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Updated checklist of the Michigan (USA) caddisflies, with regional and habitat affinities
expand article infoDavid C. Houghton, R. Edward DeWalt§, Angelica J. Pytel, Constance M. Brandin, Sarah E. Rogers, David E. Ruiter|, Ethan Bright, Patrick L. Hudson#, Brian J. Armitage¤
‡ Hillsdale College, Hillsdale, United States of America
§ Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, United States of America
| Unaffiliated, Grants Pass, United States of America
¶ University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, United States of America
# Great Lakes Science Center, US Geological Survey, Ann Arbor, United States of America
¤ Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas de Estudio de la Salud, Panama City, Panama
Open Access

Abstract

Based on examination of ~180,000 specimens from 695 collections of 443 localities collected from the 1930s to 2015 we report 295 species of caddisflies from Michigan. Of these, 41 are reported from the state for the first time. Another 18 species previously reported from Michigan are listed as doubtful. The 11 most abundant species collectively represented over half of all specimens collected. Conversely, 80 species were known from <10 specimens, and 27 species from a single specimen. The Michigan fauna is similar to those of Minnesota and Ohio, adjacent states with comparable recent collecting effort. Regional and habitat affinities for each Michigan species are reported herein. Due to the high level of species discovery over the last few years, despite a >80-year collecting history, it is likely that additional species remain undiscovered in the state.

Keywords

Michigan, Trichoptera, caddisfly, checklist, species, diversity

Introduction

Despite the ecological importance of caddisflies in aquatic ecosystems and their utility in biological monitoring (Barbour et al. 1999), the faunas of the northcentral U.S. and southcentral Canada are not well known. Only the faunas of Illinois (Ross 1944), Minnesota (Houghton 2012), and Ohio (Armitage et al. 2011) have been extensively studied. For the remainder of the region, basic species checklists have been compiled for the Indiana (Waltz and McCafferty 1983), Manitoba (Flannagan and Flannagan 1982), Michigan (Leonard and Leonard 1949b), North Dakota (Harris et al. 1980), and Wisconsin (Longridge and Hilsenhoff 1973) caddisflies. All of these studies are >30 years old, and it is difficult to ascertain if changes to the fauna have occurred during the interim.

The caddisflies of Michigan are known on a species level primarily from Leonard and Leonard’s (1949b) checklist. A compilation of known and suspected species is maintained by Bright (2017). The overall caddisfly distributions of the state have been divided into three distinct regions corresponding to the Northern Great Lakes, Northern Forested, and Southern Agricultural regions (Houghton 2015) (Figure 1). Many additional state records have been reported during the last 20 years (Table 1), but no comprehensive inventory of the state has occurred since the 1940s. Thus, the objectives of our study were to inventory the state and compile a comprehensive checklist of the Michigan fauna, and to relate this fauna to the three established caddisfly regions and different types of aquatic habitats.

Figure 1. 

The determined caddisfly regions of Michigan (Houghton 2015), showing the collecting localities for this study.

Past faunal studies of Michigan caddisflies, with resulting numbers of specimens, reported species, and new state records. Nearly all of the specimens associated with these studies were examined during the current study.

Reference Region Specimens Species State records
Ross (1938, 1941, 1944, 1946) statewide ? 101 101
Leonard and Leonard (1949a) statewide ? N/A 7
Leonard and Leonard (1949b) statewide 5,767 181 66
Ellis (1962) Houghton Creek ? 85 0
Davis et al. (1991) St. Clair/Detroit River ? 70 21
Houghton et al. (2011) Manistee River watershed 26,000+ 134 11
DeWalt and South (2015) Isle Royale National Park 326 42 2
Houghton (2016) Black River Ranch 38,248 117 3
Current paper statewide ~180,000 291 41

Materials and methods

We have been collecting caddisflies in Michigan since the 1990s, primarily using ultraviolet light traps for adults. Other adult collecting methods have included malaise trapping, sweep netting, and aspirating from riparian rocks and vegetation. Larval collection methods included kick-netting, hand-picking, and Hess sampling. Most adult collecting took place during June and July, the peak emergence period of caddisflies in central Michigan (Houghton et al. 2011). Additional collections of adults were made during May, August, and September to obtain early and late emerging species.

Collecting sites were chosen to yield a geographically representative sample, paying particular attention to unique habitats, such as intermittent streams, waterfalls, and forested wetlands. We collected from sites that appeared to be the least disturbed of their general area. Unique areas, such as the Huron and Porcupine Mountains in the northeastern Upper Peninsula, the Black River Ranch in the northern Lower Peninsula, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Park in the northwestern Lower Peninsula, and Sarah Jane’s Natural Area in the southern Lower Peninsula were sampled more intensively. Most notably, Fairbanks Creek, a pristine small stream in the northern Lower Peninsula, was sampled every week from May to October 2010–2014.

Specimens were identified using Houghton (2012) and more specific taxonomic treatments. Nomenclature follows that of Morse (2017). Most collected specimens and their respective locality data were databased using BIOTA software (Colwell 2007) and deposited in the Hillsdale College Insect Collection or the Illinois Natural History Survey. Some are in the personal collection of DER. Museum specimens from the University of Michigan were examined, especially records associated with Leonard and Leonard’s (1949b) checklist. Specimens referenced in Table 1 were also examined. Additional records were located in collections of Brigham Young University, the University of Minnesota, and Colorado State University. These specimens remain in their respective institutions.

Results

Approximately 180,000 specimens from 695 collections of 443 Michigan localities from the 1930s to 2015 were examined during this study (Figure 1). From these specimens, we determined 295 total species, representing 20 families and 76 genera. Of these species, 41 are reported from Michigan for the first time and 204 are new since Leonard and Leonard’s (1949b) checklist. These species are presented in Table 2, along with their regional and habitat affinities and the depository of specimens. An additional 18 species previously reported from Michigan are listed as doubtful due to synonymy, misidentification, or our inability to locate a specimen (Table 3).

The 295 caddisfly species confirmed from Michigan. Taxa are arranged alphabetically by family and genus. The number of species within each family is listed after each respective family. Species reported from Michigan for the first time are in boldface type. Collection data for each newly-reported species are included in Suppl. material 1. Spcs = total number of examined specimens, locs = total number of known localities. Dep. = museum with the largest number of deposited specimens. HCIC = Hillsdale College Insect Collection, INHS = Illinois Natural History Survey, UMMZ = University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, DER = personal collection of Dave Ruiter. NG = total specimens known from Northern Great Lakes caddisfly region, NF = total specimens from Northern Forested region, SA = total specimens from Southern Agricultural region (Figure 1). Lk = number of specimens known from lakes, SR = number of specimens from small (<4 m in width) rivers, MR = number of specimens from medium (4–15 m) rivers, LR = number of specimens from large (>15 m) rivers. Total number of specimens from the various habitats and regions may be less than the grand total of specimens for that species due to a lack of information about some collecting localities.

Taxon spcs locs Dep. NG NF SA Lk SR MR LR
APATANIIDAE (1)
Apatania zonella (Zetterstedt, 1840) 49 4 HCIC 49 0 0 18 0 0 31
BRACHYCENTRIDAE (8)
Brachycentrus americanus (Banks, 1899) 3547 81 HCIC 1278 2218 51 6 1094 2343 60
B. fuliginosus Walker, 1852 25 6 UMMZ 0 25 0 0 0 25 0
B. incanus Hagen, 1861 1 1 INHS 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
B. lateralis (Say, 1823) 69 4 UMMZ 0 69 0 0 0 69 0
B. numerosus (Say, 1823) 122 21 UMMZ 9 72 41 0 56 34 31
Micrasema charonis Banks, 1914 5 2 INHS 0 2 3 0 0 2 3
M. rusticum (Hagen, 1868) 783 56 HCIC 24 722 37 4 97 669 13
M. wataga Ross, 1938 50 10 HCIC 40 10 0 0 3 44 3
DIPSEUDOPSIDAE (1)
Phylocentropus placidus (Banks, 1905) 274 24 HCIC 235 17 21 71 86 104 3
GLOSSOSOMATIDAE (8)
Agapetus hessi Leonard & Leonard, 1949 102 3 HCIC 0 102 0 0 0 102 0
A. tomus Ross, 1941 63 8 HCIC 27 0 36 0 12 49 0
Glossosoma intermedium Klapálek, 1892 16 9 HCIC 18 0 0 2 0 14 0
G. lividum (Hagen, 1861) 268 8 UMMZ 0 268 0 0 9 259 0
G. nigrior Banks, 1911 1796 68 HCIC 179 1575 42 22 1355 395 10
Protoptila erotica Ross, 1938 138 12 HCIC 4 130 4 1 0 63 74
P. maculata (Hagen, 1861) 76 10 HCIC 2 5 69 1 4 38 22
P. tenebrosa (Walker, 1852) 444 27 HCIC 223 220 1 6 197 223 18
GOERIDAE (1)
Goera stylata Ross, 1938 2422 12 HCIC 30 2392 0 0 2361 58 3
HELICOPSYCHIDAE (1)
Helicopsyche borealis (Hagen, 1861) 6957 114 HCIC 281 6347 310 1186 1703 3161 800
HYDROPSYCHIDAE (35)
Arctopsyche ladogensis (Kolenati, 1859) 16 2 UMMZ 15 1 0 0 1 15 0
Cheumatopsyche analis (Banks, 1908) 1137 99 HCIC 334 485 318 80 263 625 53
C. aphanta Ross, 1938 38 2 HCIC 0 37 1 0 0 38 0
C. campyla Ross, 1938 6683 65 HCIC 55 257 6371 56 13 248 6312
C. gracilis (Banks, 1899) 1063 64 HCIC 248 804 11 2 33 912 114
C. minuscula (Banks, 1907) 2 1 HCIC 2 0 0 0 0 0 2
C. oxa Ross, 1938 1609 58 HCIC 69 1425 112 3 1077 516 8
C. pasella Ross, 1941 44 9 HCIC 6 37 1 2 1 41 0
C. sordida (Hagen, 1861) 7 4 HCIC 5 0 2 0 1 0 5
C. speciosa (Banks, 1904) 61 2 HCIC 0 0 61 0 0 0 58
Diplectrona modesta Banks, 1908 1106 9 HCIC 5 1096 5 0 1106 0 0
Hydropsyche aerata Ross, 1938 5 2 INHS 0 0 4 0 0 0 0
H. alhedra (Ross, 1939) 56 7 HCIC 15 40 1 0 5 49 2
H. alternans (Walker, 1852) 118 11 HCIC 115 2 1 57 2 0 54
H. arinale Ross, 1938 1 1 INHS 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
H. betteni Ross, 1938 1262 67 HCIC 74 1041 147 13 932 266 33
H. bronta (Ross, 1938) 192 43 HCIC 37 96 59 1 17 141 33
H. cheilonis (Ross, 1938) 17 8 HCIC 0 2 14 0 0 0 4
H. cuanis Ross, 1938 21 4 INHS 0 0 21 0 7 8 6
H. dicantha Ross, 1938 11 7 HCIC 1 6 2 0 2 6 1
H. frisoni Ross, 1938 73 11 INHS 1 36 32 0 0 67 3
H. incommoda Hagen, 1861 130 14 HCIC 1 12 116 1 2 13 74
H. leonardi Ross, 1938 2 1 INHS 0 2 0 0 0 2 0
H. morosa (Hagen, 1861) 262 32 HCIC 62 162 39 10 18 165 61
H. phalerata Hagen, 1861 31 5 HCIC 0 4 27 0 0 0 23
H. placoda Ross, 1941 1 1 HCIC 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
H. scalaris Hagen, 1861 3 3 INHS 0 0 2 0 0 0 0
H. simulans Ross, 1938 26 4 HCIC 0 22 4 3 0 3 16
H. slossonae (Banks, 1905) 1241 68 HCIC 137 1036 68 0 586 646 7
H. sparna (Ross, 1938) 2712 113 HCIC 425 2018 261 12 1253 1330 88
H. vexa (Ross, 1938) 12 6 HCIC 4 8 0 0 4 7 1
H. walkeri (Betten & Mosely, 1940) 65 13 HCIC 42 22 1 1 1 24 39
Macrostemum zebratum (Hagen, 1861) 533 15 HCIC 10 499 24 10 2 24 490
Parapsyche apicalis (Banks, 1908) 220 19 HCIC 62 252 6 1 274 45 0
Potamyia flava (Hagen, 1861) 119 16 HCIC 1 71 47 0 45 31 28
HYDROPTILIDAE (63)
Agraylea multipunctata Curtis, 1834 4952 59 HCIC 127 927 3898 195 581 339 31
Hydroptila ajax Ross, 1938 27 3 HCIC 0 0 27 0 0 0 19
H. albicornis Hagen, 1861 1 1 HCIC 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
H. amoena Ross, 1938 8 4 HCIC 1 7 0 2 0 6 0
H. ampoda Ross, 1941 15 9 HCIC 15 0 0 0 0 15 0
H. angusta Ross, 1938 45 2 HCIC 0 0 45 0 0 0 45
H. antennopedia Sykora & Harris, 1994 111 9 HCIC 111 0 0 6 12 93 0
H. armata Ross, 1938 48 17 HCIC 6 13 29 2 2 40 1
H. berneri Ross, 1941 1 1 UMMZ 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
H. calia Denning, 1948 1 1 UMMZ 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
H. consimilis Morton, 1905 195 28 HCIC 31 140 24 0 62 129 4
H. delineata Morton, 1905 1 1 HCIC 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
H. grandiosa Ross, 1938 20 9 HCIC 0 9 11 0 1 9 1
H. hamata Morton, 1905 154 27 HCIC 46 100 8 62 5 75 4
H. jackmanni Blickle, 1963 477 37 HCIC 168 270 39 4 191 278 0
H. metoeca Blickle & Morse, 1954 166 16 HCIC 1 165 0 3 80 82 1
H. nicoli Ross, 1941 1 1 HCIC 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
H. novicola Blickle & Morse, 1954 1 1 HCIC 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
H. perdita Morton, 1905 11 6 HCIC 0 3 8 0 1 5 0
H. quinola Ross, 1947 3 2 HCIC 3 0 0 0 0 3 0
H. salmo Ross, 1941 1 1 HCIC 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
H. scolops Ross, 1938 18 2 UMMZ 0 16 2 0 0 16 0
H. spatulata Morton, 1905 9 5 HCIC 2 5 2 0 1 4 4
H. tortosa Ross, 1938 7 1 HCIC 0 7 0 0 0 7 0
H. tusculum Ross, 1947 1 1 HCIC 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
H. valhalla Denning, 1947 90 15 HCIC 88 2 0 0 2 87 1
H. waubesiana Betten, 1934 119 23 HCIC 7 36 76 8 17 51 3
H. wyomia Denning, 1948 23 5 HCIC 5 15 0 0 0 20 0
H. xera Ross, 1938 237 19 HCIC 189 51 0 2 1 235 2
Ithytrichia clavata Morton, 1905 222 6 HCIC 1 214 7 139 0 75 8
Leucotrichia pictipes (Banks, 1911) 30 2 HCIC 15 15 0 0 0 21 9
Mayatrichia ayama Mosely, 1905 7 2 UMMZ 0 6 1 0 0 6 0
Neotrichia halia Denning, 1948 131 3 HCIC 131 0 0 0 0 5 126
N. minutisimella (Chambers, 1873) 1 1 HCIC 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
N. okopa Ross, 1939 9 1 INHS 9 0 0 0 0 9 0
N. vibrans Ross, 1938 1 1 HCIC 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Ochrotrichia arva (Ross, 1941) 3 2 HCIC 0 3 0 0 2 1 0
O. spinosa (Ross, 1938) 220 11 HCIC 209 4 7 7 46 161 6
O. riesi Ross, 1944 2 1 INHS 0 2 0 0 2 0 0
O. tarsalis (Hagen, 1861) 2 2 HCIC 1 0 1 0 0 2 0
Orthotrichia aegerfasciella (Chambers, 1873) 451 21 HCIC 1 64 386 38 5 54 5
O. balduffi Kingsolver & Ross, 1961 97 19 HCIC 11 42 44 25 2 36 4
O. cristata Morton, 1905 1813 49 HCIC 55 308 1450 163 71 187 0
O. curta Kingsolver & Ross, 1961 13 1 HCIC 13 0 0 13 0 0 0
Oxyethira aeola Ross, 1938 44 8 HCIC 0 44 0 0 5 39 0
O. anabola Blickle,1966 7 5 HCIC 5 2 0 0 1 4 2
O. araya Ross, 1941 1 1 HCIC 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
O. coercens Morton, 1905 115 19 HCIC 7 101 7 4 29 77 0
O. ecornuta Morton, 1893 73 3 HCIC 2 71 0 73 0 0 0
O. forcipata Mosely, 1934 170 18 HCIC 9 21 140 11 5 20 0
O. grisea Betten, 1934 180 5 UMMZ 0 106 74 50 0 56 0
O. itascae Monson & Holzenthal, 1993 4 4 HCIC 0 4 0 0 0 4 0
O. michiganensis Mosely, 1934 219 25 HCIC 120 99 0 3 32 183 1
O. novasota Ross, 1944 2 1 UMMZ 0 0 2 0 0 0 0
O. obtatus Denning, 1947 27 10 HCIC 4 15 8 12 0 5 3
O. pallida (Ross, 1904) 757 10 HCIC 0 9 748 4 1 28 0
O. rivicola Blickle & Morse, 1954 85 7 HCIC 2 83 0 1 59 25 0
O. serrata Ross, 1938 366 17 HCIC 6 319 41 315 0 11 0
O. sida Blickle & Morse, 1954 10 5 HCIC 4 6 0 0 2 8 0
O. verna Ross, 1938 3 3 HCIC 1 1 1 0 1 0 0
O. zeronia Ross, 1941 73 12 HCIC 5 26 42 25 4 5 0
Stactobiella delira (Ross, 1938) 27 4 HCIC 24 3 0 0 14 13 0
S. palmata (Ross, 1938) 14 4 HCIC 5 9 0 0 0 5 9
LEPIDOSTOMATIDAE (10)
Lepidostoma bryanti (Banks, 1908) 7129 38 HCIC 157 6907 65 7 6822 300 0
L. carrolli Flint, 1958 1 1 HCIC 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
L. cinereum (Banks, 1914) 154 5 UMMZ 8 146 0 1 134 19 0
L. costale (Banks, 1914) 30 5 UMMZ 6 24 0 0 13 15 0
L. griseum (Banks, 1911) 406 8 HCIC 0 406 0 0 405 1 0
L. liba Ross, 1941 1 1 INHS 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
L. sackeni (Banks, 1936) 14 7 HCIC 2 12 0 0 11 3 0
L. togatum (Hagen, 1861) 5623 87 HCIC 1167 4436 2 43 1022 4417 123
L. unicolor (Banks, 1911) 4 2 HCIC 4 0 0 0 0 4 0
L. vernale (Banks, 1897) 116 10 HCIC 1 115 0 0 112 1 3
LEPTOCERIDAE (46)
Ceraclea alagma (Ross, 1938) 1058 34 HCIC 28 867 163 841 5 52 2
C. albosticta (Hagen, 1861) 2 1 HCIC 0 2 0 2 0 0 0
C. alces (Ross, 1941) 1 1 HCIC 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
C. ancylus (Vorhies, 1909) 11 5 HCIC 10 0 1 1 0 9 1
C. annulicornis (Martynov, 1910) 1 1 HCIC 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
C. arielles (Denning, 1942) 3637 13 HCIC 515 3122 0 1 28 3607 1
C. cancellata (Betten, 1942) 163 31 HCIC 75 52 35 41 1 71 49
C. diluta (Hagen, 1861) 29 10 HCIC 10 8 10 22 0 5 1
C. excisa (Morton, 1904) 1 1 UMMZ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
C. flava (Ross, 1904) 39 1 HCIC 39 0 0 0 0 0 39
C. maculata (Banks, 1899) 143 15 HCIC 39 68 36 11 1 100 31
C. mentiea (Walker, 1852) 1 1 INHS 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
C. resurgens (Walker, 1852) 7 4 HCIC 3 3 1 5 0 0 2
C. tarsipunctata (Vorhies, 1909) 1532 18 HCIC 113 1250 126 321 42 533 628
C. transversa (Hagen, 1861) 993 61 HCIC 311 666 14 53 17 866 53
C. wetzeli (Ross, 1941) 30 3 HCIC 26 4 0 0 0 4 26
Leptocerus americanus (Banks, 1899) 3037 85 HCIC 120 1010 1906 264 123 2139 365
Mystacides interjecta (Banks, 1914) 1067 52 HCIC 233 806 28 965 25 53 0
M. sepulchralis (Walker, 1852) 1774 102 HCIC 385 1299 89 1078 17 614 12
Nectopsyche albida (Walker, 1852) 2572 63 HCIC 21 2347 201 774 111 356 1278
N. candida (Hagen, 1861) 824 15 HCIC 4 92 728 90 0 350 383
N. diarina (Ross, 1944) 76 16 HCIC 9 55 12 20 2 48 1
N. exquisita (Walker, 1852) 226 19 HCIC 54 91 81 82 0 8 80
N. pavida (Hagen, 1861) 170 18 HCIC 43 125 2 90 1 77 1
Oecetis avara (Banks, 1895) 5654 37 HCIC 5321 269 69 76 2 437 5144
O. cinerascens (Hagen, 1861) 812 89 HCIC 199 465 148 494 66 144 8
O. disjuncta (Banks, 1920) 119 9 HCIC 28 90 1 0 1 116 2
O. ditissa Ross, 1966 1 1 INHS 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
O. houghtoni Blahnik & Holzenthal, 2014 6 2 HCIC 4 2 0 6 0 0 0
O. immobilis (Hagen, 1861) 28 8 HCIC 5 23 0 21 3 3 0
O. inconspicua (Walker, 1852) 16220 168 HCIC 1383 12262 2550 8727 2928 2184 159
O. nocturna Ross, 1966 2 2 HCIC 0 1 1 0 0 2 0
O. ochracea Curtis, 1825 3 2 INHS 1 0 2 0 0 1 0
O. osteni Milne, 1934 444 55 HCIC 71 343 30 333 16 72 17
O. persimilis (Banks, 1907) 1422 68 HCIC 365 987 70 40 222 1085 72
Setodes incertus (Walker, 1852) 1543 23 HCIC 905 638 0 3 13 1371 156
S. oligius (Ross, 1938) 308 16 HCIC 0 262 46 180 2 79 8
Triaenodes abus Milne, 1935 125 14 HCIC 4 15 106 8 0 10 2
T. baris Ross, 1938 57 20 HCIC 8 43 6 2 29 18 1
T. dipsius Ross, 1938 98 17 HCIC 30 68 0 3 8 87 0
T. ignitus (Walker, 1852) 186 35 HCIC 9 131 46 3 13 159 11
T. injustus (Hagen, 1861) 535 56 HCIC 152 310 68 224 69 197 4
T. marginatus Sibley, 1926 334 42 HCIC 58 197 83 2 69 188 1
T. melacus Ross, 1947 6 3 HCIC 0 0 6 4 2 0 0
T. nox Ross, 1941 107 26 HCIC 11 89 7 14 56 34 0
T. tardus Milne, 1934 1015 54 HCIC 58 399 557 23 165 288 5
LIMNEPHILIDAE (49)
Anabolia bimaculata (Walker, 1852) 207 42 HCIC 72 114 10 57 21 108 1
A. consocia (Walker, 1852) 90 27 HCIC 14 64 12 3 12 61 1
A. ozburni Milne, 1935 254 5 UMMZ 0 23 231 0 0 23 0
A. sordida Hagen, 1861 9 6 INHS 1 6 2 4 0 4 0
Asynarchus montanus (Banks, 1907) 45 8 HCIC 2 15 28 3 1 12 0
A. rossi Leonard & Leonard, 1949 15 3 UMMZ 0 15 0 0 15 0 0
Frenesia missa (Milne, 1935) 159 13 UMMZ 1 156 2 1 77 77 0
Glyphopsyche irrorata (F., 1781) 7 4 HCIC 2 5 0 0 5 2 0
Hesperophylax designatus (Walker, 1852) 154 24 HCIC 17 126 11 1 119 37 0
Hydatophylax argus (Harris, 1869) 130 35 HCIC 6 119 2 1 71 54 0
Ironoquia lyrata (Ross, 1938) 4 2 HCIC 0 4 0 0 4 0 0
I. parvula (Banks, 1900) 4 2 INHS 4 0 0 2 0 2 0
I. punctatissima (Walker, 1852) 65 7 HCIC 0 26 39 0 25 0 0
Lenarchus crassus (Banks, 1920) 2 1 HCIC 2 0 0 0 1 0 0
Leptophylax gracilis Banks, 1900 11 7 UMMZ 0 6 5 0 1 0 1
Limnephilus ademus Ross, 1941 1 1 DER 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
L. argenteus Banks, 1914 1 1 HCIC 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
L. canadensis Banks, 1808 7 6 UMMZ 5 2 0 0 1 5 0
L. dispar McLachlan, 1875 6 2 UMMZ 0 0 6 0 0 0 0
L. externus Hagen, 1861 3 2 UMMZ 0 3 0 0 0 3 0
L. extractus Walker, 1852 1 1 INHS 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
L. hyalinus Hagen, 1861 1 1 HCIC 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
L. indivisus Walker, 1852 473 46 HCIC 2 116 351 12 65 32 6
L. infernalis (Banks, 1914) 15 5 UMMZ 14 0 0 14 0 0 0
L. janus Ross, 1938 7 1 HCIC 7 0 0 7 0 0 0
L. moestus Banks, 1908 186 44 HCIC 63 91 32 1 59 70 3
L. ornatus Banks, 1907 97 31 HCIC 33 23 41 4 15 30 1
L. parvulus (Banks, 1905) 55 3 UMMZ 3 0 52 2 0 1 0
L. perpusillus Walker, 1852 25 2 UMMZ 0 0 25 0 0 0 0
L. rhombicus (L., 1758) 62 13 HCIC 14 47 1 2 11 49 0
L. sackeni Banks, 1930 4 4 UMMZ 2 1 2 1 0 2 1
L. samoedus McLachlan, 1880 3 2 DER 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
L. secludens Banks, 1914 2 2 UMMZ 0 0 2 0 0 0 0
L. sericeus (Say, 1824) 211 16 HCIC 12 195 4 8 25 171 0
L. submonilifer Walker, 1852 529 34 HCIC 19 105 405 0 71 32 0
Nemotaulius hostilis (Hagen, 1873) 45 7 HCIC 2 43 0 0 42 2 1
Onocosmoecus unicolor (Banks, 1897) 73 14 HCIC 45 28 0 0 14 59 0
Phanocelia canadensis (Banks, 1924) 4 1 UMMZ 0 0 4 0 0 0 0
Platycentropus amicus (Hagen, 1861) 15 4 HCIC 4 11 0 0 0 11 4
P. radiatus (Say, 1824) 386 68 HCIC 61 230 79 64 155 79 0
P. indistinctus (Walker, 1852) 1 1 HCIC 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
Pseudostenophylax sparsus (Banks, 1908) 20 10 HCIC 7 13 0 0 11 8 0
Psychoglypha subborealis Ross, 1944 5 2 UMMZ 0 5 0 0 3 2 0
Pycnopsyche antica (Walker, 1852) 2191 12 HCIC 0 2191 0 0 2165 5 0
P. guttifera (Walker, 1852) 1387 26 HCIC 23 1348 16 9 1309 50 0
P. indiana (Ross, 1938) 13 2 HCIC 0 1 12 0 0 13 0
P. lepida (Hagen, 1861) 236 38 HCIC 85 136 11 17 92 100 0
P. scabripennis (Rambur, 1842) 4 4 INHS 0 3 1 0 3 1 0
P. subfasciata (Say, 1828) 62 11 HCIC 28 3 30 27 0 0 0
MOLANNIDAE (5)
Molanna blenda Sibley, 1926 563 29 HCIC 48 513 2 4 513 45 1
M. flavicornis Banks, 1914 67 12 HCIC 11 0 0 10 0 1 0
M. tryphena Betten, 1934 198 42 HCIC 111 67 15 2 33 156 0
M. ulmerina Navas, 1934 22 7 INHS 2 20 0 17 0 0 5
M. uniophila Vorhies, 1909 2027 65 HCIC 105 1850 68 1915 3 80 0
ODONTOCERIDAE (1)
Psilotreta indecisa (Walker, 1852) 1 1 UMMZ 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
PHILOPOTAMIDAE (6)
Chimarra aterrima Hagen, 1861 549 44 HCIC 136 396 14 45 137 323 16
C. feria (Ross, 1941) 213 8 HCIC 0 209 4 0 210 3 0
C. obscura (Walker, 1852) 4488 62 HCIC 69 1093 3326 65 136 3773 510
C. socia (Hagen, 1861) 8744 16 HCIC 8678 68 1 2 0 93 8646
Dolophilodes distinctus (Walker, 1852) 1343 73 HCIC 297 1043 1 10 750 581 0
Wormaldia moesta (Banks, 1914) 8 3 HCIC 8 0 0 0 0 8 0
PHRYGANEIDAE (18)
Agrypnia colorata (Hagen, 1873) 3 3 UMMZ 1 1 0 1 0 1 0
A. improba (Hagen, 1873) 147 22 HCIC 130 17 0 46 2 99 0
A. macdunnoughi (Milne, 1931) 6 3 HCIC 2 0 0 0 0 2 0
A. straminea Hagen, 1873 18 7 INHS 18 0 0 18 0 0 0
A. vestita (Walker, 1852) 49 13 HCIC 2 33 14 5 29 4 0
Banksiola crotchi Banks, 1844 2219 92 HCIC 420 1644 135 352 1094 609 19
B. dossuaria (Say, 1828) 108 7 HCIC 0 108 0 0 106 1 1
B. smithi (Banks, 1914) 73 17 HCIC 35 21 16 28 0 27 0
Beothukus complicatus (Banks, 1924) 2 2 ? 2 0 0 2 0 0 0
Fabria inornata (Banks, 1907) 1 1 ? 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Hagenella canadensis (Banks, 1907) 50 10 HCIC 3 16 31 0 10 9 0
Oligostomis ocelligera (Walker, 1852) 10 1 UMMZ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Phryganea cinerea Walker, 1852 213 43 HCIC 101 101 2 48 62 89 4
P. sayi Milne, 1931 31 10 HCIC 0 27 4 1 24 4 0
Ptilostomis angustipennis Hagen, 1873 44 13 HCIC 1 36 7 3 33 1 0
P. ocellifera (Walker, 1852) 375 59 HCIC 79 252 44 42 173 126 3
P. postica (Walker, 1852) 7 6 HCIC 0 3 4 1 1 1 0
P. semifasciata (Say, 1828) 207 41 HCIC 131 48 22 14 23 161 0
POLYCENTROPODIDAE (28)
Cernotina spicata Ross, 1938 135 11 HCIC 1 70 64 64 3 4 0
Cyrnellus fraternus (Banks, 1905) 45 8 HCIC 5 2 38 15 0 6 22
Holocentropus flavus Banks, 1908 75 14 HCIC 4 18 53 3 11 12 0
H. interruptus Banks, 1914 798 47 HCIC 47 246 505 156 95 63 2
H. melanae Ross, 1938 45 8 HCIC 2 17 26 16 0 3 0
H. milaca (Etnier, 1968) 31 1 HCIC 0 31 0 31 0 0 0
H. picicornis (Stephens, 1836) 20 2 HCIC 0 0 20 0 0 0 0
Neureclipsis bimaculata (L., 1758) 42 5 HCIC 36 5 1 4 0 28 9
N. crepuscularis (Walker, 1852) 276 59 HCIC 69 174 32 17 19 197 39
N. piersoni Frazer & Harris, 1991 10 5 INHS 0 8 2 5 2 3 0
N. validus (Walker, 1852) 2 1 HCIC 2 0 0 2 0 0 0
Nyctiophylax affinis (Banks, 1897) 4982 83 HCIC 285 3496 186 3027 198 501 236
N. moestus Banks, 1911 160 17 HCIC 46 84 30 1 2 151 0
N. serratus Lago & Harris, 1985 1 1 INHS 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
Plectrocnemia albipuncta Banks, 1930 40 14 HCIC 35 5 0 3 2 35 0
P. aureola Banks, 1930 862 24 HCIC 5 2 816 4 16 26 0
P. cinerea (Hagen, 1861) 1147 81 HCIC 88 778 276 684 37 117 4
P. clinei Milne, 1936 53 17 HCIC 12 41 0 10 31 12 0
P. crassicornis (Walker, 1852) 285 14 HCIC 2 20 163 2 2 19 0
P. icula (Ross, 1941) 10 5 HCIC 9 1 0 0 0 10 0
P. nascotia (Ross, 1941) 28 2 HCIC 0 0 28 0 0 28 0
P. remota (Banks, 1911) 230 29 HCIC 7 51 171 4 30 25 0
P. sabulosa (Leonard & Leonard, 1949) 3 1 UMMZ 0 3 0 0 0 0 0
P. weedi (Blickle & Morse, 1955) 4 4 HCIC 0 2 2 0 1 1 0
Polycentropus centralis Banks, 1914 33 2 HCIC 33 0 0 0 0 33 0
P. confusus Hagen, 1861 27 11 HCIC 7 16 0 0 0 21 1
P. pentus Ross, 1941 678 63 HCIC 101 541 36 8 354 296 13
P. timesis (Denning, 1948) 15 4 HCIC 0 15 0 0 15 0 0
PSYCHOMYIIDAE (2)
Lype diversa (Banks, 1914) 1589 94 HCIC 391 1101 97 12 449 1101 27
Psychomyia flavida Hagen, 1861 10574 127 HCIC 4291 6070 207 248 1102 6402 2644
RHYACOPHILIDAE (8)
Rhyacophila brunnea Banks, 1911 78 9 HCIC 28 50 0 0 44 19 0
R. fuscula (Walker, 1852) 42 14 HCIC 421 1 0 0 0 366 56
R. glaberrima Ulmer, 1907 1 1 INHS 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
R. ledra Ross, 1939 1 1 HCIC 0 0 1 0 0 1 0
R. lobifera Betten, 1834 5 1 HCIC 0 0 5 0 0 0 5
R. mainensis Banks, 1911 29 6 HCIC 3 26 0 0 4 24 1
R. manistee Ross, 1939 313 15 HCIC 0 313 0 0 32 244 37
R. vibox Milne, 1936 246 12 HCIC 11 233 0 1 236 7 0
SERICOSTOMATIDAE (1)
Agarodes distinctus (Ulmer, 1905) 125 9 HCIC 6 18 101 16 0 5 3
Thremmatidae (3)
Neophylax concinnus McLachlan, 1871 185 32 HCIC 86 92 7 11 45 127 1
N. fuscus Banks, 1903 54 4 UMMZ 0 54 0 0 0 54 0
N. oligius Ross, 1938 134 18 HCIC 19 80 35 0 62 58 4

Oecetis inconspicua (Walker) (Leptoceridae) was the most widespread species, followed by Psychomyia flavida Hagen (Psychomyiidae) and Helicopsyche borealis (Hagen) (Helicopsychidae) (Table 2). Oecetis inconspicua was also the most abundant species, followed by P. flavida and Chimarra socia (Hagen) (Philopotamidae). The 11 most abundant species collectively represented over half of all specimens collected. Conversely, 80 species were known from <10 specimens, and 27 species from a single specimen (Figure 2). Hydroptilidae (63 species), Limnephilidae (49), and Leptoceridae (46) were the most species-rich families; Hydroptila (28), Hydropsyche (21), and Limnephilus (20) the most species-rich genera (Table 2). The Northern Forested region contained both the most total species and the most species found exclusively in a single region, followed by the Northern Great Lakes and Southern Agricultural regions (Figure 3). Medium (4–15 m) rivers had the most total and unique species, followed by small (<4 m) streams, lakes, and large (>15 m) rivers.

Figure 2. 

The number of specimens known for each Michigan species and the number of localities where each species has been found.

Figure 3. 

The number of total and unique species from Michigan habitat types (A) and caddisfly regions (Houghton 2015) (B).

Discussion

Nearly all of the species reported here are based on verified adult male specimens. The current location of these specimens is reported in Table 2. One exception is Rhyacophila lobifera Betten (Rhyacophilidae), whose presence in Michigan is based on larvae and genetic analysis (Abigail Fusaro, unpublished data). Adult male specimens of Beothukus complicatus (Banks) (Phryganeidae) were collected by PLH and identified by BJA. The specimens were subsequently lost. Due to the distinctness of the male genitalia, it is unlikely that these specimens were misidentified and so B. complicatus is included on the checklist. Likewise, Fabria inornata Banks (Phryganeidae) was included in Leonard and Leonard’s (1949b) checklist. We have not been able to locate specimens, but find it unlikely that this distinctive species was misidentified and so have included it on the checklist. Conversely, Ceraclea nepha (Ross) and C. punctata (Banks) are more difficult to identify so, in the absence of known specimens, are excluded from the checklist (Table 3).

Species from Leonard and Leonard’s (1949b) checklist that are considered doubtful due to synonymy, misidentification, or our inability to locate a specimen.

Species Explanation
Banksiola selina Betten, 1944 Junior synonym of B. crotchi (Wiggins 1956)
Ceraclea nepha (Ross, 1944) Reported from “Crawford”. No specimen located
Ceraclea punctata (Banks, 1894) Reported from “Crawford”. No specimen located
Cyrnellus marginalis (Banks, 1930) Junior synonym of C. fraternus (Flint 1964)
Dicosmoecus quadrinotatus (Banks, 1908) Junior synonym of Onocosmoecus unicolor (Wiggins and Richardson 1986)
Hydropsyche alvata Denning, 1949 Junior synonym of H. incommoda (Korecki 2006)
Hydropsyche bidens Ross, 1938 Junior synonym of H. incommoda (Korecki 2006)
Hydropsyche bifida Banks, 1905 Junior synonym of H. morosa (Schefter and Unzicker 1984)
Hydropsyche orris Ross, 1938 Junior synonym of H. incommoda (Korecki 2006)
Hydropsyche recurvata Banks, 1908 Junior synonym of H. alternans (Schefter and Wiggins 1986)
Holocentropus glacialis Ross, 1938 Misidentified. Is Plectrocnemia cinerea (INHS)
Lepidostoma strophis Ross, 1938 Junior synonym of L. cinereum (Weaver 1988)
Neophylax autumnus Vorhies, 1909 Junior synonym of N. concinnus (Kimmins and Denning 1951)
Nyctiophylax uncus Ross, 1944 Misidentified. Is N. affinis (INHS)
Nyctiophylax vestitus (Hagen, 1861) Nomen dubium (Morse 1972)
Platycentropus plectrus Ross, 1938 Junior synonym of P. amicus (Flint 1966)
Rhyacophila acropedes Banks, 1914 Junior synonym of R. brunnea (Smith 1984)
Rhyacophila melita Ross, 1938 Junior synonym of R. mainensis (Smith 1984)

Michigan caddisfly species richness appears similar to that of Minnesota (277 total species) and Ohio (272), two adjacent states where surveys of comparable effort have recently occurred (Armitage et al. 2011, Houghton 2012). All three states generally harbor similar numbers of species in the same families; exceptions include Brachycentridae, Glossosomatidae, Hydropsychidae, Limnephilidae, Phryganeidae, and Rhyacophilidae (Figure 4). Overall distribution of specimens per species (Figure 2) follows a similar pattern in both states (Houghton and Holzenthal 2010).

Figure 4. 

The number of species within families found in Ohio (Armitage et al. 2011), Michigan (present study), and Minnesota (Houghton 2012).

Michigan and Minnesota also exhibit similar regional patterns, with higher species richness in the Northern Great Lakes and Northern Forested regions than in the Southern Agricultural region (Houghton 2012). These differences are probably due to both natural and anthropogenic factors (Houghton 2015). The majority of streams of the Northern Great Lakes region drain into Lake Superior and are of high gradient, especially their downstream sections. The majority of the region is forested, leading to low levels of watershed disturbance. The Northern Forested region is also relatively undisturbed. Most streams drain into lakes Michigan and Huron and tend to be of lower gradient. Streams of the Southern Agricultural region also tend to be low gradient. The region contains >90% of Michigan’s human population (www.census.gov) and most of its agriculture. Thus, streams are surrounded by anthropogenic disturbance.

Although the majority of Michigan caddisflies have also been collected from adjacent states and provinces, and Michigan does not have any known endemic species, there are still some noteworthy Michigan records reported in this study. Polycentropus timesis (Denning) (Polycentropodidae) is known in Michigan from 4 sites in Lake County in the northwestern Lower Peninsula. These sites are separated by >800 km from the other known P. timesis collection sites in Massachusetts and New Hampshire (Weaver 1995). Prior to the Michigan collections, Holocentropus milaca (Etnier) (Polycentropodidae) and Oxyethira itascae Monson and Holzenthal (Hydroptilidae) were both thought to be endemic to Minnesota (Houghton and Holzenthal 2003). Hydroptila tusculum Ross (Hydroptilidae) was previously known only from collections in the southeastern U.S. (Moulton and Stewart 1996); the nearest reported collection is ~1,200 km from the single Michigan locality in the northwestern Lower Peninsula. Interestingly, H. tusculum has also been collected from Wisconsin (unpublished data), indicating that it is more widespread than originally thought. Similarly, Neureclipsis piersoni Frazer and Harris and Nyctiophylax serratus Lago and Harris (Polycentropodidae) are known in Michigan from Sleeping Bear Dunes National Park in the northwestern Lower Peninsula. Both species represent >500 km range extensions from their nearest known collecting localities in Kentucky (Rasmussen and Morse 2016).

Including the current study, 20% of the total caddisfly fauna of Michigan, and almost 40% of the hydroptilid fauna, has been reported during the last 10 years, despite a >80-year collecting history in the state (Table 1). Moreover, nearly all recent regional studies have resulted in new state records. Thus, it is likely that additional species remain undiscovered in the state. Future research will include a more comprehensive faunal analysis relating species to habitat preferences and anthropogenic disturbance levels, as well as a conservation assessment of individual Michigan species.

Acknowledgments

We appreciate the efforts of all who have collected, sorted, and identified Michigan caddisflies, including Benjamin Albers, Doug Bidlack, Roger Blahnik, Chris Bowyer, Kelsey Brakel, Kiralyn Brakel, the Friends of the Rogue River, Erin Furmaga, Abigail Fusaro, Hannah (Russell) Goble, Bruce McCulloch, Bilyana (Petkova) McLeod, Bridget O’Leary, Joel Parker, Sally Petrella, Logan Shoup, Mary Clare Smith, Erich Steger, Peter Thistleton, Eleanor (Smith) Valle, Jeff Van Zant, Lydia Wassink, and Daniel Wright. We further thank Abigail Fusaro and the Friends of the Rogue River for sharing larval specimens and genetic sequence data for Rhyacophila lobifera. We thank Mark O’Brien (University of Michigan), Ralph Holzenthal (University of Minnesota), Richard Baumann (Brigham Young University), and Boris Kondratieff (Colorado State University) for allowing us access to additional records and collections.

Permit PRD-SU-2011-039 to collect from Michigan State Park habitats was provided by Alicia Selden of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Sampling of Sleeping Bear Dunes National Park was conducted under permit SLBE-2014-SCI-0002, facilitated by Kevin Skerl, Chief of Natural Resources for the park. Permission to sample in the Huron Mountains was provided by the Huron Mountains Wildlife Federation. Permission to sample at the Black River Ranch was provided by the Black River Ranch Board of Directors. Permission to sample at Sarah Jane’s Natural Area was provided by John Bagley and Andrew Bacon of the Michigan Nature Association.

Research costs were supported by the Hillsdale College biology department and several LAUREATES grants from Hillsdale College to DCH, AJP, and affiliated students. RED received support from the US Department of Interior (INT RD X-1-R-1) and the National Science Foundation (DEB 09-18805 ARRA). The valuable comments of Ralph Holzenthal, Karl Kjer, and Andy Rasmussen improved earlier versions of the manuscript. This is paper #17 of the G.H. Gordon BioStation Research Series.

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