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Catalogue
Annotated catalog and bibliography of the cyclocephaline scarab beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae, Cyclocephalini)
expand article infoMatthew R. Moore, Ronald D. Cave§, Marc A. Branham
‡ University of Florida, Gainesville, United States of America
§ University of Florida, Fort Pierce, United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

Cyclocephaline scarab beetles represent the second largest tribe of the subfamily Dynastinae, and the group includes the most speciose genus of dynastines, Cyclocephala. The period following publication of Sebő Endrődi’s The Dynastinae of the World has seen a huge increase in research interest on cyclocephalines, and much of this research has not been synthesized. The objective of this catalog and bibliography is to compile an exhaustive list of taxa in Cyclocephalini. This paper provides an updated foundation for understanding the taxonomy and classification of 14 genera and over 500 species in the tribe. It discusses the history of cataloging dynastine species, clarifies issues surrounding the neotype designations in Endrődi’s revision of Cyclocephalini, synthesizes all published distribution data for cyclocephaline species, and increases accessibility to the voluminous literature on the group by providing an easily searchable bibliography for each species. We propose the nomen novum Cyclocephala rogerpauli, new replacement name, for C. nigra Dechambre.

Keywords

masked chafers, rhinoceros beetles, catalog, bibliography

Introduction

The Cyclocephalini, a group first defined by French naturalist Francis de Laporte de Castelnau in 1840, represents the second largest tribe of the subfamily Dynastinae. Cyclocephala Dejean, the type genus of Cyclocephalini, is the most speciose dynastine genus and comprises over 350 species-group taxa as of 2017. The last comprehensive, synoptic treatment of the tribe was The Dynastinae of the World (Endrődi 1985a). Endrődi’s foundational book revolutionized the study of the subfamily and paved the way for a veritable explosion of new research into dynastines. This influence is most apparent in the scientific literature covering cyclocephaline scarab beetles. The post-Endrődi era of cyclocephaline research has been marked by ever diversifying interests and approaches to the group. Papers on cyclocephalines now span all modern entomological disciplines from taxonomy, evolutionary biology, ecology, ethology, agronomics, and physiology.

Figure 1. 

Cumulative number of described cyclocephaline species-group taxa by decade. Species description accumulation was based on the compiled catalog. The synonymy curve also includes names that were homonyms and later replaced.

Ever-growing numbers of cyclocephaline species have, at times, engendered lighthearted dismay among researchers of the group. For example, the Costa Rican C. unamas Ratcliffe (Spanish “una mas”) was named after the overwhelming feeling one gets after the discovery of yet another new Cyclocephala species, epitomized by the species name C. nodanotherwon Ratcliffe. Over 170 new cyclocephaline species-group taxa have been described since 1985, and this has created challenges for species identification in several genera. While the most intense period of new species descriptions has probably passed (Fig. 1), many new South American taxa are likely to be discovered, especially in the genera Cyclocephala and Stenocrates Burmeister (Ratcliffe 2015).

Starting in the mid-1970s, a growing body of research covering the floral ecology of cyclocephalines began to develop. Many faunistic studies in Mesoamerica (especially Mexico) and South America have reported a great deal of cyclocephaline locality data that has yet to be synthesized. Additionally, researchers in the United States and South America have greatly expanded the agronomic literature on the tribe since publication of The Dynastinae of the World. This hugely expanded literature for the tribe has not been adequately synthesized and is unwieldy and inaccessible as a result. The objective of this catalog is to: 1) provide an updated foundation for understanding the taxonomic history of 14 genera and over 500 species of cyclocephaline scarab beetles; 2) identify destabilizing issues in the classification and nomenclature of the genera and species; 3) create an easily searchable bibliography to further promote research on these beetles; and 4) synthesize known distribution data for all species in the tribe.

Brief history of cyclocephalines in catalogs, checklists, and bibliographies

Coleopterists have a long history of compiling species catalogs at a global or regional scale. Prior to the Information Age, these catalogs were invaluable resources for the entomological community because they served to organize biodiversity research. Cataloging the diversity of cyclocephaline species began in Germany with the fourth volume of Catalogus Coleopterorum Hucusque Descriptorum Synonymicus et Systematicus (Harold 1869b). This catalog included information on over 120 valid species in the group and provided a brief list of citations for each taxon along with locality information. French entomologists Louis Chevrolat, Albert Fauvel, Auguste Sallé, and Edmond Fleutriaux provided early lists of cyclocephaline diversity in French Guiana (Fauvel 1861), Cuba (Chevrolat 1865), and Guadeloupe (Fleutiaux and Sallé 1889). Gilbert Arrow (1937b) published a comprehensive catalog of Dynastinae in the Coleoptorum Catalogus series. Arrow’s catalog featured an updated classification of the subfamily and the tribe Cyclocephalini. His concept of Cyclocephalini was broader than that of later workers, and he included several genera in the tribe that would be subsequently included in Oryctoderini. This new catalog also updated the bibliographic information for each species (Arrow 1937b). Burgeon (1947) followed up Arrow’s work and cataloged dynastine species of the Democratic Republic of Congo and provided an image and redescription of the African cyclocephaline Ruteloryctes morio (Fabricius). Friedrich Ohaus and Johann Machatschke published several catalogs of Rutelinae in the mid-20th century in the Coleopterorum Catalogus and Genera Insectorum series, which at the time included information about the cyclocephaline genera Peltonotus Burmeister and Acrobolbia Ohaus (Ohaus 1918, 1934b, Machatschke 1972, 1974). Milan Krajcik (2005, 2012) published exhaustive checklists of world Dynastinae and Scarabaeoidea in his Annima.X series.

Many North American Coleopterists created catalogs and checklists that included cyclocephalines. Frederick Melsheimer, Samuel Haldeman, and John LeConte compiled the first catalog of Coleoptera of the United States (Melsheimer et al. 1853). George Horn’s (1894) list of Coleoptera of Baja California included three species of Cyclocephala. W. S. Blatchley (1910, 1930) cataloged the Coleoptera of Indiana and created a checklist of scarabs of Florida. Charles Leng, Andrew Mutchler, and Richard Blackwelder compiled enormous catalogs and checklists of beetles, which included cyclocephalines, throughout the New World, including the West Indies (Leng and Mutchler 1914, 1917, Leng 1920, Blackwelder 1939, 1944, 1948). George Wolcott (1923, 1936) assembled annotated checklists of the insects of Puerto Rico and later provided interesting observations of the natural history of Puerto Rican scarabs in other works. Alan Hardy (1991) created a very detailed annotated catalog of Rutelinae and Dynastinae of North America. Andrew Smith created a checklist of all scarabaeoid beetles of the Nearctic Realm (Smith 2009). Stewart Peck, along with collaborators, has cataloged Coleoptera from parts of the West Indies (Peck 2009, 2010, 2016, Peck et al. 2002). Relatively modern checklists or reviews of scarabaeoids have been produced for Canada (McNamara 1991, Bousquet et al. 2013, Ratcliffe and Cave 2017) and portions of the United States including Florida (Woodruff 1973, Peck and Thomas 1998), Maryland (Staines 1984), Nebraska (Ratcliffe 1991, Ratcliffe and Paulsen 2008), South Carolina (Harpootlian 2001), and Texas (Riley and Wolfe 2003).

Checklists of the economically injurious insects of Honduras (Passoa 1983), Nicaragua (Maes and Robleto 1988), Colombia (Posada Ochoa), French Guiana (Remillet 1988), and Suriname (Van Dinther 1960) report unique and fascinating records of cyclocephalines causing damage in agroecosystems. Cyclocephaline floral association data were compiled for the family Araceae (Gibernau 2003, 2011) and for the beetle tribe (Moore and Jameson 2013). Relatively recent checklists focusing on mainland Neotropical scarabaeoid or dynastine taxa have been produced for parts of Mexico (Deloya et al. 2014a, 2016), Nicaragua (Maes 1987, Maes et al. 1997), Panama (Ratcliffe 2002a), Colombia (Restrepo et al. 2003, Gasca-Álvarez and Amat-García 2010), Peru (Ratcliffe et al. 2015), and French Guiana (Ponchel 2011). Regional checklists of Dynastinae were published for Costa Rica and Panama (Ratcliffe 2003), Honduras, Nicaragua, and El Salvador (Ratcliffe and Cave 2006), Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize (Ratcliffe et al. 2013), the West Indies (Ratcliffe and Cave 2015), and the United States (Ratcliffe and Cave 2017). An updated catalog of Stenocrates was provided by Ratcliffe (2015), and Dupuis (2017) added details about Stenocrates in French Guiana. An updated checklist of the Cyclocephala of Colombia was provided by Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya (2016). Cyclocephala is the only genus in the tribe for which a tailored bibliography has been produced (Pike et al. 1976).

Materials and methods

All available literature was reviewed for compiling this catalog and bibliography. References to a cyclocephaline genus only were not included in the list of references. Cited references must have used a trackable specific epithet to have been included. The institutional and collection acronyms used throughout the catalog follow Evenhuis (2016) when possible.

CAS California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, USA

CERPE Coleção Entomológica da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil

CMNC Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

CNC Canadian National Collection of Insects, Ontario, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

BMNH The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom

FSCA Division of Plant Industry, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, Florida, USA

FDPC Fabien Dupuis Collection, Saint-Chamond, France

FUJI Masayuki Fujioka Collection, Tokyo, Japan

HNHM Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary

ICN Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Insituto de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad Nacional, Bogotá, Colombia

IEE Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

IEXA Colección Entomológica, Instituto de Ecología, A.C., Xalapa, México

IMQC Insectarium de Montreal, Montreal, Québec, Canada

INPA Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Colecão Sistemática da Entomologia, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

IREC Institut de Recherches Entomologique de la Caribe, Pointe-a-Pitre, Guadeloupe (also known as Centre de Recherches Agronomiques Antilles Guyana, Duclos, Petit-Bourg [CRAAG])

JPVC J. Pierre Voirin Collection, Le Luc, France

LEMQ Ste. Anne de Bellevue, McGill University, Lyman Entomological Museum, Québec, Canada

MACN Museo Argentina de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Buenos Aires, Argentina

MCMC Museo de Historia Natural de la Ciudad de Mexico, Distrito Federal, Mexico

MCZ Harvard University, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA

MIZA Museo del Instituto de Zoología Agrícola, Maracay, Venezuela

MLUH Zentralmagazin Naturwissenschaftlicher Sammlungen, Martin-Luther Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany

MNCR Museo Nacional de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica

MNHN Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

MNNC Coleccion Nacional de Insectos, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santiago, Chile

MUSENUV Universidad de Valle, Museo de Entomología, Cali, Colombia

MUSM Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marco, Lima, Peru

MTD Museum für Tierkunde, Dresden, Germany

MXAL Miguel Ángel Morón Collection, Xalapa, Mexico

MZSP Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

NHMB Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel, Switzerland

NHRS Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm, Sweden

NMPC National Museum (Natural History), Prague, Czech Republic

NSMT National Science Museum (Natural History), Tokyo, Japan

QSBG Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden, Chiang Mai, Thailand

RIEB Research Institute of Evolutionary Biology, Tokyo, Japan

RPDC Roger-Paul Dechambre Collection, Paris, France

SDEI Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany

UCDC UCDC

UNSM University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA

USNM National Museum of Natural History, Washington, District of Columbia, USA

UUZM Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

UVGC Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Colección de Artrópodos, Guatemala City, Guatemala

WADA Kaoru Wada Collection, Tokyo, Japan

ZMH Zoologiska Museum, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

ZMHB Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany

ZMUC University of Copenhagen, Zoological Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark

ZMUH Universität von Hamburg, Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Hamburg, Germany

ZMUK Universität Kiel, Zoologisches Museum, Kiel, Germany

ZSMC Zoologische Staatssammlung des Bayerischen Staates, Munich, Germany

A special note must be made about the type specimen housing institution reporting herein. For older literature, the remarks on type depositories relied on Endrődi’s (1966) explanations. However, many private collections (or portions of collection holdings) have changed hands in the intervening period. This is most relevant for the Antonio Martínez Collection, Sebő Endrődi Collection, Henry and Anne Howden Collection, Frey Collection, and for some Fabrician types. These collections contain a significant number of primary type material for cyclocephaline species. Holotypes deposited in the Martínez Collection should be at MACN. Holotypes and invalid neotypes deposited in the Endrődi Collection should be at HNHM. Holotypes deposited in the Howden collection should be at CMNC. Holotypes deposited in the Frey Collection should be at NHMB. Fabrician lectotypes designated by Endrődi (1966) were originally at ZMUK, but they should now be at ZMUC.

Most of Endrődi’s (1966) lectotypes were clearly designated. However, the types of many species (especially Arrow and Bates types at BMNH and Casey types at USNM) were not clearly discussed. The original descriptions of these species were not always explicit about the number of specimens in a type series. Endrődi (1966) does not clarify these cases and simply listed that a “Type” was at an institution. Herein, these “Type” specimens were not speculated to be holotypes by monotypy or as parts of a syntype series. Future workers who further examine the original descriptions and the type material will have to make those judgements.

As noted by a few authors, Endrődi’s cyclocephaline neotype designations are invalid on several grounds (Dechambre 1991b, Ratcliffe and Hoffman 2011). Endrődi’s (1966) revision of Cyclocephalini was published after the recently adopted 1964 version of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN 1964). ICZN (1964) Article 75c had six conditions that must have been met by Endrődi for his neotype designations to be valid: 1) a statement of characters for differentiating the taxon for which the neotype was designated (or a reference to such a statement); 2) data and description sufficient so that the neotype can be recognized; 3) explanation for believing that all of the original type material is lost or destroyed and the steps that were taken to determine this was the case; 4) explanation of why the neotype specimen is considered consistent with the original-type material; 5) explanation that the neotype came for as near as possible to the original type-locality; and 6) a statement that the neotype is immediately, or upon publication, the property of a recognized scientific or educational institution that maintains a research collection.

Every one of Endrődi’s (1966) twenty neotype designations variably violates the conditions of ICZN (1964) Article 75c. Endrődi possibly satisfied condition (1) of Article 75c in some cases because his neotype designations were accompanied by detailed descriptions (but not necessarily explicitly stated to be descriptions of the neotype). Condition (2) was violated in every case. For example, he did not describe the labels of any of his neotype specimens, hampering recognition of the neotypes. He sometimes also omitted an explicit statement about the sex of the neotype (though they are presumably male). Usually, Endrődi only made vague statements about his search for type materials, amounting to the fact that he did not find a type. This violated condition (3). He typically did not report where exactly he had searched for the material that he did not find. For example, after his description of Cyclocephala villosa Blanchard, Endrődi only stated, “Die Type war trotz sorgfältiger Nachforschung nicht aufzufinden, darum designierte Ich mein einziges Exemplar als Neotype ♂” [“The type was not found despite a careful search, so I designated my only specimen as a neotype ♂”]. In contrast, he went into detail about his search (with the help of Bengt-Olof Landin) for Linnean type material of C. amazona amazona.

Endrődi never described why he thought his neotypes were consistent with the original type material, nor did he explicitly mention type locality (violating conditions 4 and 5). He was obviously aware of the concept of type locality as evidenced by his decisions when designating neotypes. For example, he designated a neotype of C. castanea (Olivier) from “Surinam”, which is the type locality of this species based on the original description (Olivier 1789). However, he offered no explanation of these concepts. Lastly, all of Endrődi’s neotypes were deposited in his personal collection (now at HNHM). Dechambre (1991b) recognized that deposition in Endrődi’s collection did not satisfy condition (6). Endrődi’s invalid neotypes are listed below, in their original name combinations, and are noted in the catalog. In some cases, Dechambre (1991b) discovered syntypes of these species at MNHN and designated lectotypes. Those lectotypes are noted here where applicable.

Chalepus luridus Burmeister: invalid neotype ♂ at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966). Joly and Escalona (2002a) listed the housing institution as MLUH.

Cyclocephala concolor Burmeister: invalid neotype ♂ at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966). Lectotype ♀ at MNHN (Dechambre 1991b).

Cyclocephala fulvipennis Burmeister: invalid neotype ♂ at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966). Lectotype ♀ at MNHN (Dechambre 1991b).

Cyclocephala gregaria Heyne & Taschenberg: invalid neotype ♂ at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966).

Cyclocephala nigricollis Burmeister: invalid ♂ neotype at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966). Lectotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1991b).

Cyclocephala occipitalis Fairmaire: invalid neotype ♂ at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966).

Cyclocephala octopunctata Burmeister: invalid neotype ♂ at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966). Lectotype ♀ at MNHN (Dechambre 1991b).

Cyclocephala putrida Burmeister: invalid neotype at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966). Lectotype ♀ of C. putrida at MNHN (Dechambre 1991b).

Cyclocephala rubescens Bates: invalid neotype ♂ at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966).

Cyclocephala signaticollis Burmeister: invalid neotype ♂ at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966). Lectotype ♀ at MNHN (Dechambre 1991b).

Cyclocephala subsignata Burmeister: invalid neotype ♂ at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966). Lectotype ♀ at MNHN (Dechambre 1991b).

Cyclocephala tetrica Burmeister: invalid neotype ♂ at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966).

Cyclocephala villosa Blanchard: invalid ♂ neotype at MNHN (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966).

Cyclocephala villosa Burmeister: invalid neotype ♂ at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966).

Melolontha castanea Olivier: invalid neotype ♂ at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966).

Melolontha immaculata Olivier: invalid neotype ♂ at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966). Chalumeau and Gruner (1977) stated this neotype was at MNHN.

Melolontha picipes Olivier: invalid neotype ♂ at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966).

Melolontha rustica Olivier: invalid neotype at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966).

Melolontha undata Olivier: invalid ♂ neotype at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966).

Scarabaeus amazonus Linnaeus: invalid neotype at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966).

How to use this catalog

Entries for genera follow a format that tracks the history of genera as either valid or invalid through time. The generic-level entries also include the type species of the genus, a list of references that contain identification keys for the genus and/or its species, and the number of valid species and subspecies in the genus.

The very first line, in bold, is the current valid name of the taxon. Underneath that, the taxonomic history of the name is presented in chronological order. These histories can be extremely complicated and difficult to track. The types of changes included here are: 1) changes in generic classification; 2) changes in subgeneric classification; 3) names that the current valid name may have been synonymized under for a period; 4) revalidation of names as either species or subspecies; 5) changes in status that include movement between specific, subspecific, and infrasubspecific categories. These changes, outlined above, are cited using an abbreviated reference, with pagination, and what actions that author took.

Entries for synonyms are indented and labeled “syn.” in bold. The taxonomic histories of synonyms can be just as complicated as valid names and those details are provided here in the same format as the taxonomic history of the valid name. Information about the primary types, as far as could be ascertained, is provided beneath the taxonomic histories. These include citations for that information and the primary type repository. A generalized distribution from the literature is provided below the type information. Country records are in all capital letters and state/department/commune-level records are given after the country. Lastly, a bibliography of each species is provided in rough chronological order and sorted by author.

Remarks are also given that clarify some data about a taxon where it is applicable. Remarks given here generally relate to conflicting distribution data in the literature or potential minor taxonomic and nomenclatural issues. Because so little is known of cyclocephaline relationships, the catalog is presented in alphabetic order by genus and then species-group taxa, instead of systematic order.

Annotated catalog and bibliography of the cyclocephaline scarab beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae, Cyclocephalini)

Cyclocephalini Laporte, 1840

Cyclocephalites Laporte, 1840: 124 [original usage].

Cyclocephalidae [Burmeister, 1847: 21].

Cyclocephalides [Lacordaire, 1856: 393].

Cyclocephalini [LeConte, 1862: 143].

Cyclocephalinae [Bates, 1888: 296].

Type genus

Cyclocephala Dejean, 1821.

Acrobolbia Ohaus, 1912

Acrobolbia Ohaus, 1912: 316 [original usage].

Type species

Acrobolbia macrophylla Ohaus, 1912, by monotypy.

Keys

Jameson et al. 2002.

Valid taxa

1 species.

Acrobolbia macrophylla Ohaus, 1912

Acrobolbia macrophylla Ohaus, 1912: 317–318 [original combination].

syn. Acrobolbia triangularis Benderitter, 1922: 147 [original combination].

Acrobolbia macrophylla Ohaus [synonymy by Ohaus 1934a: 14].

Types

Holotype ♂ of A. macrophylla at ZMHB (Jameson et al. 2002). Neotype ♂ of A. triangularis at UNSM (Jameson et al. 2002).

Distribution

ECUADOR: Napo, Pastaza. PERU: Huanuco, Madre de Dios. VENEZUELA.

References

Lucas 1918a, Benderitter 1922, Ohaus 1912, 1918, 1934a, b, Anonymous 1940, Machatschke 1972, Jameson 1998, Dechambre and Ponchel 1999, Jameson et al. 2002, Breeschoten et al. 2013.

Ancognatha Erichson, 1847

Ancognatha Erichson, 1847a: 97 [original usage].

Cyclocephala Dejean [synonymy by Lacordaire 1856: 398].

Ancognatha Erichson [revalidated genus status by Bates 1888: 297].

syn. Barotheus Bates, 1891: 30–31 [original usage]. Type species: Barotheus andinus Bates, 1891, by monotypy.

Ancognatha Erichson [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 365].

syn. Lissodon Paulian, 1954: 1154 [original usage]. Type species: Lissodon argodi Paulian, 1954, by monotypy.

Ancognatha Erichson [synonymy by Endrődi 1969b: 38].

syn. Pseudoancognatha Otoya, 1945: 275 [original usage]. Proposed as a subgenus. Type species: Ancognatha nigriventris Otoya, 1945, by original designation. Ancognatha Erichson [synonymy by Martínez 1965a: 64].

Type species

Ancognatha scarabaeoides Erichson, subsequent designation by Casey 1915: 111.

Keys

Saylor 1945 (USA), Arnett 1968 (USA), Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Figueroa and Ratcliffe 2016 (Peru), Morón and Deloya 1991 (Mexico, Durango), Morón-Ríos and Morón 2001 (Mexico, Chiapas), Ratcliffe et al. 2013 (Mexico), Neita-Moreno and Morón 2008 (larvae), Vallejo and Morón 2008 (larvae), Pardo-Locarno et al. 2006, Gasca-Álvarez and Amat-García 2010 (Colombia), Mondaca 2011 (Chile), Villalobos-Moreno et al. 2017 (Colombia), Ratcliffe and Cave 2017 (USA and Canada).

Valid taxa

22 species.

Ancognatha atacazo (Kirsch, 1885)

Cyclocephala atacazo Kirsch, 1885: 223 [original combination].

Ancognatha atacazo (Kirsch) [new combination by Endrődi 1966: 370].

Types

Lectotype ♀ at MTD (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

COSTA RICA: Cartago, San José. COLOMBIA: Quindío, Tolima, Valle del Cauca. ECUADOR: Pichincha.

References

Kirsch 1885, Bertkau 1886, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1967a, 1985a, Ratcliffe 2003, Pardo-Locarno et al. 2006, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Ancognatha aymara Mondaca, 2016

Ancognatha aymara Mondaca, 2016: 60–63 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNNC (Mondaca 2016).

Distribution

CHILE: Arica y Parinacota.

References

Mondaca 2016.

Remarks

Specimens of A. lutea reported from Chile (e.g., see Gutiérrez 1950, Mondaca 2011, Ferrú and Elgueta 2011) were later determined to be A. aymara (Mondaca 2016).

Ancognatha castanea Erichson, 1847

Ancognatha castanea Erichson, 1847a: 98 [original combination].

Cyclocephala castanea (Erichson) [new combination by Lacordaire 1856: 398, 399].

Barotheus castaneus (Erichson) [new combination by Arrow 1911: 169].

Ancognatha castanea Erichson [revised combination by Endrődi 1966: 365].

syn. Barotheus andinus Bates, 1891: 31 [original combination].

Barotheus castaneus (Erichson) [synonymy by Arrow 1911: 169].

syn. Lissodon argodi Paulian, 1954: 1154–1155 [original combination].

Ancognatha castanea Erichson [synonymy by Endrődi 1969b: 38].

Types

Lectotype ♀ of A. castanea at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966). Type of B. andinus at BMNH (Endrődi 1966). Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Paulian 1954).

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Nariño. ECUADOR: Chimborazo, Napo, Pichincha. PERU: Ayacucho, Cuzco, Lima.

References

Erichson 1847a, Lacordaire 1856, Marschall 1857, Harold 1869b, Bates 1891, Bertkau 1892, Arrow 1911, 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Paulian 1954, Endrődi 1966, 1969b, 1974, 1985a, Onore 1997, 2005, Pardo-Locarno et al. 2006, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Ratcliffe et al. 2015, Dossey et al. 2016, Figueroa and Ratcliffe 2016, Mitasuhashi 2016.

Remarks

Lacordaire’s (1856) rejection of Ancognatha created a case of homonymy between the names C. castanea (Erichson) and C. castanea (Olivier). Cyclocephala peruana was proposed as a replacement for the junior homonym C. castanea (Erichson) (Harold 1869a). Subsequent authors did not use this replacement name (e.g., Arrow 1911, 1937b), with Endrődi (1966) stating that it was an “incorrect” new name.

Ancognatha corcuerai Figueroa & Ratcliffe, 2016

Ancognatha corcuerai Figueroa & Ratcliffe 2016: 65–67 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MUSM (Figueroa and Ratcliffe 2016).

Distribution

PERU: Cajamarca.

References

Figueroa and Ratcliffe 2016.

Ancognatha erythrodera (Blanchard, 1846)

Cyclocephala erythrodera Blanchard, 1846: 191 [original combination].

Ancognatha erythrodera (Blanchard) [new combination by Arrow 1937b: 6].

Types

Efforts to find type specimens were unsuccessful (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

ARGENTINA: Tucumán. BOLIVIA: La Paz. PERU: Arequipa, Puno.

References

Blanchard 1846, Erichson 1847b, Harold 1869b, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Ratcliffe et al. 2015, Figueroa and Ratcliffe 2016.

Ancognatha falsa Arrow, 1911

Ancognatha falsa Arrow, 1911: 170 [original combination].

Cyclocephala falsa (Arrow) [new combination by Endrődi 1966: 194].

Ancognatha falsa Arrow [revised combination by Endrődi 1985a: 162].

Types

Type ♂ at BMNH (Arrow 1911, Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

MEXICO: Chiapas, Estado de México, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Veracruz.

References

Arrow 1911, 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Pacheco-F. et al. 2008, Múñoz-Hernández et al. 2008, Ramírez-Ponce et al. 2009, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Romero-López et al. 2012, 2015, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, Deloya et al. 2016.

Ancognatha gracilis Endrődi, 1966

Ancognatha gracilis Endrődi, 1966: 372–373 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

COSTA RICA: Cartago, Heredia, Limón, San José. PANAMA: Chiriquí.

References

Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Ratcliffe 1992d, 2002a, 2003, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Ancognatha horrida Endrődi, 1967

Ancognatha horrida Endrődi, 1967a: 409–411 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at NHMB (Frey Collection) (Endrődi 1967a).

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Nariño. ECUADOR: Cañar, Loja, Pichincha.

References

Endrődi 1967a, 1985a, Dechambre 2000, Pardo-Locarno et al. 2006, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Ancognatha humeralis (Burmeister, 1847)

Cyclocephala humeralis Burmeister, 1847: 40 [original combination].

Ancognatha humeralis (Burmeister) [new combination by Arrow 1914: 274].

syn. Cyclocephala longiceps Kirsch, 1870: 354–355 (paginated incorrectly as 370–371) [original combination].

Ancognatha humeralis (Burmeister) [synonymy by Arrow 1914: 274].

Types

Lectotype ♂ of C. humeralis at MLUH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Cochabamba. CHILE. COLOMBIA: Antioquia, Caldas, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Quindío, Risaralda, Valle del Cauca. ECUADOR. PERU: Lima.

References

Burmeister 1847, Harold 1869b, Kirsch 1870, Bates 1888, Arrow 1911, 1914, 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Martínez 1965a, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Restrepo et al. 2003, Útima and Vallejo 2008, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Ratcliffe et al. 2015, Figueroa and Ratcliffe 2016.

Remarks

Ancognatha humeralis was reported from Panama, Costa Rica, and Venezuela (Bates 1888, Blackwelder 1944). Some of these data probably refer to A. vulgaris (see Arrow 1911). Major faunistic studies have not reported A. humeralis from Panama or Costa Rica (Ratcliffe 2003).

Ancognatha hyltonscottae Martínez, 1965

Ancognatha hyltonscottae Martínez, 1965a: 64–70 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MACN (Antonio Martínez Collection) (Martínez 1965a).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Cochabamba.

References

Martínez 1965a, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Ancognatha jamesoni Murray, 1857

Ancognatha jamesoni Murray, 1857: 230–232 [original combination].

syn. Ancognatha crassimanus Murray, 1857: 232–234 [original combination].

Ancognatha jamesoni Murray [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 374].

Types

Types of both A. jamesoni and A. crassimanus are at BMNH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

ECUADOR: Pichincha.

References

Murray 1857, Gerstaecker 1858, Harold 1869b, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Dechambre 2000, Onore 1997, 2005, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Dossey et al. 2016.

Ancognatha lutea Erichson, 1847

Ancognatha lutea Erichson, 1847a: 97 [original combination].

Cyclocephala lutea (Erichson) [new combination by Lacordaire 1856: 398, 399].

Ancognatha lutea Erichson [revised combination by Arrow 1937b: 6].

Types

Lectotype ♂ at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

ARGENTINA. BOLIVIA. BRAZIL. COLOMBIA: Bogotá, D. C., Cundinamarca, Santander. GUYANA. PERU: Cajamarca, Cuzco, Lima, Puno. URUGUAY.

References

Erichson 1847a, Lacordaire 1856, Harold 1869b, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Restrepo et al. 2003, Gasca-Álvarez and Amat-García 2010, Ferrú and Elgueta 2011, Mondaca 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, López-García et al. 2015, Ratcliffe et al. 2015, Figueroa and Ratcliffe 2016, Mitasuhashi 2016.

Ancognatha manca (LeConte, 1866)

Cyclocephala manca LeConte, 1866: 382 [original combination].

Ancognatha manca (LeConte) [new combination by Bates 1888: 298].

syn. Ancognatha aequata Bates, 1888: 297 [original combination].

Ancognatha manca (LeConte) [synonymy by Arrow 1911: 169].

syn. Ancognatha durangoana Casey, 1915: 125 [original combination].

Ancognatha manca (LeConte) [synonymy by Saylor 1945: 125].

syn. Ancognatha laevigata Bates, 1888: 297–298 [original combination].

Ancognatha manca (LeConte) [synonymy by Saylor 1945: 379].

syn. Ancognatha perspicua Casey, 1915: 126 [original combination].

Ancognatha manca (LeConte) [synonymy by Arrow 1937b: 6].

syn. Ancognatha zuniella Casey, 1915: 127 [original combination].

Ancognatha manca (LeConte) [synonymy by Arrow 1937b: 6].

Types

Type of C. manca at MCZ (Endrődi 1966). Types of A. aequata and A. laevigata at BMNH (Endrődi 1966). Types of A. zuniella, A. perspicua, and A. durangoana at USNM (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

MEXICO: Chihuahua, Durango, Estado de México, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Nayarit, Michoacán, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Zacatecas. UNITED STATES: Arizona, New Mexico.

References

LeConte 1866, Gerstaecker 1866, Harold 1869b, Henshaw 1885, Bates 1888, Fall and Cockerell 1907, Casey 1915, Leng 1920, Arrow 1911, 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Saylor 1945, Blackwelder and Blackwelder 1948, Ritcher 1966, Arnett 1968, Ritcher and Baker 1974, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Dimmitt and Ruibal 1980, Morón 1981, Hardy 1991, Hardy 1991, Morón and Deloya 1991, Poole and Gentili 1996, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Navarrete-Heredia et al. 2001, Ratcliffe 2002b, Smith 2003, 2009, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Morón and Márquez 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, Deloya et al. 2016, Ratcliffe and Cave 2017.

Ancognatha matilei Dechambre, 2000

Ancognatha matilei Dechambre, 2000: 183–184 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 2000).

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Valle del Cauca.

References

Dechambre 2000, Restrepo et al. 2003, Gasca-Álvarez and Amat-García 2010, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Ancognatha quadripunctata Bates, 1888

Ancognatha quadripunctata Bates, 1888: 298 [original combination].

Types

Type at BMNH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

MEXICO: Chihuahua, Colima, Distrito Federal, Durango, Estado de México, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sinaloa, Sonora, Veracruz.

References

Bates 1888, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Barrera 1969, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Deloya et al. 1993, 2014a, 2016, Navarrete-Heredia et al. 2001, Ramírez-Ponce et al. 2009, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Morón and Márquez 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013.

Remarks

Ancognatha quadripunctata has been reported from Ecuador (Endrődi 1966, 1985a) and Guatemala (Blackwelder 1944, Deloya et al. 2016). Major faunistic studies did not record additional specimens from Guatemala (Ratcliffe et al. 2013). No new data from Ecuador has been reported since Endrődi (1966).

Ancognatha rugulosa Endrődi, 1966

Ancognatha rugulosa Endrődi, 1966: 378–379 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966, Ratcliffe et al. 2013).

Distribution

MEXICO: Durango.

References

Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013.

Ancognatha scarabaeoides Erichson, 1847

Ancognatha scarabaeoides Erichson, 1847a: 97 [original combination].

Cyclocephala scarabaeoides (Erichson) [new combination by Lacordaire 1856: 398, 399].

Ancognatha scarabaeoides Erichson [revised combination by Bates 1888: 297].

syn. Chalepides unduavicus Prokofiev, 2012: 3–5 [original combination].

Ancognatha scarabaeoides Erichson [synonymy by Prokofiev 2013: 131].

Types

Lectotype ♂ of A. scarabaeoides at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966). Holotype ♂ of C. unduavicus at IEE (Prokofiev 2012).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Cochabamba, La Paz. COLOMBIA: Antioquia, Atlántico, Bogota, D. C., Boyacá, Caldas, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Huila, Meta, Nariño, Quindío, Risaralda, Santander, Tolima, Valle del Cauca. PANAMA: Chiriquí. PERU: Ancash, Apurimac, Cajamarca, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huánuco, Junín, La Libertad, Puno, San Martín. VENEZUELA.

References

Dejean 1833, 1836b, Sturm 1843, Erichson 1847a, 1848b, Burmeister 1847, Lacordaire 1856, Marschall 1857, Harold 1869b, Bates 1888, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Apolinar Maria 1946, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1967b, 1985a, Ruiz and Posada 1986, Posada Ochoa 1989, Ruiz and Pamalpa 1990, Montoya et al. 1994, Díaz et al. 1997, Ratcliffe 2002a, 2003, Restrepo et al. 2003, Marino et al. 2004, Lucero Malfa et al. 2006, Neita-Moreno and Gaigl 2008, Vallejo and Morón 2008, Gasca-Álvarez and Amat-García 2010, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Prokofiev 2012, 2013, 2014, Ratcliffe et al. 2015, López-García et al. 2015, Figueroa and Ratcliffe 2016, Villalobos-Moreno et al. 2016, 2017.

Remarks

Prokofiev (2014) treated A. scarabaeoides ab. unduavica as an infrasubspecific entity (color variant) after treating the name as a synonym (Prokofiev 2013).

Ancognatha sellata Arrow, 1911

Ancognatha sellata Arrow, 1911: 170 [original combination].

Types

Type at BMNH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

EL SALVADOR: Chalatenango, Santa Ana. GUATEMALA: Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Quetzaltenango, Quiché, Sacatepéquez, San Marcos, Sololá, Suchitepéquez, Zacapa. HONDURAS: Cortés, El Paraíso, Francisco Morazán, Intibucá, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Olancho. MEXICO: Chiapas, Oaxaca. NICARAGUA: Jinotega.

References

Arrow 1911, 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Morón-Ríos and Morón 2001, Ramírez-Salinas et al. 2004, Méndez-Aguilar et al. 2005, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013.

Ancognatha ustulata (Burmeister, 1847)

Cyclocephala ustulata Burmeister, 1847: 39 [original combination].

Ancognatha ustulata (Burmeister) [new combination by Bates 1888: 297].

syn. Ancognatha ustulata ustulatoides Höhne, 1922d: 373–374 [original combination].

Ancognatha ustulata var. ustulatoides Höhne [new infrasubspecific status by Arrow 1937b: 6].

Ancognatha ustulata ab. ustulatoides Höhne [revised infrasubspecific status by Endrődi 1985a: 162].

Types

Lectotype ♂ of C. ustulata at MLUH (Endrődi 1966). Lectotype ♂ of A. ustulata ustulatoides at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Antioquia, Bogotá D. C., Boyacá, Caldas, Cauca, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Tolima, Valle del Cauca. ECUADOR. PERU: Pasco. VENEZUELA: Mérida.

References

Dejean 1833, 1836b, Sturm 1843, Burmeister 1847, Höhne 1922d, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Apolinar Maria 1946, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Restrepo et al. 2003, Neita-Moreno and Morón 2008, Gasca-Álvarez and Amat-García 2010, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, López-García et al. 2015, Figueroa and Ratcliffe 2016.

Remarks

Ancognatha ustulata ustulatoides was a validly described subspecies (Höhne 1922d). The subspecies was considered an infrasubspecific entity after Arrow (1937b) and was referred to as an “ab.” or “var.” (e.g., see Endrődi 1966, 1985a). The name has not been clearly synonymized with A. ustulata (Burmeister), but was listed as a synonym by Krajcik (2005). Endrődi (1966, 1985a) reported A. ustulata from Mexico and Panama, but major faunistic studies have not found additional specimens from these countries (Ratcliffe 2003, Ratcliffe et al. 2013).

Ancognatha veliae Pardo-Locarno, Gonzalez, & Montoya-Lerma, 2006

Ancognatha veliae Pardo-Locarno, Gonzalez, & Montoya-Lerma, 2006: 64–67 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MUSENUV (Pardo-Locarno et al. 2006).

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Chocó.

References

Pardo-Locarno et al. 2006, Gasca-Álvarez and Amat-García 2010, Krajcik 2012.

Ancognatha vexans Ratcliffe, 1992

Ancognatha vexans Ratcliffe, 1992d: 256–259 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at UNSM (Ratcliffe 1992d).

Distribution

COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Puntarenas, San José. PANAMA: Chiriquí.

References

Ratcliffe 1992d, 2002a, 2003, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Ancognatha vulgaris Arrow, 1911

Ancognatha vulgaris Arrow, 1911: 169–170 [original combination].

syn. Ancognatha (Pseudoancognatha) nigriventris Otoya, 1945: 275–282 [original combination].

Ancognatha vulgaris Arrow [synonymy by Martínez 1965a: 64].

Types

Type of A. vulgaris at BMNH (Endrődi 1966). Holotype ♂ of A. nigriventris at ICN (Otoya 1945).

Distribution

BOLIVIA. BRAZIL: Amazonas. COLOMBIA: Antioquia, Boyacá, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Quindío, Risaralda, Santander, Tolima. COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José. ECUADOR. PANAMA: Bocas del Toro, Chiriquí, Coclé, Panamá, Veraguas. PERU: Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Cuzco, Huánuco, La Libertad, Lima, Loreto, Pasco, Piura, San Martín, Ucayali. VENEZUELA: Mérida.

References

Arrow 1911, 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Otoya 1945, Gutiérrez 1950, Martínez 1965a, Howden and Campbell 1974, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Ruiz and Pamalpa 1990, Montoya et al. 1994, Restrepo et al. 2003, Ratcliffe 2002a, 2003, Onore 1997, 2005, Pardo-Locarno et al. 2005a, Útima and Vallejo 2008, Gasca-Álvarez and Amat-García 2010, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Moore 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, López-García et al. 2015, Ratcliffe et al. 2015, Dossey et al. 2016, Figueroa and Ratcliffe 2016, Mitasuhashi 2016, Villalobos-Moreno et al. 2016, 2017.

Remarks

Some authors attributed the name A. humeralis to Bates (1888) and subsequently treated this taxon as a synonym of A. vulgaris (e.g., Arrow 1937b, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012). Bates (1888) clearly attributed the name A. humeralis to Burmeister (1847), and his notes on this species should not be considered a description of a new species.

The identity and species status of A. nigriventris is ambiguous and needs clarification. Ancognatha nigriventris was described from male and female specimens collected in the Colombian departments of Meta and Santander (Otoya 1945). The species was placed in a new subgenus based on its relatively well-developed maxillary teeth (Otoya 1945). Gutiérrez (1950) discussed the subgenus and Martínez (1965a) implied that the species was a synonym of A. vulgaris. Endrődi (1966) remarked that he had not seen the type series, or any specimens, of A. nigriventris and treated the species as valid. Endrődi (1985a) did not further treat A. nigriventris. Some subsequent papers have cited the species from Colombia (Ruiz and Pamalpa 1990, Montoya et al. 1994), while others have ignored it (e.g., Restrepo et al. 2003 and Gasca-Álvarez and Amat-García 2010). Ancognatha nigriventris is reported from the Colombian states of Meta, Nariño, and Santander (Otoya 1945, Ruiz and Pamalpa 1990, Montoya et al. 1994).

Arriguttia Martínez, 1960

Arriguttia Martínez, 1960a: 97–98 [original usage].

Type species

Cyclocephala brevissima Arrow, 1911, by monotypy.

Keys

Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Ratcliffe 1985, Jameson et al. 2002.

Valid taxa

2 species.

Arriguttia bolivari Martínez, 1968

Arriguttia bolivari Martínez, 1968a: 185–188 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MACN (Antonio Martínez Collection) (Martínez 1968a).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Amazonas.

References

Martínez 1968a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Arriguttia brevissima (Arrow, 1911)

Cyclocephala brevissima Arrow, 1911: 175–176 [original combination].

Arriguttia brevissima (Arrow) [new combination by Martínez 1960a: 98].

Types

Type at BMNH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Mato Grosso, Pará. GUYANA. FRENCH GUIANA: Cayenne.

References

Arrow 1911, 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Martínez 1960a, 1968a, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ponchel 2006, 2011, 2015, Costa et al. 2017.

Aspidolea Bates, 1888

Aspidolea Bates, 1888: 296 [original usage].

syn. Paraspidolea Höhne, 1922a: 90–91 [original usage]. Type species: Paraspidolea suturalis Höhne, 1922, by original designation.

Aspidolea Bates [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 338].

Type species

Aspidolea singularis Bates, 1888, by monotypy.

Keys

Arnett 1968 (USA), Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Morón 1979 (Veracruz, Mexico), Morón et al. 1985 (Chiapas, Mexico), Ratcliffe 1985, Dechambre 1992, Maes 1994 (Nicaragua), Jameson et al. 2002, Ratcliffe 2003 (Costa Rica and Panama), Ratcliffe and Cave 2006 (Honduras, Nicaragua, and El Salvador), Neita-Moreno et al. 2007 (larvae), Gasca-Álvarez and Amat-García 2010 (Colombia), Pardo-Locarno 2013 (Valle del Cauca, Colombia), Ratcliffe et al. 2013 (Guatemala, Belize, and Mexico).

Valid taxa

24 species.

Aspidolea bleuzeni Dechambre, 1992

Aspidolea bleuzeni Dechambre, 1992: 73, 74–75 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1992).

Distribution

FRENCH GUIANA: Kourou, Roura, St.-Laurent du Maroni.

References

Dechambre 1992, Touroult et al. 2010, Ponchel 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Aspidolea boulardi Dechambre, 1992

Aspidolea boulardi Dechambre, 1992: 73, 74 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1992).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Pará.

References

Dechambre 1992, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013.

Aspidolea brunnea Höhne, 1922

Aspidolea brunnea Höhne, 1922a: 90 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz. COLOMBIA: Cundinamarca, Meta. PERU: Ayacucho, Cusco, Madre de Dios, Puno.

References

Höhne 1922a, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Restrepo-Giraldo et al. 2003, Krajcik 2005, 2012, López-García et al. 2015, Ratcliffe et al. 2015).

Aspidolea chalumeaui Endrődi, 1977

Aspidolea chalumeaui Endrődi, 1977a: 5–6 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at HNHM (Dechambre 1992).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Mato Grosso.

References

Endrődi 1977a, 1985a, Dechambre 1992, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Aspidolea cognata Höhne, 1922

Aspidolea cognata Höhne, 1922a: 83–84 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Boyacá, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Risaralda. ECUADOR: Morona-Santiago. PERU. VENEZUELA: Aragua, Capital District (Caracas).

References

Höhne 1922a, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Roze 1955, Martínez 1975, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Restrepo-Giraldo et al. 2003, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, López-García et al. 2015.

Remarks

Ratcliffe et al. (2013) do not record A. cognata from Mexico, Guatemala, or Belize. The data from Mexico previously reported for A. cognata may be erroneous (Höhne 1922a, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Ratcliffe et al. 2013).

Aspidolea collaris Endrődi, 1966

Aspidolea collaris Endrődi, 1966: 342, 346–347 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at NHMB (Frey Collection) (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

PERU: Madre de Dios.

References

Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2015.

Aspidolea clypeata (Burmeister, 1847)

Cyclocephala clypeata Burmeister, 1847: 42 [original combination].

Aspidolea clypeata (Burmeister) [new combination by Höhne 1922a: 81].

Types

Lectotype ♂ at MLUH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Beni. COLOMBIA. FRENCH GUIANA: Cayenne, Mana, St.-Laurent du Maroni. GUYANA: Upper Demerara-Berbice.

References

Burmeister 1847, Harold 1869b, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Gruner 1971, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, Endrődi 1973a, 1985a, Restrepo-Giraldo et al. 2003, Ponchel 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Remarks

Aspidolea clypeata possibly occurs in Mato Grosso, Brazil based on reported locality data for the unavailable name A. clypeata ab. brasiliana (Endrődi 1966).

Aspidolea ecuadoriana Endrődi, 1985

Aspidolea ecuadoriana Endrődi, 1985b: 74 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at JPVC (Colette Voirin) (Endrődi 1985b).

Distribution

ECUADOR: Pichincha.

References

Endrődi 1985b, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Aspidolea epipleuralis Höhne, 1922

Aspidolea epipleuralis Höhne, 1922a: 84–85 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

ECUADOR: Morona-Santiago.

References

Höhne 1922a, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Aspidolea fuliginea (Burmeister, 1847)

Cyclocephala fuliginea Burmeister, 1847: 42 [original combination].

Paraspidolea fuliginea (Burmeister) [new combination by Höhne 1922a: 81, 91].

Aspidolea fuliginea (Burmeister) [new combination by Endrődi 1966: 348–350.

Types

Lectotype ♂ at MLUH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

ARGENTINA. BELIZE: Cayo, Stann Creek, Toledo. BRAZIL. COLOMBIA: Antioquia, Bolívar, Boyacá, Caldas, Cauca, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Meta, Risaralda, Valle del Cauca. COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José. ECUADOR: Guayas. EL SALVADOR: Ahuachapán, Cuscatlán, La Libertad. GUATEMALA: Alto Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jutiapa, Petén, Sacatepéquez, San Marcos, Suchitepéquez, Zacapa. HONDURAS: Atlántida, Choluteca, Comayagua, Cortés, Francisco Morazán, Gracias a Dios, Lempira, Olancho, Yoro. MEXICO: Chiapas, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Tabasco, Veracruz. NICARAGUA: Masaya, Río San Juan. PANAMA: Bocas del Toro, Panama Canal Zone, Chiriquí, Colón, Darien, Panamá. PERU: Cusco, Madre de Dios, Puno. TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: Trinidad (Couva-Tabaquite-Talparo). VENEZUELA: Capital District (Caracas), Mérida.

References

Bates 1888, Arrow 1937b, Martorell and Salas 1939, Blackwelder 1944, Roze 1955, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Morón 1979, Thomas 1993, Lobo and Morón 1993, Morón 1994, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Navarrete-Heredia et al. 2001, Carrillo-Ruiz and Morón 2003, Ratcliffe 2002a, 2003, Restrepo-Giraldo et al. 2003, Espino 2005, Pardo-Locarno et al. 2003, 2005a, Neita-Moreno et al. 2006, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Pacheco-F. et al. 2008, Núñez-Avellaneda and Rojas-Robles 2008, Útima and Vallejo 2008, García-López et al. 2011, Neita-Moreno 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Moore 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Pardo-Locarno 2013, Deloya et al. 1993, 2014, López-García et al. 2015, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, 2015.

Aspidolea gaudairethorei Endrődi, 1980

Aspidolea gaudairethorei Endrődi, 1980: 39–40 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♀ in André Gaudaíre-Thore Collection (Sens, France) (Endrődi 1980).

Distribution

FRENCH GUIANA: Cayenne, Roura.

References

Endrődi 1980, 1985a, Touroult et al. 2010, Ponchel 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Aspidolea helleri (Höhne, 1922)

Paraspidolea helleri Höhne, 1922b: 371 [original combination].

Aspidolea helleri (Höhne) [new combination by Endrődi 1966: 341, 351].

Types

Lectotype ♂ at MTD (Dechambre 1992).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Pará. FRENCH GUIANA: Cayenne. SURINAME.

References

Höhne 1922b, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Dechambre 1979a, 1992, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Aspidolea kuntzeni Höhne, 1922

Aspidolea kuntzeni Höhne, 1922a: 87–89 [original combination].

syn. Aspidolea pygidialis Höhne, 1922a: 89–90 [original combination].

Aspidolea kuntzeni ab. pygidialis Höhne [new status by Endrődi 1966: 351].

Aspidolea kuntzeni Höhne [synonymy by Ratcliffe 2002a: 32].

Types

Holotype of A. kuntzeni at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966). Holotype of A. pygidialis at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Chocó, Valle del Cauca. COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José. PANAMA: Bocas del Toro, Panama Canal Zone, Darien, Panamá. SURINAME. VENEZUELA: Aragua, Capital District (Caracas), Carabobo, Mérida.

References

Höhne 1922a, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Roze 1955, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Poole and Gentili 1996, Ratcliffe 2002a, 2003, Restrepo-Giraldo et al. 2003, Neita-Moreno 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Remarks

Endrődi (1966, 1985a) erroneously reported A. kuntzeni from the United States (New Mexico) (Ratcliffe 2003).

Aspidolea laticeps (Harold, 1869)

Cyclocephala laticeps Harold, 1869a: 124 [original combination].

Aspidolea laticeps (Harold) [new combination by Höhne 1922a: 81].

syn. Cyclocephala clypeata Erichson, 1847a: 97 [original combination].

Cyclocephala laticeps Harold [new replacement name by Harold 1869a: 124, homonym of Cyclocephala clypeata Burmeister, 1847: 42–43].

Types

Lectotype ♂ at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

PERU: Pasco. VENEZUELA: Carabobo.

References

Erichson 1847a, Burmeister 1847, Harold 1869a, Arrow 1937b, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2015.

Aspidolea lindae Ratcliffe, 1977

Aspidolea lindae Ratcliffe, 1977: 429–430 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at UNSM (Ratcliffe 1977).

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Amazonas. PERU.

References

Ratcliffe 1977, Dupuis 1999, Restrepo-Giraldo et al. 2003, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Otavo et al. 2013, Ratcliffe et al. 2015.

Aspidolea mimethes (Höhne, 1922)

Paraspidolea mimethes Höhne, 1922a: 93–94 [original combination].

Aspidolea mimethes (Höhne) [new combination by Endrődi 1966: 342, 353–354].

Types

Male type was not found. A female type is at MTD (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

PERU: Pasco.

References

Höhne 1922a, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2015.

Aspidolea notaticollis Höhne, 1922

Aspidolea notaticollis Höhne, 1922a: 86 [original combination].

syn. Aspidolea bigutticollis Höhne, 1922a: 87 [original combination].

Aspidolea notaticollis Höhne [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 339, 354].

syn. Aspidolea tibialis Höhne, 1922a: 85–86 [original combination].

Aspidolea notaticollis ab. tibialis (Höhne) [new infrasubspecific status by Endrődi 1980: 41].

Types

Holotype ♂ of A. notaticollis, type of A. bigutticollis, and holotype ♂ of A. tibialis at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Cochabamba. COLOMBIA: Antioquia, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Meta, Tolima. COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Puntarenas. ECUADOR: Morona-Santiago, Orellana, Pastaza. Panama: Bocas del Toro, Colón, Darien, Panama Canal Zone. PERU: Ayacucho, Huánuco, Junín, Madre de Dios, Cusco, Pasco.

References

Höhne 1922a, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Endrődi 1966, 1980, 1985a, Ratcliffe 2002a, 2003, Restrepo-Giraldo et al. 2003, García-López et al. 2010, Neita-Moreno 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Moore 2012, López-García et al. 2015, Ratcliffe et al. 2015.

Aspidolea pelioptera (Burmeister, 1847)

Cyclocephala pelioptera Burmeister, 1847: 42 [original combination].

Paraspidolea pelioptera (Burmeister) [new combination by Höhne 1922a: 81, 91].

Aspidolea pelioptera (Burmeister) [new combination by Endrődi 1966: 338, 343, 355–356].

Types

Lectotype ♂ at MLUH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires. BRAZIL: Espírito Santo, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande so Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo.

References

Burmeister 1847, Harold 1869b, Höhne 1922a, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Guimarães 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Grossi et al. 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Fuhrmann 2013.

Aspidolea pokornyi Dupuis, 2014

Aspidolea pokornyi Dupuis, 2014: 54–56 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ in Pokorny Collection (Prague, Czech Republic) (Dupuis 2014).

Distribution

ECUADOR: Napo.

References

Dupuis 2014.

Aspidolea quadrata Endrődi, 1980

Aspidolea quadrata Endrődi, 1980: 40–41 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ in André Gaudaíre-Thore Collection (Sens, France) (Endrődi 1980).

Distribution

FRENCH GUIANA: Kourou, Roura, Sinnamary.

References

Endrődi 1980, 1985a, Gibernau et al. 2003, Touroult et al. 2010, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Dupuis 2014, Ponchel 2006, 2015.

Aspidolea singularis Bates, 1888

Aspidolea singularis Bates, 1888: 296–297 [original combination].

syn. Aspidolea cevallosi Martínez, 1975a: 307–313 [original combination].

Aspidolea singularis Bates [synonymy by Endrődi 1985a: 155].

syn. Aspidolea similis Höhne, 1922a: 82–83 [original combination].

Aspidolea singularis ab. similis (Höhne) [new infrasubspecific status by Endrődi 1966: 356].

Aspidolea singularis Bates [synonymy by Ratcliffe 2002a: 27].

syn. Aspidolea texana Höhne, 1922a: 84 [original combination].

Aspidolea singularis Bates [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 356].

Types

Type of A. singularis at BMNH (Endrődi 1966). Holotypes of A. texana and A. similis both at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966). Holotype ♂ of A. cevallosi at MACN (Antonio Martínez Collection) (Martínez 1975).

Distribution

BELIZE: Cayo, Stann Creek. BRAZIL. COLOMBIA: Amazonas, Antioquia, Boyacá, Cauca, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Meta, Risaralda, Santander, Tolima, Valle del Cauca. COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José. ECUADOR: Bolívar, Guayas, Loja, Los Ríos. EL SALVADOR: Ahuachapán, La Libertad, Morazán, San Salvador, Santa Ana. GUATEMALA: Alta Veracruz, Baja Veracruz, Chiquimula, El Progresso, Escuintla, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Quetzaltenango, Quiché, Retalhuleu, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Suchitepéquez, Zacapa. HONDURAS: Atlántida, Choluteca, Copán, Cortés, El Paraíso, Francisco Morazán, Gracias a Dios, Lempira, Olancho, Santa Bárbara, Yoro. MEXICO: Chiapas, Oaxaca, Puebla, Tabasco, Veracruz. NICARAGUA: Chontales, Jinotega, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, RAA Norte, Río San Juan. Panama: Bocas del Toro, Chiriquí, Coclé, Colón, Darien, Herrera, Panamá, Panama Canal Zone, San Blas, Veraguas. PERU.

References

Bates 1888, Höhne 1922a, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Martínez 1975, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Morón et al. 1985, Palacios-Rios et al. 1990, Thomas 1993, Maes 1987, 1994, Poole and Gentili 1996, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Dupuis 1999, Elizondo-Solís 2002, Ratcliffe 2002a, 2003, Restrepo-Giraldo et al. 2003, Pardo-Locarno et al. 2003, 2005a, Huerta-Espino 2005, Neita-Moreno et al. 2006, 2007, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Pacheco-F. et al. 2008, Útima and Vallejo 2008, Neita-Moreno 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, García-López et al. 2010, 2011, 2013, Pardo-Locarno 2013, Otavo et al. 2013, Yepes-Rodriguez et al. 2013, López-García et al. 2015, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, 2015.

Remarks

Aspidolea singularis was reported from San Antonio, Texas (United States) (Höhne 1922a, Blackwelder and Blackwelder 1948, Endrődi 1966, 1985a). Saylor (1945) suggested that these data were likely erroneous. More complete data indicate that the northern range limit of A. singularis is near the state of Puebla, Mexico (Ratcliffe et al. 2013).

Aspidolea suturalis (Höhne, 1922)

Paraspidolea suturalis Höhne, 1922a: 91–92 [original combination].

Aspidolea suturalis (Höhne) [new combination by Endrődi 1966: 338, 341, 357–358].

syn. Paraspidolea ohausi Höhne, 1922a: 94–95 [original combination].

Aspidolea suturalis (Höhne) [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 357].

Types

Holotypes of P. suturalis and P. ohausi at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Cochabamba, La Paz, Yungas. COLOMBIA: Antioquia. ECUADOR: Bolívar, Loja. PERU: Ayacucho. VENEZUELA: Mérida.

References

Höhne 1922a, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Restrepo-Giraldo et al. 2003, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2015.

Remarks

Endrődi (1966, 1985a) reported A. suturalis from Mexico, but this is likely an erroneous record (Ratcliffe et al. 2013).

Aspidolea suturella (Höhne, 1922)

Paraspidolea suturella Höhne, 1922a: 95 [original combination].

Aspidolea suturella (Höhne) [new combination by Endrődi 1966: 338, 342, 358–359].

Types

Holotype ♂ at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Antioquia, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Valle de Cauca.

References

Höhne 1922a, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Restrepo-Giraldo et al. 2003, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Aspidolea testacea (Höhne, 1922)

Paraspidolea testacea Höhne, 1922a: 92–93 [original combination].

Aspidolea testacea (Höhne) [new combination by Endrődi 1966: 338, 342, 359].

Types

Holotype ♂ at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BOLIVIA. COLOMBIA.

References

Höhne 1922a, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Restrepo-Giraldo et al. 2003, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Aspidolea theresae Dupuis, 1999

Aspidolea theresae Dupuis, 1999: 186–187 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dupuis 1999).

Distribution

ECUADOR: Napo.

References

Dupuis 1999, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Aspidolea vicina Dechambre, 1992

Aspidolea vicina Dechambre, 1992: 73, 74 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1992).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Pará.

References

Dechambre 1992, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Augoderia Burmeister, 1847

Augoderia Burmeister, 1847: 33–34 [original usage].

Type species

Augoderia nitidula Burmeister, 1847, by monotypy.

Keys

Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Ratcliffe 1985, Jameson et al. 2002.

Valid taxa

5 species and subspecies.

Augoderia boliviana Endrődi, 1981

Augoderia boliviana Endrődi, 1981: 198 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at ZSMC (Endrődi 1981).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz.

References

Endrődi 1981, 1985a, Ponchel 2009, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Augoderia freyi Endrődi, 1967

Augoderia freyi Endrődi, 1967a: 407–409 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at NHMB (Frey Collection) (Endrődi 1967a).

Distribution

BOLIVIA. PERU: Madre de Dios.

References

Endrődi 1967a, 1981, 1985a, Ponchel 2009, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2015.

Augoderia giuglarisi Ponchel, 2009

Augoderia giuglarisi Ponchel, 2009: 183–184 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ in the Yannig Ponchel Collection (Ponchel 2009).

Distribution

FRENCH GUIANA.

References

Ponchel 2009, Krajcik 2012.

Augoderia nitidula nitidula Burmeister, 1847

Augoderia nitidula Burmeister, 1847: 34 [original combination].

Types

Lectotype at MLUH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires, Misiones. BOLIVIA: Cochabamba, Santa Cruz. BRAZIL: Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná. VENEZUELA: Caracas.

References

Burmeister 1847, Harold 1869b, Ohaus 1909, Arrow 1937b, Anonymous 1900, 1940, Blackwelder 1944, Guimarães 1944, Lima 1953, Martínez 1966, Gibbs et al. 1977, Endrődi 1966, 1981, 1985a, Riehs 2005, Ronqui and Lopes 2006, Ponchel 2009, Grossi et al. 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013.

Augoderia nitidula yungana Martínez, 1966

Augoderia nitidula yungana Martínez, 1966: 73–75 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MACN (Antonio Martínez Collection) (Martínez 1966).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Cochabamba.

References

Martínez 1966, Endrődi 1985a, Ponchel 2009, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Chalepides Casey, 1915

Parachalepus (Chalepides) Casey, 1915: 176–177 [original usage]. Proposed as a subgenus.

Chalepides Casey [new genus status by Prell 1936: 151; see also Arrow 1937a: 36].

syn. Parachalepus (Parachalepus) Casey, 1915: 175–176 [original usage]. Parachalepus Casey is a junior homonym of Parachalepus Baly, 1885.

Type species

Parachalepus (Chalepides) eucephalus Casey, 1915, by original designation.

Keys

Casey 1915, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Jameson et al. 2002, Joly and Escalona 2002a, Gasca-Álvarez and Amat-García 2010 (Colombia).

Valid taxa

15 species.

Chalepides alliaceus (Burmeister, 1847)

Chalepus alliaceus Burmeister, 1847: 77 [original combination].

Dyscinetus alliaceus (Burmeister) [new combination by Harold 1869a: 123].

Parachalepus (Chalepides) alliaceus (Burmeister) [new combination and new subgeneric classification by Casey 1915: 176].

Chalepides alliaceus (Burmeister) [new combination by Prell 1936: 151].

Types

Lectotype ♂ at MLUH (Endrődi 1966, Joly and Escalona 2002a).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Beni, Santa Cruz. BRAZIL: Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro.

References

Burmeister 1847, Harold 1869a, Ohaus 1909, Casey 1915, Prell 1936, Arrow 1937b, Anonymous 1940, Blackwelder 1944, Endrődi 1966, 1973a, 1985a, Joly and Escalona 2002a, Riehs 2005, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Chalepides anomalus Martínez, 1978

Chalepides anomalus Martínez, 1978b: 17–19 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MACN (Antonio Martínez Collection) (Martínez 1978b, Joly and Escalona 2002a).

Distribution

ARGENTINA: Corrientes, Entre Ríos. URUGUAY: Artigas.

References

Martínez 1978b, Endrődi 1985a, Joly and Escalona 2002a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Chalepides barbatus (Fabricius, 1787)

Scarabaeus barbatus Fabricius, 1787: 10 [original combination].

Melolontha barbata (Fabricius) [new combination by Fabricius 1801: 167].

Chalepus barbatus (Fabricius) [new combination by Burmeister 1847: 77].

Dyscinetus barbatus (Fabricius) [new combination by Harold 1869a: 123].

Parachalepus (Parachalepus) barbatus (Fabricius) [new combination and new subgeneric classification by Casey 1915: 175].

Chalepides barbatus (Fabricius) [new combination by Prell 1936: 151].

syn. Chalepides hydrophiloides argentinus Prell, 1937c: 9 [original combination].

Chalepides barbatus argentinus Prell [new subspecific status by Endrődi 1966: 403].

Chalepides barbatus (Fabricius) [synonymy by Ratcliffe and Cave 2015: 71].

Types

Lectotype ♀ of S. barbatus deposited at ZMUK, now housed at ZMUC (Endrődi 1966). Lectotype ♀ of C. hydrophiloides argentinus at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

ANTIGUA: St. Philip. ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires, Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Santa Fe. BRAZIL: Mato Grosso, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo. BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS: Anegada. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Distrito Nacional, Duarte, Espaillat, Hato Mayor, La Altagracia, La Vega, María Trinidad Sánchez, Monseñor Nouel, Puerto Plata, Samana, San Cristóbal, San Juan. MARTINIQUE: Fort-de-France. PARAGUAY: Alto Paraná, Caaguazú, Itapúa, Misiones, San Pedro. PUERTO RICO: Aguada, Aguadilla, Añasco, Arecibo, Barceloneta, Barranquitas, Bayamón, Cabo Rojo, Caguas, Camuy, Carolina, Cataño, Cayey, Ciales, Fajardo, Florida, Guánica, Guaynabo, Isabela, Jayuya, Lajas, Lares, Las Piedras, Loiza, Luquillo, Manatí, Maricao, Mayagüez, Morovis, Nagüabo, Patillas, Ponce, Quebradillas, Rincón, Río Grande, San Germán, San Juan, Santa Isabel, Toa Baja, Utuado, Vega Alta, Vega Baja, Villalba. SAINT BARTHÉLEMY: Lorient. SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS: St. Kitts, Nevis. SAINT LUCIA: Micoud, Vieux Fort. SAINT MARTIN. SAINT VINCENT: St. Andrew, St. David. URUGUAY: Artigas, Colonia. UNITED STATES VIRGIN ISLANDS: St. Croix, St. Thomas.

References

Fabricius 1787, 1801, Dejean 1821, 1833, 1836b, Moritz 1836, Sturm 1843, Burmeister 1847, Reiche 1859, Harold 1869a, Stahl 1882, Casey 1915, Smyth 1916, Leng and Mutchler 1917, Stevenson 1918, Box 1925, Wolcott 1936, 1937, Prell 1937c, Paulian 1947, Van Dinther 1960, Zimsen 1964, Barrera 1969, Miskimen and Bond 1970, Chalumeau 1982, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Audureau 2001, Joly and Escalona 2002a, Soave et al. 2006, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Ratcliffe and Cave 2015, Peck 2009, 2016.

Remarks

C. barbatus was reported from Guatemala (Bates 1888) and Cuba (Endrődi 1966, 1985a), but major faunistic studies have not found additional specimens from these countries (Ratcliffe et al. 2013, Ratcliffe and Cave 2015).

Chalepides carinatus Joly & Escalona, 2002

Chalepides carinatus Joly & Escalona, 2002a: 42, 44, 65–67 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at USNM (Joly and Escalona 2002a).

Distribution

ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires. BRAZIL: Rio Grande do Sul. URUGUAY: Montevideo.

References

Joly and Escalona 2002a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Chalepides comes Prell, 1937

Chalepides comes Prell, 1937a: 187 [original combination].

syn. Chalepides punctulatus Arrow, 1937a [original combination].

Chalepides comes Prell [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 405].

syn. Chalepides semipunctatus Prell, 1937c: 8 [original combination].

Chalepides comes Prell [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 405].

Types

Lectotype ♀ of C. comes and lectotype ♂ of C. semipunctatus both at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966). Type of C. punctulatus at BMNH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Beni, Santa Cruz. BRAZIL: Amapá, Bahia, Distrito Federal, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo. COLOMBIA: Antioquia, Bolívar. FRENCH GUIANA. PARAGUAY: Amambay, San Pedro. VENEZUELA: Amazonas, Apure, Bolívar, Guárico, Monagas, Táchira.

References

Arrow 1937a, b, Prell 1937a, c, Blackwelder 1944, Roze 1955, Martínez 1978b, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Joly and Escalona 2002a, Restrepo-Giraldo et al. 2003, Gasca-Álvarez and Amat-García 2010, Ponchel 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Chalepides dilatatus (Mannerheim, 1829)

Apogonia dilatata Mannerheim, 1829: 55–56 [original combination].

Chalepus dilatatus (Mannerheim) [new combination by Burmeister 1847: 77].

Dyscinetus dilatatus (Mannerheim) [new combination by Harold 1869a: 123].

Chalepides dilatatus (Mannerheim) [new combination by Arrow 1937b: 18].

Types

Lectotype ♀ at ZMH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Minas Gerais, São Paulo.

References

Mannerheim 1829, Burmeister 1847, Harold 1869a, Arrow 1937b, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Joly and Escalona 2002a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Chalepides eucephalus (Casey, 1915)

Parachalepus (Chalepides) eucephalus Casey, 1915: 176–177 [original combination].

Chalepides eucephalus (Casey) [new combination by Prell 1936: 151].

Types

Holotype ♀ at USNM (Endrődi 1966, Joly and Escalona 2002a).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Espírito Santo. PARAGUAY: Alto Paraná.

References

Casey 1915, Prell 1936, Endrődi 1966, 1981, 1985a, Joly and Escalona 2002a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Chalepides euhirtus Prokofiev, 2012

Chalepides euhirtus Prokofiev, 2012: 1–2 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♀ at IEE (Prokofiev 2012).

Distribution

Peru: Junín.

References

Prokofiev 2012.

Remarks

Based on the original description and figures of the holotype, C. euhirtus was described from a misidentified female specimen of Aspidolea fuliginea.

Chalepides fuliginosus (Burmeister, 1847)

Chalepus fuliginosus Burmeister, 1847: 78 [original combination].

Dyscinetus fuliginosus (Burmeister) [new combination by Harold 1869a: 123].

Parachalepus (Chalepides) fuliginosus (Burmeister) [new combination and new subgeneric classification by Casey 1915: 176].

Chalepides fuliginosus (Burmeister) [new combination by Prell 1936: 151].

Types

Lectotype ♀ at MLUH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

ARGENTINA: Misiones. BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz. BRAZIL: Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, Santa Catarina. CHILE: Santiago. URUGUAY: Artigas.

References

Burmeister 1847, Harold 1869a, Casey 1915, Prell 1936, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Joly and Escalona 2002a, Grossi et al. 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Remarks

Chalepides fuliginosus was collected at lights at night in Wakayama, Japan, but a population has not established there (Kusui 1992).

Chalepides howdenorum Joly & Escalona, 2002

Chalepides howdenorum Joly & Escalona, 2002a: 42, 43, 57–59 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at CNC (Joly and Escalona 2002a).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Beni.

References

Joly and Escalona 2002a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Chalepides hydrophiloides (Burmeister, 1847)

Chalepus hydrophiloides Burmeister, 1847: 77 [original combination].

Dyscinetus hydrophiloides (Burmeister) [new combination by Harold 1869a: 123].

Dyscinetus barbatus (Fabricius) [synonymy by Bates 1888: 313].

Parachalepus (Parachalepus) hydrophiloides (Burmeister) [revalidated status, new combination, and new subgeneric classification by Casey 1915: 175].

Chalepides hydrophiloides (Burmeister) [new combination by Prell 1936: 151].

Chalepides barbatus (Fabricius) [synonymy by Arrow 1937b: 18].

Chalepides barbatus hydrophiloides (Burmeister) [new subspecies status by Endrődi 1966: 403].

Chalepides hydrophiloides (Burmeister) [revalidated species status by Joly and Escalona 2002a: 41, 43, 49].

syn. Parachalepus (Parachalepus) rhomboidalis Casey, 1915: 175 [original combination].

Chalepides rhomboidalis (Casey) [new combination by Prell 1936: 151].

Chalepides barbatus (Fabricius) [synonymy by Arrow 1937b: 18].

Chalepides barbatus hydrophiloides (Burmeister) [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 403].

syn. Chalepides acillioides Prell, 1937c: 8–9 [original combination].

Chalepides barbatus hydrophiloides (Burmeister) [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 403].

Types

Lectotype ♀ of C. hydrophiloides at MLUH (Endrődi 1966). Type of C. rhomboidalis at USNM (Endrődi 1966). Lectotype ♂ of C. acillioides at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

ARGENTINA: Chaco, Santa Fe. BOLIVIA. BRAZIL: Bahia, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo. PARAGUAY: Distrito Capital. URUGUAY: Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Durazno, Florida, Maldonado, Montevideo, Rivera, Treinta y Tres.

References

Burmeister 1847, Reiche 1859, Harold 1869b, Steinheil 1874, Bates 1888, Tremoleras 1910, Casey 1915, Heikertinger 1919, Arrow 1937b, Prell 1936, 1937c, Endrődi 1966, 1969a, 1985a, Saenz and Morelli 1985, Joly and Escalona 2002a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Chalepides luridus (Burmeister, 1847)

Chalepus luridus Burmeister, 1847: 78 [original combination].

Dyscinetus luridus (Burmeister) [new combination by Harold 1869a: 123].

Parachalepus (Parachalepus) luridus (Burmeister) [new combination and new subgeneric classification by Casey 1915: 175].

Chalepides luridus (Burmeister) [new combination by Prell 1936: 151].

Types

Invalid neotype ♂ at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966). Joly and Escalona (2002a) listed the housing institution as MLUH.

Distribution

ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires, Chaco Misiones, Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Formosa, Santa Fe, Tucumán. BOLIVIA: Beni, La Paz, Santa Cruz. BRAZIL: Mato Grosso, Rio Grande so Sul. PARAGUAY: Cordillera, Paraguarí. URUGUAY: Canelones, Florida, Montevideo, Salto, Soriano.

References

Burmeister 1847, Harold 1869a, Frenzel 1891, Casey 1915, Prell 1936, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Endrődi 1966, 1969a, 1973a, 1985a, Saenz and Morelli 1985, Joly and Escalona 2002a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Chalepides narcisoi Martínez, 1978b

Chalepides narcisoi Martínez, 1978b: 15–17 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MACN (Antonio Martínez Collection) (Martínez 1978b).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais. PARAGUAY: Caaguazú, Concepción.

References

Martínez 1978b, Endrődi 1985a, Joly and Escalona 2002a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Chalepides osunai Joly & Escalona, 2002

Chalepides osunai Joly & Escalona, 2002a: 42, 43, 55–57 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MIZA (Joly and Escalona 2002a).

Distribution

VENEZUELA: Amazonas, Apure, Aragua, Guárico.

References

Joly and Escalona 2002a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Chalepides unicolor (Endrődi, 1963)

Cyclocephala unicolor Endrődi, 1963: 331 [original combination].

Chalepides unicolor (Endrődi) [new combination by Endrődi 1964: 466].

Chalepides luridus (Burmeister) [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 408].

Chalepides unicolor (Endrődi) [revalidated species status by Joly and Escalona 2002a: 42, 43, 64].

Types

Holotype ♂ at ZSMC (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

ARGENTINA: La Rioja. BOLIVIA: Beni, La Paz, Santa Cruz. BRAZIL: Amapá, Amazonas, São Paulo, Rondônia.

References

Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1963, 1964, 1966, 1985a, Joly and Escalona 2002a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala Dejean, 1821

Cyclocephala Dejean, 1821: 57 [original useage].

syn. Aclinidia Casey, 1915: 113 [original usage]. Type species: Melolontha castanea Olivier, by original designation.

Cyclocephala (Aclinidia) Casey [new subgenus status by Arrow 1937b: 8].

Cyclocephala Dejean [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 34].

syn. Albridarollia Bolívar y Pieltain, Jiménez-Asúa, & Martínez, 1963: 182 [original usage]. Type species: Albridarollia ocellata Bolívar y Pieltain, Jiménez-Asúa, & Martínez, by original designation.

Cyclocephala Dejean [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 34].

syn. Aspidolella Prell, 1936: 374 [original usage]. Proposed as a subgenus, replacement name for the subgenus Aspidolites Höhne. Type species: Aspidolea (Aspidolites) atricollis Höhne, by monotypy.

Cyclocephala Dejean [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 61].

syn. Diapatalia Casey, 1915: 111 [original usage]. Type species: Cyclocephala discicollis Arrow, by original designation.

Cyclocephala (Diapatalia) Casey [new subgenus status by Arrow 1937b: 8].

Cyclocephala Dejean [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 33].

syn. Dichromina Casey, 1915: 112 [original usage]. Type species: Cyclocephala dimidiata Burmeister, by original designation.

Cyclocephala (Dichromina) Casey [new subgenus status by Arrow 1937b: 8].

Cyclocephala Dejean [synonymy by Saylor 1945: 380].

syn. Graphalia Casey, 1915: 159 [original usage]. Proposed as a subgenus of Ochrosidia. Type species: not yet designated.

Cyclocephala (Graphalia) Casey [new subgenus classification by Arrow 1937b: 8].

Cyclocephala Dejean [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 34].

syn. Halotosia Casey, 1915: 113 [original usage]. Type species: Cyclocephala fasciolata Bates, by original designation.

Cyclocephala (Halotosia) Casey [new subgenus status by Arrow 1937b: 8].

Cyclocephala Dejean [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 62].

syn. Homochromina Casey, 1915: 111 [original usage]. Type species: Homochromina divisa Casey, by original designation.

Cyclocephala (Homochromina) Casey [new subgenus status by Arrow 1937b: 8].

Cyclocephala Dejean [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 34].

syn. Isocoryna Casey, 1915: 136 [original usage]. Proposed as a subgenus. Type species: Cyclocephala (Isocoryna) jalapensis Casey, by monotypy.

Cyclocephala Dejean [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 62].

syn. Mimeoma Casey, 1915: 111 [original usage]. Type species: Cyclocephala maculata Burmeister, by original designation.

Cyclocephala Dejean [synonymy by Moore et al. 2015: 898].

syn. Mononidia Casey, 1915: 110 [original usage]. Type species: Cyclocephala carbonaria Arrow, by original designation.

Cyclocephala (Mononidia) Casey [new subgenus status by Arrow 1937b: 8].

Cyclocephala Dejean [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 33].

syn. Ochrosidia Casey, 1915: 112 [original usage]. Type species: Melolontha immaculata Olivier, by original designation.

Cyclocephala (Ochrosidia) Casey [new subgenus status by Arrow 1937b: 8].

Cyclocephala Dejean [synonymy by Saylor 1945: 380].

syn. Paraclinidia Martínez, 1965b: 13 [original usage]. Proposed as a subgenus. Type species: Cyclocephala (Paraclinidia) endrodii Martínez, by original designation.

Cyclocephala Dejean [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 34].

syn. Plagiosalia Casey, 1915: 135 [original usage]. Proposed as a subgenus. Type species: not yet designated.

Cyclocephala Dejean [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 62].

syn. Spilosota Casey, 1915: 112 [original usage]. Type species: Spilosota nubeculina Casey, by original designation.

Cyclocephala (Spilosota) Casey [new subgenus status by Arrow 1937b: 8].

Cyclocephala Dejean [synonymy by Saylor 1945: 380].

syn. Stigmalia Casey, 1915: 111 [original usage]. Type species: Cyclocephala mafaffa Burmeister, by original designation.

Cyclocephala (Stigmalia) Casey [new subgenus status by Arrow 1937b: 8].

Cyclocephala Dejean [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 33].

syn. Surutoides Endrődi, 1981: 198 [original usage]. Type species: Surutoides mirabilis Endrődi, by original designation.

Cyclocephala Dejean [synonymy by Dechambre 1991a: 282].

Type species

Melolontha signata Fabricius, subsequent designation by Casey 1915: 112.

Keys

LeConte 1863 (North America), Horn 1871 (North America), Wickham 1894 (Canada), Blatchley 1910 (Indiana, USA), Dawson 1922 (Nebraska, USA), Hayes 1928, 1929 (larvae, USA), Chapin 1932 (Cuba), Saylor 1937 (California, USA), Sanderson 1940 (Arkansas, USA), Saylor 1945 (USA), Paulian 1947 (French Antilles), Arnett 1968 (USA), Chalumeau and Gruner 1977 (French Antilles), Cartwright and Chalumeau 1978 (Dominica), Morón 1979 (Veracruz, Mexico), Dechambre 1980, Martínez and Morón 1984, Morón et al. 1985 (Chiapas, Mexico), Morón et al. 1988 (Jalisco, Mexico), Morón and Deloya 1991 (Durango, Mexico), Morelli 1989, 1991(larvae, Uruguay), Dechambre 1992, Delgado and Castañeda 1994, Ratcliffe 1991 (Nebraska, USA), Ratcliffe 1992a, Ratcliffe 1992b (Brazil), Deloya and Morón 1994 (Morelos, Mexico), Dupuis 1996, Dechambre 1997, Morón et al. 1998 (Nayarit, Mexico), Joly 2000a, Ratcliffe 2003 (Costa Rica and Panama), Reyes Novelo and Morón 2005 (Yucatán, Mexico), Pacheco-F. et al. 2006 (Guerrero, Mexico), Bran et al. 2006 (larvae), Ratcliffe and Cave 2006 (Honduras, Nicaragua, and El Salvador), Ratcliffe and Paulsen 2008 (Nebraska, USA), Dupuis 2008, Joly 2009, Gasca-Álvarez and Amat-García 2010 (Colombia), Stechauner-Rohringer and Pardo-Locarno 2010 (Larvae, Colombia), Mondaca 2011 (Chile), Mora-Aguilar and Delgado 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013 (Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize), Pardo-Locarno 2013 (Colombia), Albuquerque et al. 2014 (larvae), Souza et al. 2014a (larvae), Ratcliffe and Cave 2015 (West Indies), Ratcliffe and Cave 2017 (USA and Canada), Villalobos-Moreno et al. 2017 (Colombia), Romero-López and Morón 2017 (Mexico).

Valid taxa

359 species and subspecies.

Remarks

The generic and subgeneric synonyms of Cyclocephala have been treated unevenly in the literature. This makes summarizing the synonymies confusing. Casey (1915) proposed most of the generic-level synonyms of Cyclocephala, and the usefulness of these groups was first discussed in detail by Arrow (1937a). Arrow (1937b) went on to treat all of Casey’s new genus-group names as subgenera of Cyclocephala, except for Mimeoma which he accepted as valid. However, Arrow (1937b) did not clearly place any Cyclocephala species into these subgenera in his catalog of Dynastinae. Some authors following Arrow used these subgenera. For example, Saylor (1937) treated Spilosota as a valid subgenus of Cyclocephala. However, Saylor (1945) later abandoned use of the subgenera (at least in North American taxa) and listed Dichromina, Ochrosidia, and Spilosota in synonymy with Cyclocephala. Endrődi (1966) was the first author to discuss these generic groups in totality and proposed many synonyms in the early portion of his monograph. However, Endrődi (1966) impled later in the monograph that Aclinidia, Halotosia, and Paraclinidia were valid subgenera without further comment (see Hardy 1991). Endrődi’s (1966) meaning was ambiguous, and subsequent authors have treated all the above generic-group names as synonyms of Cyclocephala.

Cyclocephala abrelata Ratcliffe & Cave, 2002

Cyclocephala abrelata Ratcliffe & Cave, 2002: 155–156 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at UNSM (Ratcliffe and Cave 2002).

Distribution

HONDURAS: Yoro.

References

Ratcliffe and Cave 2002, 2006, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala acoma Ratcliffe, 2008

Cyclocephala acoma Ratcliffe, 2008: 222–224 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at BMNH (Ratcliffe 2008).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz.

References

Ratcliffe 2008, Krajcik 2012.

Cyclocephala acuta Arrow, 1902

Cyclocephala acuta Arrow, 1902: 139–140 [original combination].

Mimeoma acuta (Arrow) [new combination by Endrődi 1966: 361].

Cyclocephala acuta Arrow [revised combination by Moore et al. 2015: 898].

Types

Type at BMNH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BELIZE: Cayo, Toledo. COLOMBIA: Chocó. COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas. ECUADOR: Guayas. GUATEMALA: Izabal. HONDURAS: Atlántida, El Paraíso, Gracias a Dios, Olancho. MEXICO: Chiapas. NICARAGUA: Matagalpa, RAA Norte, Río San Juan. PANAMA: Bocas del Toro, Darien, Former Canal Zone, Panamá.

References

Arrow 1902, 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Bullock 1981, Beach 1984, Morón et al. 1985, Thomas 1993, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Ratcliffe 2002a, 2003, Restrepo et al. 2003, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Neita-Moreno 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Moore 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, Moore et al. 2015, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala aequatoria Endrődi, 1963

Cyclocephala aequatoria Endrődi, 1963: 332 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♀ at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1963).

Distribution

ECUADOR: Cañar, Cotopaxi, Esmeraldas, Guayas, Los Ríos, Manabí, Pichincha. GUATEMALA: Alta Verapaz, Izabal. MEXICO: Chiapas, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacán, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Veracruz.

References

Barrera 1969, Pike et al. 1976, Dechambre 1982, Endrődi 1963, 1964, 1966, 1985a, Balslev and Henderson 1987, Morón et al. 1988, Ratcliffe 1992c, Thomas 1993, Lobo and Morón 1993, Delgado and Castañeda 1994, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Ervik et al. 1999, Navarrete-Heredia et al. 2001, Pacheco-F. et al. 2008, Ulmen et al. 2010, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, Deloya et al. 2014a, 2016, Romero-López and Morón 2017.

Cyclocephala affinis Endrődi, 1966

Cyclocephala affinis Endrődi, 1966: 88, 144, 145–146 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at NHMB (Frey Collection) (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Amazonas. BOLIVIA: La Paz. COLOMBIA: Valle del Cauca. PERU: Cusco, Huánuco, Madre de Dios.

References

Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Dupuis 1996, Andreazze and Fonseca 1998, Dechambre 1999, Restrepo-Giraldo et al. 2003, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2015, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala alazonia Ratcliffe, 2003

Cyclocephala alazonia Ratcliffe, 2003: 60, 65, 69, 75, 80–81 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNCR (originally deposited at INBio) (Ratcliffe 2003).

Distribution

COSTA RICA: Alajuela.

References

Ratcliffe 2003, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala alexi Ratcliffe & Delgado-Castillo, 1990

Cyclocephala alexi Ratcliffe & Delgado-Castillo, 1990: 48–51 [original combination].

Types

Holotype at UNSM (Ratcliffe and Delgado-Castillo 1990).

Distribution

GUATEMALA: Baja Verapaz, El Progreso, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Petén, Quiché, San Marcos, Suchitepéquez, Zacapa. MEXICO: Chiapas.

References

Ratcliffe and Delgado-Castillo 1990, Delgado and Castañeda 1994, Thomas 1993, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Gómez et al. 1999, Méndez-Aguilar et al. 2005, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013.

Cyclocephala almitana Dechambre, 1992

Cyclocephala almitana Dechambre, 1992: 65–66 [original combination].

syn. Cyclocephala dissimulata Ratcliffe, 1992a: 218–219 [original combination].

Cyclocephala almitana Dechambre [synonymy by Ratcliffe 2003: 81].

Types

Holotype ♂ of C. almitana at MNHN (Dechambre 1992). Holotype ♂ of C. dissimulata at UNSM (Ratcliffe 1992).

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Chocó. COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, San José. ECUADOR: Esmeraldas. PANAMA: Chiriquí, Bocas del Toro, Panamá. PERU.

References

Dechambre 1992, Dupuis 1996, Ratcliffe 1992a, 2002a, 2003, Neita-Moreno 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, García-López et al. 2013, Ratcliffe et al. 2015, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala altamontana Dechambre, 1999

Cyclocephala altamontana Dechambre, 1999: 3–4 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1999).

Distribution

PERU: Amazonas.

References

Dechambre 1999, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2015.

Cyclocephala alutacea Höhne, 1923

Cyclocephala alutacea Höhne, 1923b: 359–360 [original combination].

Types

Lectotype ♂ at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

ARGENTINA: Córdoba.

References

Höhne 1923b, Arrow 1937b, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Joly 2000a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala alvarengai Dechambre, 1980

Cyclocephala alvarengai Dechambre, 1980: 42–44 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1980).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro.

References

Dechambre 1980, Endrődi 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala amazona amazona (Linnaeus, 1767)

Scarabaeus amazonus Linnaeus, 1767: 551 [original combination].

Melolontha amazona (Linnaeus) [new combination by Schönherr 1817: 188].

Cyclocephala amazona (Linnaeus) [new combination by Burmeister 1847: 45].

Cyclocephala amazona amazona (Linnaeus) [new subspecies status by Endrődi 1966: 147].

syn. Cyclocephala (Cyclocephala) auriculata Casey, 1915: 141 [original combination].

Cyclocephala detecta Bates [synonymy by Arrow 1937b: 10].

syn. Cyclocephala detecta Bates, 1888: 300 [original combination].

Cyclocephala (Cyclocephala) detecta Bates [new subgeneric classification by Casey 1915: 141].

Cyclocephala detecta Bates [removal of subgeneric classification by Arrow 1937b: 8, 10].

Cyclocephala amazona (Linnaeus) [synonymy by Endrődi 1964: 466].

syn. Cyclocephala (Cyclocephala) beaumonti Casey, 1915: 140 [original combination].

Cyclocephala detecta Bates [synonymy by Arrow 1937b: 10].

syn. Cyclocephala signata var. inconstans Burmeister, 1847: 45 [original combination].

Cyclocephala (Cyclocephala) inconstans Burmeister [new subgeneric classification and new species status by Casey 1915: 140].

Cyclocephala inconstans Burmeister [removal of subgeneric classification by Arrow 1937b: 8, 11].

Cyclocephala amazona ab. inconstans Burmeister [revised infrasubspecific status by Endrődi 1966: 147].

syn. Melolontha pallens Fabricius, 1798: 132 [original combination].

Cyclocephala pallens (Fabricius) [new combination by Burmeister 1847: 46].

Cyclocephala amazona ab. pallens (Fabricius) [new subspecific status by Endrődi 1964: 466].

syn. Melolontha uncinata Illiger, 1802b: 49 [original combination].

Cyclocephala signata (Fabricius) [synonymy by Arrow 1937b: 16].

syn. Melolontha signata Fabricius, 1781: 39 [original combination].

Cyclocephala signata (Fabricius) [new combination by Burmeister 1847: 43].

Cyclocephala (Cyclocephala) signata (Fabricius) [new subgeneric classification by Casey 1915: 137].

Cyclocephala signata (Fabricius) [removal of subgeneric classification by Arrow 1937b: 8, 16].

Cyclocephala amazona signata (Fabricius) [new subspecies status by Endrődi 1964: 466].

Cyclocephala amazona (Linnaeus) [synonymy by Ratcliffe 2003: 83].

syn. Scarabaeus nigrocephalus DeGeer, 1774: 321 [original combination].

Melolontha signata Fabricius [synonymy by Illiger 1802b: 49].

Types

Invalid neotype of S. amazonus at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966). Type of M. pallens deposited at ZMUK, now housed at ZMUC (Endrődi 1966). Type of S. nigrocephalus at NHRS (Endrődi 1966). Type of M. uncinata is missing (Endrődi 1966). Type of C. inconstans at MLUH (Endrődi 1966). Type of C. detecta at BMNH (Endrődi 1966). Types of C. beaumonti at USNM (Endrődi 1966). Type of C. auriculata at USNM (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BARBADOS. BOLIVIA: Beni, La Paz, Santa Cruz. BRAZIL: Amazonas, Paraná, Pernambuco, Piauí, Santa Catarina, São Paulo. CHILE. COLOMBIA: Amazonas, Antioquia, Bolívar, Boyacá, Caldas, Caquetá, Cauca, Cesar, Chocó, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Nariña, Quindío, Risaralda, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca. COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas. CUBA: Holguin. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Samana. ECUADOR: Cañar, Chimborazo, Los Ríos. FRENCH GUIANA: Cayenne, Sinnamary, St.-Laurent du Maroni. GRENADA: St. Andrew, St. George, St. John. GUYANA: Demerara-Mahaica. HAITI: Ouest. Panama: Bocas del Toro, Chiriquí, Coclé, Colón, Former Canal Zone, Panamá, San Blas. PARAGUAY. PERU: Lima, Loreto, San Martín. SURINAME: Paramaribo. ST. BARTHÉLEMY. ST. MARTIN. TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: Trinidad, Tobago. VENEZUELA: Aragua, Capital District.

References

Linnaeus 1767, DeGeer 1774, Fabricius 1781, 1798, Illiger 1802b, Schönherr 1817, Dejean 1821, 1833, 1836b, Drury 1770, 1837, Sturm 1843, Burmeister 1847, Gerstaecker 1866, Harold 1869b, Stahl 1882, Bates 1888, Gundlach 1891, Leng and Mutchler 1914, Casey 1915, Stahl and Scaramuzza 1929, Arrow 1900, 1937b, Martorell 1939, Martorell and Salas 1939, Blackwelder 1944, Gruner 1971, Martínez 1975b, Pike et al. 1976, Mora-Urpí and Solís 1980, Bullock 1981, Mora-Urpí 1982, Remillet et al. 1982, Pava-O. et al. 1983, Beach 1982, 1984, Henderson 1984, Gottsberger 1986, Endrődi 1963, 1964, 1966, 1979, 1985a, Villalta 1988, Posada Ochoa 1989, Rickson et al. 1990, Silberbauer-Gottsberger 1990, Murray 1993, Bernal and Ervik 1996, Woodruff et al. 1998, Dechambre 1999, Ervik et al. 1999, Johnson and Nicolson 2001, Peck et al. 2002, Ratcliffe 2002a, 2003, Restrepo et al. 2003, Bouchard and Bjorndal 2006, Fernández García 2006, Neita Moreno et al. 2006, Pardo-Locarno et al. 2005a, 2008, Útima and Vallejo 2008, Núñez-Avellaneda and Neita-Moreno 2009, Neita-Moreno 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Yepes-Rodriguez et al. 2013, López-García et al. 2015, Ratcliffe and Cave 2015, Ratcliffe et al. 2015, Ponchel 2006, 2011, 2015, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016, Peck 2016, Villalobos-Moreno et al. 2016, 2017.

Remarks

The distribution of C. amazona amazona is obscured due to historical confusion of this species with C. multiplex. The data reported here follow Ratcliffe (2003), which hypothesized that C. amazona amazona occurs in South America north through Costa Rica and the West Indies.

Cyclocephala amazona boliviensis Höhne, 1923

Cyclocephala signata boliviensis Höhne, 1923b: 354–355 [original combination].

Cyclocephala signata var. boliviensis Höhne [new infrasubspecific status by Arrow 1937b: 16].

Cyclocephala amazona boliviensis Höhne [revalidated subspecies status by Endrődi 1966: 147].

Types

Type at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Beni, La Paz, Santa Cruz. BRAZIL: Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Rondônia.

References

Höhne 1923b, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1973a, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala amblyopsis Bates, 1888

Cyclocephala amblyopsis Bates, 1888: 307–308 [original combination].

Types

Type at BMNH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz. BRAZIL: São Paulo. COLOMBIA: Antioquia, Cauca, Chocó, Córdoba, Nariña, Risaralda, Tolima, Valle del Cauca. COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José. ECUADOR: Imbabura. EL SALVADOR: Ahuachapán, La Libertad. GUATEMALA: Guatemala, Izabal, Quetzaltenango, San Marcos, Suchitepéquez, Zacapa. HONDURAS: Atlántida, Copán, Cortés, El Paraíso, Olancho, Santa Bárbara, Yoro. MEXICO: Chiapas. NICARAGUA: Chontales, Matagalpa, RAA Norte. PANAMA: Bocas del Toro, Chiriquí, Coclé, Colón, Darien, Panamá, Veraguas. PERU: Cusco.

References

Bates 1888, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Barrera 1969, Martínez 1975b, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Valerio 1984, 1988, Young 1986, 1988a, b, 1990, Maes 1987, 1994, Morón 1997, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Croat 1997, Beath 1998, 1999, Morón-Ríos and Morón 2001, Ratcliffe 2002a, 2003, Restrepo et al. 2003, García-Robledo et al. 2004, 2005, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Pacheco-F. et al. 2008, Pardo-Locarno et al. 2005a, 2008, García-Robledo 2010, Neita-Moreno 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, García-López et al. 2013, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala ampliata Bates, 1888

Cyclocephala ampliata Bates, 1888: 311 [original combination].

Types

Type at BMNH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

COSTA RICA: Heredia, Limón. NICARAGUA: Chontales. PANAMA: Bocas de Toro, Chiriquí.

References

Bates 1888, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Young 1990, Maes 1987, 1994, Croat 1997, Beath 1998, 1999, Ratcliffe 1992a, 2002a, 2003, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala amplitarsis Ratcliffe, 1992

Cyclocephala amplitarsis Ratcliffe, 1992b: 179–180 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at UNSM (Ratcliffe 1992b).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Rondônia.

References

Ratcliffe 1992b, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala anibali Joly, 2009

Cyclocephala anibali Joly, 2009: 49, 62–64 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MIZA (Joly 2009).

Distribution

VENEZUELA: Apure.

References

Joly 2009, Krajcik 2012.

Cyclocephala antoinei Dupuis, 2018

Cyclocephala antoinei Dupuis, 2018: 2–4 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dupuis 2018).

Distribution

VENEZUELA: Apure (Dupuis 2018).

References

Dupuis 2018.

Cyclocephala aravaipensis Ratcliffe, 1992

Cyclocephala aravaipensis Ratcliffe, 1992c: 253–255 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at FSCA (Ratcliffe 1992c).

Distribution

UNITED STATES: Arizona.

References

Ratcliffe 1992c, Poole and Gentili 1996, Smith 2003, 2009, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe and Cave 2017.

Cyclocephala arenosa Howden & Endrődi, 1966

Cyclocephala arenosa Howden & Endrődi, 1966: 296–298 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at CAS (Howden and Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

MEXICO: Sonora.

References

Howden and Endrődi 1966, Martínez 1968a, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1985a, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Smith 2003, 2009, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013.

Cyclocephala arnaudi Dechambre, 1980

Cyclocephala arnaudi Dechambre, 1980: 44 [original combination].

syn. Cyclocephala carlsoni Ratcliffe, 2008: 224–226 [original combination].

Cyclocephala arnaudi Dechambre [synonymy by Ponchel 2010: 172].

Types

Holotype ♂ of C. arnaudi at MNHN (Dechambre 1980). Holotype ♂ of C. carlsoni at UNSM (Ratcliffe 2008).

Distribution

FRENCH GUIANA: Cayenne, Roura, St.-Laurent du Maroni.

References

Dechambre 1980, Endrődi 1985a, Ratcliffe 2008, Ponchel 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Dupuis 2018.

Cyclocephala arrowiana Martínez, 1967

Cyclocephala arrowiana Martínez, 1967: 127–131 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MACN (Antonio Martínez Collection) (Martínez 1967).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Cochabamba.

References

Martínez 1967, Pike et al. 1976, Dechambre 1979a, Endrődi 1985a, Ratcliffe 1992a, Dechambre 1999, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala atricapilla Mannerheim, 1829

Cyclocephala atricapilla Mannerheim, 1829: 53–53 [original combination].

Stigmalia atricapilla (Mannerheim) [new combination by Casey 1915: 123].

Cyclocephala atricapilla Mannerheim [revised combination by Arrow 1937b: 8].

syn. Cyclocephala pinguis Höhne, 1923b: 365–366 [original combination].

Cyclocephala atricapilla Mannerheim [synonymy by Endrődi 1964: 466].

Types

Lectotype ♂ of C. atricapilla at ZMH (Endrődi 1966). Lectotype of C. pinguis at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

ARGENTINA: Entre Ríos, Mendoza, Salta, Santa Fe. BOLIVIA. BRAZIL: Bahia, Distrito Federal, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, São Paulo. COLOMBIA: Córdoba. PARAGUAY: Cordillera, Paraguarí. VENEZUELA: Bolívar.

References

Mannerheim 1829, Burmeister 1847, Harold 1869b, Casey 1915, Luederwaldt 1916, Höhne 1923b, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Martínez 1975b, Pike et al. 1976, Dechambre 1980, Endrődi 1963, 1964, 1966, 1985a, Ramírez 1992, Lunau 2002, Restrepo et al. 2003, Gottsberger and Silberbauer-Gottsberger 1988, 2006, Silberbauer-Gottsberger et al. 2001, 2003, Cavalcante et al. 2009, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Maia et al. 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Paulino-Neto 2014, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016, Gottsberger 1986, 1988, 1989, 1992, 1999, 2016, Costa et al. 2017.

Remarks

A single no-data specimen of C. atricapilla was reported from Mexico (Endrődi 1966), but this species is South American (Ratcliffe et al. 2013).

Cyclocephala atriceps (Casey, 1915)

Homochromina atriceps Casey, 1915: 164 [original combination].

Cyclocephala atriceps (Casey) [new combination by Arrow 1937b: 8].

Types

Type at USNM (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

MEXICO: Veracruz.

References

Casey 1915, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala atricolor Chapin, 1932

Cyclocephala atricolor Chapin, 1932: 287, 289–290 [original combination].

Types

Type at USNM (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

CUBA: Ciego de Ávila, Granma, Guantánamo, Holguin, Pinar del Río, Santiago de Cuba.

References

Chapin 1932, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Howden and Endrődi 1966, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Fernández García 2006, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Ratcliffe and Cave 2015, 2017.

Cyclocephala atripes Bates, 1888

Cyclocephala atripes Bates, 1888: 309 [original combination].

Stigmalia atripes (Bates) [new combination by Casey 1915: 123].

Cyclocephala atripes Bates [revised combination by Arrow 1937b: 8].

Types

Lectotype at BMNH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Antioquia, Boyacá, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Magdalena. COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón. ECUADOR: Cañar. HONDURAS: Atlántida, Olancho. NICARAGUA: Chontales, Río San Juan. PANAMA: Bocas del Toro, Chiriquí, Colón, Former Canal Zone, Panamá.

References

Bates 1888, Casey 1915, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Beach 1982, Endrődi 1966, 1975b, 1985a, Young 1986, 1988a, 1990, Maes 1987, 1994, Ratcliffe 1992a, 2002a, 2003, Restrepo et al. 2003, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Neita-Moreno 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Moore and Jameson 2013, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala aulustjaorum Hielkema, 2017

Cyclocephala pubescens brevis Höhne, 1923b: 373 [original combination].

Cyclocephala pubescens var. brevis Höhne [new infrasubspecific status by Arrow 1937b: 15].

Cyclocephala brevis Höhne [new species status by Ratcliffe 2002a: 28].

Cyclocephala aulustjaorum Hielkema [new replacement name by Hielkema 2017: 8].

syn. Cyclocephala pubescens Burmeister, 1847: 68–69 [original combination].

Cyclocephala brevis Höhne [synonymy by Ratcliffe 2002a: 28].

Types

Lectotype ♀ of C. pubescens Burmeister at MLUH (Endrődi 1966). Endrődi (1966) did not comment on the location of the Höhne type material.

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Amazonas, Antioquia, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Meta, Risaralda, Santander. COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, San José. GUATEMALA: Baja Verapaz, Izabal, San Marcos, Suchitepéquez, Zacapa. HONDURAS: Atlántida, Cortés, Olancho, Santa Bárbara, Yoro. MEXICO: Chiapas, Jalisco, Michoacán, Oaxaca, Veracruz. NICARAGUA: Jinotega, RAA Norte, Río San Juan. PANAMA: Bocas del Toro, Chiriquí, Colón, Darien, San Blas, Veraguas, Former Canal Zone.

References

Burmeister 1847, Harold 1869b, Höhne 1923b, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Silberbauer-Gottsberger et al. 2001, Ratcliffe 2002a, 2003. Neita-Moreno et al. 2006, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Neita-Moreno 2011, Otavo et al. 2013, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, López-García et al. 2015, Moore et al. 2015, Deloya et al. 2014a, 2016, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016, Hielkema 2017.

Cyclocephala barrerai Martínez, 1969

Cyclocephala barrerai Martínez, 1969: 2–5 [original combination].

syn. Cyclocephala pasadenae mexica Martínez, 1969: 5–6 [original combination].

Cyclocephala barrerai Martínez [synonymy by Ratcliffe et al. 2013: 114].

Types

Holotype ♂ of C. barrerai at MCMC (Martínez 1969). Holotype ♂ of C. pasadenae mexica at MACN (Martínez 1969).

Distribution

MEXICO: Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Distrito Federal, Durango, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, Puebla, Tlaxcala.

References

Martínez 1969, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1985a, Morón and Deloya 1991, Deloya et al. 1993, Lobo and Morón 1993, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Marín Jarillo 2001, Navarrete-Heredia et al. 2001, Smith 2003, 2009, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, Morón et al. 2014, Minor and Morón 2016, Deloya et al. 2016.

Cyclocephala batesi Delgado & Castañeda, 1994

Cyclocephala batesi Delgado & Castañeda, 1994: 456–458 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at UVGC (Delgado and Castañeda 1994).

Distribution

GUATEMALA: Baja Verapaz, Chiquimula, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Zacapa. HONDURAS: Copán, Cortés.

References

Delgado and Castañeda 1994, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, Romero-López and Morón 2017.

Cyclocephala bella Endrődi, 1969

Cyclocephala bella Endrődi, 1969b: 32–33 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MZSP (Pereira Collection) (Endrődi 1969b).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Minas Gerais. São Paulo.

References

Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1969b, 1985a, Joly 2000a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala berti Delgado, 1992

Cyclocephala berti Delgado, 1992: 75–78 [original combination].

syn. Cyclocephala picopijola Ratcliffe & Cave, 2006: 58, 61, 141–144 [original combination].

Cyclocephala berti Delgado [synonymy by Ratcliffe et al. 2013: 118].

Types

Holotype ♂ of C. berti at CMNC (Henry and Anne Howden Collection) (Delgado 1992). Holotype ♂ of C. picopijola at UNSM (Ratcliffe and Cave 2006).

Distribution

GUATEMALA: Baja Verapaz, Huehuetenango, Izabal. HONDURAS: Atlántida, Cortés, Yoro. MEXICO: Veracruz.

References

Delgado 1992, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Mora-Aguilar and Delgado 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013.

Cyclocephala bicolor Laporte, 1840

Cyclocephala bicolor Laporte, 1840: 124–125 [original combination].

Type

Type at MNHN (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Acre, Amazonas, Amapá, Bahia, Ceará, Mato Grosso, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Rondônia. BOLIVIA: Beni. COLOMBIA: Caquetá. GUYANA: Cuyuni-Mazaruni, Potaro-Siparuni, Upper Demerara-Berbice. FRENCH GUIANA: Cayenne, Kourou, Mana, Maripasoula, Régina, Sinnamary, St.-Élie, St.-Georges, St.-Laurent du Maroni. PERU: Huánuco. SURINAME: Brokopondo, Marowijne, Paramaribo. VENEZUELA: Amazonas, Bolívar, Táchira.

Reference

Laporte 1840, Burmeister 1847, Harold 1869b, Prudhomme 1906, Bodkin 1919, Arrow 1937b, Gruner 1971, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1964, 1966, 1985a, Remillet et al. 1982, Dechambre 1979a, 1992, Ratcliffe 1992b, Andreazze and Fonseca 1998, Andreazze 2001, Joly 2009, Potascheff 2010, Ponchel 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Potascheff et al. 2014, Ratcliffe et al. 2015, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala bicolorata Endrődi, 1964

Cyclocephala bicolorata Endrődi, 1964: 441–442 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at HNHM (Endrődi 1964).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Pará. VENEZUELA: Apure, Bolívar.

References

Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1964, 1966, 1985a, Dechambre 1979a, 1992, Joly 2009, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala bimaculata Dechambre, 1999

Cyclocephala bimaculata Dechambre, 1999: 4–5 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1999).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Cochabamba.

References

Dechambre 1999, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala binotata Dechambre, 1999

Cyclocephala binotata Dechambre, 1999: 5–6 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1999).

Distribution

ARGENTINA: Chaco.

References

Dechambre 1999, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala bleuzeni Dechambre, 1995

Cyclocephala bleuzeni Dechambre, 1995: 12 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1995).

Distribution

VENEZUELA: Bolívar.

References

Dechambre 1995, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala boliviana Dechambre, 1992

Cyclocephala weidneri boliviana Dechambre, 1992: 71 [original combination].

Cyclocephala boliviana Dechambre [new species status by Dupuis 2018: 4].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1992, Dupuis 2018).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Beni, Cochabamba. PERU: Cusco.

References

Dechambre 1992, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Dupuis 2018.

Cyclocephala bollei Dechambre & Endrődi, 1984

Cyclocephala bollei Dechambre & Endrődi, 1984: 168–169 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre and Endrődi 1984).

Distribution

ARGENTINA: Santiago del Estero.

References

Dechambre and Endrődi 1984, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala borburatae Endrődi, 1980

Cyclocephala borburatae Endrődi, 1980: 38 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♀ in André Gaudaíre-Thore Collection (Sens, France) (Endrődi 1980).

Distribution

VENEZUELA: Carabobo.

References

Endrődi 1980, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala borealis Arrow, 1911

Cyclocephala borealis Arrow, 1911: 172 [original combination, new replacement name for Cyclocephala villosa Burmeister).

syn. Cyclocephala villosa Burmeister 1847: 54 [original combination, homonym of Cyclocephala villosa Blanchard].

Cyclocephala angularis (Knoch) [synonymy by Harold 1869b: 1241].

Cyclocephala villosa Burmeister [revalidated species status by Horn 1871: 336–337].

Ochrosidia (Ochrosidia) villosa (Burmeister) [new combination and new subgeneric classification by Casey 1915: 147].

Cyclocephala borealis Arrow [synonymy by Arrow 1937b: 8].

Types

Invalid neotype ♂ of C. villosa at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

UNITED STATES: Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia.

References

Knoch 1801, Burmeister 1847, Melsheimer et al. 1853, Reiche 1859, Harold 1869b, Horn 1871, Crotch 1873, Henshaw 1885, Fall 1901, Fall and Cockerell 1907, Blatchley 1910, Swenk 1911, 1913, King 1914, Casey 1915, Hayes 1918, Arrow 1911, 1937b, Leng 1920, Dawson 1922, Leonard 1923, Sim 1934, Anderson 1936, Britton 1932, 1938, Metcalf and Flint 1939, Sanderson 1940, Johnson 1941a, b, Blackwelder 1939, Riegel 1942a, 1948, White 1947, Blackwelder and Blackwelder 1948, Fleming 1948, Adams 1949, Metcalf et al. 1951, Neiswander 1938a, b, 1951, Peterson 1951, Jaques 1951, Bigger and Blanchard 1955, Maddock and Fehn 1958, Harris 1959, Martínez 1954, Dutky 1941, 1963, Polivka 1950, 1952, 1959, 1960, 1965, Howden and Endrődi 1966, Ritcher 1958, 1966, App and Kerr 1969, Beard 1972, Swan and Papp 1972, Woodruff 1973, Gerhardt and Stanghellini 1971, Kawanishi 1974, Pike et al. 1976, MacLean 1977, Pike et al. 1977, Meyer 1978, 1979, 1981, Potter 1980, 1981, 1995, 1998, Warren and Potter 1983, Bulla et al. 1985, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Tashiro 1987, Klein 1988, Sutton 1988, Gaugler and Georgis 1991, Hardy 1991, McNamara 1991, Youngman et al. 1993, Suggars Downing 1994, Haynes and Potter 1995, Poole and Gentili 1996, Potter et al. 1996, Fuxa 1998, Peck and Thomas 1998, Bhargava 1999, Brandenburg and Royals 1999, Rothwell and Smitley1999, Vittum et al. 1999, Held et al. 2000a, b, c, Harpootlian 2001, DeFoliart 2002, Cappaert and Koppenhöfer 2003, Riley and Wolfe 2003, Rogers et al. 2003, Wilson et al. 2003, Cranshaw 2004, Grewal et al. 2001, 2002, 2004, Rogers and Potter 2004a, b, c, Koppenhöfer and Grewal 2005, Grewal et al. 2005, Shapiro-Ilan and Cottrell 2005, Harris 2006, Georgis et al. 2006, Jackson and Klein 2006, Heller and Walker 1999a, b, c, d, 2000a, b, 2001a, b, c, d, 2002a, b, c, d, e, f, g, 2003a, b, c, d, e, f, g, 2004a, b, c, 2005a, b, c, d, e, Heller and Kline 2005a, b, c, 2007a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, Bixby et al. 2007, An and Grewal 2007, Ratcliffe and Paulsen 2008, Dingman 2008, Koppenhöfer et al. 2002b, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2013, Counts and Hasiotis 2009, Koppenhöfer and Fuzy 2003a, b, 2006, 2008a, b 2009, Krinsky 2009, Heller et al. 2000a, b, 2006a, b, c, d, e, f, 2008a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, 2009a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, Li et al. 2007, 2009, Peck 2009, Popay 2009, Power et al. 2009, Samples et al. 2009, Smith 2003, 2009, Bélair et al. 2010, Ennis et al. 2010, Holmstrup et al. 2010, Mashtoly et al. 2009, 2010, Redmond and Potter 2010, Jordan et al. 2012, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Redmond et al. 2012a, b, Bousquet et al. 2013, Gardner 2013, Guo et al. 2013, Ranger et al. 2009, 2013, Williamson et al. 2004, 2008, 2013, Hussaini 2014, Anderson et al. 2015, Behle et al. 2015, Chong and Hinson 2015, Renkema et al. 2015, Shetlar and Andon 2013, 2015, An and Grewal 2016, Behle and Goett 2016, Christians et al. 2016, Dossey et al. 2016, Gyawaly et al. 2016, Koppenhöfer and Wu 2016, Mitasuhashi 2016, Park and Tak 2016, Schrader et al. 2016, Subramanian and Muthulakshmi 2016, Del Valle et al. 2017, Ratcliffe and Cave 2017.

Remarks

A specimen of C. borealis was reported from Mexico (Durango), but this record is considered erroneous (Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Ratcliffe et al. 2013). Records for Iowa, Nebraska, and Texas for C. borealis are doubtful or spurious (Ratcliffe and Cave 2017). Cyclocephala borealis has been recorded in Canada (Ontario and Nova Scotia) (McNamara 1991, Bousquet et al. 2013), though major faunistic studies did not report additional data (Ratcliffe and Cave 2017).

Cyclocephala boucheri Dechambre, 1997

Cyclocephala boucheri Dechambre, 1997: 14, 23–24 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1997).

Distribution

FRENCH GUIANA: Montsinéry-Tonnegrande, Régina, Roura, St.-Laurent du Maroni.

References

Dechambre 1997, Ponchel 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala boulardi Dechambre, 1979

Cyclocephala boulardi Dechambre, 1979a: 161–162 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1979a).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Amazonas. FRENCH GUIANA. SURINAME.

References

Dechambre 1979a, 1980, Endrődi 1985a, Ratcliffe 1992b, Küchmeister et al. 1998, Silberbauer-Gottsberger et al. 2001, Ponchel 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala brasiliana Endrődi, 1966

Cyclocephala brasiliana Endrődi, 1966: 72, 131, 159–160 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Goiás, Rio de Janeiro.

References

Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala brevipennis Endrődi, 1985

Cyclocephala brevipennis Endrődi, 1985b: 69 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at JPVC (Colette Voirin) (Endrődi 1985b).

Distribution

ECUADOR: Imbabura, Pichincha, Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas.

References

Endrődi 1985b, Malý 2006, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala brittoni Endrődi, 1964

Cyclocephala brittoni Endrődi, 1964: 438–440 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at BMNH (Endrődi 1964).

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Antioquia, Boyacá, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Santander, Valle del Cauca. COSTA RICA: Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José. FRENCH GUIANA: Cayenne, Kourou, St.-Élie, St.-Laurent du Maroni. GUYANA: Mahaica-Berbice. PANAMA: Bocas del Toro, Chiriquí, Darien, Former Canal Zone, Panamá. SURINAME. TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: Trinidad.

References

Martínez 1967, Pike et al. 1976, Dechambre 1979a, Endrődi 1964, 1966, 1969b, 1985a, Bullock 1981, Villalta 1988, Silberbauer-Gottsberger et al. 2001, Ratcliffe 1992a, 2002a, 2003, Restrepo et al. 2003, Neita-Moreno et al. 2006, Ponchel 2011, Neita-Moreno 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Moore 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Gasca-Álvarez 2013, López-García et al. 2015, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala burmeisteri Endrődi, 1964

Cyclocephala burmeisteri Endrődi, 1964: 449–451 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at USNM (Endrődi 1964).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz.

References

Martínez 1975b, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1964, 1966, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala caelestis Delgado-Castillo & Ratcliffe, 1990

Cyclocephala caelestis Delgado & Ratcliffe, 1990: 51–56 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MXAL (Ratcliffe and Delgado-Castillo 1990).

Distribution

MEXICO: Tamaulipas.

References

Ratcliffe and Delgado-Castillo 1990, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Dieringer et al. 1998, 1999, Smith 2003, 2009, Thien et al. 2009, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013.

Cyclocephala camachicola Ohaus, 1910

Cyclocephala camachicola Ohaus, 1910: 672 [original combination].

Types

Type at SDEI (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

ECUADOR: Azuay.

References

Ohaus 1910, Arrow 1937a, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Dechambre and Endrődi 1984, Endrődi 1966, 1975b, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala capitata Höhne, 1923

Cyclocephala capitata Höhne, 1923a: 253–254 [original combination].

Types

Type specimens, housing institution is uncertain, but Endrődi (1966) thought they should be at ZMHB or ZMUH.

Distribution

MEXICO: Chiapas, Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacán, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Sinaloa.

References

Höhne 1923a, Arrow 1937a, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Martínez and Martínez 1981, Endrődi 1966, 1967b, 1985a, Morón et al. 1988, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Navarrete-Heredia et al. 2001, Ramos-Elorduy and Pino Moreno 2004, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, Deloya et al. 2014a, 2016, Dossey et al. 2016, Romero-López and Morón 2017.

Cyclocephala carbonaria Arrow, 1911

Cyclocephala carbonaria Arrow, 1911: 173–174 [original combination].

Mononidia carbonaria (Arrow) [new combination by Casey 1915: 114–115].

Cyclocephala carbonaria Arrow [revised combination by Arrow 1937b: 8, 9].

Mononidia carbonaria (Arrow) [revised combination by Bolívar y Pieltain et al. 1963: 185].

Cyclocephala carbonaria Arrow [revised combination by Endrődi 1966: 164].

syn. Mononidia carbonaria punctulata Prell, 1934: 162 [original combination].

Cyclocephala carbonaria var. punctulata (Prell) [new combination and new infrasubspecific status by Arrow 1937b: 9].

Cyclocephala carbonaria ab. punctulata (Prell) [revised infrasubspecific status by Endrődi 1964: 466].

Cyclocephala carbonaria Arrow [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 164].

syn. Mononidia carbonaria trachypyga Prell, 1934: 162 [original combination].

Cyclocephala carbonaria Arrow [synonymy by Arrow 1937b: 9].

syn. Cyclocephala howdeni Endrődi, 1967b: 83–84 [original combination].

Cyclocephala carbonaria Arrow [synonymy by Ratcliffe 2003: 99].

Types

Type of C. carbonaria at BMNH (Endrődi 1966). Holotype ♂ of C. howdeni at ZMHB (Endrődi 1967b). Location of the Prell types was not reported by Endrődi (1966).

Distribution

BELIZE: Cayo, Stann Creek. BOLIVIA. COLOMBIA: Boyacá, Chocó, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Santander, Valle del Cauca. COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas. ECUADOR: Guayas, Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas. GUATEMALA: Alta Verapaz, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Petén, Zacapa. HONDURAS: Atlántida, Colón, Cortés, Olancho, Santa Bárbara, Yoro. MEXICO: Chiapas, Puebla. NICARAGUA: Chontales, Jinotega, RAA Norte, Río San Juan. PANAMA: Bocas del Toro, Chiriquí, Coclé, Colón, Former Canal Zone, Panamá, San Blas. VENEZUELA: Amazonas, Bolívar.

References

Casey 1915, Prell 1934, Arrow 1911, 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Bolívar y Pieltain et al. 1963, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1964, 1966, 1967b, 1985a, Maes 1987, 1994, Joly 1995a, Dechambre 1991a, 1997, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Beath 1998, Ratcliffe 2002a, 2003, Restrepo et al. 2003, Neita-Moreno et al. 2006, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Pacheco-F. et al. 2008, Neita-Moreno 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Ratcliffe and Cave 2013, García-López et al. 2013, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, Yepes-Rodriguez et al. 2013, López-García et al. 2015, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala cardini Chapin, 1935

Cyclocephala cardini Chapin, 1935a: 74 [original combination, new replacement name for Cyclocephala signatoides Chapin].

syn. Cyclocephala signatoides Chapin, 1932: 287, 289 [original combination, junior homonym of Cyclocephala signatoides Höhne, 1923].

Types

Holotype ♂ at USNM (Endrődi 1966, Ratcliffe and Cave 2015).

Distribution

CUBA: Artemisa, La Habana, Pinar del Río, Santiago de Cuba.

References

Chapin 1932, 1935a, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Bruner et al. 1975, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Fernández García 2006, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Ratcliffe and Cave 2015, 2017.

Cyclocephala carinatipennis Martínez & Morón, 1984

Cyclocephala carinatipennis Martínez & Morón, 1984: 48–52 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MACN (Antonio Martínez Collection).

Distribution

VENEZUELA: Táchira.

References

Martínez and Morón 1984, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala cartwrighti Endrődi, 1964

Cyclocephala cartwrighti Endrődi, 1964: 442–444 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at USNM (Endrődi 1964).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Beni. FRENCH GUIANA: Saül

References

Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1964, 1966, 1985a, Ratcliffe 1992a, Dechambre and Duranton 2005, Ponchel 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013.

Remarks

Endrődi (1966, 1985a) reported C. cartwrighti from Panama (Canal Zone), but this specimen was misidentified (Ratcliffe 2003). Cyclocephala cartwrighti does not occur in Panama (Ratcliffe 2003).

Cyclocephala casanova Ratcliffe & Cave, 2009

Cyclocephala casanova Ratcliffe & Cave, 2009: 326–328 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at UNSM (Ratcliffe and Cave 2009).

Distribution

GUATEMALA: Baja Verapaz.

References

Ratcliffe and Cave 2009, Krajcik 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013.

Cyclocephala castanea (Olivier, 1789)

Melolontha castanea Olivier, 1789: 79 [original combination].

Cyclocephala castanea (Olivier) [new combination by Hope 1837: 40].

Aclinidia castanea (Olivier) [new combination by Casey 1915: 113, 165].

Cyclocephala castanea (Olivier) [revised combination by Arrow 1937b: 8, 9].

syn. Melolontha elongata Olivier, 1789: 23–24 [original combination].

Cyclocephala castanea (Olivier) [synonymy by Burmeister 1847: 49].

syn. Cyclocephala latipes Laporte, 1840: 125 [original combination].

Cyclocephala castanea (Olivier) [synonymy by Burmeister 1847: 49].

syn. Melolontha valida Schönherr, 1817: 187 [original combination].

Cyclocephala castanea (Olivier) [synonymy by Burmeister 1847: 49].

Types

Invalid neotype ♂ of M. castanea at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966). Status of other types was not reported by Endrődi (1966).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Amapá, Amazonas, Pará. COLOMBIA: Amazonas, Guaviare. GUYANA: Demerara-Mahaica, Upper Demerara-Berbice. FRENCH GUIANA: Cayenne, St.-Laurent du Maroni. SURINAME: Paramaribo. VENEZUELA: Amazonas, Bolívar.

References

Olivier 1789, Schönherr 1817, Dejean 1821, 1833, 1836b, Hope 1837, Laporte 1840, Sturm 1843, Burmeister 1847, Erichson 1848a, Fauvel 1861, Harold 1869b, von Bayern 1897, Knuth et al. 1904, Arcangeli 1908, Ohaus 1909, 1911, Casey 1915, Bodkin 1919, Arrow 1937b, Anonymous 1940, Blackwelder 1944, Gessner 1962, Cramer et al. 1975, Pike et al. 1976, Prance and Anderson 1976, Faegri and van der Pijl 1979, Endrődi 1966, 1969b, 1975c, 1985a, Lachaume 1992, Joly 2000b, Ponchel 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Otavo et al. 2013, Maia et al. 2014, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala castaniella Bates, 1888

Cyclocephala castaniella Bates, 1888: 304 [original combination].

syn. Cyclocephala obscurata Endrődi, 1966: 84, 270–271 [original combination].

Cyclocephala castaniella Bates [synonymy by Ratcliffe 2003].

Types

Type of C. castaniella at BMNH (Endrődi 1966). Holotype ♂ of C. obscurata at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Puntarenas, San José. PANAMA: Chiriquí.

References

Bates 1888, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Martínez 1964, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Abarca and Quesada 1997, Vargas and Abarca 1998, Ratcliffe 1992a, 2002a, 2003, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Remarks

Endrődi (1966, 1985a) reported a single specimen of C. castaniella from Brazil with no further details. These data are likely erroneous (Ratcliffe 2003).

Cyclocephala caussaneli Dechambre, 1999

Cyclocephala caussaneli Dechambre, 1999: 6 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1999).

Distribution

ARGENTINA: Chaco.

References

Dechambre 1999, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala cearae Höhne, 1923

Cyclocephala cearae Höhne, 1923b: 363–364 [original combination].

Types

Lectotype at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Bahia, Ceará, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, São Paulo.

References

Höhne 1923b, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Maia et al. 2012, 2013a, b, 2014, Albuquerque et al. 2016.

Remarks

The specific epithet cearae is misspelled as clarae in some catalogs (Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944). Krajcik (2005) lists C. clarae Arrow as a synonym of C. cearae Höhne.

Cyclocephala celata Dechambre, 1980

Cyclocephala celata Dechambre, 1980: 44–46 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1980).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Pernambuco, Tocantins. PARAGUAY: Guairá.

References

Dechambre 1980, Endrődi 1985a, Gonçalves and Maia 2006, Maia and Schlindwein 2006, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Maia et al. 2010, 2012, 2013a, b, 2014, Souza et al. 2014b, Gottsberger 2016.

Cyclocephala cerea Burmeister, 1847

Cyclocephala cerea Burmeister, 1847: 51 [original combination].

Cyclocephala sanguinicollis cerea (Burmeister) [new subspecies status by Endrődi 1966: 301].

Cyclocephala cerea Burmeister [revised species status by Endrődi 1967b: 88].

Cyclocephala sanguinicollis cerea (Burmeister) [revalidated subspecies status by Endrődi 1985a: 115].

Cyclocephala cerea Burmeister [revalidated species status by Ratcliffe and Cave 2015: 75, 83].

syn. Cyclocephala sororia Bates, 1888: 303 [original combination].

Cyclocephala cerea Burmeister [synonymy by Ratcliffe and Cave 2015: 83].

syn. Cyclocephala flava Dechambre, 1999: 10–11 [original combination].

Cyclocephala sororia Bates [synonymy by Ratcliffe and Cave 2006: 155].

Cyclocephala cerea Burmeister [synonymy by Ratcliffe and Cave 2015: 83].

Types

Lectotype ♀ of C. cerea at MLUH (Endrődi 1966). Type of C. sororia at BMNH (Endrődi 1966). Holotype ♂ of C. flava at MNHN (Dechambre 1999).

Distribution

BELIZE: Toledo. COSTA RICA: Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Puntarenas, San José. CUBA: Camagüey, Ciego de Ávila, Cienfuegos, Guantánamo, Holguin, La Habana, Pinar del Río, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Azua, Barahona, Independencia, Pedernales, San José de Ocoa, San Juan. GUATEMALA: Baja Verapaz, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Petén, Quiché, Sacatepéquez, San Marcos, Sololá, Suchitepéquez, Zacapa. HONDURAS: Atlántida, Cortés, Francisco Morazán, Ocotepeque. JAMAICA: Clarendon, Manchester, Portland, St. Andrew, St. Catherine, St. Elizabeth, St. James, Westmoreland. MEXICO: Chiapas, Colima, Durango, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Tamaulipas, Veracruz.

References

Burmeister 1847, Harold 1869b, Bates 1888, Leng and Mutchler 1914, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Howden 1970, Endrődi 1966, Endrődi 1967b, 1985a, Thomas 1993, Lobo and Morón 1993, Morón 1994, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Dechambre 1999, Navarrete-Heredia et al. 2001, Ratcliffe 2003, Luna et al. 2007, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, 2015, Deloya et al. 1993, 2014a, 2016.

Cyclocephala chalumeaui Martínez, 1978

Cyclocephala chalumeaui Martínez, 1978b: 9–12 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MACN (Antonio Martínez Collection) (Martínez 1978b).

Distribution

ECUADOR: Pichincha.

References

Martínez 1978b, Endrődi 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala chera Ratcliffe, 2008

Cyclocephala chera Ratcliffe, 2008: 226–227 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♀ at USNM (Ratcliffe 2008).

Distribution

GUYANA: Potaro-Siparuni.

References

Ratcliffe 2008, Krajcik 2012.

Cyclocephala chiquitita Ratcliffe, 2008

Cyclocephala chiquitita Ratcliffe, 2008: 227–229 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at UNSM (Ratcliffe 2008).

Distribution

ECUADOR: Napo.

References

Ratcliffe 2008, Krajcik 2012.

Cyclocephala colasi Endrődi, 1964

Cyclocephala colasi Endrődi, 1964: 440–441 [original combination].

syn. Cyclocephala hayekae Endrődi 1966: 92, 212–213 [original combination].

Cyclocephala colasi ab. hayekae Endrődi [new infrasubspecific status by Endrődi 1985a: 110].

Types

Holotype ♂ of C. colasi at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1964). Holotype ♂ of C. hayekae at BMNH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Beni. BRAZIL: Amazonas, Pernambuco. COLOMBIA: Casanare. FRENCH GUIANA: Campoi, Cayenne, Kourou, Maripasoula, Sinnamary, St.-Laurent du Maroni. PERU: Loreto. SURINAME. VENEZUELA: Bolívar.

References

Gruner 1971, Pike et al. 1976, Dechambre 1979a, 1980, Dechambre and Endrődi 1984, Endrődi 1964, 1966, 1973a, 1985a, Andreazze and Fonseca 1998, Andreazze 2001, Gibernau et al. 1999, 2000, 2003, Milius 2003, Davis et al. 2008, Seymour et al. 2003, 2009, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Thien et al. 2009, Ponchel 2006, 2011, 2015, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2015, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala collaris Burmeister, 1847

Cyclocephala collaris Burmeister, 1847: 47 [original combination].

Cyclocephala (Cyclocephala) collaris Burmeister [new subgeneric classification by Casey 1915: 138].

Cyclocephala collaris Burmeister [removal of subgeneric classification by Arrow 1937b: 8, 9].

Types

Lectotype ♂ at MLUH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Bahia, Rio de Janeiro. ECUADOR. MARTINIQUE. SURINAME. VENEZUELA: Bolívar.

References

Burmeister 1847, Harold 1869b, Bates 1888, Casey 1915, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Martínez 1975b, Pike et al. 1976, Dechambre 1982, Dechambre and Endrődi 1984, Endrődi 1964, 1966, 1985a, Marques and Gil-Santana 2009, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013.

Remarks

A few authors reported C. collaris from Guatemala (Alto Verapaz), Honduras, and Belize (Bates 1888, Blackwelder 1944, Endrődi 1966, 1985a). Faunistic studies have not recorded C. collaris from these areas, and it is possible that these data are erroneous (Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Ratcliffe et al. 2013).

Cyclocephala comata Bates, 1888

Cyclocephala comata Bates, 1888: 305–306 [original combination].

Ochrosidia (Graphalia) comata (Bates) [new combination by Casey 1915: 159].

Cyclocephala comata Bates [revised combination by Arrow 1937b: 8, 9].

Types

Type at BMNH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

MEXICO: Durango, Estado de México, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Michoacán, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas.

References

Bates 1888, Casey 1915, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Marín Jarillo 2001, Navarrete-Heredia et al. 2001, Díaz Mederos et al. 2006, Lugo-García et al. 2009, Smith 2003, 2009, Joly 2010, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, Deloya et al. 2016.

Cyclocephala compacta Ratcliffe, 2008

Cyclocephala compacta Ratcliffe, 2008: 229–231 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at UNSM (Ratcliffe 2008).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Rondônia.

References

Ratcliffe 2008, Krajcik 2012.

Cyclocephala complanata Burmeister, 1847

Cyclocephala complanata Burmeister, 1847: 48–49 [original combination].

Cyclocephala (Plagiosalia) complanata Burmeister [new subgeneric classification by Casey 1915: 135].

Cyclocephala complanata Burmeister [removal of subgeneric classification by Arrow 1937b: 8, 9].

syn. Cyclocephala (Plagiosalia) emacerata Casey, 1915: 136 [original combination].

Cyclocephala complanata Burmeister [synonymy by Arrow 1937b: 9].

syn. Cyclocephala (Plagiosalia) obliquata Casey, 1915: 135 [original combination].

Cyclocephala complanata Burmeister [synonymy by Arrow 1937b: 9].

Types

Lectotype ♂ of C. complanata at MLUH (Endrődi 1966). Types of C. emacerata and C. obliquata at USNM (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BELIZE: Cayo, Orange Walk, Toledo, Stann Creek. COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José. EL SALVADOR: Ahuachapán, Chalatenango, San Salvador, Santa Ana. GUATEMALA: Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jutiapa, Petén, Quetzaltenango, Quiché, Retalhuleu, Sacatepéquez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Sololá, Suchitepéquez, Zacapa. HONDURAS: Atlántida, Choluteca, Comayagua, Cortés, El Paraíso, Francisco Morazán, Gracias a Dios, Lempira, Olancho, Santa Bárbara, Yoro. MEXICO: Chiapas, Morelos, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatán. NICARAGUA: Chontales, Jinotega, Matagalpa, RAA Norte, Río San Juan. PANAMA: Bocas del Toro.

References

Burmeister 1847, Harold 1869b, Bates 1888, Casey 1915, Arrow 1937b, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Morón 1979, Maes 1987, Thomas 1993, Lobo and Morón 1993, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, García-Luna et al. 2002, Alcázar-Ruiz et al. 2003, Ratcliffe 1992c, 2002a, 2003, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Pacheco-F. et al. 2008, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Ratcliffe et al. 2013.

Cyclocephala concolor Burmeister, 1847

Cyclocephala concolor Burmeister, 1847: 50 [original combination].

Types

Lectotype ♀ at MNHN (Dechambre 1991b). Invalid neotype ♂ at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Antioquia, Tolima. COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia, Puntarenas. GUATEMALA: Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Escuintla, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Zacapa. HONDURAS: Atlántida, Cortés, Francisco Morazán, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Santa Bárbara, Yoro. MEXICO: Chiapas, Oaxaca. PANAMA: Bocas del Toro. PARAGUAY: Paraguarí.

References

Burmeister 1847, Reiche 1859, Harold 1869b, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Dechambre 1991b, 1992, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Ratcliffe 2002a, 2003, Restrepo et al. 2003, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Pacheco-F. et al. 2008, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, García-López et al. 2013, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016, Romero-López and Morón 2017.

Cyclocephala confusa Endrődi, 1966

Cyclocephala confusa Endrődi, 1966: 90, 141, 143, 174–175 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at NHMB (Frey Collection) (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BELIZE: Cayo. COLOMBIA: Antioquia, Santander. COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas. EL SALVADOR: Ahuachapán, Morazán. FRENCH GUIANA: Macouria. GUATEMALA: Alta Verapaz, Chiquimula, Izabal, San Marcos. HONDURAS: Atlántida, Copán, Cortés, El Paraíso, Gracias a Dios, Olancho, Yoro. MEXICO: Chiapas, Oaxaca. NICARAGUA: Jinotega, RAA Norte, Río San Juan. PANAMA: Bocas del Toro, Chiriquí, Colón, Former Canal Zone, Panamá. PERU.

References

Gruner 1971, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Dechambre 1992, Maes et al. 1997, Ratcliffe 1992a, b, 2002a, 2003, Restrepo et al. 2003, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Krajcik 2005, 2012, García-López et al. 2013, Dupuis 2014, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, 2015, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala conspicua Sharp, 1877

Cyclocephala conspicua Sharp, 1877: 135 [original combination].

Stigmalia conspicua (Sharp) [new combination by Casey 1915: 123].

Cyclocephala conspicua Sharp [revised combination by Arrow 1937b: 8, 9].

syn. Cyclocephala conspicua gregaroides Dechambre, 1992: 71 [original combination].

Cyclocephala conspicua Sharp [synonymy by Ratcliffe 2003: 114].

syn. Cyclocephala conspicua fusca Dechambre, 1992: 72 [original combination].

Cyclocephala conspicua Sharp [synonymy by Ratcliffe 2003: 114].

Types

Type of C. conspicua at MNHN (Endrődi 1966). Holotype ♂ of C. conspicua gregaroides at MNHN (Dechambre 1992). Holotype ♂ of C. conspicua fusca at MNHN (Dechambre 1992).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Amazonas. COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Puntarenas, San José. ECUADOR: Napo, Pichincha. HONDURAS: El Paraíso. NICARAGUA: Chontales, Jinotega, Matagalpa, RAA Norte. PANAMA: Bocas del Toro, Chiriquí, Coclé, Former Canal Zone, Panamá, Veraguas. PERU.

References

Sharp 1877, Bertkau 1878, Bates 1888, Casey 1915, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Beach 1982, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Young 1988a, 1990, Dechambre 1992, Maes 1987, 1994, Croat 1997, Ratcliffe 2002a, 2003, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Krajcik 2005, 2012, García-López et al. 2013.

Cyclocephala contraria Kirsch, 1873

Cyclocephala contraria Kirsch, 1873: 343–344 [original combination].

Types

Lectotype ♂ at MTD (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: La Paz. COLOMBIA: Meta. ECUADOR: Napo. PERU: Pasco.

References

Kirsch 1873, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Martínez 1975b, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Restrepo et al. 2003, Ratcliffe 2008, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Ratcliffe et al. 2015, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Remarks

Authors since Kirsch (1873) have referred to this species as C. contracta without explanation (Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Restrepo et al. 2003, Ratcliffe et al. 2015). The original and correct spelling is C. contraria, as listed in Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya (2016).

Cyclocephala coriacea Dechambre, 1992

Cyclocephala coriacea Dechambre, 1992: 58 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1992).

Distribution

ECUADOR: Sucumbíos.

References

Dechambre 1992, Dupuis 2008, 2014, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala couturieri Dechambre, 1999

Cyclocephala couturieri Dechambre, 1999: 7 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1999).

Distribution

PERU: San Martín.

References

Dechambre 1999, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2015.

Cyclocephala crassa Endrődi, 1967

Cyclocephala crassa Endrődi, 1967c: 1–3 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at ZMHB (Endrődi 1967c).

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Amazonas. ECUADOR.

References

Martínez 1975b, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1967c, 1985a, Restrepo et al. 2003, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala crepuscularis Martínez, 1954

Cyclocephala crepuscularis Martínez, 1954: 17–26 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MACN (Antonio Martínez Collection) (Martínez 1954).

Distribution

ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires.

References

Pike et al. 1976, Martínez 1954, 1978a, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Schawaller 1994, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013.

Cyclocephala cribrata Burmeister, 1847

Cyclocephala cribrata Burmeister, 1847: 69–70 [original combination].

Types

Type at MLUH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

COLOMBIA. BRAZIL: Bahia, Espírito Santo, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo.

References

Burmeister 1847, Reiche 1859, Harold 1869b, Luederwaldt 1926, Luederwaldt and Pinto da Fonseca 1922, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Gottsberger and Amaral 1984, Gottsberger 1986, Dechambre 1997, Weber et al. 2001, Restrepo et al. 2003, Malý 2006, Weber 2008, Marques and Gil-Santana 2009, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala curta Bates, 1888

Cyclocephala curta Bates, 1888: 305 [original combination].

syn. Cyclocephala fusciventris Arrow, 1902: 139 [original combination].

Cyclocephala curta Bates [synonymy by Endrődi 1964: 466].

Types

Types of C. curta and C. fusciventris at BMNH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

COSTA RICA: Guanacaste. EL SALVADOR: San Salvador. HONDURAS: Comayagua, Cortés, La Paz. MEXICO: Chiapas, Guerrero, Michoacán, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Sinaloa, Veracruz.

References

Bates 1888, Arrow 1902, 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Martínez 1964, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1964, 1966, 1985a, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Ratcliffe 2003, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Pacheco-F. et al. 2008, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, Deloya et al. 2014a, 2016.

Cyclocephala dalensi Ponchel, 2009

Cyclocephala dalensi Ponchel, 2009: 184–185 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ in the Yannig Ponchel Collection (Ponchel 2009).

Distribution

FRENCH GUIANA: Maripasoula.

References

Ponchel 2009, 2011, Krajcik 2012.

Cyclocephala deceptor (Casey, 1915)

Stigmalia deceptor Casey, 1915: 117–118 [original combination].

Cyclocephala mafaffa (Burmeister) [synonymy by Arrow 1937b: 12].

Cyclocephala deceptor (Casey) [revalidated species status by Ratcliffe and Delgado 1990: 43–45].

syn. Stigmalia cuernavacana Casey, 1915: 116-117 [original combination].

Cyclocephala mafaffa Burmeister [synonymy by Arrow 1937b: 12].

Cyclocephala mafaffa ab. cuernavacana (Casey) [new infrasubspecific status by Endrődi 1966: 247].

Cyclocephala deceptor (Casey) [synonymy by Ratcliffe and Delgado-Castillo 1990: 43].

syn. Stigmalia deficiens Casey, 1915: 117 [original combination].

Cyclocephala mafaffa Burmeister [synonymy by Arrow 1937b: 12].

Cyclocephala deceptor (Casey) [synonymy by Ratcliffe and Delgado-Castillo 1990: 43].

syn. Stigmalia fallaciosa Casey, 1915: 117 [original combination].

Cyclocephala mafaffa Burmeister [synonymy by Arrow 1937b: 12].

Cyclocephala mafaffa ab. fallaciosa (Casey) [new infrasubspecific status by Endrődi 1966: 247].

Cyclocephala deceptor (Casey) [synonymy by Ratcliffe and Delgado-Castillo 1990: 43].

Types

These Casey types are at USNM (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BELIZE: Cayo. EL SALVADOR: Ahuachapán, La Libertad, La Paz, Morazán, San Salvador, San Vicente, Santa Ana, Sonsonate. GUATEMALA: Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Petén, Quiché, Sacatepéquez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Suchitepéquez, Zacapa. HONDURAS: Choluteca, Comayagua, Copán, Cortés, El Paraíso, Francisco Morazán, La Paz, Olancho. MEXICO: Aguascalientes, Chiapas, Colima, Durango, Estado de México, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Veracruz. NICARAGUA: Estelí, Matagalpa.

References

Casey 1915, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Ratcliffe and Delgado-Castillo 1990, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, Deloya et al. 2014a, 2016, Romero-López and Morón 2017.

Cyclocephala dechambrei Dupuis, 2018

Cyclocephala boliviana Dechambre, 1997: 14, 21–23 [original combination, homonym of C. bolivianaDechambre 1992].

Cyclocephala dechambrei Dupuis [new replacement name by Dupuis 2018: 8].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1997, Dupuis 2018).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz.

References

Dechambre 1997, 1999, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Dupuis 2018.

Cyclocephala decorella Endrődi, 1966

Cyclocephala decorella Endrődi, 1966: 76, 134, 181–182 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro.

References

Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1969b, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala defecta Endrődi, 1970

Cyclocephala defecta Endrődi, 1970: 105–106 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at “Pereira Collection in Sao Paulo” (Endrődi 1970). This is possibly referring to MZSP.

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Antioquia.

References

Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1970, 1985a, Restrepo et al. 2003, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala deltoides Ratcliffe, 1992

Cyclocephala deltoides Ratcliffe, 1992b: 181–183 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at UNSM (Ratcliffe 1992b).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Pará.

References

Ratcliffe 1992b, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala dichroa Dechambre, 1992

Cyclocephala dichroa Dechambre, 1992: 67–68 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1992).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Pará. FRENCH GUIANA: Régina, Saül, St.-Laurent du Maroni. PERU: Huánuco. VENEZUELA: Amazonas, Barinas, Bolívar, Portuguesa, Táchira.

References

Dechambre 1992, Joly 2009, Ponchel 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala dilatata (Prell, 1934)

Mononidia dilatata Prell, 1934: 162 [original combination].

Cyclocephala dilatata (Prell) [new combination by Arrow 1937b: 8, 10].

Types

Lectotype ♀ at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz. BRAZIL: Mato Grosso. ECUADOR: Napo. FRENCH GUIANA: Roura. PERU: Huánuco, Pasco, Madre de Dios. SURINAME: Brokopondo. VENEZUELA: Amazonas, Bolívar.

References

Prell 1934, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1967b, 1985a, Joly 1995a, Dechambre 1997, 1999, Dupuis 1999, Ponchel 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2015, Dupuis 2018.

Cyclocephala diluta Erichson, 1847

Cyclocephala diluta Erichson, 1847a: 97 [original combination].

Types

Lectotype ♀ at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Cochabamba, Santa Cruz. BRAZIL: Pará, Santa Catarina. ECUADOR: Cañar, Guayas. FRENCH GUIANA: Saül, St.-Élie. PERU: Ayacucho, Cusco, Junín, Madre de Dios, Pasco.

References

Erichson 1847a, Harold 1869b, Bates 1891, Gruner 1971, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Dechambre 1979a, 1999, Dechambre and Duranton 2005, Ponchel 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Ratcliffe et al. 2015.

Cyclocephala discicollis Arrow, 1902

Cyclocephala discicollis Arrow, 1902: 140–141 [original combination].

Diapatalia discicollis (Arrow) [new combination by Casey 1915: 111, 129].

Cyclocephala discicollis Arrow [revised combination by Arrow 1937b: 8, 10].

Types

Type at BMNH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Casanare. FRENCH GUIANA: Cayenne. PANAMA: Bocas del Toro, Chiriquí, Coclé, Colón, Darien, Former Canal Zone, Panamá, Veraguas. PERU. VENEZUELA.

References

Casey 1915, Arrow 1902, 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Gruner 1971, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Ratcliffe 2003, Núñez-Avellaneda and Neita 2009, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Núñez-Avellaneda 2014.

Remarks

Specimens of C. discicollis were reported from Nayarit, Mexico (Endrődi 1966, 1985a). Deloya et al. (2014) reported C. discicollis from Guerrero, Jalisco, and Nayarit. Navarrete-Heredia et al. (2001) reported C. discicollis from Jalisco. Major faunistic studies did not record any specimens from Mexico (Ratcliffe et al. 2013).

Cyclocephala discolor (Herbst, 1790)

Melolontha discolor Herbst, 1790: 73 [original combination].

Cyclocephala discolor (Herbst) [new combination by Burmeister 1847: 45–46].

syn. Cyclocephala andina Bréthes, 1905: 331–332 [original combination].

Cyclocephala discolor andina Bréthes [new subspecies status by Endrődi 1966: 185].

Cyclocephala discolor (Herbst) [synonymy by Ratcliffe 2003: 118].

syn. Cyclocephala aurantiaca Prell, 1937b: 496 [original combination].

Cyclocephala discolor ab. aurantiaca Prell [new infrasubspecific status by Endrődi 1966: 185].

Cyclocephala discolor (Herbst) [synonymy by Ratcliffe 2003: 118].

syn. Melolontha unciata Schönherr, 1817: 189 [original combination].

Cyclocephala discolor (Herbst) [synonymy by Burmeister 1847: 46].

Types

Lectotype ♀ of C. discolor at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966). Type of C. aurantiaca at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966). Endrődi (1966) apparently did not examine the type of C. andina but wrote that the type was at “Mus. Buenos Aires”, possibly referring to MACN.

Distribution

ARGENTINA: Salta, Tucumán. BELIZE: Cayo, Stann Creek. BOLIVIA: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz. BRAZIL: Amazonas, Minas Gerais. COLOMBIA: Amazonas, Antioquia, Cesar, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Meta, Valle del Cauca. COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas. ECUADOR: Los Ríos, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza. FRENCH GUIANA: Cayenne. GUATEMALA: Alta Verapaz, Izabal. GUYANA. HONDURAS: Atlántida, Colón, Comayagua, Cortés, El Paraíso, Francisco Morazán, Gracias a Dios, La Paz, Olancho, Yoro. MEXICO: Chiapas, Colima, Jalisco, Michoacán, Nayarit, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosí. NICARAGUA: Jinotega, RAA Norte, Río San Juan. PANAMA: Bocas del Toro, Chiriquí, Coclé, Colón, Darien, Former Canal Zone, Panamá. PERU: Cusco, Huánuco, Loreto, San Martín. SURINAME. TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: Trinidad. VENEZUELA: Aragua, Capital District, Monagas.

References

Herbst 1790, Schönherr 1817, Burmeister 1847, Erichson 1848a, Senoner 1864, Harold 1869b, Bréthes 1905, Seidlitz 1905, Arrow 1937b, Prell 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Martínez 1954, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1963, 1966, 1969b, 1985a, Maes et al. 1997, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Ervik et al. 1999, Morón-Ríos and Morón 2001, Navarrete-Heredia et al. 2001, Ratcliffe 2002a, 2003, Restrepo et al. 2003, Ponchel 2006, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Pacheco-F. et al. 2008, Núñez-Avellaneda and Rojas-Robles 2008, Núñez-Avellaneda and Neita 2009, Neita-Moreno 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, 2015, Deloya et al. 2016, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016, Romero-López and Morón 2017.

Remarks

Endrődi (1966) reported C. discolor from Haiti with no further details. This record is either spurious or erroneous (Ratcliffe and Cave 2015).

Cyclocephala dispar (Herbst, 1790)

Melolontha dispar Herbst, 1790: 65–66 [original combination].

Cyclocephala dispar (Herbst) [new combination by Reiche 1859: 7].

syn. Cyclocephala dorsalis Burmeister, 1847: 64 [original combination].

Cyclocephala dispar (Herbst) [synonymy by Reiche 1859: 7].

syn. Cyclocephala stolata Erichson, 1848a: 562].

Cyclocephala dispar (Herbst) [synonymy by Arrow 1911: 171].

Types

Lectotype ♀ of M. dispar at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966). Type of C. dorsalis at MLUH (Endrődi 1966, Dupuis 2018). Type of C. stolata at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966, Dupuis 2018).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Acre, Amazonas, Pará, Roraima. COLOMBIA: Meta. GUYANA: Demerara-Berbice. PARAGUAY. PERU: Loreto.

References

Herbst 1790, Burmeister 1847, Erichson 1848a, Reiche 1859, Harold 1869b, Arrow 1911, 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe and Cave 2015, Ratcliffe et al. 2015, Dupuis 2018.

Remarks

Endrődi (1966, 1985a) reported C. dispar from Puerto Rico. This record is likely erroneous (Ratcliffe and Cave 2015).

Cyclocephala distincta Burmeister, 1847

Cyclocephala distincta Burmeister, 1847: 47 [original combination].

Types

Lectotype ♂ at MLUH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Beni. BRAZIL: Amazonas, Bahia, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo. COLOMBIA. GUYANA.

References

Burmeister 1847, Harold 1869b, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Dechambre 1980, Endrődi 1966, 1973a, 1985a, Voeks 2002, Restrepo et al. 2003, Marques and Gil-Santana 2009, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Souza et al. 2014a, 2015, Albuquerque et al. 2016, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala divaricata Joly, 2005

Cyclocephala divaricata Joly, 2005: 1–5 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MIZA (Joly 2005).

Distribution

VENEZUELA: Amazonas.

References

Joly 2005, Krajcik 2012.

Cyclocephala dolichotarsa Ratcliffe & Cave, 2008

Cyclocephala dolichotarsa Ratcliffe & Cave, 2008: 3–5 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at FSCA (Ratcliffe and Cave 2008).

Distribution

BAHAMAS: Great Inagua.

References

Krajcik 2012, Ratcliffe and Cave 2008, 2015.

Cyclocephala dominicana Endrődi, 1985

Cyclocephala dominicana Endrődi, 1985b: 70–71 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at JPVC (Endrődi 1985b).

Distribution

ECUADOR: Pichincha, Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas.

References

Endrődi 1985b, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala duodecimpunctata Endrődi, 1966

Cyclocephala duodecimpunctata Endrődi, 1966: 82, 127, 189–190 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro. COLOMBIA.

References

Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1975b, 1985a, Ratcliffe 1992a, Restrepo et al. 2003, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala dupuisi Ratcliffe, 2014

Cyclocephala dupuisi Ratcliffe, 2014: 664–666 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at UNSM (Ratcliffe 2014).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz.

References

Ratcliffe 2014.

Cyclocephala durantonorum Dechambre, 1999

Cyclocephala durantonorum Dechambre, 1999: 8–9 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1999).

Distribution

FRENCH GUIANA: Régina, Roura, Sinnamary, St.-Élie.

References

Dechambre 1999, Ponchel 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala dyscinetoides Dechambre, 1999

Cyclocephala dyscinetoides Dechambre, 1999: 9–10 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1999).

Distribution

ECUADOR: Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas.

References

Dechambre 1999, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala emarginata Endrődi, 1966

Cyclocephala emarginata Endrődi, 1966: 67, 123, 190–191 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Amazonas. FRENCH GUIANA: St.-Élie.

References

Pike et al. 1976, Dechambre 1979a, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Gibernau et al. 1999, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ponchel 2006, 2011, 2015.

Cyclocephala endrodii Martínez, 1965

Cyclocephala (Paraclinidia) endrodii Martínez, 1965b: 14–18 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MACN (Antonio Martínez Collection) (Martínez 1965b, Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Pará, Rondônia.

References

Martínez 1965b, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Dechambre 1992, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala endroedyyoungai Endrődi, 1964

Cyclocephala endroedyyoungai Endrődi, 1964: 435–436 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1964).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Espírito Santo.

References

Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1964, 1966, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala englemani (Ratcliffe, 1977)

Mimeoma englemani Ratcliffe, 1977: 430–432 [original combination].

Cyclocephala englemani (Ratcliffe) [new combination by Moore et al. 2015: 898].

Types

Holotype ♂ at UNSM (Ratcliffe 1977).

Distribution

PANAMA: Darien, Former Canal Zone, Panamá.

References

Ratcliffe 1977, 2002a, 2003, Endrődi 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Moore et al. 2015.

Cyclocephala enigma Ratcliffe, 2003

Cyclocephala enigma Ratcliffe, 2003: 60, 70, 121–123 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNCR (originally deposited at INBio) (Ratcliffe 2003).

Distribution

COSTA RICA: Guanacaste.

References

Ratcliffe 2003, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala epistomalis Bates, 1888

Cyclocephala epistomalis Bates, 1888: 303–304 [original combination].

Homochromina epistomalis (Bates) [new combination by Casey 1915: 165].

Cyclocephala epistomalis Bates [revised combination by Arrow 1937b: 8, 10].

syn. Cyclocephala mollis Endrődi, 1963: 323–325 [original combination].

Cyclocephala epistomalis ab. mollis Endrődi [new infrasubspecific status by Endrődi 1985a: 90].

Cyclocephala epistomalis Bates [synonymy by Ratcliffe 2003: 123].

Types

Type of C. epistomalis at BMNH (Endrődi 1966). Holotype ♂ of C. mollis at ZSMC (1966).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Beni, Santa Cruz. BRAZIL: Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Pará. COLOMBIA: Amazonas, Caquetá, Cundinamarca, Meta, Risaralda, Valle del Cauca. FRENCH GUIANA: Cayenne. GUATEMALA: Sacatepéquez. PANAMA: Coclé. PARAGUAY. VENEZUELA: Apure.

References

Bates 1888, Casey 1915, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Gruner 1971, Pike et al. 1976, Prance 1980, Endrődi 1963, 1964, 1966, 1985a, Ratcliffe 2003, Pardo-Locarno et al. 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, Maia et al. 2014, López-Garcia et al. 2015, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016, Santos Fava and Gomes 2017.

Cyclocephala ergastuli Dechambre, 1997

Cyclocephala ergastuli Dechambre, 1997: 14, 16–17 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1997).

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Valle del Cauca. FRENCH GUIANA: Iracoubo, Kourou, Régina, Roura, St.-Laurent du Maroni. TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: Trinidad. VENEZUELA: Bolívar.

References

Dechambre 1997, Restrepo et al. 2003, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ponchel 2011, 2015, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala erotylina Arrow, 1914

Cyclocephala erotylina Arrow, 1914: 275 [original combination].

Types

Type at BMNH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Guanacaste, Limón, Puntarenas, San José. GUATEMALA: Escuintla, Guatemala, Jutiapa, Quetzaltenango, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Sololá, Suchitepéquez. HONDURAS: Olancho, Yoro. MEXICO: Chiapas, Colima. NICARAGUA: Jinotega, Matagalpa, RAA Norte. PANAMA: Coclé, Panamá.

References

Arrow 1914, 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1980, 1985a, Maes et al. 1997, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Ratcliffe 2002a, 2003, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Pacheco-F. et al. 2008, Krajcik 2005, 2012, García-López et al. 2013, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, Romero-López and Morón 2017.

Cyclocephala everardoi Grossi, Santos, & Almeida, 2016

Cyclocephala everardoi Grossi, Santos, & Almeida, 2016: 249–250 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at CERPE (Grossi et al. 2016).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Minas Gerais.

References

Grossi et al. 2016.

Cyclocephala fankhaeneli Endrődi, 1964

Cyclocephala fankhaeneli Endrődi 1964: 461–462 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1964).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Tarija. BRAZIL: Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul.

References

Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1964, 1966, 1985a, Grossi et al. 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013.

Cyclocephala fasciolata Bates, 1888

Cyclocephala fasciolata Bates, 1888: 301 [original combination].

Halotosia fasciolata (Bates) [new combination by Casey 1915: 113].

Cyclocephala fasciolata Bates [revised combination by Arrow 1937b: 8, 10].

Types

Type at BMNH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Antioquia, Chocó. COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, Puntarenas. GUATEMALA: Alta Verapaz, Chiquimula, Izabal. MEXICO: Chiapas, Jalisco, Puebla, Veracruz. PANAMA: Chiriquí.

References

Bates 1888, Casey 1915, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Búrquez et al. 1987, Lobo and Morón 1993, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Carrillo-Ruiz and Morón 2003, Restrepo et al. 2003, Ratcliffe 2002a, 2003, Ramos-Elorduy and Pino Moreno 2002, 2004 Malý 2006, Múñoz-Hernández et al. 2008, Pacheco-F. et al. 2008, Neita-Moreno 2011, Aguirre et al. 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, García-López et al. 2013, Morón et al. 2014, Dossey et al. 2016, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016, Mitasuhashi 2016.

Cyclocephala figurata Burmeister, 1847

Cyclocephala figurata Burmeister, 1847: 65 [original combination].

Types

Lectotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1991b).

Distribution

FRENCH GUIANA: Cayenne.

References

Burmeister 1847, Harold 1869b, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Dechambre 1991b, Ponchel 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala flavipennis Arrow, 1914

Cyclocephala flavipennis Arrow, 1914: 275 [original combination].

Types

Type at BMNH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BOLIVIA. BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul. ECUADOR: Bolívar.

References

Arrow 1914, 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1967b, 1985a, Dechambre 1999, Bolliger et al. 2006, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Cherman et al. 2013, Diez-Rodríquez et al. 2015.

Cyclocephala flavoscutellaris Höhne, 1923

Cyclocephala flavoscutellaris Höhne, 1923b: 357–358 [original combination].

Types

Lectotype ♂ at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Amazonas. COLOMBIA. ECUADOR: Morona-Santiago, Pichincha. PERU: Cusco.

References

Höhne 1923b, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2015, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala flora Arrow, 1911

Cyclocephala flora Arrow, 1911: 175 [original combination].

Types

Type at BMNH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Amazonas. PERU: Loreto.

References

Arrow 1911, 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Martínez 1978b, Endrődi 1964, 1966, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2015.

Cyclocephala forcipulata Howden & Endrődi, 1966

Cyclocephala forcipulata Howden & Endrődi, 1966: 299–301 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at CNC (Howden and Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

MEXICO: Durango, Guerrero, Jalisco, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Sinaloa.

References

Howden and Endrődi 1966, Martínez 1975b, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1985a, Ratcliffe and Delgado-Castillo 1990, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Joly 2000a, Navarrete-Heredia et al. 2001, Smith 2003, 2009, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013.

Cyclocephala forsteri forsteri Endrődi, 1963

Cyclocephala forsteri forsteri Endrődi, 1963: 325–326 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at ZSMC (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: La Paz, Santa Cruz. BRAZIL: Amazonas, Distrito Federal, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina. COLOMBIA: Casanare, Meta. PARAGUAY: Concepción, Distrito Capital.

References

Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1963, 1964, 1966, 1985a, Scariot et al. 1991, Hardy 1991, Poole and Gentili 1996, Santos and Ávila 2007, Núñez-Avellaneda and Neita-Moreno 2009, Coutinho et al. 2011, Oliveira and Ávila 2011, Rodrigues et al. 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala forsteri maracayensis Endrődi, 1963

Cyclocephala forsteri maracayensis Endrődi, 1963: 326 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at ZSMC (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

VENEZUELA: Aragua, Carabobo.

References

Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1963, 1966, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala freudei Endrődi, 1963

Cyclocephala freudei Endrődi, 1963: 328–329 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at ZSMC (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

EL SALVADOR: Cuscatlán, San Salvador. GUATEMALA: Totonicapán, Zacapa. MEXICO: Colima, Durango, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacán, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, Sinaloa, Sonora, Veracruz.

References

Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1963, 1966, 1985a, Hardy 1991, Thomas 1993, Poole and Gentili 1996, Morón et al. 1988, 1996, 1998, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Navarrete-Heredia et al. 2001, Riley and Wolfe 2003, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Smith 2003, 2009, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, Deloya et al. 2014a, 2016.

Remarks

Cyclocephala freudei was reported from the United States (Texas), Costa Rica (Santa Elena), and Ecuador (San José de Canelos) (Endrődi 1966, 1985a). This species does not occur in the United States and the Costa Rican record is based only on one specimen (Ratcliffe 2003, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Ratcliffe et al. 2013). The Ecuadorian record has not been evaluated with further sampling (Ratcliffe and Cave 2006).

Cyclocephala freyi freyi Endrődi, 1964

Cyclocephala freyi Endrődi, 1964: 464–466 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at NHMB (Frey Collection) (Endrődi 1964).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz. PERU: Cusco, Junín, Madre de Dios.

References

Pike et al. 1976, Dechambre 1979a, Endrődi 1964, 1966, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2015.

Cyclocephala freyi integra Dechambre, 1999

Cyclocephala freyi integra Dechambre, 1999: 22 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1999).

Distribution

FRENCH GUIANA: Saül, Sinnamary.

References

Dechambre 1999, Ponchel 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala frontalis Chevrolat, 1844

Cyclocephala frontalis Chevrolat, 1844: 90–91 [original combination].

Cyclocephala cubana Chapin [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 179].

Cyclocephala frontalis Chevrolat [revalidated species status by Ratcliffe and Cave 2015: 87].

syn. Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, 1932: 291–292 [original combination].

Cyclocephala frontalis Chevrolat [synonymy by Ratcliffe and Cave 2015: 87].

Types

Neotype ♂ of C. frontalis at UNSM (Ratcliffe and Cave 2015). Type of C. cubana at USNM (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BAHAMAS: Eleuthera. CUBA: Artemisa, Camagüey, Ciego de Ávila, Cienfuegos, Granma, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Río, Sancti Spíritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Azua, Barahona, Elías Piña, Monte Cristi, Pedernales, San Juan, Valverde. HAITI: Grand Anse, Ouest, Sud. PUERTO RICO: Cabo Rojo, Guánica, Lajas.

References

Latreille 1829, 1837, Marschall 1857, Chevrolat 1844, 1865, Burmeister 1847, Harold 1869b, Gundlach 1891, Leng and Mutchler 1914, Chapin 1932, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Bruner et al. 1975, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1969b, 1985a, González et al. 1998, Fernández García 2006, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe and Cave 2015.

Cyclocephala fulgurata Burmeister, 1847

Cyclocephala fulgurata Burmeister, 1847: 63 [original combination].

Ochrosidia (Graphalia) fulgurata (Burmeister) [new combination and new subgeneric classification by Casey 1915: 159].

Cyclocephala fulgurata Burmeister [revised combination and removal of subgeneric classification by Arrow 1937b: 8, 11].

Types

Lectotype at MLUH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires. BELIZE: Stann Creek. BOLIVIA: Beni, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz. BRAZIL: Pará. COLOMBIA: Antioquia, Boyacá, Cauca, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Risaralda, Santander, Tolima, Valle del Cauca. COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Limón, Puntarenas. ECUADOR: Bolívar, Cañar, Los Ríos. FRENCH GUIANA: Cayenne. GUATEMALA: Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Petén, San Marcos, Suchitepéquez, Zacapa. HONDURAS: Atlántida, Cortés, El Paraíso, Olancho, Yoro. MEXICO: Chiapas, Distrito Federal, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Zacatecas. PANAMA: Bocas del Toro, Chiriquí, Coclé, Darien, Former Canal Zone, Panamá, Veraguas. PERU: Cajamarca, Junín, Madre de Dios. VENEZUELA: Capital District, Carabobo, Mérida, Monagas.

References

Burmeister 1847, Harold 1869b, Bates 1888, Casey 1915, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Figueroa-P. 1952, Pike et al. 1976, Dechambre 1979a, Endrődi 1964, 1966, 1969b, 1985a, Dechambre 1979a, Thomas 1993, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Caicedo and Bellotti 2002, Ratcliffe 2002a, 2003, Restrepo et al. 2003, Villegas-Urbano 2004, Patiño 2004, Vásquez and Sánchez 2004, Pardo-Locarno et al. 1995, 2003, 2005a, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Neita-Moreno et al. 2006, Bran et al. 2006, Pacheco-F. et al. 2008, Villegas-Urbano et al. 2008, Neita-Moreno 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Pardo-Locarno 2013, Yepes-Rodriguez et al. 2013, López-García et al. 2015, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, 2015, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016, Villalobos-Moreno et al. 2016, 2017.

Cyclocephala fulvipennis Burmeister, 1847

Cyclocephala fulvipennis Burmeister, 1847: 71 [original combination].

Types

Lectotype ♀ at MNHN (Dechambre 1991b). Invalid neotype ♂ at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Beni, La Paz. BRAZIL: Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo. PERU.

References

Burmeister 1847, Harold 1869b, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1973a, 1985a, Dechambre 1979b, 1991b, 1992, Ratcliffe 1992a, Malý 2006, Dupuis 2008, 2014, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2015.

Remarks

Cyclocephala fulvipennis was reported from Honduras and Nicaragua (Endrődi 1966, 1985a). These records are likely based on misidentified specimens of C. porioni Dechambre (Ratcliffe 2003).

Cyclocephala gabaldoni Martínez & Martínez, 1981

Cyclocephala gabaldoni Martínez & Martínez, 1981: 203–206 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MACN (Antonio Martínez Collection) (Martínez and Martínez 1981).

Distribution

FRENCH GUIANA. VENEZUELA: Amazonas.

References

Martínez and Martínez 1981, Endrődi 1985a, Ponchel 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala genieri Joly, 2010

Cyclocephala genieri Joly, 2010: 141–146 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at USNM (Joly 2010).

Distribution

PERU: Ucayali.

References

Joly 2010, Krajcik 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2015.

Cyclocephala gigantea Dupuis, 1999

Cyclocephala gigantea Dupuis, 1999: 186 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♀ at MNHN (Dupuis 1999).

Distribution

ECUADOR: Pastaza, Sucumbíos.

References

Dupuis 1999, Malý 2006, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala goetzi Endrődi, 1966

Cyclocephala goetzi Endrődi, 1966: 208–209 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at NHMB (Frey Collection) (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Beni. PERU: Madre de Dios.

References

Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Ratcliffe 1992a, Dechambre and Duranton 2005, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2015.

Cyclocephala gravis Bates, 1888

Cyclocephala gravis Bates, 1888: 308 [original combination].

syn. Cyclocephala meinanderi Endrődi, 1964: 457–459 [original combination].

Cyclocephala gravis ab. meinanderi Endrődi [new infrasubspecific status by Endrődi 1967: 90].

Cyclocephala gravis Bates [synonymy by Maes 1994: 11].

Types

Type of C. gravis at BMNH (Endrődi 1966). Holotype ♂ of C. meinanderi at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1964).

Distribution

BELIZE: Cayo, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo. BOLIVIA: Cochabamba, Santa Cruz. BRAZIL: Bahia, Espírito Santo, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro. COLOMBIA: Antioquia, Boyacá, Caquetá, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Santander, Tolima. COSTA RICA: Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José. ECUADOR: Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas. EL SALVADOR: Morazán. FRENCH GUIANA: Cayenne, St.-Élie, St.-Laurent du Maroni. GUATEMALA: Alta Verapaz, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Petén, Sololá, Zacapa. GUYANA: Upper Demerara-Berbice. HONDURAS: Atlántida, Choluteca, Cortés, El Paraíso, Francisco Morazán, Gracias a Dios, Olancho, Santa Bárbara, Yoro. MEXICO: Campeche, Chiapas, Guanajuato, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatán. NICARAGUA: Chontales, Jinotega, Matagalpa, RAA Norte, Río San Juan. PANAMA: Bocas del Toro, Chiriquí, Colón, Former Canal Zone, Panamá. PARAGUAY: Distrito Capital. SURINAME. VENEZUELA: Capital District, Guárico.

References

Bates 1888, Bodkin 1919, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Dechambre 1979a, 1980, Endrődi 1964, 1966, 1967, 1985a, Young 1986, 1988a, b, 1990, Thomas 1993, Lobo and Morón 1993, Maes 1987, 1994, Ramírez and Brito 1992, Croat 1997, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Beath 1998, 1999, Ratcliffe 1992b, 2002a, 2003, Restrepo et al. 2003, Reyes Novelo and Morón 2005, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Neita-Moreno 2011, Ponchel 2011, García-López et al. 2013, Moore and Jameson 2013, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, López-García et al. 2015, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala gregaria Heyne & Taschenberg, 1907

Cyclocephala gregaria Heyne & Taschenberg, 1907: 91–92 [original combination]

Stigmalia gregaria (Heyne & Taschenberg) [new combination by Casey 1915: 115, 122].

Cyclocephala gregaria Heyne & Taschenberg [revised combination by Arrow 1937b: 8, 11].

syn. Cyclocephala gregaria pallida Arrow, 1911: 172 [original combination].

Cyclocephala gregaria ab. pallida Arrow [new infrasubspecific status by Endrődi 1966: 210].

Types

Invalid neotype ♂ of C. gregaria at HNHM (Endrődi Collection) (Endrődi 1966). Endrődi (1966) did not examine the type of C. gregaria pallida, and it may be at BMNH.

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz. BRAZIL: Pará, São Paulo. COLOMBIA: Antioquia, Boyacá, Caldas, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Quindío, Risaralda, Santander, Tolima, Valle del Cauca. ECUADOR: Morona-Santiago. VENEZUELA: Mérida.

References

Heyne and Taschenberg 1907, Casey 1915, Arrow 1911, 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Daniel 1945, Martínez 1968c, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Montoya et al. 1994, Dechambre 1995, Restrepo et al. 2003, García-Robledo et al. 2004, 2005, Útima and Vallejo 2008, García-Robledo 2010, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, Yepes-Rodriguez et al. 2013, López-García et al. 2015, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Remarks

Heyne and Taschenberg (1907) briefly described an in litt. specimen of C. gregaria from Steinheil’s collection. Arrow (1911) published a longer description and designated types for C. gregaria that were sent to him from insect specimen dealers Otto Staudinger and Andreas Bang-Haas. Cyclocephala gregaria Arrow could be considered a homonym and synonym of C. gregaria Heyne & Taschenberg. Endrődi (1966) could not locate the type of C. gregaria and designated an invalid neotype. Endrődi (1966, 1985a) reported C. gregaria Heyne & Taschenberg from Boquete (Chiriquí, Panama). Ratcliffe (2003) considers this record as likely erroneous and probably based on misidentified specimens of C. conspicua Sharp. Arrow (1911) described C. gregaria var. pallida. However, Arrow (1911) did not discuss or name subspecies, meaning that C. gregaria var. pallida is ambiguously infrasubspecific and should be treated as a subspecies at original description.

Cyclocephala guaguarum Dechambre & Endrődi, 1984

Cyclocephala guaguarum Dechambre & Endrődi, 1984: 169 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre and Endrődi 1984).

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Valle del Cauca. ECUADOR: Cotopaxi, Pichincha.

References

Dechambre and Endrődi 1984, Restrepo et al. 2003, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala guianae Endrődi, 1969

Cyclocephala guianae Endrődi, 1969b: 33–34 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at USNM (Endrődi 1969b).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Amazonas. COLOMBIA: Casanare, Meta. FRENCH GUIANA: Kourou, St.-Élie, St.-Laurent du Maroni. SURINAME: Brokopondo.

References

Pike et al. 1976, Dechambre 1979a, Endrődi 1969b, 1985a, Ratcliffe 1992b, Küchmeister et al. 1998, Andreazze 2001, Silberbauer-Gottsberger et al. 2001, Andreazze and da Silva Motta 2002, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Gasca-Álvarez et al. 2014, Núñez-Avellaneda 2014, Ponchel 2011, 2015, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala guttata Bates, 1888

Cyclocephala guttata Bates, 1888: 306 [original combination].

Dichromina guttata (Bates) [new combination by Casey 1915: 160].

Cyclocephala guttata Bates [revised combination by Arrow 1937b: 8, 11].

Types

Type at BMNH (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

GUATEMALA: El Progreso, Escuintla, Izabal, Retalhuleu, Suchitepéquez, Zacapa. HONDURAS: Atlántida, Choluteca, Yoro. MEXICO: Chiapas, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, San Luis Potosí, Tabasco, Veracruz. NICARAGUA: Granada, Masaya, Río San Juan, Rivas.

References

Bates 1888, Casey 1915, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Morón 1979, Morón et al. 1985, Thomas 1993, Lobo and Morón 1993, Maes and Ratcliffe 1996, Camino-Lavín et al. 1996, Sanchez Soto 1997, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Ramos-Elorduy and Pino Moreno 2004, Ratcliffe and Cave 2006, Pacheco-F. et al. 2008, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, Dossey et al. 2016.

Cyclocephala guycolasi Dechambre, 1992

Cyclocephala guycolasi Dechambre, 1992: 62 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MNHN (Dechambre 1992).

Distribution

PERU: Junín.

References

Dechambre 1992, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2015.

Cyclocephala halffteriana Martínez, 1968

Cyclocephala halffteriana Martínez, 1968a: 188–190 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MACN (Antonio Martínez Collection) (Martínez 1968a).

Distribution

MEXICO: Baja California Sur, Sonora.

References

Martínez 1968a, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1985a, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013.

Cyclocephala hardyi Endrődi, 1975

Cyclocephala hardyi Endrődi, 1975c: 281–284 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at INPA (Endrődi 1975c).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Amazonas. GUAYANA: Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo.

References

Endrődi 1975c, Prance and Arias 1975, Pike et al. 1976, Faegri and van der Pijl 1979, Endrődi 1975c, 1985a, Andreazze and Fonseca 1998, Joly 2000b, Andreazze 2001, Seymour and Matthews 2006, Davis et al. 2008, Soderstrom 2008, Thien et al. 2009, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Gottsberger 2016.

Cyclocephala hartmannorum Malý, 2006

Cyclocephala hartmannorum Malý, 2006: 2–5 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at NMPC (Malý 2006).

Distribution

COSTA RICA: Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, San José. PANAMA: Chiriquí, Colón, Panamá.

References

Malý 2006, Krajcik 2012, Dupuis 2008, 2014.

Cyclocephala helavai Endrődi, 1975

Cyclocephala helavai Endrődi, 1975b: 258–260 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at CMNC (Henry and Anne Howden Collection) (Endrődi 1975b).

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Antioquia.

References

Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1975b, 1985a, Restrepo et al. 2003, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala herteli Endrődi, 1964

Cyclocephala herteli Endrődi, 1964: 447–449 [original combination].

syn. Cyclocephala barroensis Endrődi, 1979: 216 [original combination].

Cyclocephala herteli Endrődi, 1964 [synonymy by Ratcliffe 2002a: 29].

Types

Holotype ♂ of C. herteli at USNM (Endrődi 1964). Holotype ♂ of C. barroensis at USNM (Endrődi 1979).

Distribution

PANAMA: Coclé, Colón, Former Canal Zone, Panamá.

References

Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1964, 1966, 1979, 1985a, Ratcliffe 1992a, 2002a, 2003, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Remarks

Cyclocephala barroensis is incorrectly listed as a synonym of C. helavai Endrődi in Krajcik (2005).

Cyclocephala hiekei Endrődi, 1964

Cyclocephala hiekei Endrődi, 1964: 454–456 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at ZMHB (Endrődi 1964).

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Cauca, Chocó.

References

Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1964, 1966, 1985a, Restrepo et al. 2003, Neita-Moreno 2011, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Gasca-Álvarez and Deloya 2016.

Cyclocephala hirsuta Höhne, 1923

Cyclocephala hirsuta Höhne, 1923b: 358–359 [original combination].

Types

Lectotype at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: La Paz. BRAZIL: São Paulo. ECUADOR: Orellana. PERU: San Martín.

References

Höhne 1923b, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Joly 2000a, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2015.

Cyclocephala hirta hirta LeConte, 1861

Cyclocephala hirta LeConte, 1861: 346 [original combination].

Spilosota hirta (LeConte) [new combination by Casey 1915: 132].

Cyclocephala (Spilosota) hirta LeConte [new subgeneric classification by Saylor 1937: 68].

Cyclocephala hirta LeConte [removal of subgeneric classification by Arrow 1937b: 8, 11].

syn. Spilosota inconspicua Casey, 1915: 133 [original combination].

Cyclocephala inconspicua (Casey) [new combination by Arrow 1937b: 8, 11].

Cyclocephala (Spilosota) hirta LeConte [synonymy by Saylor 1937: 68].

syn. Spilosota magister Casey, 1915: 132 [original combination].

Cyclocephala magister (Casey) [new combination by Arrow 1937b: 8, 12].

Cyclocephala (Spilosota) hirta LeConte [synonymy by Saylor 1937: 68].

syn. Spilosota nubeculina Casey, 1915: 131 [original combination].

Cyclocephala nubeculina (Casey) [new combination by Arrow 1937b: 8, 13].

Cyclocephala hirta LeConte [synonymy by Saylor 1945: 384].

syn. Spilosota pallidissima Casey, 1915: 133 [original combination].

Cyclocephala pallidissima (Casey) [new combination by Arrow 1937b: 8, 14].

Cyclocephala (Spilosota) hirta LeConte [synonymy by Saylor 1937: 68].

Types

Endrődi (1966) was uncertain about the housing institutions for the types of C. hirta and its synonyms. He thought they were all at USNM.

Distribution

MEXICO: Aguascalientes, Baja California, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Estado de México, Sonora. USA: Arizona, California, Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Utah.

References

LeConte 1861, Gerstaecker 1862, Harold 1869b, Horn 1871, Crotch 1873, Henshaw 1885, Fall 1901, Casey 1915, Leng 1920, Dawson 1922, Moore 1937, Arrow 1937b, Saylor 1936, 1937, 1945, 1948, Blackwelder 1939, 1944, Bohart 1947, Blackwelder and Blackwelder 1948, Howden and Endrődi 1966, Hatch 1971, Kirk and Balsbaugh 1975, Ritcher and Baker 1974, Pike et al. 1976, 1977, Endrődi 1966, 1969b, 1985a, Hardy 1991, Ratcliffe 1991, Stahly and Klein 1992, Tanada and Kaya 1993, Thurston et al. 1993, 1994, Kaya et al. 1992, 1993, 1995, Cranshaw and Ward 1996, Poole and Gentili 1996, Ratcliffe and Morón 1997, Converse and Grewal 1998, Koppenhöfer and Kaya 1996, 1997, 1998, Theunis 1998, Bauernfeind 2001, Stock et al. 2001, Koppenhöfer et al. 1999, 2000a, b, c, 2002a, b, 2007, 2012, 2013, Riley and Wolfe 2003, Yildrim and Hoy 2003, Ansari et al. 2004, Cranshaw 2004, Mottern et al. 2004, Koppenhöfer and Grewal 2005, Grewal et al. 2005, Jaramillo et al. 2005, Jackson and Klein 2006, Oestergaard et al. 2006, Stuart et al. 2006, Koppenhöfer 2008, Koppenhöfer and Fuzy 2003b, c, 2008b, Ratcliffe and Paulsen 2008, Morales-Rodriguez and Peck 2009, Smith 2003, 2009, Bélair et al. 2010, Holmstrup et al. 2010, Negrisoli et al. 2010, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Perera et al. 2012, Breeschoten et al. 2013, de Coninck et al. 2013, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, Hussaini 2014, Li and Bouwer 2014, Christians et al. 2016, Gyawaly et al. 2016, Del Valle et al. 2017, Wu et al. 2017, Ratcliffe and Cave 2017.

Cyclocephala hirta pilosicollis Saylor, 1936

Spilosota hirta pilosicollis Saylor, 1936: 2 [original combination].

Cyclocephala (Spilosota) hirta pilosicollis Saylor [new subgeneric classification by Saylor 1937: 69].

Cyclocephala pilosicollis (Saylor) [removal of subgeneric classification and new species status by Arrow 1937b: 8].

Cyclocephala hirta LeConte [synonymy by Ratcliffe et al. 2013: 165].

Cyclocephala hirta pilosicollis Saylor [revalidated subspecies status by Ratcliffe and Cave 2017: 67].

Types

Type at USNM (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

USA: California.

References

Saylor 1936, 1937, 1945, Blackwelder and Blackwelder 1948, Howden and Endrődi 1966, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Hardy 1991, Poole and Gentili 1996, Krajcik 2005, 2012, Ratcliffe et al. 2013, Ratcliffe and Cave 2017.

Cyclocephala histrionica Burmeister, 1847

Cyclocephala histrionica Burmeister, 1847: 41 [original combination].

Paraspidolea histrionica (Burmeister) [new combination by Arrow 1937b: 7].

Cyclocephala histrionica Burmeister [revised combination by Endrődi 1966: 77, 127, 217–218].

syn. Aspidolea (Aspidolites) atricollis Höhne, 1922c: 374–376 [original combination].

Aspidolea (Aspidolella) atricollis Höhne [new subgeneric classification by Prell 1936: 146].

Cyclocephala histrionica Burmeister [synonymy by Endrődi 1966: 217, 339].

Types

Lectotype ♂ of C. histrionica at MLUH (Endrődi 1966). Lectotype ♂ of A. atricollis at ZMHB (Endrődi 1966).

Distribution

BRAZIL: Minas Gerais, São Paulo.

References

Burmeister 1847, Harold 1869b, Höhne 1922c, Arrow 1937b, Blackwelder 1944, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1966, 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala holmbergi Martínez, 1968

Cyclocephala holmbergi Martínez, 1968b: 23–26 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at MACN (Antonio Martínez Collection) (Martínez 1968b).

Distribution

BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz.

References

Martínez 1968b, Pike et al. 1976, Endrődi 1985a, Krajcik 2005, 2012.

Cyclocephala howdenannae Endrődi, 1975

Cyclocephala howdenannae Endrődi, 1975b: 257–258 [original combination].

Types

Holotype ♂ at CMNC (Henry and Anne Howden Collection) (Endrődi 1975b).

Distribution

COLOMBIA: Valle del Cauca.

References

Pike et al. 1976,