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Research Article
An illustrated key to the genera of Eumeninae from China, with a checklist of species (Hymenoptera, Vespidae)
expand article infoJiang-Li Tan, James M. Carpenter§, Cornelis van Achterberg
‡ Northwest University, Xi’an, China
§ American Museum of Natural History, New York, United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

An illustrated key to the currently recognized genera of the subfamily Eumeninae (Vespidae) from China is presented together with a list of 267 species and subspecies, belonging to 51 genera. Nortozumia van der Vecht, 1937 is reported for the first time from China. Two replacement names are proposed for junior primary homonyms: Ancistrocerus rufofrustius Tan & Carpenter, nom. n. replacing Ancistrocerus rufopictus (Kostylev) and Orientalicesa confasciatus Tan & Carpenter, nom. n. replacing Orientalicesa unifasciatus (von Schulthess, 1934).

Keywords

homonym, illustrated key, new record, Oriental, Palaearctic

Introduction

Eumeninae or potter wasps are the largest subfamily of the Vespidae with 3773 valid species in 205 genera (Carpenter 1986; Zhou et al. 2011; Tan et al. 2015, 2018a; Pannure et al. 2016; Carpenter unpubl.). Eumeninae have a cosmopolitan distribution and are morphologically very diverse. The generic classification of Eumeninae is chaotic and has a troubled taxonomic history. The extreme splitting haphazardly pursued during much of the 20th century has contributed much to this current state (Hermes et al. 2014). Clearly, the situation with the generic classification will have to be rationalized by future synonymy of numerous taxa after their phylogeny is better known (Carpenter and Cumming 1985; Carpenter and Garcete-Barrett 2003; Hermes et al. 2014). The need for taxonomic work on Eumeninae is underlined by the lack of adequate and well-illustrated keys, both to genera and to species (Pannure et al. 2016). The few generic keys available concern one region or a country: Yamane (1990) revised the Japanese fauna of Eumeninae with a key to 18 genera, Carpenter and Garcete-Barrett (2003) presented a key to the genera of Neotropical Eumeninae and Pannure et al. (2016) included a key to the 31 eumenine genera known from South India. We present the first illustrated key to genera of Eumeninae from a major area encompassing two faunal regions and the first complete key to genera of Chinese Eumeninae. It is a major step to facilitate the classification of Chinese Eumeninae. Nevertheless, the status of several genera remains problematical; only a combined approach using molecular, biological, and morphological data will make it possible to decide their taxonomic position.

The Chinese Eumeninae were first catalogued by Liu (1936–1937) resulting in a list of 57 species divided among nine genera. Unfortunately, his research stopped after his only revision (Pareumenes; Liu 1941). Lee (1982a, 1985) published the most recent key to the genera of Eumeninae in China, including only 25 genera (for 65 species and 13 subspecies). Finally, Zhou et al. (2011) listed 45 genera present in China and included 172 species and 50 subspecies. Several scattered papers have been published on Chinese Eumeninae, but a thorough inventory is lacking (Zhou et al. 2012, 2013; Li and Chen 2014a, 2014b, 2015, 2016a, 2016b; You et al. 2013; Ma et al. 2016, 2017; Nguyen and Xu 2014; 2015; 2017; Yeh and Lu 2017; Tan et al. 2018a). The illustrated key to the genera of Chinese Eumeninae presented here includes 51 genera and the checklist contains 267 species and subspecies in total. One genus (Nortozumia van der Vecht, 1937) is reported as new to China. Two replacement names are proposed for junior primary homonyms: Ancistrocerus rufofrustius Tan & Carpenter, nom. n. replacing Ancistrocerus rufopictus (Kostylev) and Orientalicesa confasciatus Tan & Carpenter, nom. n. replacing Orientalicesa unifasciatus (von Schulthess, 1934).

Material and methods

Specimens were collected by hand net or with Malaise traps. The studied specimens are deposited in the collections of College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi’an (NWUX); Northwest A&F University Entomological Museum, Yangling, Shaanxi (NWAY); Zhejiang University Hymenoptera Museum, Hangzhou (ZJUH); General Station of Forest Pest Management, State Forestry Administration, Shenyang (GSFA); American Museum of Natural History, New York (AMNH); Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden (RMNH); Museum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris (MNHN); and Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg (SDEI).

Morphological terminology follows Carpenter and Cumming (1985), Yamane (1990), and Carpenter and Garcete-Barrett (2003). Observations and descriptions were made with an Olympus SZX11 stereomicroscope and fluorescent lamps. Photographic images were made with Keyence VHX-5000 digital microscope (NWUX, Xi’an), Olympus SZX 12 stereomicroscope with analySIS Soft Imaging System software (RMNH, Leiden), and Microptics-USA/Visionary Digital photomicrographic system, developed by Roy Larimer, multiple layers stacked using Helicon Focus (AMNH, New York).

Key to genera of Eumeninae from China

1 Tergum I more or less petiolate, slender and its apical half parallel-sided or slightly narrowed posteriorly (1a); tergum I usually at least twice as long as wide (but in e.g., Pseudozumia slightly longer than wide); tergum II twice maximum width of tergum I in dorsal view, but approx. 1.5 × in Pseudozumia 2
Tergum I robust and its apical half widened posteriorly (1aa); tergum I much less than twice as long as wide; tergum II at most twice as wide as tergum I 18
2 Middle tibia with two spurs (2a) 3
Middle tibia with one spur (2aa) 5
3 Propodeum with valvula distinctly protruding, elongate and rectangular (3a), orifice acutely pointed dorsally (3b) Zethus Fabricius
Propodeum with valvula not protruding (3aa), orifice rounded dorsally (3bb) 4
4 Maxillary palpus 3-segmented (4a); tergum I more than twice as long as wide, longitudinally striate (4b); tegula posteriorly acute (4c) Calligaster de Saussure
Maxillary palpus 4-segmented (4aa); tergum I less than twice as long as wide, punctate (4bb); tegula posteriorly truncate (4cc) Discoelius Latreille
5 Propodeal valvula relatively short, rounded, submarginal carina distinctly protruding (5a); frons distinctly longer than clypeus; second submarginal cell narrow anteriorly, vein 1-M and vein 2-M meeting almost at right angle (5b) 6
Propodeal valvula elongate, rectangular, submarginal carina not protruding (4aa); frons shorter than clypeus; second submarginal cell wide anteriorly, vein 1-M and vein 2-M meeting at obtuse angle (5bb) 8
6 Female with fovea anterior to mid-ocellus (6a); metanotum monodentiform mesally (6d); metasomal petiole abruptly swollen apically in lateral view (6c); tegula not exceeding parategula posteriorly (6b); anterior face of pronotum smooth (6e) Labus de Saussure
Female without fovea on vertex (6aa); metanotum obtuse mesally (6dd); metasomal petiole not conspicuously swollen in lateral view (6cc); tegula more or less exceeding parategula posteriorly (6bb); anterior face of pronotum distinctly punctuate laterally (6ee) 7
7 Mesoscutum distinctly longer than wide (7a), apical margin of tergum I wider than half width of TII (7b); parategula short, almost absent, tegula distinctly exceeding parategula (7c) Leptomicrodynerus Giordani Soika
Mesoscutum distinctly wider than long (7aa); apical margin of tergum I narrower than half width of tergum II (7bb); parategula normal, tegula slightly exceeding parategula (7cc) Cyrtolabulus van der Vecht
8 Propodeum dorsally with elongate fovea from which a carina runs to orifice, usually with dentiform projections above valvulae (8a); axillary fossa narrower than long, slit-like (8b); tegula with narrow posterior lobe which about equals parategula posteriorly (8c) 9
Propodeum without fovea or dentiform projections (8aa); axillary fossa oval, broader than long (8bb); tegula short, convex and not equalling parategula posteriorly (8cc), or long, with narrow posterior lobe which surpasses parategula posteriorly 14
9 Mesepisternum with epicnemial carina present (9a) 10
Mesepisternum with epicnemial carina absent (9aa) 13
10 Metasomal petiole with transverse carina basally (10a, a’) 11
Metasomal petiole not carinate (10aa, aa’) 12
11 Tergum I with its lateral margins fused ventrally; sternum I reduced to posterior crescentic sclerite (11a); [mesonotum and propodeum smooth between fine punctures] Ectopioglossa Perkins
Tergum I with lateral margins not meeting ventrally, sternum I visible along entire petiole length (11aa) Nortozumia van der Vecht (new record)
12 Mesoscutum with a pair of prescutellar longitudinal groove (12a); forewing with parastigma longer than pterostigma (12b); sternum I irregularly rugose posteriorly, with rugae running in longitudinal direction (12c) Pseudozumia de Saussure
Mesoscutum without prescutellar longitudinal groove (12aa); forewing with parastigma shorter than pterostigma (12bb); sternum I smooth basally, its posterior two thirds transversely striate or smooth (12cc) Coeleumenes van der Vecht
13 Forewing with parastigma longer than pterostigma (13a); sternum I gradually widened backwards with regular transverse striae (13b); female with cephalic fovea (13c); hind tibia with number of short spines on its outside (13d) Pareumenes de Saussure
Forewing with parastigma shorter than pterostigma (13aa); sternum I narrower basally, more or less fused with tergum I, posteriorly short, triangular and without ruga (13bb); female without cephalic fovea (13cc); hind tibia without spines on its outside (13dd) Pseumenes Giordani Soika
14 Tergum I impunctate or with only a few small punctures (14c); propodeum inclining posteriorly into a slope (14a); tergum II without lamella separated by preapical thickening, sometimes with pale border (14b) 15
Tergum I with dense, coarse punctation (14cc); propodeum less inclined posteriorly (14aa); tergum II with apical lamella more or less separated from disc by preapical thickening (14bb) 17
15 Clypeus apically rounded (15a); temple in dorsal view as long as eye (15b) Katamenes Meade-Waldo
Clypeus apically truncate or emarginated (15aa); temple in dorsal view shorter than eye (15bb) 16
16 Tergum I slightly longer than mesosoma, with section after spiracles shorter than section before spiracles (16a); male: terminal sternum with a longitudinal groove (16b) Delta de Saussure
Tergum I much longer than mesosoma, with section after spiracles longer than section before spiracles (16aa); male: terminal sternum without groove (16bb) Phimenes Giordani Soika
17 Pronotum with pretegular carina absent (17b); parastigma of forewing shorter than half of pterostigma (17a); female: apical margin of clypeus emarginated (17c); propodeum lateral margin rounded, without distinct border with posterior face; male: apical antennal segment medium-sized and curved (17d) Eumenes Latreille
Pronotum with pretegular carina present (17bb); parastigma of forewing longer than half of pterostigma (17aa); female: apical margin of clypeus truncated (17cc); propodeum lateral side distinctly separated from its posterior face; male: apical antennal segment small and straight (17dd) Oreumenes Bequaert
18 Tegula evenly rounded posteriorly and usually not reaching apex of parategula (18a); male antenna apically spiralled (18b) 19
Tegula protruding posteriorly, emarginate or truncate adjoining parategula (18aa); male antenna apically hooked or simple (18bb) 22
19 Labial palpi 3-segmented, in female segment II and III both broadly flattened, fringed with setae, forming a psammophore (19a); sterna II-V in male usually with central apical brush (19b) 20
Labial palpus 4-segmented, in female cylindrical, without psammophore (19aa); sterna II-V in male usually without central apical brush (19bb) 21
20 Maxillary palpus 5- (20a) or 6- (20a’) segmented; female: labial palpus segment II thick basally, segment II, III not curved (20b); male: mandible with penultimate tooth often without deep excision, and axis of penultimate tooth is at an oblique angle relative to main axis of mandible and approximately parallel to axis of apical tooth (20c); body <9 mm Pterocheilus Klug
Maxillary palpus 6-segmented (20aa); female: labial palpus segment II and III slender, flat and curved (20bb); male: mandible with distance between second and third tooth broad (20cc) or deeply and broadly excised, and axis of penultimate tooth is at approximately a right angle relative to the main axis of the mandible and relative to the apical tooth (20cc’); body >10 mm Onychopterocheilus Blüthgen
21 Propodeum with lateral carinae well developed (21a); female without cephalic foveae (21b); vertex weakly longitudinally rugose posteriorly (21b); temples and mesosoma with very fine pubescence; male sterna II-VI with conspicuous fringe of setae (21c) Tropidodynerus Blüthgen
Propodeum with lateral carinae weak or absent (21aa); female with cephalic foveae; vertex not rugose; temples and mesosoma with long setae (21bb); male sterna without fringe of setae (21cc) Odynerus Latreille
22 Anterior face of pronotum with two close and deeply impressed pits, which may be approximated, or with series of elongate foveae (22a); tegula broad, wider than long, not surpassing parategula (except Jucancistrocerus) (22b); propodeum valvula bilamellate (with submarginal carina produced into pointed lamella apically and valvula enlarged and free posteriorly from submarginal carina) (22c) 23
Anterior face of pronotum without deep pits or foveae (except punctures) (22aa, aa’); submarginal carina, propodeum valvula and tegula variable 28
23 Tergum I with two transverse carinae (23a) or with one (23a’) 24
Tergum I without transverse carinae (23aa) 27
24 Tegula densely punctate, sieve-like, surpassing parategula posteriorly (24a); propodeal dorsum without extending horizontal area (24b); pretegular carina absent (24c); [carina of tergum I indistinct in some species] Jucancistrocerus Blüthgen
Tegula usually finely punctate (24aa); propodeal dorsum extending horizontally, forming shelf-like area behind metanotum (24bb); pretegular carina present (24cc) 25
25 Tergum I with two carinae, tergum wider than long in dorsal view, both carinae relatively close near each other (25a) Subancistrocerus de Saussure
Tergum I with one (25aa) or two carinae (25aa’); if with two carinae, then tergum I longer than wide in dorsal view, more or less petiole-like and distance between both carinae relatively large 26
26 Anterior face of pronotum with foveae separated (26a); tergum II usually smooth basally, forming an acarinarium (26b); metasoma sessile, tergum I nearly as wide as tergum II (26b’) Parancistrocerus Bequaert
Anterior face of pronotum with contiguous foveae (26aa); tergum II ridged basally, not forming an acarinarium; tergum I in dorsal view longer than wide, tergum II much wider than tergum I (26bb) Pseudonortonia Giordani Soika
27 Tergum I relatively short, gradually widened, with its lateral sides divergent in dorsal view (27a); vertex strongly depressed, forming an acute triangle with face (27b, arrowing part); in female, apical margin of clypeus truncated and with two longitudinal carinae (27c); anterior face of pronotum with foveae coalesced (27b) Paraleptomenes Giordani Soika
Tergum I relatively long, roughly parallel-sided in dorsal view (27aa); vertex normal, not forming an acute triangle with face (27bb); apical margin of clypeus emarginate and without carina (27cc); anterior face of pronotum with foveae separated (22a). [Note: if tergum I of Parancistrocerus spp. has an indistinct transverse carina, then it is difficult to separate them from Stenodynerus; Parancistrocerus spp. usually have an acarinarium on tergum II basally and tergum I more or less lengthened medially in dorsal view, while Stenodynerus spp. have tergum II ridged basally and tergum I medio-dorsally without elongation] Stenodynerus de Saussure
28 Tergum I transversely carinate (28a) or horizontal and vertical faces of tergum clearly separated (Pararrhynchium, 28a’) 29
Tergum I evenly curved, without transverse carina (28aa) 34
29 Tergum I with broad medio-longitudinal furrow posterior to transverse carina (29a); notauli clearly indicated (29b); male antenna simple apically (29c) Symmorphus Wesmael
Tergum I without medio-longitudinal furrow (29aa); notauli absent or nearly so (29bb); male antenna hooked apically (29cc) 30
30 Parastigma of forewing with more than half the length of pterostigma, measured along posterior part, often nearly equal (30a) 31
Parastigma half the length of pterostigma or less, measured along posterior part (30aa) 33
31 Tergum II with well-developed apical lamella (31a) Lissodynerus Giordani Soika
Tergum II lacking an apical lamella (31aa) 32
32 Clypeus wide ventrally and slightly emarginated medio-ventrally (32a); male: terminal sternum without teeth basally (32b) Orancistrocerus van der Vecht
Clypeus narrower ventrally and deeply emarginated medio-ventrally (32aa); male: terminal sternum with 2–3 teeth basally (32bb) Archancistrocerus Giordani Soika
33 Axillary fossa narrower than long, slit-like (33b); humeri (“shoulder”) rounded (33a); propodeal dorsum strongly extending horizontally, forming shelf-like area behind metanotum (33c) Pararrhynchium de Saussure
Axillary fossa oval, broader than long (33bb); humeri angular or pointed (33aa); propodeal dorsum slightly extending behind metanotum, below level of metanotum (33cc) Ancistrocerus Wesmael
34 Metanotum with serrate bilobed ridge (34a, a’) 35
Metanotum low toothed (34aa), including blunt or rounded off ridge or flat 36
35 Clypeus higher than wide (35a); metanotum with truncate teeth; mid-anterior face of pronotum smooth and with short transverse rugae (35b); tergum I distinctly narrower than tergum II (35c); male terminal antennal segment small (35d) Apodynerus Giordani Soika
Clypeus wider than high (35aa); mid-anterior face of pronotum usually densely punctate and with an upper trace of transverse carina (35bb); tergum I slightly narrower than tergum II (35cc); male terminal antennal segment relatively large (35dd) Antepipona de Saussure
36 Tergum II with lamella behind transverse band (36a) 37
Tergum II without lamella behind transverse band, at most with narrow border (36aa). Note: few Euodynerus spp. may possess a distinct lamella on tergum II (see 45a), they can be separated from Leptochilus by having tergum I not depressed subapically (depressed in Leptochilus); and differs from Gribodia, Stenodynerellus and Epsilon by having oval axillary fossa, broader than long (slit-like, narrower than long in Gribodia, Stenodynerellus and Epsilon) 40
37 Tergum I depressed subapically, gradually widened with lateral sides divergent in dorsal view (37 aa); propodeum with submarginal carina projecting as rounded lobe above valvula, bilamellate (37bb); epicnemial carina absent (37cc); axillary fossa oval, broader than long (37dd) Leptochilus de Saussure
Tergum I not depressed subapically, usually with lateral sides roughly parallel in dorsal view (37aa); propodeum with submarginal carina not differentiated from valvula, mono-lamellate (37bb; except Epsilon); epicnemial carina present (37cc); axillary fossa narrower than long, slit-like (37dd) 38
38 Palpal formula 5:3 (38a); male vertex sometimes with large and deep depression (38b); propodeum without shelf-like protruding part and with lateral carinae well developed (38c); [metanotum angulated, second submarginal cell with second recurrent vein nearly or completely interstitial with third submarginal cell; terga I-V each with apical lamella] Gribodia Zavattari
Palpal formula 6:4 (38aa); male vertex without large and deep depression (38bb); propodeum with shelf-like protruding part (38cc) or absent (38cc’) 39
39 Clypeus longer than wide, apical margin usually truncate (39a); propodeum with submarginal carina not differentiated from valvula (39b); propodeum usually with dorsal surface at about same level as metanotum, lateral margin rounded; metanotum usually smoothly convex (39c); terga I-V each with apical lamella (39d); second submarginal cell with second recurrent vein variable Stenodyneriellus Giordani Soika
Clypeus longer than wide, apical margin emarginate (39aa); propodeum with submarginal carina projecting as rounded lobe above valvula (39bb); propodeum without raised shelf-like part, lateral margin carinate; metanotum angulated (39cc); only tergum II with lamella (39dd); second submarginal cell with second recurrent vein nearly or completely interstitial with third submarginal cell (39ee) Epsilon de Saussure
40 Axillary fossa in dorsal view much narrower than long, often slit-like (40a); tegula short, not exceeding parategula 41
Axillary fossa in dorsal view not slit-like, at least as wide as long, oval (40aa); tegula usually equal to or exceeding parategula 45
41 Propodeum with raised shelf-like part nearly at level of metanotum, metanotum flat (41a) 42
Propodeum below level of metanotum, metanotum various (41aa) 43
42 Forewing with third submarginal cell separated from apex of marginal cell by about half its length (42a); male sternum VII with basal truncate process (42b) Allorhynchium van der Vecht
Forewing with third submarginal cell separated from apex of marginal cell by about its own length (42aa); male sternum VII without process (42bb) Orientalicesa Koçak and Kemal
43 Parastigma of forewing more than half length of pterostigma, measured along posterior part or nearly equal (43a); palpal formula 6:4 (38aa) 44
Parastigma shorter than half length of pterostigma, measured along posterior part (43aa); palpal formula 5:3 (38a) Okinawepipona Yamane
44 Mesoscutum posteriorly and scutellum smooth, very sparsely and finely punctate (44a); metanotum depressed medially (44b); male middle femur basally emarginated (44c) Rhynchium Spinola
Mesoscutum and scutellum richly punctate throughout (44aa); metanotum not depressed medially (44bb); male middle femur not basally emarginate (44cc) Anterhynchium de Saussure
45 Tergum I behind apical band with well-developed lamella (45a) 46
Tergum I behind apical band without well-developed lamella (45aa) 47
46 Metanotum between horizontal and vertical area with hemi-circular carina (46a) Antodynerus de Saussure
Metanotum between areas without hemi-circular shaped carina (46aa) Euodynerus Dalla Torre
47 Pretegular carina absent (47a) 48
Pretegular carina present, at least posteriorly (47aa) 49
48 Tegula sparsely punctate, slightly exceeding parategula and much smaller than scutellum (48a); mid-anterior face of pronotum smooth (48b); metanotum with lateral lamellae (48c); female with single cephalic fovea situated near occipital carina (48d) Parodontodynerus Blüthgen
Tegula densely punctate, distinctly exceeding parategula, almost as large as scutellum (48aa); mid-anterior face of pronotum densely punctate (48bb); metanotum without lateral lamellae (48cc); female with single cephalic fovea situated halfway posterior ocelli and occipital carina (48dd) Brachyodynerus Blüthgen
49 Tegula narrower and longer, surpassing parategula posteriorly (49a). [female vertex with reniform fovea, about as wide as ocellar triangle; hind coxa with ventral lobes] Allodynerus Blüthgen
Tegula broad, equal to parategula posteriorly (49aa) 50
50 Propodeal valvula mono-lamellate (50a), with transverse carina, and with a dentate ridge laterally (50b); [metanotum ridge roughly bidentate-shaped] Pseudepipona de Saussure
Propodeal valvula bilamellate (50aa), without transverse carina, and without dentate ridge laterally; [small species (6 mm body length); anterior face of pronotum smooth; vertex with very small pits] Asiodynerus Kurzenko
Figure 1. 

Metasomal terga I-II, dorsal view: a Eumenes m. mediterraneus (Kriechbaumer) (left 1), Pseudozumia indica (de Saussure) (left 2), Calligaster cyanoptera de Saussure (middle) aa Antepipona deflenda lepeletieri (Blüthgen) (right 2), Symmorphus foveolatus (Gussakovskij) (right1).

Figure 2. 

Part of middle leg: a Discoelis zonalis (Panzer) aa Pseumenes depressus annulatus van der Vecht.

Figure 3. 

Part of propodeum lateral view (a, aa) and caudal view (b, bb): a, b Zethus velamellatus Tan aa, bb Discoelis zonalis (Panzer).

Figure 4. 

Labial palpi (a, aa) and metasomal segment I (b, bb): c, cc part of mesosoma, showing tegula: a–c Calligaster cyanoptera de Saussure aa–cc Discoelis zonalis (Panzer).

Figure 5. 

Propodeum (a, aa) and part of forewing (b, bb): a Leptomicrodynerus tieshengi Giordani Soika b Labus spiniger de Saussure (right upper) aa Coeleumenes sp. (middle) bb Delta campaniforme esuriens (Fabricius).

Figure 6. 

Head and pronotum (a, e, aa, ee), part of mesonotum in dorsal view (b, bb, dd), metanotum magnified (d), and metasomal segment I in lateral view (c, cc): a–e Labus spiniger (de Saussure) aa, ee, lower cc Leptomicrodynerus tieshengi Giordani Soika bb, dd, upper cc Cyrtolabulus suavis van der Vecht.

Figure 7. 

Mesosoma (a, c, aa, cc) and metasoma (b, bb). a–c Leptomicrodynerus tieshengi Giordani Soika aa, cc Cyrtolabulus suavis van der Vecht bb Cyrtolabulus exiguus (de Saussure).

Figure 8. 

Mesosoma, dorsal view. a–c Pseumenes d. depressus (de Saussure) aa–cc Delta campaniforme gracile (de Saussure).

Figure 9. 

Mesosoma, lateral view. a Nortozumia sp. aa Pseumenes d. depressus (de Saussure).

Figure 10. 

Metasomal segment I in lateral view. a Ectopioglossa s. samariensis (Giordani Soika) aNortozumia pulchella (Smith) aa Coeleumenes sp. aaPseudozumia indica paulonotata Giordani Soika.

Figure 11. 

Metasomal segment I, ventral view. a Ectopioglossa s. samariensis (Giordani Soika) aa Nortozumia pulchella (Smith).

Figure 12. 

Part of dorsal mesosoma (a, aa), part of forewing (b, bb) and ventral metasomal segment I (c, cc). a Pseudozumia i. indica (de Saussure) b Pseudozumia indica borneana Giordani Soika c Pseudozumia sp. aa–cc Coeleumenes impavidus (Bingham).

Figure 13. 

Forewing (a, aa), metasomal sternum I (SI) (b, bb), head in dorsal view (c, cc) and hind tibia (d, dd). a–b Pareumenes quadrispinosus conjunctus Liu c, d Pareumenes s. sansibaricus (von Schulthess) aa–cc Pseumenes d. depressus (de Saussure); dd. Pseumenes depressus annulatus van der Vecht.

Figure 14. 

Propodeum (a, aa), metasomal tergum II (TII) (b, bb) and metasomal tergum I (TI) (c, cc). a–c Delta campaniforme esuriens (Fabricius) aa, cc Eumenes c. coarctatus (Linnaeus) bb Eumenes kiangsuensis Giordani Soika.

Figure 15. 

Head in frontal (a, aa) and dorsal view (b, bb). a, b Katamenes sesquicinctus (Lichtenstein) aa, bb Delta campaniforme gracile (de Saussure).

Figure 16. 

Mesosoma and part of metasoma (a, aa), terminal sternum of male (b, bb). a, b Delta campaniforme gracile (de Saussure), arrow = spiracle aa, bb Phimenes f. flavopictus (Blanchard).

Figure 17. 

Forewing (a, aa), mesosoma in lateral view (b, bb), head in frontal view (c, cc) and antenna (d, dd). a–d Eumenes c. coarctatus (Linnaeus) aa–dd Oreumenes decoratus (Smith).

Figure 18. 

Part of mesosoma (a, aa) and antennae (b, bb). a Onychopterocheilus mochii (Giordani Soika) b Pterocheilus p. phaleratus (Panzer) aa Stenodyneriellus guttulatus (de Saussure) bb Euodynerus d. dantici (Rossi).

Figure 19. 

Part of mouthparts showing labial palpus (a, aa) and metasomal sterna (SII-VII) of male (b, bb). a Onychopterochilus mochii (Giordani Soika) b Pterocheilus p. phaleratus (Panzer) aa–bb Odynerus albopictus (de Saussure).

Figure 20. 

Maxillary palpus (a, a’ and aa), labial palpus of female (b, bb) and mandibles of male (c, cc, cc’). a–c Pterocheilus p. phaleratus (Panzer) aPterocheilus c. chobauti Dusmet; aa–bb Onychopterocheilus mochii Giordani Soika cc Onychopterocheilus pallasii (Klug) ccOnychopterocheilus sp.

Figure 21. 

Propodeum (a, aa), head in dorsal view (b, bb) and sterna (c, cc). a, b Tropidodynerus f. flavus (Bingham) c Tropidodynerus hostis (Nurse) aa–cc Odynerus albopictus (de Saussure).

Figure 22. 

Head and pronotum in dorsal view (a, aa, aa’), part of mesosoma in dorsal view (b) and propodeum lateral view (c). a, c Stenodynerus c. chinensis (de Saussure) b Stenodynerus frauenfeldi (de Saussure) aa Stenodyneriellus sp. aaBrachyodynerus magnificus (Morawitz).

Figure 23. 

Metasomal tergum I. a Subancistrocerus sichelii (de Saussure) aPseudonortonia abbreviaticornis Giordani Soika aa Stenodynerus chinensis (de Saussure).

Figure 24. 

Mesosoma in dorsal view (a, b, aa, bb) and in lateral view (c, cc). a–c Jucancistrocerus (Eremodynerus) atrofasciatus (Morawitz) aa–cc Pseudonortonia abbreviaticornis Giordani Soika.

Figure 25. 

Metasomal tergum I in dorsal view. a Subancistrocerus domesticus aa (left). Pseudonortonia abbreviaticornis Giordani Soika aa (right). Parancistrocerus samarensis (von Schulthess) aaPseudonortonia sp.

Figure 26. 

Anterior face of pronotum (a, aa); metasomal segments I and II (b, b’, bb). a, bParancistrocerus toltecus b Parancistrocerus samarensis (von Schulthess) bb Pseudonortonia abbreviaticornis Giordani Soika.

Figure 27. 

Metasoma in dorsal view (a, aa), head and pronotum in dorsal view (b, bb, white-arrow pointing to the depression) and in frontal view (c, cc). Paraleptomenes kosempoensis (von Schulthess) aa–cc Stenodynerus chinensis (de Saussure).

Figure 28. 

Metasomal tergum I (TI) in dorsal view (a, aa) and in lateral view (a’). a Ancistrocerus parietinus (Linnaeus) aPararrhynchium ornatum sauteri (Schulthess) c Rhynchium carnaticum (Fabricius).

Figure 29. 

Metasomal terga I-II (a, aa) and mesosoma (b, bb) in dorsal view, distal segments of antenna (c, cc). a, c Symmorphus bifasciatus (Linnaeus) b Symmorphus elegans aa–cc Ancistrocerus parietinus (Linnaeus).

Figure 30. 

Forewing. a Orancistrocerus a. aterrimus (de Saussure) aa Pararrhynchium o. ornatum (Smith).

Figure 31. 

Metasoma in lateral view. a Lissodynerus s. septemfasciatus (Smith) aa Orancistrocerus a. aterrimus (de Saussure).

Figure 32. 

Clypeus (2 left) and distal part of male metasoma in lateral view (2 right). a, b Orancistrocerus drewseni opulentissimus (Giordani Soika) aa Archancistrocerus diffinis Giordani Soika, holotype bb Archancistrocerus sp.

Figure 33. 

Mesosoma in dorsal view (left and middle) and dorso-caudal view (right). a–c Pararrhynchium ornatum sauteri (Schulthess) aa–cc Ancistrocerus trifasciatus shibuyai (Yasumatsu).

Figure 34. 

Metanotum. a. Antepipona asiamontana Gusenleitner; aApodynerus f. formosensis (von Schulthess) aa Euodynerus trilobus (Fabricius).

Figure 35. 

Head in frontal view (a, aa), metasoma in dorsal view (c, cc), anterior face of pronotum (b, bb) and antenna (d, dd). a–d Apodynerus troglodytes (de Saussure) aa, cc Antepipona silaos (de Saussure) bb Antepipona menkei Giordani Soika; dd. Antepipona rufescens (Smith).

Figure 36. 

Metasoma in lateral view. a Leptochilus m. medane (Gribodo) aa Anterhynchium flavomarginatum micado (Kirsch).

Figure 37. 

Metasomal tergum I (a, aa) in dorsal view, propodeum in lateral view (b, bb), mesosoma in lateral view (c, cc) and metanotum in dorsal view (d, dd). a–d Leptochilus m. mauritanicus (Lepeletier) aa Gribodia confluenta (Smith) bb, cc Stenodyneriellus guttulatus (de Saussure) dd Stenodyneriellus sp.

Figure 38. 

Maxillary palpus (a left) and labial palpus (b right), mouthpart palpi (aa), head in dorsal view (b, bb), part of mesosoma in dorso-caudal view (c, cc, cc’). a–c Gribodia sp. aa, bb Stenodyneriellus guttulatus (de Saussure) cc Stenodyneriellus sp. ccEpsilon dyscherum (de Saussure).

Figure 39. 

Head in frontal view (a, aa), part of meso- and metasoma (b, d, bb, dd), part of mesosoma in dorsal view (c, cc) and distal part of forewing (ee). a–d Stenodyneriellus guttulatus (de Saussure) aa–ee Epsilon dyscherum (de Saussure).

Figure 40. 

Part of mesosoma in dorsal view. a Orientalicesa unifasciata (von Schulthess) aa Euodynerus p. posticus (Herrich-Schäffer).

Figure 41. 

Part of mesosoma in dorsal view (a) and in dorso-caudal view (aa). a Orientalicesa unifasciata (von Schulthess) aa Anterhynchium (Dirhynchium) flavopunctatum (Smith).

Figure 42. 

Distal part of forewing (a, aa) and terminal sternum of male (sternum VII) (b, bb). a, b Allorhynchium argentatum (Fabricius) aa, bb Orientalicesa unifasciata (von Schulthess).

Figure 43. 

Part of forewing. a Rhynchium carnaticum (Fabricius) b Okinawepipona kojimai (Giordani Soika).

Figure 44. 

Mesosoma in dorsal view (a, b, aa, bb) and middle leg of male (c, cc). a, b Rhynchium carnaticum (Fabricius) c Rhynchium q. quinquecinctum (Fabricius) aa, bb Anterhynchium flavomarginatum micado (Kirsch) cc Anterhynchium sp.

Figure 45. 

Metasoma in dorsal view. a Euodynerus trilobus (Fabricius) aa Pseudepipona h. herrichii (de Saussure).

Figure 46. 

Mesosoma in dorsal view. a Antodynerus limbatus (de Saussure) aa Euodynerus d. dantici (Rossi).

Figure 47. 

Part of mesosoma in lateral view. a Brachyodynerus m. magnificus (Morawitz) aa Pseudepipona h. herrichii (de Saussure).

Figure 48. 

Mesosoma in dorsal view (a, aa), head and pronotum in dorsal view (b, d, bb, dd) and metanotum in dorsal view (c, cc). a–d Parodontodynerus e. ephippium (Klug) aa–dd Brachyodynerus magnificus (Morawitz).

Figure 49. 

Part of mesonotum showing tegula and parategula. a Allodynerus mandschuricus Blüthgen aa Pseudepipona herrichii siberia Kurzenko.

Figure 50. 

Propodeum in lateral view (a, aa) and in caudal view (b). a, b Pseudepipona herrichii siberia Kurzenko aa Asiodynerus lucifer (Kostylev), after Kurzenko (1977).

Checklist of the species of the subfamily Eumeninae from China

Allodynerus Blüthgen, 1938

Allodynerus Blüthgen, 1938 (1937), Konowia 16: 280; Type species: “Lionotus floricola Sauss. 1852” [= Odynerus floricola de Saussure, 1853].

Allodynerus delphinalis delphinalis (Giraud, 1866)

Allodynerus mandschuricus Blüthgen, 1953

Allorhynchium van der Vecht, 1963

Allorhynchium van der Vecht, 1963, Zool. Verh., Leiden 60: 57 (key), 58, genus. Type species: Vespa argentata Fabricius, 1804.

Allorhynchium chinense (de Saussure, 1862)

Allorhynchium lugubrinum (Cameron, 1900)

Allorhynchium metallicum (de Saussure, 1852)

Ancistrocerus Wesmael, 1836

Ancistrocerus Wesmael, 1836, Bull. Acad. R. Belg. 3: 45. Type species: Vespa parietum Linnaeus, 1758.

Ancistrocerus arcanus Giordani Soika, 1993

Ancistrocerus aureovillosus Giordani Soika, 1977

Ancistrocerus deqinensis You and Li, 2013

Ancistrocerus frigidus Giordani Soika, 1977 (1976)

Ancistrocerus hirsutus hirsutus (Meade-Waldo, 1910)

Ancistrocerus hirsutus supiensis Giordani Soika, 1977 (1976)

Ancistrocerus hirsutus tinkiensis Giordani Soika, 1977 (1976)

Ancistrocerus khangmarensis Giordani Soika, 1966

Ancistrocerus krausei Giordani Soika, 1966

Ancistrocerus melanocerus (Dalla Torre, 1894)

Ancistrocerus melanurus Morawitz, 1889

Ancistrocerus montuosus Gusenleitner, 1993

Ancistrocerus nigricornis (Curtis, 1791)

Ancistrocerus parapoloi Giordani Soika, 1966

Ancistrocerus parietum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ancistrocerus rufofrustius Tan & Carpenter, nom. n.

Replacement name for Ancistrocerus rufopictus (Kostylev, 1940) (junior primary homonym of Odynerus lineaticollis var. rufopictus Meade-Waldo, 1915).

Ancistrocerus sikhimensis (Bingham, 1897)

Ancistrocerus terayamai Yamane, 1993

Ancistrocerus tibetanus Giordani Soika, 1966

Ancistrocerus transpunctatus You & Li, 2013

Ancistrocerus trifasciatus shibuyai (Yasumatsu, 1938)

Ancistrocerus waltoni (Meade-Waldo, 1910)

Antepipona de Saussure, 1855

Antepipona de Saussure, 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 3: 244. Type species: Odynerus silaos de Saussure, 1853.

Antepipona asiamontana Gusenleitner, 2004

Antepipona biguttata (Fabricius, 1787)

Antepipona bipustulata (de Saussure, 1855)

Antepipona brunneola Giordani Soika, 1986

Antepipona deflenda (Saunders, 1853)

Antepipona excelsa excelsa Giordani Soika, 1982

Antepipona ferruginea Kim & Yamane, 2003

Antepipona ferruginea Kim & Yamane, 2003

Antepipona guttata diffinis (de Saussure, 1855)

Antepipona menkei Giordani Soika, 1986

Antepipona ovalis (de Saussure, 1853)

Antepipona plurimacula Giordani Soika, 1971

Antepipona rufescens (Smith, 1857)

Antepipona shantungensis Giordani Soika, 1993

Antepipona sexfasciata Soika, 1986

Antepipona tytides (Cameron, 1904)

Anterhynchium de Saussure, 1863

Anterhynchium de Saussure, 1863, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 17: 205. Type species: Rygchium [= Rhynchium] synagroides de Saussure, 1852.

Anterhynchium (Anterhynchium) mellyi (de Saussure, 1852)

Anterhynchium (Dirhynchium) flavomarginatum flavomarginatum (Smith, 1852)

Anterhynchium (Dirhynchium) flavomarginatum formosicola (von Schulthess, 1934)

Anterhynchium (Dirhynchium) flavopunctatum flavopunctatum (Smith, 1852)

Anterhynchium (Dirhynchium) flavopunctatum opulentum (Giordani Soika, 1973)

Anterhynchium (Dirhynchium) inamurai (Sonan, 1937)

Anterhynchium (Dirhynchium) yunnanensis Giordani Soika, 1973

Antodynerus de Saussure, 1855

Antodynerus de Saussure, 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 3: 287.Type species: “Odynerus punctum (Fabricius)” sensu de Saussure, 1853 [= Vespa flavescens Fabricius, 1775]

Antodynerus limbatus (de Saussure, 1852)

Apodynerus Giordani Soika, 1993

Apodynerus Giordani Soika, 1993, Boll. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Venezia 42: 155. Type species: Odynerus troglodytes de Saussure, 1855.

Apodynerus formosensis continentalis Giordani Soika, 1994

Apodynerus formosensis formosensis (von Schulthess, 1934)

Apodynerus troglodytes troglodytes (de Saussure, 1855)

Apodynerus yayeyamensis yayeyamensis (Matsmura, 1926)

Archancistrocerus Giordani Soika, 1986

Archancistrocerus Giordani Soika, 1986, Boll. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Venezia 35: 143, genus. Type species: Archancistrocerus diffinis Giordani Soika, 1986, monotypy.

Archancistrocerus diffinis Giordani Soika, 1986

Note: Archancistrocerus is a junior synonym and will be included in Allorhynchium (Tan et al. 2018b, submitted).

Asiodynerus Kurzenko, 1977

Asiodynerus Kurzenko, 1977, Ins. Mongol. 5: 557. Type species: Odynerus lucifer Kostylev, 1937.

Asiodynerus lucifer (Kostylev, 1937 (1936))

Brachyodynerus Blüthgen, 1938

Brachyodynerus Blüthgen, 1938, Deutsch. Entomol. Zeitschr.: 450, 459, genus. Type species: Odynerus (Lionotus) magnificus Morawitz, 1867.

Brachyodynerus perarrus Kurzenko, 1977

Calligaster de Saussure, 1852

Calligaster de Saussure, 1852, Ét. fam. Vesp. 1: 22, genus. Type species: Calligaster cyanoptera de Saussure, 1852.

Calligaster himalayensis (Cameron, 1904)

Coeleumenes van der Vecht, 1963

Coeleumenes van der Vecht, 1963, Zool. Verh., Leiden 60: 45, genus. Type species: Montezumia impavida Bingham, 1897

Coeleumenes burmanicus (Bingham, 1897)

Coeleumenes thoracicus (Sonan, 1939)

Cyrtolabulus van der Vecht, 1969

Cyrtolabulus van der Vecht, 1969, Entomol. Ber., Amst. 29: 1, replacement name for Cyrtolabus van der Vecht, 1963, non Voss, 1925. Type species: Cyrtolabus suavis van der Vecht, 1963.

Cyrtolabulus exiguus (de Saussure, 1853)

Cyrtolabulus yunnanensis Lee, 1982

Delta de Saussure, 1855

Delta de Saussure, 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 3: 130, 132, 143. Type species: Vespa maxillosa DeGeer, 1775 [= Vespa emarginata Linnaeus, 1758]

Delta campaniforme campaniforme (Fabricius, 1775)

Delta conoideum (Gmelin, 1790)

Delta esuriens okinawae Giordani Soika, 1986

Delta pyriforme pyriforme (Fabricius, 1775)

Discoelius Latreille, 1809

Discoelius Latreille, 1809, Gen. Crust. et Insect. 4: 140. Type species: Vespa zonalis Panzer, 1801, monotypy.

Discoelius dufourii dufourii (Lepeletier, 1841)

Discoelius dufourii manchurianus Yasumatsu, 1934

Discoelius emeishanensus Zhou and Li, 2013

Discoelius esakii Yasumatsu, 1934

Discoelius longinodus Yamane, 1996

Discoelius nigriclypeus Zhou & Li, 2013

Discoelius wangi Yamane, 1996

Discoelius zonalis (Panzer, 1801)

Ectopioglossa Perkins, 1912

Ectopioglossa Perkins, 1912, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 9: 118, genus. Type species: Ectopioglossa australensis Perkins, 1912, monotypy.

Ectopioglossa ovalis Giordani Soika, 1993

Ectopioglossa taiwana (Sonan, 1938)

Epsilon Saussure, 1855

Epsilon de Saussure, 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 3: 229, 252. Type species: Odynerus dyscherus de Saussure, 1852.

Epsilon fujianense Lee, 1981

Eumenes Latreille, 1802

Eumenes Latreille, 1802, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 3: 360, genus. Type species: “Eumenes coarctata, Fab.” [= Vespa coarctata Linnaeus, 1758].

Eumenes architectus Smith, 1859

Eumenes assamensis Meade-Waldo, 1910

Eumenes atrophicus (Fabricius, 1798)

Eumenes buddha Cameron, 1897

Eumenes coarctatus coarctatus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Eumenes coronatus coronatus (Panzer, 1799)

Eumenes ferrugiantennus Zhou, Chen & Li, 2012

Eumenes formosensis Giordani Soika, 1973

Eumenes fraterculus Dalla Torre, 1894

Eumenes fulvopilosellus Giordani Soika, 1965

Eumenes kangrae Dover, 1925

Eumenes kiangsuensis Giordani Soika, 1941

Eumenes labiatus flavoniger Giordani Soika, 1941

Eumenes labiatus labiatus Giordani Soika, 1941

Eumenes labiatus sinicus Giordani Soika, 1941

Eumenes mediterraneus manchurianus Giordani Soika, 1971

Eumenes micado Cameron, 1904 (Kim and Yoon (2001) state that the record is very doubtful)

Eumenes multipictus de Saussure, 1855

Eumenes nigriscutatus Zhou, Chen & Li, 2012

Eumenes pedunculatus pedunculatus (Panzer, 1799)

Eumenes pomiformis (Fabricius, 1781)

Eumenes punctatus de Saussure, 1852

Eumenes quadratus obsoletus Dover, 1926

Eumenes quadratus quadratus Smith, 1852

Eumenes quadratus urainus Sonan, 1939

Eumenes rubronotatus Pérez, 1905

Eumenes septentrionalis khangmarensis Giordani Soika, 1966

Eumenes septentrionalis septentrionalis Giordani Soika, 1940

Eumenes tosawae lofouensis Giordani Soika, 1973

Eumenes tosawae tosawae Giordani Soika, 1934

Eumenes transbaicalicus Kurzenko, 1984

Eumenes tripunctatus (Christ, 1791)

Eumenes variepunctatus Giordani Soika, 1941

Euodynerus Dalla Torre, 1904

Euodynerus Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 38. Type species: Vespa dantici Rossi, 1790.

Euodynerus (Euodynerus) caspicus caspicus (Morawitz, 1873)

Euodynerus (Euodynerus) dantici brachytomus (Kostylev, 1940)

Euodynerus (Euodynerus) dantici violaceipennis Giordani Soika, 1973

Euodynerus (Euodynerus) fastidiosus (de Saussure, 1853)

Euodynerus (Euodynerus) rufinus rufinus Blüthgen, 1942

Euodynerus (Euodynerus) semisaecularis semisaecularis (Dalla Torre, 1889)

Euodynerus (Euodynerus) variegatus kruegeri (von Schulthess, 1928)

Euodynerus (Pareuodynerus) adiacens Giordani Soika, 1973

Euodynerus (Pareuodynerus) deqinensis Ma, Chen & Li, 2017

Euodynerus (Pareuodynerus) ferrugineus Ma, Chen & Li, 2017

Euodynerus (Pareuodynerus) nipanicus nipanicus (von Schulthess, 1908)

Euodynerus (Pareuodynerus) nipanicus ryukyuensis Tano, 1987

Euodynerus (Pareuodynerus) nipanicus tonkinensis Giordani Soika, 1973

Euodynerus (Pareuodynerus) notatus notatus (Jurine, 1807)

Euodynerus (Pareuodynerus) quadrifasciatus quadrifasciatus (Fabricius, 1793)

Euodynerus (Pareuodynerus) similinipanicus Ma, Chen & Li, 2017

Euodynerus (Pareuodynerus) strigatus (Radoszkowski, 1893)

Euodynerus (Pareuodynerus) trilobus (Fabricius, 1787)

Gribodia Zavattari, 1912

Gribodia Zavattari, 1912, Arch. Naturgesch. 78A (4): 161. Type species: Monobia cavifrons Gribodo, 1891 [= Odynerus confluenta Smith, 1857], monotypy.

Gribodia nigra Nguyen & Xu, 2015

Jucancistrocerus Blüthgen, 1938

Jucancistrocerus Blüthgen, 1938, Deutsch. Entomol. Zeitschr.: 442, 460.Type species: Odynerus (Ancistrocerus) jucundus Mocsáry, 1883, monotypy.

Jucancistrocerus (Jucancistrocerus) alashanicus Kurzenko, 1977

Jucancistrocerus (Jucancistrocerus) angustifrons (Kostylev, 1940)

Jucancistrocerus (Eremodynerus) atrofasciatus (Morawitz, 1885)

Jucancistrocerus (Eremodynerus) chotanensis (Blüthgen, 1942)

Katamenes Meade-Waldo, 1910

Katamenes Meade-Waldo, 1910, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 5: 46, genus. Type species: Katamenes watsoni Meade-Waldo, 1910, monotypy.

Katamene arbustorum arbustorum (Panzer, 1799)

Katamene indetonsus (Morawitz, 1895)

Katamene tauricus tauricus (de Saussure, 1855)

Labus de Saussure, 1867

Labus de Saussure, 1867, Reise Novara, Zool. 2 (1), Hym.: 3, genus. Type species: Labus spiniger de Saussure, 1867

Labus exiguus (de Saussure, 1855)

Labus lofuensis Giordani Soika, 1973

Leptochilus de Saussure, 1853

Leptochilus de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp 1: 233. Type species: Pterocheilus mauritianus [!] [= Pterocheilus mauritanicus Lepeletier, 1841].

Leptochilus (Lionotulus) chinensis Gusenleitner, 2001

Leptochilus (Lionotulus) gobicus (Kostylev, 1940)

Leptochilus (Lionotulus) incertus (Kostylev, 1940)

Leptochilus (Neoleptochilus) tibetanus Giordani Soika, 1966

Lissodynerus Giordani Soika, 1993

Lissodynerus Giordani Soika, 1993, Boll. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Venezia 42: 135. Type species: Odynerus septemfasciatus Smith, 1857.

Lissodynerus septemfasciatus feanus (Giordani Soika, 1941)

Leptomicrodynerus Giordani Soika, 1985

Leptomicrodynerus Giordani Soika, 1985, Lavori Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 10: 37. Type species: Leptomicrodynerus tieshengi Soika, 1985, monotypy.

Leptomicrodynerus tieshengi Giordani Soika, 1985

Note: The characteristics of this genus also fit well with Eumenidiopsis Giordani Soika, 1939, and further research is needed to solve the problem.

Nortozumia van der Vecht, 1937 (new record)

Nortozumia van der Vecht, 1937, Treubia 16: 263, genus. Type species: Zethus rufofemoratus Cameron, 1903.

Nortozumia sp.

Odynerus Latreille, 1802

Odynerus Latreille, 1802, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 3: 362. Type species: Vespa spinipes Linnaeus, 1758.

Odynerus (Odynerus) tristis tianshanicus Kurzenko, 1977.

Okinawepipona Yamane, 1987

Okinawepipona Yamane, 1987, Mem. Kagoshima Univ. Res. Center S. Pacific 8: 52. Type species: Anterhynchium kogimai Giordani Soika, 1986, monotypy.

Okinawepipona curcipunctura Nguyen & Xu, 2014

Okinawepipona kogimai taiwana Yamane, 1987

Okinawepipona nigra Nguyen & Xu, 2014

Onychopterocheilus Blüthgen, 1955

Onychopterocheilus Blüthgen, 1955, Mitt. Münch. Entomol. Ges. 44/45: 406, 407. Type species: “Pterocheilus daw (Dusmet, 1909)” [= Odynerus (Hoplomerus) daw Dusmet, 1903], monotypy.

Onychopterocheilus (Asiapterocheilus) bensoni (Giordani Soika, 1941)

Onychopterocheilus (Asiapterocheilus) nigropilosus (Kostylev, 1940)

Onychopterocheilus (Asiapterocheilus) rongsharensis (Giordani Soika, 1977)

Onychopterocheilus (Asiapterocheilus) tibetanus (Meade-Waldo, 1913)

Onychopterocheilus (Asiapterocheilus) waltoni (Meade-Waldo, 1913)

Onychopterocheilus (Onychopterocheilus) chinensis Gusenleitner, 2005

Onychopterocheilus (Onychopterocheilus) dementievi (Kostylev, 1940)

Onychopterocheilus (Onychopterocheilus) eckloni (Morawitz, 1885)

Onychopterocheilus (Onychopterocheilus) wuhaiensis Gusenleitner, 2005

Orancistrocerus van der Vecht, 1963

Orancistrocerus van der Vecht, 1963, Zool. Verh., Leiden 60: 58 (key), 99, genus. Type species: Odynerus drewseni de Saussure, 1857

Orancistrocerus aterrimus aterrimus (de Saussure, 1852)

Orancistrocerus drewseni drewseni (de Saussure, 1857)

Orancistrocerus drewseni ingens (von Schulthess, 1934)

Orancistrocerus drewseni opulentissimus (Giordani Soika, 1941)

Orancistrocerus moelleri aulicus Giordani Soika, 1973

Oreumenes Bequaert, 1926

Oreumenes Bequaert, 1926, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 23: 488. Type species: Eumenes harmandi Perez, 1905 [= Eumenes decoratus Smith, 1852], monotypy.

Oreumenes decoratus (Smith, 1852)

Orientalicesa Koçak & Kemal, 2010

Orientalicesa Koçak & Kemal, 2010, CESA Misc. Pap. 151: 4, replacement name for Kennethia Giordani Soika, 1994, non De Dekker, 1979. Type species: Odynerus unifasciatus von Schulthess, 1934.

Orientalicesa confasciatus Tan & Carpenter, nom. n.

Replacement name for Orientalicesa unifasciatus (von Schulthess, 1934) (junior primary homonym of Odynerus unifasciatus de Saussure, 1852).

Paraleptomenes Giordani Soika, 1970

Paraleptomenes Giordani Soika, 1970, Boll. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Venezia 20/21: 79, genus. Type species: Paraleptomenes nurseanus Giordani Soika, 1970, monotypy.

Paraleptomenes kosempoensis (von Schulthess, 1934)

Paraleptomenes miniatus miniatus (de Saussure, 1855)

Parancistrocerus Bequaert, 1925

Parancistrocerus Bequaert, 1925, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 51: 64. Type species: Odynerus fulvipes de Saussure, 1855 [= O. “flavipes Fabricius” sensu de Saussure, 1852, non Vespa flavipes Fabricius, 1775].

Parancistrocerus hongkongensis Gusenleitner, 2002

Parancistrocerus intermediatus (Sonan, 1939)

Parancistrocerus kuraruensis (Sonan, 1939)

Parancistrocerus nitobei (Sonan, 1939)

Parancistrocerus taihorinensis (von Schulthess, 1934)

Parancistrocerus taikonus (Sonan, 1939)

Parancistrocerus yachowensis konkunesis Giordani Soika, 1994

Parancistrocerus yachowensis yachowensis Giordani Soika, 1986

Parancistrocerus yamanei Gusenleitner, 2000

Pararrhynchium de Saussure, 1855

Pararrhynchium de Saussure, 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 3: 173. Type species: Rhynchium ornatum Smith, 1852, monotypy.

Pararrhynchium ornatum bifasciatulum Giordani Soika, 1986

Pararrhynchium ornatum infrenis Giordani Soika, 1973

Pararrhynchium ornatum multifasciatum Giordani Soika, 1986

Pararrhynchium ornatum ornatum (Smith, 1852)

Pararrhynchium ornatum sauteri (von Schulthess, 1934)

Pararrhynchium paradoxum paradoxum (Gussakovskij, 1932)

Pararrhynchium sinense (von Schulthess, 1913)

Pararrhynchium smithii (de Saussure, 1855)

Pararrhynchium taiwanum Kim & Yamane, 2007

Pareumenes de Saussure, 1855

Pareumenes de Saussure, 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 3: 133. Type species: Eumenes quadrispinosus de Saussure, 1855.

Pareumenes (Nortonia) taiwanus (Sonan, 1937)

Pareumenes (Pareumenes) chinensis Liu, 1941

Pareumenes (Pareumenes) obtusus Liu, 1941

Pareumenes (Pareumenes) quadrispinosus acutus Liu, 1941

Pareumenes quadrispinosus conjunctus Liu, 1941

Pareumenes (Pareumenes) quadrispinosus interruptus Liu, 1941

Pareumenes (Pareumenes) quadrispinosus quadrispinosus (de Saussure, 1855)

Pareumenes (Pareumenes) quadrispinosus transitorus Liu, 1941

Parodontodynerus Blüthgen, 1938

Parodontodynerus Blüthgen, 1938 (1937), Konowia 16: 280. Type species: Eumenes ephippium Klug, 1817.

Parodontodynerus laudatus (Kostylev, 1940)

Phimenes Giordani Soika, 1992

Phimenes Giordani Soika, 1992, Lavori Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 17: 41, 66, genus, replacement name for Phi de Saussure, 1855, non de Saussure, 1854. Type species: Vespa arcuata Fabricius, 1775.

Phimenes flavopictus flavopictus (Blanchard, 1804)

Phimenes flavopictus formosanus (Zimmermann, 1931)

Phimenes sparsipunctatus Gusenleitner, 2002

Pseudepipona de Saussure, 1856

Pseudepipona de Saussure, 1856, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 3: 309. Type species: Odynerus herrichii de Saussure, 1856, monotypy.

Pseudepipona (Pseudepipona) augusta (Morawitz, 1867)

Pseudepipona (Pseudepipona) herrichii herrichii (de Saussure, 1856)

Pseudepipona (Pseudepipona) lativentris rubricans Kurzenko, 1976

Pseudepipona przewalskyi (Morawitz, 1885)

Pseudonortonia Giordani Soika, 1936

Pseudonortonia Giordani Soika, 1936, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova 59: 268, genus. Type species: Odynerus difformis de Saussure, 1853

Pseudonortonia abbreviaticornis Giordani Soika, 1941

Pseudozumia de Saussure, 1875

Pseudozumia de Saussure, 1875, Smithson. Misc. Coll. 254 (I): 128, division of genus Montezumia de Saussure. Type species: Montezumia indica de Saussure, 1855, monotypy.

Pseudozumia indica indica (de Saussure, 1855)

Pseudozumia indica paulonotata Giordani Soika, 1941

Pseudozumia indosinensis Giordani Soika, 1960

Pseumenes Giordani Soika, 1935

Pseumenes Giordani Soika, 1935, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova 57: 145. Type species: Eumenes eximius Smith, 1861.

Pseumenes depressus depressus (de Saussure, 1855)

Pseumenes imperatrix (Smith, 1857)

Pterocheilus Klug, 1805

Pterocheilus Klug, 1805, Beitr. Naturk. 1: 143. Type species: Vespa phalerata Panzer, 1797.

Pterocheilus albofasciatus Smith, 1878

Pterocheilus napalkovi Kurzenko, 1977

Rhynchium Spinola, 1806

Rhynchium Spinola, 1806, Ins. Ligur. 1: 84. Type species: Rygchium europaeum Spinola, 1806 [= Vespa oculata Fabricius, 1781], monotypy.

Rhynchium brunneum brunneum (Fabricius, 1793)

Rhynchium quinquecinctum quinquecinctum (Fabricius, 1787)

Stenodyneriellus Giordani Soika, 1962

Stenodyneriellus Giordani Soika, 1962 (1961), Boll. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Venezia 14: 65, 71. Type species: Stenodyneriellus turneriellus Giordani Soika, 1962.

Stenodyneriellus depressus Li & Chen, 2016

Stenodyneriellus guttulatus (de Saussure, 1862)

Stenodyneriellus maolanensis Li & Chen, 2016

Stenodyneriellus similiguttulatus Li & Chen, 2016

Stenodynerus de Saussure, 1863

Stenodynerus de Saussure, 1863, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 17: 228. Type species: Odynerus chinensis de Saussure, 1863.

Stenodynerus baronii Giordani Soika, 1975

Stenodynerus bluethgeni van der Vecht, 1971

Stenodynerus chinensis chinensis (de Saussure, 1863)

Stenodynerus clyppeopictus (Kostylev, 1940)

Stenodynerus copiosus Gusenleitner, 2012

Stenodynerus frauenfeldi (de Saussure, 1867)

Stenodynerus funebris (André, 1884)

Stenodynerus incurvitus Gusenleitner, 2003

Stenodynerus morawitzi Kurzenko, 1977

Stenodynerus morbillosus Giordani Soika, 1979

Stenodynerus nepalensis Giordani Soika, 1985

Stenodynerus ninglangensis Ma & Li, 2016

Stenodynerus nudus (Morawitz, 1889)

Stenodynerus pappi luteifasciatus Kim & Yamane, 2004

Stenodynerus pappi pappi Giordani Soika, 1976

Stenodynerus pullus Gusenleitner, 1981

Stenodynerus reflexus Ma & Li, 2016

Stenodynerus similibaronii Ma & Li, 2016

Stenodynerus taiwanus Kim & Yamane, 2004

Stenodynerus tenuilamellatus Ma & Li, 2016

Stenodynerus tergitus Kim, 1999

Subancistrocerus de Saussure, 1855

Subancistrocerus de Saussure, 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 3: 206. Type species: Odynerus sichelii de Saussure, 1855.

Subancistrocerus camicrus (Cameron, 1904)

Subancistrocerus compressus Li & Chen, 2014

Subancistrocerus jinghongensis Li & Chen, 2014

Subancistrocerus kankauensis (von Schulthess, 1934)

Subancistrocerus sichelii (de Saussure, 1855)

Symmorphus Wesmael, 1836

Symmorphus Wesmael, 1836, Bull. Acad. R. Belg. 3: 45. Type species: Odynerus elegans Wesmael, 1833.

Symmorphus ambotretus Cumming, 1989

Symmorphus angustatus (Zetterstedt, 1838)

Symmorphus apiciornatus (Cameron, 1911)

Symmorphus aurantiopictus Giordani Soika, 1986

Symmorphus bifasciatus (Linnaeus, 1761)

Symmorphus cavatus Li and Chen, 2014

Symmorphus foveolatus Gussakovskij, 1933

Symmorphus fuscipes (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1838)

Symmorphus hoozanensis (von Schulthess, 1934)

Symmorphus lucens (Kostylev, 1938)

Symmorphus mizuhonis Tsuneki, 1977

Symmorphus nigriclypeus Li & Chen, 2014

Symmorphus ornatus Gusenleitner, 2000

Symmorphus sichuanensis Lee, 1981

Symmorphus sublaevis (Kostylev, 1940)

Symmorphus tianchiensis Li & Chen, 2014

Symmorphus violaceipennis Giordani Soika, 1966

Symmorphus yananensis Gusenleitner, 2002

Symmorphus yunnanensis Gusenleitner, 2002

Tropidodynerus Blüthgen, 1939

Tropidodynerus Blüthgen, 1939, Veröff. Deutsch. Kolon. Übersee Mus. Bremen 2: 259, 260. Type species: “Hoplomerus interruptus (Brullé, 1832) = H. mandibularis Morawitz, 1885” [= Polistes interrupta Brullé, 1832].

Tropidodynerus concavus Li & Chen, 2015

Tropidodynerus liupanshanensis Li & Chen, 2015

Zethus Fabricius, 1804

Zethus Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: xii, 282. Type species: “Zethus coeruleo-pennis Fab.” [= Vespa coeruleopennis Fabricius, 1798].

Zethus dolosus Bingham, 1897

Zethus malayanus Gusenleitner, 2010

Zethus nanlingensis Nguyen & Xu, 2017

Zethus taiwanus Yeh & Lu, 2017

Zehtus velamellatus Tan, 2018

Zethus nigerrimus Gusenleitner, 2001

Acknowledgements

We wish to thank Mr. Christophe Barthélémy (Hong Kong) and two anonymous reviewers for their comments. The first author wishes to thank Dr. Claire Villemant (MNHN, Paris) for her extremely kind help during her visits in France. The research was supported jointly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, No. 31201732, 31572300), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20116101120001), the Opening Foundation of Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Animal Conservation, Northwest University, China, and the Richard Gilder Graduate School, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) collection study grant (No. P305062).

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