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The dating of the fourth volume of Guillaume-Antoine Olivier’s “Entomologie, ou histoire naturelle des insectes”
expand article infoYves Bousquet
‡ Unaffiliated, Ottawa, Canada
Open Access

Abstract

Despite the title page is dated 1795, the fourth volume of Olivier’s Entomologie, ou histoire naturelle des insectes was issued in two parts, one probably in 1795 and the second in 1800. All new taxa made available in this work have previously been dated 1795 in the literature. A list of new species described in 1795 and a list of those that have to be dated 1800 are appended. The genus Necrobia should be credited to Latreille, 1797, not Olivier, 1795.

Keywords

Coleoptera, beetles, date of publication, literature

Born in the commune Les Arcs (also known as Les Arcs-sur-Argens), a small village near Toulon in the Var department, southeastern France, on 19 January 1756, Guillaume-Antoine Olivier (Fig. 1) was a French physician and naturalist. He studied medicine at Montpellier and at 17 years old practiced medicine in his native town but soon found his job uninteresting and poorly paid. In 1783, he moved to Paris and worked for Louis Bénigne François Bertier de Sauvigny (b. 1737; d. 1789), the intendant of Paris, and conducted a statistical survey on the generality of Isle de France. Later he was hired by Jean-Baptiste Gigot d’Orcy (b. 1737; d. 1793), the wealthy finance receiver general, to write a natural history of the insects and this is the reason behind Olivier’s connection with the Entomologie ou histoire naturelle des insectes. For this project, Olivier travelled to Britain and the Netherlands to describe the insects and have them illustrated. At about the same time, Olivier was approached to contribute to the natural history of the insects for Charles-Joseph Panckoucke’s (b. 1736; d. 1798) Encyclopédie méthodique, one of the major scientific publication achievements of all time (Evenhuis 2003). In October 1792, Olivier and his friend Jean Guillaume Bruguière (b. 1749/1750; d. 1798) were chosen by the French government to take part in a scientific and diplomatic mission to the Ottoman Empire, Egypt, and Persia. The two sailed from Marseille in April 1793 and for the next six years visited many places in the Middle East where they had the opportunity to collect natural history specimens. Olivier returned to France in December 1798 while Bruguière died in Ancôme on the journey back. Upon his return, Olivier became a member of the prestigious Académie des Sciences in 1800 and worked mainly at writing his two major entomological works and the account of his trip, which was published in three volumes of text in quarto and one volume of plates in 1801, 1804, and 1807. In 1811, he was appointed professor of zoology at L’École nationale vétérinaire d’Alfort but soon suffered from anaemia (wasting disease). In 1814, he went to his native town to rest and on his way back stopped at Lyon where he was found dead, from an aortic aneurism, in his bed on October 1. He was 58 years old. Olivier was a close friend to Johan Christian Fabricius and a patron to Pierre André Latreille particularly during the French Revolution. This account of Olivier’s life is derived from Cuvier (1818) and Walckenaer (1830).

Figure 1. 

A photographic reproduction of an oil portrait of Guillaume-Antoine Olivier [source: Bernard (1997: fig. 1)].

One of the two major publications of Olivier is his Entomologie ou histoire naturelle des insectes. As the title suggests, Olivier apparently intended to treat all insect orders, but in the end only the Coleoptera were dealt with. Six volumes of text and two of plates were published between 1789 and 1808. Each genus in the first four volumes was given a number and separately paginated. The entire work consisted of 3,162 pages and 363 plates (either black and white or colored) issued in 30 livraisons (Anonymous 1808).

The fourth volume treated 18 genera: No 66, Prione / Prionus (41 pp.); No 67, Capricorne / Cerambix [Cerambyx] (132 pp.); No 68, Saperde / Saperda (41 pp.); No 69, Stencore / Stenocorus (30 pp.); No 70, Callidie / Callidium (72 pp.); No 71, Spondyle / Spondylis (4 pp.); No 72, Calope / Calopus (4 pp.); No 73, Lepture / Leptura (34 pp.); No 74, Nécydale / Necydalis (10 pp.); No 74bis, Cucuje / Cucujus (10 pp.); No 75, Donacie / Donacia (12 pp.); No 75bis, Lupère / Luperus (4 pp.); No 76, Clairon / Clerus (18 pp.); No 76bis, Nécrobie / Necrobia (6 pp.); No 77, Bostriche / Bostrichus (18 pp.); No 78, Scolyte / Scolytus (14 pp.); No 79, Bruche / Bruchus (24 pp.); No 80, Macrocéphale / Macrocephalus (16 pp.). Its title page is dated 1795 (Fig. 2) and all publications seen citing the volume have dated it as 1795. However, livraison 23 of the Entomologie ou histoire naturelle des insectes by the citoyen Olivier was announced on 14 Fructidor an 8 (= 31 August 1800) in the Gazette Nationale ou Le Moniteur Universel and in the Fructidor an VIII (= 18 August–22 September 1800) issue of the Journal Général de la Littérature de France, both journals recording new books published in France. The citation mentioned that the continuation of Olivier’s work was postponed because of the six-year voyage of the author in the Orient, and that the present livraison contains about three-quarters of the fourth volume, including the explanatory text of 56 plates. There is other evidence that part of Olivier’s fourth volume of his Entomologie was issued after 1795. The work contains five explicit references to Fabricius’ Supplementum entomologiae systematicae which was published in 1798: “Lamia bicincta. Fab. suppl. Ent. Syst. pag. 145” under Capricorne continu (No 67, p. 123), “Lamia marmorata. Fab. Suppl. Ent. Syst. pag. 144. no.1” under Capricorne bigarré (No 67, p. 124), “Cucujus rufus. Fab. Suppl. Ent. Syst. emend. pag. 123” under Cucuje fauve (No 74bis, p. 5), “Lema flavipes. Fab. Suppl. Ent. Syst. pag. 93. no. 21” under Lupère flavipède (No 75bis, p. 4), and “Anthribus niveirostris rostro latissimo plano elytrorumque apicibus anoque albis. Fab. Ent. Syst. Suppl. pag. 160” under Macrocéphale nivéirostre (No 80, p. 8). In addition, on page 121 (No 67, footnote), Olivier mentioned “Ce genre ayant été imprimé pendant mon voyage dans les contrées orientales, on a omis quelques descriptions que je m’empresse de donner ici” [This genus was printed during my voyage to the oriental region and some descriptions were omitted which I hasten to present here]. As mentioned previously, Olivier returned from his trip in December 1798. Finally, Illiger (1800: ix) mentioned in the Vorrede, dated 15 April 1800, of the first volume of his German translation of Olivier’s work “Entomologie” that the fourth volume of the series was not yet published [Der vierte noch nicht erschienene Band wird wahrscheinlich der Werk schliessen].

Figure 2. 

Title page of Olivier’s tome 4 of the Entomologie, ou histoire naturelle des insectes.

One problematic question remains. What exactly is the content of livraison 23 since the recording journals cited above simply mentioned that it included about three-quarters of the fourth volume? Bousquet (2016: 393) surmised that it could comprise the text from page 81 of the Capricorne (No 67). In fact there is a clue in the text suggesting that this could be the case. All capricorne species described up to page 80 have the Latin generic name incorrectly spelled Cerambix, while those on the following pages have the name correctly spelled Cerambyx. This is circumstantial evidence that a break occurred in the printing of the text. So, as far as I am concerned all new species described from page 81 (No 67) onwards should be dated 1800. A list of them is given in Appendix 2.

The genus Necrobia has been attributed to “Olivier 1795” from this work by almost all authors seen. The name is so entered in the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology following Opinion 604 (ICZN 1961). However, this is incorrect since the name appeared in livraison 23 of Olivier’s Entomologie which, as previously mentioned, was published in 1800. Olivier (1800: 1, No 76bis) wrote under Necrobia “Le cit. Latreille est le premier qui ait senti que ces insectes [Clerus] devoient être séparés des uns et des autres, et former un genre particulier, auquel il a donné le nom de Nécrobie...” [Latreille is the first that saw the necessity to separate these insects (referring to those of the genus Clerus) and formed a peculiar genus to which he gave the name Necrobie (i.e., Necrobia)1]. Latreille (1797: 35) indeed first proposed the name Necrobia and made it available. This was recognized by Sherborn (1902: 650) who correctly credited the genus from Latreille’s Précis des caractères génériques des insectes while Neave (1940: 276) wrote beside Necrobia “Olivier 1795 [?], Entomologie 4, no. 76 (bis); Latreille 1796, Préc. Car. Ins., 35.” Although Latreille described the genus, he did not include any species under it. The nominal species first subsequently and expressly included in the genus Necrobia are the three cited by Olivier (1800), namely N. violacea, N. rufipes, and N. ruficollis. In Opinion 604 (ICZN 1961), Dermestes violaceus Linnaeus, 1758 was validated as the type species of the genus.

There are 72 plates associated with the genera treated in volume 4 of Olivier’s Entomologie: 13 for Prionus (No 66), 23 for Cerambix / Cerambyx (No 67), 4 for Saperda (No 68), 3 for Stenocorus (No 69), 8 for Callidium (No 70), 1 for Spondylis and Calopus (Nos 71 and 72); 4 for Leptura (No 73); 1 for Necydalis (No 74); 1 for Cucujus (No 74bis); 1 for Donacia and 1 for Donacia and Luperus (Nos 75 and 75bis); 1 for Clerus and 1 for Clerus and Necrobia (Nos 76 and 76bis); 3 for Bostrichus (No 77); 2 for Scolytus (No 78); 3 for Bruchus (No 79); 2 for Macrocephalus (no 80). There are no scientific names on the plates2, except for the respective genus at the top. At the recommendation of the editor, these plates were usually placed in the eighth volume (the second of the plates) of the series. The title page is dated 1808 but it is obvious that most, if not all, of the plates were issued prior to this date. For example, Fabricius (1792) cited the following plates from Olivier’s volume 4: 1–6, 12 (Prionus), 1–12, 14–19 (Cerambyx), 1 and 2 (Saperda), 2 (Stenocorus), 1–7 (Callidium), 1 and 2 (Leptura).

The question remaining is when the first part of Olivier’s volume 4 (i.e., Nos 66 and 67 up to page 80) was actually published. I have been unable to find the livraison in which this part was published nor did I find a date of publication in a recording journal for livraison 22 of the work, which could deal with the first part. Livraison 21 was noticed in 1796 in the third volume of the second year of the Magasin Encyclopédique ou Journal des Sciences, des Lettres et des Arts (p. 558) but no indication was provided as to its content. What is puzzling is that the first author I found giving reference to any of the species included in the entire fourth volume is Latreille (1804), more than eight years after the alleged publication of the first part in 1795. Even Fabricius (1801), who intended to treat all Coleoptera known at the time, did not include any of the new species described in Olivier’s entire fourth volume of his Entomologie. Since the title page is dated 1795 (Fig. 2), the date of 31 December 1795 should be adopted as the correct date of publication of the first part (ICZN 1999, Article 21.3.2) until additional evidence is found. A list of the new species described in the first part is included in Appendix 1.

Acknowledgments

I thank Anthony Davies, Neal L. Evenhuis, and Martyn E.Y. Low for reviewing the manuscript and providing comments that improved it.

References

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Appendix 1

List of new species described in Olivier’s first part of volume 4 of his Entomologie (Nos 66 and 67 up to p. 80), dated 1795, along with the original localities mentioned. Note. Cerambix denticornis [67: 60; pl. 5, fig. 33] is a replacement name for Lamia spinicornis Fabricius, 1781 and Cerambix sulcatus [67: 28; pl. 16, fig. 113] is a replacement name for Cerambyx festivus Fabricius, 1775.

Prionus accentifer [66: 8; pl. 4, fig. 16] [[Locality not indicated]]

Prionus angulatus [66: 31; pl. 1, fig. 2] [Locality not indicated]

Prionus ater [66: 11; pl. 7, fig. 24] Cayenne

Prionus castaneus [66: 23; pl. 8, fig. 28, 29] [Locality not indicated]

Prionus cinereus [66: 35; pl. 13, fig. 55] Surinam

Prionus corticinus [66: 21; pl. 9, fig. 34] Cayenne

Prionus crenatus [66: 27; pl. 12, fig. 45] Cayenne

Prionus exsertus [66: 17; pl. 8, fig. 31] Saint-Domingue

Prionus maculatus [66: 27; pl. 4, fig. 14] Sénégal

Prionus obscurus [66: 26; pl. 1, fig. 7] Provence

Prionus octangularis [66: 33; pl. 6, fig. 19 + pl. 13, fig. 54] [Locality not indicated]

Prionus orientalis [66: 28; pl. 13, fig. 51] Ceylan

Prionus quadrilineatus [66: 40; pl. 3, fig. 11] [Locality not indicated]

Prionus scutellaris [66: 14; pl. 2, fig. 9] Cayenne

Prionus senegalensis [66: 22; pl. 7, fig. 25] Sénégal

Prionus sericeus [66: 16; pl. 8, fig. 26] Cayenne

Prionus serraticornis [66: 14; pl. 9, fig. 33] [Locality not indicated]

Prionus speciosus [66: 31; pl. 4, fig. 13] [Locality not indicated]

Prionus sulcatus [66: 39; pl.8, fig. 27] Cayenne

Prionus tuberculatus [66: 20; pl. 6, fig. 22] Amérique méridionale

Prionus undatus [66: 32; pl. 13, fig. 53] Surinam

Prionus vittatus [66: 39; pl. 6, fig. 20] Indes orientales

Cerambix analis [67: 37; pl. 19, fig. 144] [Locality not indicated]

Cerambix angolator [67: 71; pl. 22, fig. 170] Angole

Cerambix bicinctus [67: 46; pl. 21, fig. 166] [Locality not indicated]

Cerambix bilineatus [67: 17; pl. 21, fig. 161] [Locality not indicated]

Cerambix crassicornis [67: 51; pl. 20, fig. 150] [Locality not indicated]

Cerambix emarginatus [67: 48; pl. 22, fig. 82] Brésil

Cerambix fuliginosus [67: 14; pl. 10, fig. 64] [Locality not indicated]

Cerambix globosus [67: 27; pl. 12, fig. 81] Batavia

Cerambix hirtipes [67: 36; pl. 20, fig. 157] Cap de Bonne-Espérance

Cerambix humeralis [67: 38; pl. 19, fig. 141] [Locality not indicated]

Cerambix maculatus [67: 68; pl. 7, fig. 49 + pl. 22, fig. 174] Indes orientales

Cerambix maxillosus [67: 52; pl. 20, fig. 147] [Locality not indicated]

Cerambix nigripes [67: 52; pl. 20, fig. 149] [Locality not indicated]

Cerambix papulosus [67: 72; pl. 20, fig. 156] Indes orientales

Cerambix rugosus [67: 12; pl. 21, fig. 159] Cayenne

Cerambix scapularis [67: 17; pl. 21, fig. 162] [Locality not indicated]

Cerambix scutellaris [67: 16; pl. 21, fig. 160] [Locality not indicated]

Cerambix subocellatus [67: 69; pl. 2, fig. 12] [Locality not indicated]

Cerambix unidentatus [67: 20; pl. 19, fig. 145] [Locality not indicated]

Cerambix verrucosus [67: 63; pl. 20, fig. 148] [Locality not indicated]

Cerambix virescens [67: 77; pl. 2, fig. 8] [Locality not indicated]

Appendix 2

List of new species described in Olivier’s second part of volume 4 of his Entomologie (from No 67 page 81 to the end), issued in 1800, along with the original localities mentioned.

Cerambyx aestuans [67: 123; pl. 23, fig. 176] Sénégal

Cerambyx armatus [67: 121; pl. 19, fig. 14] Surinam

Cerambyx bifasciatus [67: 94; pl. 14, fig. 98] Afrique équinoxiale

Cerambyx caelatus [67: 99; pl. 11, fig. 79 + pl. 12, fig. 79] Indes orientales

Cerambyx continuus [67: 123; pl. 23, fig. 177] Afrique

Cerambyx crocatus [67: 92, pl. 12, fig. 80] Madagascar

Cerambyx decorus [67: 128; pl. 5, fig. 38] Sénégal

Cerambyx dentifer [67: 132; pl. 23, fig. 185] Afrique

Cerambyx didymus [67: 125; pl. 23, fig. 179] Amérique méridionale

Cerambyx formosus [67: 86, pl. 20, fig. 153] [Locality not indicated]

Cerambyx gallo-provincialis [67: 125, pl. 3, fig. 17] Provence

Cerambyx hemipterus [67: 127; pl. 23, fig. 181] Java

Cerambyx lateralis [67: 129; pl. 5, fig. 36] [Locality not indicated]

Cerambyx macularis [67: 98; pl. 20, fig. 154] Surinam

Cerambyx obsoletus [67: 130; pl. 13, fig. 90] Caroline, Pensylvanie

Cerambyx ornatus [67: 88; pl. 4, fig. 24 + pl. 1, fig. 6] Afrique

Cerambyx pectoralis [67: 122; pl. 23, fig. 175] Sénégal

Cerambyx plumosus [67: 98; pl. 20, fig. 152] Indes orientales

Cerambyx sanguinolentus [67: 93; pl. 20, fig. 155] [Locality not indicated]

Cerambyx sordidus [67: 124; pl. 1, fig. 5] Sénégal

Cerambyx spinipes [67: 103; pl. 10, fig. 66] isle de Bourbon

Cerambyx stigma [67: 126; pl. 23, fig. 180] Amérique méridionale

Cerambyx umbraticus [67: 129; pl. 11, fig. 75] Cayenne

Cerambyx villicus [67: 102; pl. 10, fig. 72] isle de Bourbon

Saperda annularis [68: 11; pl. 4, fig. 36] Espagne

Saperda bicolor [68: 32; pl. 3, fig. 25] Amérique septentrionale, en Géorgie

Saperda bicornis [68: 27; pl. 4, fig. 46] [Locality not indicated]

Saperda bimaculata [68: 21; pl. 4, fig. 43] Département du Var

Saperda cinerea [68: 28; pl. 3, fig. 35] Amérique septentrionale

Saperda cornuta [68: 26; pl. 4, fig. 45] Surinam

Saperda elegans [68: 15; pl. 4, fig. 40] [Locality not indicated]

Saperda elongata [68: 19; pl. 3, fig. 34] Chine

Saperda fasciculata [68: 14; pl. 1, fig. 3] Amérique méridionale

Saperda filiformis [68: 28; pl. 4, fig. 47] Sénégal

Saperda hirticollis [68: 11; pl. 4, fig. 37] [Locality not indicated]

Saperda hirtipes [68: 14; pl. 1, fig. 8] Amérique méridionale, Cayenne, Surinam

Saperda lunaris [68: 7; pl. 2, fig. 21] Indes orientales

Saperda maculata [68: 32 + 68: 39; pl. 3, fig. 33] Amérique septentrionale, dans la Géorgie

Saperda mucronata [68: 30; pl. 1, fig. 10] [Locality not indicated]

Saperda pallipes [68: 31; pl. 4, fig. 49] Surinam

Saperda plumbea [68: 21; pl. 4, fig. 42] Amérique septentrionale

Saperda rufipes [68: 25; pl. 2, fig. 14] Département du Var

Saperda thoracica [68: 18; pl. 2, fig. 19] [Locality not indicated]

Saperda tridentata [68: 30; pl. 3, fig. 48] Canada

Stenocorus bicolor [69: 16; pl. 1, fig. 4] [Locality not indicated]

Stenocorus humeralis [69: 22; pl. 2, fig. 18] Allemagne et en Hongrie

Stenocorus laevis [69: 21; pl. 3, fig. 25] France

Stenocorus lineatus [69: 13; pl. 3, fig. 22] Amérique

Stenocorus niger [69: 19; pl. 3, fig. 24] Mont-Pila

Stenocorus scrutator [69: 10; pl. 3, fig. 21] Autriche

Stenocorus sericeus [69: 20; pl. 1, fig. 8] France

Stenocorus suturalis [69: 29; pl. 4, fig. 29] Indes orientales

Stenocorus testaceus [69: 27; pl. 2, fig. 20] Cap de Bonne-Espérance et dans la Géorgie

Callidium abdominale [70: 70; pl. 8, fig. 103] midi de la France

Callidium araneiforme [70: 61; pl. 7, fig. 90] Saint-Domingue

Callidium arvicola [70: 64; pl. 8, fig. 93] midi de la France

Callidium campestre [70: 65; pl. 8, fig. 95] Amérique septentrionale

Callidium cinereum [70: 69; pl. 8, fig. 102] Saint-Domingue

Callidium decorum [70: 63; pl. 8, fig. 92] Newyork

Callidium irroratum [70: 70; pl. 8, fig. 104] Saint-Domingue

Callidium lucidum [70: 59; pl. 7, fig. 86] Saint-Domingue

Callidium notatum [70: 61; pl. 7, fig. 89] New-York

Callidium palmatum [70: 29; pl. 7, fig. 82] Amérique méridionale

Callidium pini [70: 71; pl. 8, fig. 105] New-York

Callidium pulverulentum [70: 69; pl. 8, fig. 101] Amérique septentrionale

Callidium rhombifer [70: 46; pl. 4, fig. 51] Géorgie

Callidium rufum [70: 28; pl. 7, fig. 81] [Locality not indicated]

Callidium ruricola [70: 65; pl. 8, fig. 96] Saint-Domingue

Callidium spinicorne [70: 68; pl 8, fig. 100] Saint-Domingue

Callidium suturale [70: 62; pl. 7, fig. 91] Saint-Domingue

Callidium unicolor [70: 58; pl. 7, fig. 84] côtes de Barbarie; Asie mineure, dans la Mésopotamie

Callidium verrucosum [70: 67; pl. 8, fig. 98] New-York

Callidium villicum [70: 64; pl. 8, fig. 94] Amérique septentrionale

Leptura acuminata [73: 20; pl. 3, fig. 35] Amérique septentrionale

Leptura arcuata [73: 32; pl. 4, fig. 47] Amérique septentrionale

Leptura canadensis [73: 8; pl. 3, fig. 27] Canada

Leptura circumdata [73: 32; pl. 4, fig. 48] Amérique septentrionale

Leptura cordifera [73: 25; pl. 4, fig. 41] Amérique septentrionale

Leptura cruciata [73: 7; pl. 1, fig. 5] environs de Paris

Leptura decem-punctata [73: 26; pl. 4, fig. 42] Hongrie, aux environs de Paris

Leptura lateralis [73: 22; pl. 3, fig. 37] Amérique septentrionale

Leptura limbata [73: 31; pl. 2, fig. 20] Europe

Leptura notata [73: 11; pl. 1, fig. 11] Europe

Leptura vagans [73: 31; pl. 4, fig. 46] Amérique septentrionale

Leptura velutina [73: 18; pl. 3, fig. 32] Amérique septentrionale

Leptura vittata [73: 30; pl. 4, fig. 45] Canada

Leptura zebra [73: 19; pl. 3, fig. 33] Amérique septentrionale

Necydalis abdominalis [74: 8; pl. 1, fig. 5] Cayenne

Necydalis analis [74: 7; pl. 1, fig. 4] [Locality not indicated]

Necydalis fasciata [74: 10; pl. 1, fig. 9] Amérique méridionale

Necydalis nigricornis [74: 10; pl. 1, fig. 8] Surinam

Necydalis sanguinicollis [74: 9; pl. 1, fig. 7] Amérique septentrionale

Cucujus americanus [74bis: 7; pl. 7, fig. a.b.] Cayenne

Cucujus ater [74bis: 9; pl. 1, fig. 10.a.b.] Europe

Donacia caerulea [75: 10; pl. 2, fig. 10] Caroline

Donacia palmata [75: 8; pl. 1, fig. 7] Amérique septentrionale

Clerus leucopsideus [76: 8; pl. 1, fig. 6] Catalogne

Clerus quadriguttatus [76: 18; pl. 2, fig. 23] Caroline

Clerus scabrosus [76: 16; pl. 2, fig. 19] Afrique équinoxiale

Clerus thoracicus [76: 18; pl. 2, fig. 22] Caroline

Clerus umbellatarum [76: 5; pl. 1, fig. 2] Barbarie

Bostrichus bidentatus [77: 16; pl. 3, fig. 20] Syrie

Bostrichus lineatus [77: 18; pl. 3, fig. 23] Europe

Bostrichus longicornis [77: 15; pl. 3, fig. 18] Saint-Domingue

Bostrichus rufipes [77: 17; pl. 3, fig. 21] Paris

Bostrichus rugosus [77: 18; pl. 3, fig. 24] Amérique septentrionale

Bostrichus trispinosus [77: 16; pl. 3, fig. 19] Mésopotamie

Scolytus destructor [78: 5; pl. 1, fig. 4] Europe

Scolytus frontalis [78: 13; pl. 2, fig. 20] Amérique septentrionale

Scolytus impressus [78: 12; pl. 2, fig. 19] Paris

Scolytus pusillus [78: 14; pl. 2, fig. 23] Paris

Scolytus quadridentatus [78: 5; pl. 1, fig. 3] Amérique septentrionale

Scolytus retusus [78: 10; pl. 2, fig. 14] Paris

Scolytus sexdentatus [78: 11; pl. 2, fig. 15] Paris

Scolytus spinosus [78: 9; pl. 2, fig. 11] Java

Scolytus terebrans [78: 7; pl. 1, fig. 6] Amérique septentrionale

Scolytus varius [78: 11; pl. 2, fig. 17] France

Bruchus biguttatus [79: 20; pl. 3, fig. 27] France, îles de l’Archipel

Bruchus bimaculatus [79: 18; pl. 3, fig. 22] France

Bruchus coryphae [79: 16; pl. 2, fig. 18] Amérique septentrionale

Bruchus fasciatus [79: 20; pl. 3, fig. 25] environs de Paris

Bruchus hibiscus [79: 21; pl. 3, fig. 28] Amérique septentrionale

Bruchus irroratus [79: 21; pl. 3, fig. 29] Java

Bruchus nebulosus [79: 20; pl. 3, fig. 26] France

Bruchus quinqueguttatus [79: 15; pl. 2, fig. 16] Barbarie, aux îles de l’Archipel, sur les Cistes

Bruchus tragacanthae [79: 15; pl. 2, fig. 17] Perse

Bruchus unicolor [79: 17; pl. 2, fig. 20] Europe

Bruchus varius [79: 18; pl. 3, fig. 23] Europe

Bruchus viciae [79: 12; pl. 2, fig. 11] midi de la France

Macrocephalus bidens [80: 13; pl. 2, fig. 18] Saint-Domingue

Macrocephalus bimaculatus [80: 14; pl. 2, fig. 19] Géorgie

Macrocephalus cinereus [80: 4; pl. 1, fig. 2] Indes-Orientales

Macrocephalus fasciatus [80: 9; pl. 1, fig. 9] Amérique septentrionale, à la Géorgie

Macrocephalus fuliginosus [80: 11; pl. 2, fig. 13] Indes-Orientales

Macrocephalus lugubris [80: 13; pl. 2, fig. 17] Géorgie

Macrocephalus maculatus [80: 11; pl. 2, fig. 14] Indes-Orientales

Macrocephalus marmoreus [80: 12; pl. 2, fig. 16] Géorgie, en Caroline

Macrocephalus murinus [80: 12; pl. 2, fig. 15] Indes-Orientales

Macrocephalus nebulosus [80: 5; pl. 1, fig. 3] Cayenne

Macrocephalus transversus [80: 10; pl. 1, fig. 12] Indes-Orientales

Macrocephalus tuberculatus [80: 10; pl. 1, fig. 11] Afrique

Macrocephalus variegatus [80: 4; pl. 1, fig. 1] [Locality not indicated]

Macrocephalus verrucosus [80: 6; pl. 1, fig. 5] [Locality not indicated]

^1

It is ironic that Latreille proposed the generic name for the insect [Necrobia ruficollis (Fabricius)] that saved his life a few years prior when he was jailed as a non-jurist priest waiting for deportation (see Peyerimhoff 1932: 66–67, for the story). Latreille’s friends, who paid for his monument, had the figure of the beetle engraved along with these words “Necrobia ruficollis, Latreillii salus” (Lemaout 1842: 322).

^2

The copy on Biodiversity Heritage Library has handwritten specific names added subsequently.