Print
An annotated checklist of Coccinellidae with four new records from Pakistan (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae)
expand article infoMuhammad Ali§, Khalil Ahmed§, Shoukat Ali§, Ghulam Raza, Ishtiaq Hussain|, Maisoor Ahmed Nafees§, Syed Ishtiaq Anjum
‡ University of Baltistan, Skardu, Pakistan
§ Karakoram International University, Gilgit, Pakistan
| Department of Agriculture, Skardu, Pakistan
¶ Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan
Open Access

Abstract

Some new ladybird (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) records collected during the last four years across Sindh are reported. A first preliminary checklist of ladybirds from Sindh is presented, consisting of one subfamily, ten tribes, 21 genera, and 29 species including four new records, namely Bulaea lichatschovii (Hummel), Exochomus pubescens Küster, Scymnus (Pullus) latemaculatus Motschulsky, Scymnus (Pullus) syriacus Marseul, and four varieties of the species Cheilomenes sexmaculatus (Fabricius).

Keywords

aphid, Chilocorinae, Coccidulinae, Coccinellinae, mealybug, predatory, Coccinellinae, Scymninae

Introduction

According to the most recent classification, the family Coccinellidae comprises two subfamilies: Microweiseinae Leng, 1920 and Coccinellinae Latreille, 1807 (sensu Slipinski 2007) based on phylogenetic results (Seago et al. 2011). These changes impact the status of various traditionally recognized tribes and subfamilies, as the onlysubfamilies now recognized are Microweiseinae and Coccinellinae (Canepari et al. 2016). Microweiseinae comprises three tribes: Carinodulini, Microweiseini, and Serangiini whereas Coccinellinae consists of only two tribes: Coccinellini and Chilocorini (Robertson et al. 2015)

Worldwide, nearly 6000 species spanning nearly 360 genera are known. Approximately 90 % of the species are predators of aphids, coccids, psyllids, aleyrodids, chrysomelid larvae, and mites, the remainder being herbivorous or mycetophagous (Inayatullah 1984, Majerus 1994, Obrycki and Kring 1998, Iperti and Bertand 2001, Vandenberg 2002, Hodek 2012).The Coccinellidae are an important group of beetles from both an economic standpoint in their use as biological control agents and in their diversity and adaptation to a number of differing habitats (Michels 1987).

From Pakistan, Ahmad and Ghani (1966, 1968, 1970, 1973), Inayatullah and Siddiqui (1978, 1979, 1980), and Ali et al. (2012) worked on different species of the family Coccinellidae; Iablokoff-Khnzorian (1986) described a new species Adalia puetzi from Pakistan; Hashmi and Tashfeen (1992) studied the coccinellids housed in different institutions of Pakistan and reported 162 species, identifying the coccinellids deposited in the Natural History Museum, London, but with wrong synonymies. The present authors tried to trace this valuable collection of coccinellids in the present institutions in Karachi and other cities of Pakistan but found very few coccinellids. The authors also tried to correct the wrong synonymies and wrong identifications mentioned in the above-mentioned paper with the help of checklists and taxonomic papers available. Irshad (2001) listed 71 species of coccinellids in Pakistan; Rafi et al. (2005) gave a brief external morphology of predatory coccinellids of northern parts of Pakistan with special reference to their hosts, prey and localities, and listed 37 genera and 75 species belonging to different tribes of subfamilies Chilocorinae, Coccidulinae, Coccinellinae, Scymninae, and Sticholotidinae. All listed species are very common in Pakistan and represent a much less complete inventory than that of Hashmi and Tashfeen (1992). Otherwise, the description of genitalia was totally absent. Ali et al. (2012, 2013, 2014, 2015) conducted a systematic study from Sindh Province for the first time. They listed 29 coccinellids with four new records and four varieties of Cheilomenes sexmaculatus.

According to Ghouri 1960, Kazmi 1980, Hashmi et al. (1983), Ali and Munir 1984, Ghani 1985, Inayatullah 1984, Mohyuddin and Mahmood 1993, Buriro 1996, Jan et al. 2003, Aslam et al. 2004, Abbas et al. 2007, Solangi et al. 2007, Massod et al. 2008, Rafiq et al. 2008, Arif et al. 2009, Mari and Lohar 2010, Iqbal et al. 2008, Iqbal et al. 2011, and Masood 2011, the following viz., Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), Aphis gossypii Glover, Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, Aphis craccivora (Koch) Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Therioaphis trifolii (Monell), Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), Brevicoryne brassicae (Linnaeus), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and Hyadaphis coriandri (Das) (Homoptera: Aphididae); Amritodus atkinsoni (Lethierry)), Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida), Empoasca lybica (Bergevin and Zanon) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae); Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), Aleurolobus barodensis (Maskell), Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead) and Aleurocanthus husaini Corbett (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae); Brevipalpus lewisi McGregor (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae), Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein), and Tetranychus atlanticus McG. (Acarina: Tetranychidae) are common pests of wheat, cotton, sugarcane, mango, mustard, vegetables, and fruits in Pakistan. Other works related with the taxonomy, morphology, diversity, distribution and ecology of different coccinellids include Rahman (1940), Ahmad (1969), Irshad (2001b), Khan et al. (2006), Rahatullah et al. (2010, 2011, 2012); Ali et al. (2012); Abbas et al. (2013), and Ashfaque et al. (2013). Ali (2012, 2013, 2014, 2015) was the first to report 29 coccinellid species from Sindh with a brief study on the taxonomy of the family Coccinellidae and their role in the field of biological control of important agricultural crop pests such as aphids, mealybugs, scale insects, jassids, and whiteflies.

The coccinellid fauna of Sindh, Pakistan is insufficiently known, and no checklist exists. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge of diversity and distribution of ladybirds in Sindh as well as to present the first preliminary checklist of the species recorded previously in the territory of Sindh.

Materials and methods

Ladybird records presented in this paper were collected, identified, and confirmed during the last four years by the authors following the checklists, descriptions, and keys given by Chapin and Ahmad (1966), Pang and Gordon (1986), Poorani (2004), and Rafi et al. (2005), and with the help of the following website: NBAIR (2009). Ladybirds were also identified and confirmed by Dr. Claudio Canepari (Societa Entomologica Italiana), an authority on the family Coccinellidae. Specimens were collected during field trips conducted in different parts of Sindh Province, and in reality represent random findings instead of systematic collecting. Beetles were collected in standard ways, including manual collecting, net sweeping, and using light traps. The terminologies for various taxonomic structures including genitalia and procedures used by Inayatullah and Siddiqui (1978) and Gordon (1985) were generally followed. The taxonomic structures, especially male and female genitalia, were preserved after illustration in microvials with glycerine and pinned with specimens.

Results

The coccinellids present in this checklist are classified on the basis of the new classification given by Seago et al. 2011, Robertson et al. 2015, and Canepari 2016. According to this classification all the coccinellids of the Sindh Province belong to the subfamily Coccinellinae only. It includes nine species of the tribe Coccinellini, one species of the Psylloborini, one species of the tribe Bulaeini, five species of the Chilocorini, one species of the Tribe Noviini Mulsant, one species from Tribe Hyperaspini, one species from the Tribe Stethorini, six species of Scymnini, one species of the Tribe Shirozuellini, and three species of the Tribe Sticholotidini. New records are Bulaea lichatschovii (Hummel), Exochomus pubescens Küster, Scymnus (Pullus) latemaculatus Motschulsky, Scymnus (Pullus) syriacus Marseul with four varieties of Cheilomenes sexmaculatus (Fabricius).

Subfamily Coccinellinae Latreille, 1807

Tribe Coccinellini Latreille, 1807

Coccinella Linnaeus, 1758

Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, 1758

Fig. 1

General distribution

India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Palaearctic. North America (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Tandojam, Larkana, Mirpur Khas, Thatta, Karachi (Sarwar 2009, Mahmood et al. 2011, Ali 2013, Fazal Ellahi et al. 2017).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Brevicoryne brassicae (L), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Aphis gossypii (Glover), Hyadaphis coriandri (Das), Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Aphididae: Homoptera); Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley), Ferrisia virigata (Ckll) (Pseudococcidae: Homoptera); Amrasca devastans (Dist), Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) (Cicadellidae: Homoptera); Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera) on mustard, lucern, cabbage, cauliflower, potato, turnip, bottle gourd, eggplant, okra, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, and rose plants (Ali 2013).

Figure 1. 

Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus.

Coccinella undecimpunctata Linnaeus, 1758

Fig. 2

General distribution

India, Pakistan. Palaearctic (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Karachi, Hyderabad, Tandojam, Mirpur Khas and Thatta (Sarwar 2009, Mahmood et al. 2011, Ali 2013, Fazal Ellahi et al. 2017).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Aphis gossypii (Glover), Hyadaphis coriandri (Das), Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Aphididae: Homoptera); Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley), Ferrisia virigata (Ckll) (Pseudococcidae: Homoptera); Amrasca devastans (Dist), Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) (Cicadellidae: Homoptera); Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera) on mustard, lucern, cabbage, cauliflower, potato, turnip, bottle gourd, brinjal, okra, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, and rose plants (Ali 2013).

Figure 2. 

Coccinella undecimpunctata Linnaeus.

Coccinella transversalis Fabricius, 1781

Fig. 3

General distribution

India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Indochina, Indonesia, Japan, Australia, New Zealand (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Hyderabad, Larkana, Mirpur Khas, and Thatta (Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Aphis gossypii (Glover), Hyadaphis coriandri (Das), Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Aphididae: Homoptera); Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley), Ferrisia virigata (Ckll) (Pseudococcidae: Homoptera); Amrasca devastans (Dist), Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) (Cicadellidae: Homoptera); Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera) on mustard, lucern, cabbage, cauliflower, potato, turnip, bottle gourd, brinjal, okra, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, and rose plants (Ali 2013).

Figure 3. 

Coccinella transversalis Fabricius.

Cheilomenes Dejean, 1836

Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius, 1781)

Fig. 4

General distribution

India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Myanmar. Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, China, Japan, Australia (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Hyderabad, Larkana, Mirpur Khas, and Thatta (Sarwar 2009, Mahmood et al. 2011, Ali 2013, Balouchi and Swati 2014, Fazal Ellahi et al. 2017).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Aphis craccivora Koch, A. gossypii Glover, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Aphis gossypii (Glover), Hyadaphis coriandri (Das), Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), Ropalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Therioaphis trifolii Monell (Aphididae: Homoptera); Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley), Ferrisia virigata (Ckll), Centrococcus insolitus Green (Pseudococcidae: Homoptera), Drosicha mangiferae (Green) (Margarodidae: Homoptera) Aleurocanthus husaini Corbett, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, Aleurolobus barodensis Mask Amrasca devastans (Dist), Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida), Amritodus atkinsoni Leth, Evacanthus repexus Dist (Cicadellidae: Homoptera); Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera), Pyrilla perpusilla Walk (Fulgoridae: Homoptera), Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comst (Diaspididae: Homoptera), Diaphorina citri Kuw (Psyllidae: Homoptera), Tetranychus orientalis Mog (Acarina: Tetranychidae) on mustard, lucern, cabbage, cauliflower, potato, turnip, bottle gourd, eggplant, okra, wheat, cotton, and rose plants (Ali 2013).

Comment

Common. It is very difficult to compare this species with other taxa because of polymorphism. Six varieties of this species are reported from Pakistan.

Figure 4. 

Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius).

Hippodamia variegata (Goeze, 1777)

Fig. 5

General distribution

Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tibet, Mongolia, China, northern and eastern Africa, Palaearctic (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Hyderabad, Karachi, and Thatta (Lohar et al. 2012, Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Aphis gossypii (Glover), Hyadaphis coriandri (Das), Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Aphididae: Homoptera); Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley), Ferrisia virigata (Ckll) (Pseudococcidae: Homoptera); Amrasca devastans (Dist), Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) (Cicadellidae: Homoptera); Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera) on mustard, lucern, cabbage, cauliflower, potato, turnip, bottle gourd, brinjal, okra, wheat, cotton, and rose plants (Ali 2013).

Figure 5. 

Hippodamia variegata (Goeze).

Micraspis allardi (Mulsant, 1866)

Fig. 6

General distribution

India, Nepal, Pakistan, Myanmar, Indonesia (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Hyderabad, Mirpur Khas, Thatta and Karachi (Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Amritodus atkinsoni Teth (Cicadellidae: Homoptera) Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comst (Diaspididae: Homoptera), Pyrilla perpusilla Walk (Fulgoridae: Homoptera) (Ali 2013).

Figure 6. 

Micraspis allardi (Mulsant).

Oenopia sauzeti Mulsant, 1866

Fig. 7

General distribution

India, Bhutan, Pakistan, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, China (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Hyderabad, Mirpur Khas, Thatta, and Karachi (Ali 2013).

Host plants and Prey species in Sindh

Aphis craccivora Koch, A. gossypii Glover, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Aphis gossypii (Glover), Hyadaphis coriandri (Das), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), Ropalosiphum maidis (Fitch) (Aphididae: Homoptera), Aleurolobus barodensis Mask Amrasca devastans (Dist), Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida), Evacanthus repexus Dist (Cicadellidae: Homoptera), Tetranychus sp. (Acarina: Tetranychidae) on wheat, mustard, and cabbage (Ali 2013).

Figure 7. 

Oenopia mimica Weise.

Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (Linnaeus, 1758)

Fig. 8

General distribution

India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Japan, China, Europe, North America (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Hyderabad and Karachi (Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Aphis craccivora Koch, A. gossypii Glover, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Aphis gossypii (Glover), Hyadaphis coriandri (Das) (Aphididae: Homoptera), Aleurolobus barodensis Mask Amrasca devastans (Dist), Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida), Evacanthus repexus Dist (Cicadellidae: Homoptera) (Ali 2013).

Figure 8. 

Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (Linnaeus).

Harmonia dimidiata (Fabricius, 1781)

Fig. 9

General distribution

India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, China, Japan, Taiwan, introduced into North America (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Hyderabad and Karachi (Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Aphis craccivora Koch, A. gossypii Glover, Brevicoryne brassicae (L), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Hyadaphis coriandri (Das), Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas), Ropalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Therioaphis trifolii Monell, Macrosiphum granarium (Kirby), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Aphididae: Homoptera), Amritodus atkinsoni Leth, Idioscopus nagpurensis Pruthi (Cicadellidae: Homoptera); Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera), Tetranychus atlanticus Mog (Acarina: Tetranychidae), Adelges spp. (Adelgidae: Homoptera) on mustard, lucern, cabbage, cauliflower, potato, turnip, bottle gourd, eggplant, okra, wheat, cotton, and rose plants (Ali 2013).

Figure 9. 

Harmonia dimidiata (Fabricius).

Tribe Bulaeini Savoiskaja, 1969

Bulaea lichatschovii (Hummel, 1827)

Fig. 10

General distribution

Pakistan, India, Central and West Asia, Afghanistan, Mediterranean region. North and Central Africa (Poorani 2002, Ali 2013).

Distribution in Sindh

Hyderabad and Karachi (Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Aphis craccivora Koch, A. gossypii Glover, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Diaphorina citri Kuw (Psyllidae: Homoptera) on wheat and mustard.

Comments

Newly recorded from Pakistan.

Figure 10. 

Bulaea lichatschovii (Hummel).

Tribe Psylloborini Casey, 1899

Psyllobora bisoctonotata (Mulsant, 1850)

Fig. 11

General distribution

India and Pakistan (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Hyderabad and Karachi (Ali 2013).

Prey in Sindh

All the members of this genus are mycophagous (Ali 2013).

Figure 11. 

Psyllobora bisoctonotata (Mulsant).

Tribe Chilocorini Costa, 1849

Chilocorus Leach, 1815b

Chilocorus nigrita (Fabricius, 1798)

Fig. 12

General distribution

Agalega, American Samoa, Burma, Brazil, Ghana, Guam, Hawaii, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, New Caledonia, Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, Reunion Island, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Swaziland, Society Islands, Tanzania, Togo, Turkey and Zimbabwe (Nandwani and Joseph 2003, NBAII 2011, Omkar and Pervez 2003, Poorani 2002, Thomas and Blanchard 2014).

Distribution in Sindh

Tandojam, Hyderabad and Karachi (Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Aonidiella auranti (Mask), A. citrina (Coq), A. orientalis Newst, Aspidiotus destructor Sign, Hemiberiesia latanias (Sign), Leucaspis coniferarum Hall & Williams, Parlatoria spp, Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley), Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comst, Tecaspis spp. (Diaspididae: Homoptera) (Ali 2013).

Figure 12. 

Chilocorus nigrita (Fabricius).

Exochomus (Parexochomus) nigripennis Erichson, 1843

Fig. 13

General distribution

northwestern India, Pakistan, Palaearctic, Africa (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Tandojam, Mirpur Khas, Hyderabad, and Karachi (Ali, 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Aphis fabae Theobald, Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch (Aphididae: Homoptera), Parlatoria spp. (Diaspididae: Homoptera), Ferrisia virigata (Ckll) (Pseudococcidae: Homoptera). It was recorded on trees and wild plants (Ali 2013).

Figure 13. 

Exochomus nigripennis (Erichson).

Exochomus pubescens Küster, 1848

Fig. 14

General distribution

Pakistan, India, Spain, North Africa, Greece, Egypt, Syria, Palestine (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Karachi (Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Parlatoria spp. (Diaspididae: Homoptera). It was found on oak (Ali 2013).

Comment

Newly recorded from Pakistan.

Figure 14. 

Exochomus pubescens Küster.

Priscibrumus uropygialis (Mulsant, 1853)

Fig. 15

General distribution

India, Bhutan, Pakistan, Nepal (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Tandojam and Hyderabad (Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Parlatoria spp., Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley), Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comst, Tecaspis spp. (Diaspididae: Homoptera) on wild trees, and shrubs (Ali 2103).

Figure 15. 

Priscibrumus uropygialis (Mulsant).

Brumoides suturalis (Fabricius, 1798)

Fig. 16

General distribution

India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Nepal (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Tandojam, Mirpur Khas, Hyderabad, and Karachi (Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Aphis craccivora Koch, A. gossypii Glover, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Hyadaphis coriandri (Das), Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas), Ropalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Therioaphis trifolii Monell, Macrosiphum granarium (Kby), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Aphididae: Homoptera); Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley), Ferrisia virigata (Ckll) (Pseudococcidae: Homoptera), Drosicha mangiferae (Green) (Margarodidae: Homoptera), Amrasca devastans (Dist), Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) (Cicadellidae: Homoptera); Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera), Tetranychus atlanticus Mog (Acarina: Tetranychidae), Adelges joshii S.O & S (Adelgidae: Homoptera), Aonidiella auranti (Mask), A. citrina (Coq), A. orientalis Newst, Aspidiotus destructor Sign, Hemiberiesia latanias (Sign), Leucaspis coniferarum Hall & Williams, Parlatoria spp, Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley), Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comst, Tecaspis spp. (Diaspididae: Homoptera) on mustard, lucern, cabbage, cauliflower, potato, turnip, bottle gourd, eggplant, okra, wheat, cotton, and rose plants (Ali 2013).

Figure 16. 

Brumoides suturalis (Fabricius).

Tribe Noviini Mulsant, 1850, Genus Rodolia Mulsant, 1850

Rodolia ruficollis Mulsant, 1850

Fig. 17

General distribution

India, Pakistan, Thailand (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Karachi and Mirpur Khas (Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Icerya aegyptiaca (Dougl) (Margarodidae: Homoptera). It was found on cotton and roses (Ali 2013).

Figure 17. 

Rodolia ruficollis Mulsant.

Tribe Hyperaspini Costa, 1849, Genus Hyperaspis Chevrolat, 1836

Hyperaspis maindroni Sicard, 1929

Fig. 18

General distribution

Pakistan and India (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Tandojam, Mirpur Khas, and Karachi (Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Centrococcus insolitus (Green), Naiacoccus sp, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley), Ferrisia virigata (Ckll) (Pseudococcidae: Homoptera), Drosicha mangiferae (Green) (Margarodidae: Homoptera). It was found on cotton, okra, and trees (Ali 2013).

Figure 18. 

Hyperaspis maindroni Sicard.

Tribe Stethorini Dobzhansky, 1924, Genus Stethorus Weise, 1885b

Stethorus gilvifrons (Mulsant, 1850)

Fig. 19

General distribution

India, Pakistan, Italy, Cyprus (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Tandojam, Hyderabad, Mirpur Khas and Karachi (Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Brevipalpus sp. (Tenuipalpidae: Acarina), Eutetranychus cernus (B&P), E. orientalis (Klein), Tetranychus atlanticus Mog (Acarina: Tetranychidae). It was collected from eggplant, okra, and some wild plants (Ali 2013).

Figure 19. 

Stethorus gilvifrons (Mulsant).

Tribe Scymnini Mulsant, 1846, Genus Scymnus, Mulsant, 1850

Scymnus (Scymnus) nubilus Mulsant, 1850

Fig. 20

General distribution

Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Myanmar, China, Asia Minor (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Tandojam, Mirpur Khas, Hyderabad, and Karachi (Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Aphis craccivora Koch, A. gossypii Glover, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Aphis gossypii (Glover), Hyadaphis coriandri (Das), Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas), Ropalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Therioaphis trifolii Monell, Macrosiphum granarium (Kby), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Aphididae: Homoptera); Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley), Ferrisia virigata (Ckll) (Pseudococcidae: Homoptera), Drosicha mangiferae (Green) (Margarodidae: Homoptera), Amrasca devastans (Dist), Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) (Cicadellidae: Homoptera); Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera), Tetranychus atlanticus Mog (Acarina: Tetranychidae), Adelges joshii S.O & S (Adelgidae: Homoptera), Aonidiella auranti (Mask), A. citrina (Coq), A. orientalis Newst, Aspidiotus destructor Sign, Hemiberiesia latanias (Sign), Leucaspis coniferarum Hall & Williams, Parlatoria spp, Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley), Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comst, Tecaspis spp. (Diaspididae: Homoptera) on mustard, lucern, cabbage, cauliflower, potato, turnip, bottle gourd, eggplant, okra, wheat, cotton and rose plants (Ali 2013).

Figure 20. 

Scymnus (Scymnus) nubilus Mulsant.

Scymnus (Pullus) latemaculatus Motschulsky, 1858

Fig. 21

General distribution

Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Taiwan. (Poorani 2002; Ali 2013).

Distribution in Sindh

Tandojam, Hyderabad, and Karachi (Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Aphis craccivora Koch, A. gossypii Glover, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Aphis gossypii (Glover), Hyadaphis coriandri (Das), Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas), Ropalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Therioaphis trifolii Monell, Macrosiphum granarium (Kby), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Aphididae: Homoptera); Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley), Ferrisia virigata (Ckll) (Pseudococcidae: Homoptera), Drosicha mangiferae (Green) (Margarodidae: Homoptera), Amrasca devastans (Dist), Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) (Cicadellidae: Homoptera); Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera), Tetranychus atlanticus Mog (Acarina: Tetranychidae) on mustard, lucern, cabbage, cauliflower, potato, turnip, bottle gourd, eggplant , okra, wheat, cotton, and rose plants (Ali 2013).

Comment

Newly recorded from Pakistan.

Figure 21. 

Scymnus (Pullus) latemaculatus Motschulsky.

Scymnus (Pullus) coccivora Ayyar, 1925

Fig. 22

General distribution

India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Tandojam, Hyderabad, and Karachi (Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Aphis craccivora Koch, A. gossypii Glover, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Aphis gossypii (Glover), Hyadaphis coriandri (Das), Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas), Ropalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Therioaphis trifolii Monell, Macrosiphum granarium (Kby), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Aphididae: Homoptera); Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley), Ferrisia virigata (Ckll) (Pseudococcidae: Homoptera), Drosicha mangiferae (Green) (Margarodidae: Homoptera), Tetranychus atlanticus Mog (Acarina: Tetranychidae) on mustard, lucern, cabbage, cauliflower, potato, turnip, bottle gourd, eggplant, okra, wheat, cotton, and rose plants (Ali 2013).

Figure 22. 

Scymnus (Pullus) coccivora Ayyar.

Scymnus (Pullus) castaneus Sicard, 1929

Fig. 23

General distribution

Pakistan, India, Bangladesh (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Tandojam, Hyderabad and Karachi (Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Aphis craccivora Koch, A. gossypii Glover, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Aphis gossypii (Glover), Hyadaphis coriandri (Das), Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas), Ropalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Therioaphis trifolii Monell, Macrosiphum granarium (Kby), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Aphididae: Homoptera); Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley), Ferrisia virigata (Ckll) (Pseudococcidae: Homoptera), Drosicha mangiferae (Green). It was found on eggplant, okra, cotton (Ali 2013).

Comment

Newly recorded from Pakistan.

Figure 23. 

Scymnus (Pullus) castaneus Sicard.

Scymnus (Pullus) syriacus (Marseul, 1868)

Fig. 24

General distribution

Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan (Ali 2013).

Distribution in Sindh

Hyderabad and Karachi (Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Aphis craccivora Koch, A. gossypii Glover, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Aphis gossypii (Glover), Hyadaphis coriandri (Das), Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas), Ropalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Therioaphis trifolii Monell, Macrosiphum granarium (Kby), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Aphididae: Homoptera) (Ali 2013).

Comment

Newly recorded from Pakistan.

Figure 24. 

Scymnus (Pullus) syriacus (Marseul).

Nephus regularis (Sicard, 1929)

Fig. 25

General distribution

India, Pakistan, China (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Tandojam, Mirpur Khas, Hyderabad and Karachi (Ali 2013).

Prey and host plant

Aphis craccivora Koch, A. gossypii Glover, Aphis gossypii (Glover), Hyadaphis coriandri (Das), Therioaphis trifolii Monell (Aphididae: Homoptera); Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley), Ferrisia virigata (Ckll) (Pseudococcidae: Homoptera), Drosicha mangiferae (Green) (Margarodidae: Homoptera) on on eggplant, okra and cotton (Ali 2013).

Figure 25. 

Nephus regularis (Sicard).

Tribe Shirozuellini Sasaji, 1967, Genus Ghanius Ahmad, 1973

Ghanius karachiensis Ahmad, 1973

Fig. 26

General distribution

Pakistan (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Karachi (Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Aonidiella auranti (Mask), A. citrina (Coq), A. orientalis Newst, Hemiberiesia latanias (Sign), Leucaspis coniferarum Hall & Williams, Parlatoria spp. Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley), Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comst, Tecaspis spp. (Diaspididae: Homoptera) (Ali 2013).

Figure 26. 

Ghanius karachiensis Ahmad.

Tribe Sticholotidini Weise, 1901

Pharoscymnus flexibilis (Mulsant), 1853

Fig. 27

General distribution

India, Pakistan, Brazil, and United States (Florida) (Poorani 2002, Thomas and Blanchard 2013).

Distribution in Sindh

Tandojam, Mirpur Khas, Hyderabad, and Karachi (Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Aspidiotus destructor Sign, Hemiberiesia latanias (Sign), Leucaspis coniferarum Hall & Williams, Parlatoria spp, Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley), Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comst, Tecaspis spp. (Diaspididae: Homoptera), Coccus hesperidium L, Siassetia nigra (Nietn) (Coccidae: Homoptera) on wheat and mustard (Ali 2013).

Figure 27. 

Pharoscymnus flexibilis (Mulsant).

Pharoscymnus simmondsi Ahmad, 1970

Fig. 28

General distribution

Pakistan, Thailand (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Karachi (Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Parlatoria spp., Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley), Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comst, Tecaspis spp. (Diaspididae: Homoptera), Coccus hesperidium L, Siassetia nigra (Nietn) (Coccidae: Homoptera) on wheat and mustard (Ali 2013).

Figure 28. 

Pharoscymnus simmondsi Ahmad.

Pharoscymnus horni (Weise), 1900

Fig. 29

General distribution

India and Pakistan (Poorani 2002).

Distribution in Sindh

Karachi (Ali 2013).

Host plants and prey species in Sindh

Parlatoria spp. Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley), Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comst, Tecaspis spp. (Diaspididae: Homoptera), Coccus hesperidium L, Siassetia nigra (Nietn) (Coccidae: Homoptera) on mustard and wheat (Ali 2013).

Figure 29. 

Pharoscymnus horni (Weise).

Discussion

Unfortunately, all the specimens were lost during the shifting of Vitoria Museum to National Museum at Karachi. From Pakistan very little taxonomic work has focussed especially on this important family of the order Coleoptera. Irshad (2001) listed 71 species of coccinellids from northern parts of Pakistan. Rafi et al. (2005) listed 37 genera and 75 species and described the only external morphology of predatory coccinellids mostly collected from northern parts of Pakistan with special reference with their hosts, prey, and localities.

Sindh Province has a rich insect fauna which have diversified into important cities like Karachi, Tandojam, Hyderabad, Larkana, Sukhur, and Mirpur Khas. Coccinellids fauna is still incompletely recorded from Sindh region and has been neglected in the past. All the research findings on coccinellids except Ali (2013) were documentary not taxonomic. No proper collections, identification procedures,or techniques have been used in Sindh to explore the hidden records of insects, including the coccinellid fauna. Ali (2013) worked more comprehensively on the systematics and distribution of ladybirds of Sindh Province with reference to their role in biological control programmes. He tried to highlight the importance of systematic study to make easy their identification as predators of mealybugs, aphids, jassids, whiteflies, and scale insects. This research work may be useful for the entomologists including research students of particularly the Sindh region, but also of Pakistan and other Oriental regions. The geographical distribution and synonyms used in this study for all systematically treated specimens were cited from the findings of Hashmi and Tashfeen (1992).

The present investigation continues the research carried by Ali (2013), and gives a preliminary checklist of ladybirds from Sindh consisting of only one subfamily, ten tribes, 21 genera, and 29 species including four new records: Bulaea lichatschovii (Hummel), Exochomus pubescens Küster, Scymnus (Pullus) latemaculatus Motschulsky, Scymnus (Pullus) syriacus Marseul and four varieties of Menochilus sexmaculata (Fabricius). All these coccinellids from Pakistan are now placed into the subfamily Coccinellinae and the subfamily Microweiseinae according to the recent classification studies. The coccinellid specimens were deposited in the Natural History Museum, Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to express their heartfelt gratitude to Dr. Rukhsana Perveen, who provided guidance, necessary facilities, and took a keen interest throughout the progress of the present research. We would like to extend our deep gratitude and sincere thanks to Dr. Claudio Canepari, an authority on the family Coccinellidae, who spent his valuable time assisting us in identification, confirmation, and guidance. We are grateful to Dr. Louis Hesler, Lead Scientist & Research Entomologist, USDA-ARS, North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL), U.S.A, for his review and English proofing of this paper.

References

  • Abbas G, Arif MJ, Saeed S, Karar H (2007) Increasing Menace of a New Mealybug Phenacoccus gossypiphilous to the Economic Crops of Southern Asia. In: Abstract XI Int. Symposium on Scale Insect Studies (ISSIS), Oeiras, 30 pp.
  • Abbas MN, Kausar S, Rana NA (2013) Diversity and Distribution of Ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae) in the Cropland of Faisalabad District. International Journal of Advanced Research 1: 27–33.
  • Ahmad R (1969) Studies on Coccoidea and their natural enemies in West Pakistan. PhD Thesis, University of Punjab, Pakistan.
  • Ahmad R (1968) A new species of Pseudoscymnus Chapin (Col., Coccinellidae) predaceous on scale insects in West Pakistan. Entomophaga 13: 377–379. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02371920
  • Ahmad R (1970) A new species of Pharoscymnus Bedel (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) predacious on scale insects in Pakistan. Entomophaga 15: 233–235. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02371001
  • Ali M, Perveen R, Siddique NY, Hussain R (2012) Redescription of three species of the genus Coccinella (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) from Sindh, Pakistan. Pakistan Entomologist 34: 167–171.
  • Ali M, Perveen R, Yusouf MJ, Khawaja S, Amin M (2014) Predatory potential of five coccinellids against cotton mealy bug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) from Sindh, Pakistan. Pakistan Entomologist 36: 7–12.
  • Ali M, Naqvi AN, Perveen R, Ahmad K, Hussain I (2014) First Record of the Tribe Bulaeini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) With Generic and Species Descriptions from Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 46: 1475–1478.
  • Ali M, Perveen R, Naqvi AN, Ahmed K, Raza G, Hussain I (2015) The Tribe Scymnini (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) From Sindh Province, Pakistan. Journal of Insect Science 15: 146. https://doi.org/10.1093/jisesa/iev105
  • Ali N, Munir M (1984) Production technology of rape and mustard in Pakistan.In: Manual of rapeseed and mustard production technology. In: Beg NA, Munir M (Eds) Pakistan Agricultural Research Council Islamabad. Pakistan, 33–46.
  • Arif MI, Rafiq M, Ghaffar A (2009) Host plants of cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis): a new menace to cotton agroecosystem of Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 11: 163–167.
  • Ashfaque M, Farman U, Rafi MA (2013) Genus Coccinella (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) from Gilgit-Baltistan with two new records from Pakistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 29: 240–247.
  • Aslam M, Razaq M, Shah SA, Ahmad A (2004) Comparative efficacy of different insecticides against sucking pests of cotton. Journal of research Science 15: 53–58.
  • Buriro AH, Hameed S, Afridi K, Qazi JK, Mahar AN (2006) Population Dynamics of Grain Aphid, Sitobion avenae F. (Aphididae: Homoptera) and Barley Thrips, Limothrips cerealium H. (Thripidae: Thysanoptera) on Wheat and Barley in Highland Balochistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 38: 191–196.
  • Canepari C (2011) Fauna Europaea: Coccinellidae. In: Audisio P (Ed.) Fauna Europea: Coleoptera, Lady-birds. Fauna Europaea, version 2.3, http://www.faunaeur.org [Accessed: 12.1.2012]
  • Canepari C, Gordon RD, Hanley GA (2016) South American Coccinellidae (Coleoptera), Part XVII: Systematic revision of the genera Cyrea Gordon and Canepari and TiphysaMulsant (Hyperaspidinae: Brachiacanthini). Insecta Mundi 0486: 1–180. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/insectamundi/991
  • Gordon RD (1985) The Coccinellidae of America north of Mexico. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 93: 1–912.
  • Ghani MA (1985) Aleyrodids attacking citrus in Pakistan and their control. Journal of Agricultural Research 23: 289–318.
  • Ghouri ASK (1960) Insect Pests of Pakistan. FAO Technical Bulletin No. 8, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Far East, Bangkok, 30 pp.
  • Hashmi AA, Hussain M M, Ulfat M (1983) Insect pest complex of wheat crop. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 15: 169–76.
  • Hashmi AA, Tashfeen A (1992) Coleoptera of Pakistan. Proceeding of Pakistan Congress of Zoology 12: 133–170.
  • Hodek I (2012) Diapuase/Dormancy. In: Hodek I, van Emden HF, Honěk A (Eds) Ecology and Behaviour of the Ladybird Beetles (Coccinellidae). Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Chichester, 275–342. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118223208.ch6
  • Iablokoff-Khnzorian SM (1986) Adalia puetzi n. sp., nouvelle espece du Pakistan (Col. Coccinellidae). Nouvelle Revue d’Entomologie 3: 80.
  • Inayatullah C, Siddiqui EM (1978) Comparative studies on the anatomy of the abdomen of Coccinella septumpunctata and Coccinella undecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Pakistan Journal of Zoology 10: 261–271.
  • Inayatullah C, Siddiqui EM (1979) Comparative skeletal anatomy of the head capsule of Coccinella septumpunctata and Coccinella undecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Pakistan Journal of Zoology 11: 85–97.
  • Inayatullah C (1980) Comparative skeletal anatomy of the thorax of Coccinella septumpunctata and Coccinella undecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Pakistan Journal of Zoology 12: 225–237.
  • Inayatullah C (1984) Sugar-cane aleurodids, Aleurolobus barodensis (Maskell) and Neomaskellia andropogonis Corbett (Hom: Aleyrodidae), and their natural enemies in Pakistan. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 5: 279–282. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742758400001570
  • Iperti G, Bertand E (2001) Hibernation of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in South-Eastern France. Acta Societas Zoologicae Bohemicae 65: 207–210.
  • Irshad M (2003) Parasitoids, predators and pathogens of agricultural and forest pests of Pakistan. National IPM Programme, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, 78 pp.
  • Irshad M, Khan MR (2005) Insect pests of plants and their parasitoids, predators and pathogens in Pakistan. PIPS Ltd., Islamabad, 72 pp.
  • Iqbal J, Ashfaq M, Ali A (2008) Management of aphids by augmentation of coccinellids and Chrysoperla carnea under field conditions on wheat. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 45: 57–59.
  • Iqbal J, Hassan MU, Ashfaq M, Sahi ST, Ali A (2008) Screening of okra genotypes against jassid, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 45: 448–451.
  • Kazmi SK (1980) Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein) (Acarina: Tetranychidae) and its predators in Pakistan. 1st Proceeding of Pakistan Congress of Zoology, 313–318.
  • Khan I, Din S, Khalil SK, Rafi MA (2006) Survey of predatory coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the Chitral District, Pakistan. Journal of Insect Science 7: 7–10.
  • Khan MGR, Inayatullah M, Rafi MA, Ashfaque A (1999a) Species composition, distribution and host plants of predatory coccinellids (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) in District Bagh, Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistan Journal of Entomology Karachi 14: 1–4.
  • Khan MR, Sheikh MK, Rafi MA, Sharif A (1999b) Predatory coccinellid Fauna (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of Sudhnuti District, Azad Jammu Kashmir. Pakistan Journal Entomology Karachi 14: 5–7.
  • Majerus MEN (1994) Ladybirds. Harper Collins, London, 367 pp.
  • Mari JM, Lohar MK (2010) Pests and predators recorded in Brassica Ecosystem. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural and Vetenery Sciences 26: 58–65.
  • Masood N (2011) Spatio-temporal Trends And Integrated Management Of Sugarcane Whitefly, Aleurolobus barodensis (mask.), (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera). PhD Thesis, University Of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
  • Masood N, Ali A, Ahsan M, Javed N (2011) Whitefly (Aleurolobus barodensis Mask.) population fluctuation in diverse spatio-temporal conditions on sugarcane crop native to Pakistan. International Research Journal of Plant Science 2: 179–185.
  • Michels GJ (1987) A checklist of the Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of Wyoming. The Coleopterist Bulletin 41: 249–255.
  • Mohyuddin AI (1981) A Review of Biological Control in Pakistan. Proc. 2nd Pakistan Cong. Zool, 31–79.
  • Perveen F, Khan A, Habib A (2014) Comparative characterization of ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan. Advances in Entomology 2: 61–68. https://doi.org/10.4236/ae.2014.22011
  • Rafi MA, Irshad M, Inayatullah M (2005) Predatory ladybird beetles of Pakistan. National Insect Museum & Insect Pest Informatics, IPM Programme.
  • Rafiq M, Ghaffar A, Arshad M (2008) Population Dynamics of Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) on Cultivated Crop Hosts and their Role in Regulating its Carry-over to Cotton. International Journal of Agricultural Biology 10: 200–212.
  • Rahatullah H, Ahmad Inayatullah M (2010) Diversity of Coccinellidae from Dir valley. M. Phil. thesis. Department of Zoology, Hazara University, Mansehra.
  • Rahatullah H, Mehmood HM, Saeed K, Rehman S (2011) Diversity and distribution of ladybird beetles in District Dir Lower, Pakistan. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 3: 670–675.
  • Rahatullah H, Ahmed H, Inayatullah M, Saeed K, Khan S (2012) Morphological characteristics of ladybird beetles collected from District Dir Lower, Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology. 11: 9149–9155.
  • Rahman KA (1940) Rahman, K. A. 1940. Important insect predators of India. Proceeding of India Academy of Science (B) 12: 67–74.
  • Robertson JA, Slipinski A, Moulton M, Shockley FW, Giorgi A, Lord NP, Mckenna DD, Tomaszewska W, Forrestor JI, Miller KB, Whitting MF, Hugh JM (2015) Phylogeny and classification of Cucujoidea and the recognition of a new superfamily Coccinelloidea (Coleoptera: Cucujiformia). Systematic Entomology. https://doi.org/10.1111/syen.12138
  • Seago AE, Giorgi JA, Li J, Slipinski A (2011) A Phylogeny, classification and evolution of ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) based on simultaneous analysis of molecular and morphological data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60(1): 137–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.015
  • Shah MZ (1983) The Ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) of Peshawar region. M. Sc Thesis, Department of Entomology, N.W.F.P. Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan.
  • Slipinski A (2007) Australian Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Dept. of the Environment and Water Resources, Canberra, 286 pp.
  • Solangi BK, Lanjar AG, Lohar MK (2007) Biology of 11 – spotted Beetle Coccinella undecimpunctata L. (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) on Mustard Aphid Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. Journal of Applied Sciences 7: 3086–3090. https://doi.org/10.3923/jas.2007.3086.3090
  • Solangi BK, Hullio MH, Baloch N (2007) Biological parameters and prey consumption by zigzag beetle, Menochilus sexmaculatus Fab against Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch, Aphis gossypii Glover and Therioaphis trifolii Monell. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 23(4): 1097–1101.
  • Zahoor MK, Suhail A, Iqbal J, Zulfaqar Z, Anwar Z (2003) Biodiversity of Predaceous coccinellids and Their role as Bioindicators in an Agro- ecosysytem. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 5: 555–559.