Atanassov 1934), Lakatnik station (Atanassov 1936), Chepan Mt. (Dragoman) (Borisova et al. 2005); Central Stara Planina Mts: Teteven (Atanassov 1934), Tsarichina peak (Atanassov 1936); Eastern Stara Planina Mts: Sliven (Forel 1892); Zemen Gorge: Skakavitsa vill., Zemen (Atanassov 1936), Zemen gorge (Lapeva-Gjonova 2004b); Sofia Basin: Boyana (Atanassov 1934); Pancharevo vill. (Atanassov 1936), Sofia (Forel 1892, Lapeva-Gjonova and Atanasova 2004, Antonova 2005, Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008), surroundings of Sofia near Vladaya vill. (Atanasov 1936, Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008); Lyulin Mt.:Mihaylovo district (Atanassov 1936); Vitosha Mt. (Atanassov 1952); Plana Mt.: Plana vill., Pasarel vill., Richov well loc. (Dolni okol vill.), Tsiganka peak (Pasarel vill.), Yovichina mogila peak (Popovyane vill.) (Vagalinski and Lapeva-Gjonova in press); Podbalkan Basins: Rose valley (Atanassov et al. 1955); Lozenska Planina Mt. (Vassilev and Evtimov 1973): German monastery (Atanassov 1936, Antonova and Penev 2008), north of Pasarel vill. (Antonova and Penev 2008); Thracian Lowland: Pazardzhik (Forel 1892, Atanassov 1936), Krichim (Atanassov 1936); Bakadzhik-Burgas district: Aytos (Forel 1892); Strandzha Mt. (Antonova et al. in press); Ograzhden Mt. (Atanassov 1964); Belasitsa Mt. (Atanassov 1964); Krupnik-Sandanski-Petrich Valley: west of Petrich (Atanassov 1964); Dupnitsa Basin: Dupnitsa; Rila Mt.: Rilska river valley (Forel 1892), Kostenets, Borovets (Atanassov 1936); Slavianka Mt. (Atanassov 1936); Mesta Valley: Petrelik vill. (Gotse Delchev) (Lapeva-Gjonova 2004b); Western Rhodopi Mts: Asenovgrad (Forel 1892), Peshtera (Atanassov 1936, Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)), Batak, Devin, Smolyan, Rakitovo, Velingrad, Dospat (Lapeva-Gjonova in press (a)); Eastern Rhodopi Mts: Dedets vill. (Zlatograd), Byal Izvor vill. (Arda), Beli Plast vill. (Kardzhali), Kokiche vill. (Kardzhali), Momchilgrad, Madzharovo, Malko Popovo vill. (Madzharovo), between Dabovetz and Kamilski dol vill. (Ivaylovgrad), between Odrintsi and Svirachi vill. (Ivaylovgrad), Svirachi vill. (Ivaylovgrad) (Lapeva-Gjonova 2004a); Southern Black Sea coast: Pomorie, Burgas, Sozopol, Veselie vill. (Forel 1892), Maslen nos, Mandra lake (Atanassov 1934), Nesebar (Barrett 1970).

Notes:

According to Schlick-Steiner et al. (2006b) the Tetramorium caespitum/impurum complex comprises seven Palaearctic species. The taxonomy of the complex is not properly resolved and we assume that there are several cryptic species related to Tetramorium caespitum in Bulgaria.

Tetramorium chefketi Forel, 1911
= Tetramorium taurocaucasicum Arnoldi, 1968
= Tetramorium forte Forel, 1904 (part., material from Balkans, East Europe, Caucasus and Middle Asia)
Tetramorium moravicum: Agosti and Collingwood, 1987a, b, misidentification, nec Kratochvil, 1941
Recorded as Tetramorium forte: Agosti and Collingwood 1987a; Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992; Lapeva-Gjonova 2004a; Lapeva-Gjonova and Atanasova 2004; Antonova 2005; Borisova et al. 2005
Records

(Map 39): Bulgaria (Agosti and Collingwood 1987a); Eastern Danubian Plain: Ludogorie-Dobrudzha district (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Stara Planina Mts (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Western Stara Planina Mts: Chepan Mt. (Dragoman) (Borisova et al. 2005); Sofia Basin: Sofia [Lapeva-Gjonova and Atanasova 2004 and Antonova 2005 (as Tetramorium forte), Antonova and Penev 2006, 2008], surroundings of Sofia (Antonova and Penev 2006); Vitosha Mt. (Atanassov 1952, Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Lozenska Planina Mt.: near German monastery (Antonova and Penev 2008); Thracian Lowland: Harmanli [Atanassov and Vassileva 1976 (as Tetramorium taurocaucasicum)]; Strandzha Mt. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992, Antonova et al. in press); Belasitsa Mt. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Boboshevo-Simitli Valley: Kocherinovo, Blagoevgrad (Csősz et al. 2007); Pirin Mt. (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Rhodopi Mts (Atanassov and Dlusskij 1992); Eastern Rhodopi Mts: Kokiche vill. (Kardzhali), Madzharovo municipality, Byal Izvor vill. (Arda), Beli Plast vill. (Kardzhali), Malko Popovo vill. (Madzharovo), between Dabovets and Kamilski dol vill. (Ivaylovgrad), between Odrintsi vill. and Svirachi vill. (Ivaylovgrad), Svirachi vill. (Lapeva-Gjonova 2004a); Southern Black Sea coast: Primorsko [Atanassov and Vassileva 1976, Hubenov et al. 1998 (as Tetramorium taurocaucasicum)], Maslen nos [Atanassov and Vassileva 1976 (as Tetramorium taurocaucasicum)], Burgas (Csősz et al. 2007).

Notes:

Agosti and Collingwood (1987a) recorded Tetramorium forte and Tetramorium moravicum from Bulgaria, but Atanassov and Dlusskij (1992) treated Tetramorium moravicum, as well as Tetramorium taurocaucasicum, as junior synonyms of Tetramorium forte. The complicate taxonomic history of this species was resolved recently by Csősz et al. 2007 (for some more details see also Radchenko et al. 1998, Czechowski et al. 2002, Güsten et al. 2006).

Tetramorium