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Research Article
Two new species of the bamboo-feeding planthopper genus Bambusiphaga Huang & Ding from China (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Delphacidae)
expand article infoHong-Xing Li, Lin Yang, Xiang-Sheng Chen
‡ Guizhou University, Guiyang, China
Open Access

Abstract

Two new species of the bamboo-feeding genus Bambusiphaga Huang & Ding, 1979, B. yingjiangensis sp. n. and B. ventroprocessa sp. n., are described and illustrated from Yunnan and Hainan, south China. A key to species of the genus are given. A map showing the geographic distribution of the two new species is also provided.

Keywords

Bamboo planthopper, distribution, Fulgoroidea, Homoptera, Oriental region, taxonomy

Introduction

The bamboo-feeding planthopper genus Bambusiphaga, belonging to the tribe Tropidocephalini (Delphacidae, Delphacinae), was established by Huang and Ding (1979) (type species: B. nigropunctata Huang & Ding, 1979). To date, 25 species are recognized in the genus. Among them, 23 species are distributed in China (Huang et al. 1979; Kuoh et al. 1980; Ding 1982; Ding and Hu 1982; Asche 1983; Ding et al. 1986; Yang and Yang 1986; Qin and Yuan 1999; Chen and Li 2000; Chen et al. 2000; Qin et al. 2006; Chen and Liang 2007; Hou and Chen 2010; Yang and Chen 2011; Qin et al. 2012). Chen and Liang (2007) proposed 20 species of the genus in seven groups: nigropunctata, citricolorata, lacticolorata, fascia, maculata, wangmoensis, and mirostylis respectively. Yang and Chen (2011) provided the checklist of 24 species of the genus.

Species of Bambusiphaga feed exclusively on bamboo (Bambusoideae). Some of them, such as B. furca Huang & Ding, B. citricolorata Huang & Tian, B. taiwanensis (Muir), B. lacticolorata Huang & Ding, B. maculata Chen et al. and B. luodianensis Ding, are of economic significance since these species have large populations in bamboo fields (Huang et al. 1979; Ding et al. 1986; Yang and Yang 1986; Yang et al. 1999; Chen et al. 2000; Liu and Chen 2008; Zheng and Chen 2013a, b). Specimens have been collected on the leaves of several genera of bamboo, including Bambusa, Dendrocalamus, Gelidocalamus, Sinocalamus, Neosinocalamus, and Phyllostachys (Huang et al. 1979; Ding and Hu 1982; Ding et al. 1986; Yang and Yang 1986; Chen and Li 2000; Chen et al. 2000; Ding 2006; Chen and Liang 2007; Zheng and Chen 2013a, b).

Herein, two new species of Bambusiphaga, B. yingjiangensis sp. n. and B. ventroprocessa sp. n., are described and illustrated from Yunnan and Hainan respectively.

Materials and methods

Dry male specimens were used for the description and illustration. External morphology was observed under a stereoscopic microscope and characters were measured with an ocular micrometer. Color pictures for adult habitus were obtained by KEYENCE VHX-1000 system. The genital segments of the examined specimens were macerated in 10% KOH and drawn from preparations in glycerin jelly using a Leica MZ 12.5 stereomicroscope. Illustrations were scanned with Canon CanoScan LiDE 200 and imported into Adobe Photoshop 6.0 for labeling and plate composition.

Terminology of morphological and measurements follow Yang and Yang (1986), Chen and Liang (2007), and the morphological terminology of female genitalia follows Bourgoin (1993). Measurements of body length equal the distance between the apex of vertex and tip of tegmen. All measurements are in millimeters (mm).

The type specimens of the new species are deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, China (IEGU).

Taxonomy

Bambusiphaga Huang & Ding, 1979

Bambusiphaga Huang & Ding, 1979: 170; Asche 1983: 211; Ding and Tian 1983 (in Kuoh et al. 1983): 49; Yang and Yang 1986: 37; Wang and Ding 1996: 22; Ding et al. 1999: 441; Ding 2006: 126; Chen and Liang 2007: 504; Hou and Chen 2010: 392; Yang and Chen 2011: 51.

Type species

Bambusiphaga nigropunctata Huang & Ding, 1979, by original designation.

Diagnosis

For the diagnosis and relationships of Bambusiphaga see Yang and Chen (2011: 51), Hou and Chen (2010: 392) and Chen and Liang (2007: 504).

Host plants

Bamboo.

Distribution

Oriental region, with highest species diversity in China.

Key to species of genus Bambusiphaga (male)

(Modified from Yang and Chen 2011 and Qin et al. 2012)

1 Vertex dark brown or with blackish brown markings 2
Vertex without any markings 3
2 Vertex yellowish brown, basal compartment with a black oval spot in middle part; anal segment without a process, pygofer without medioventral processes (Huang et al. 1979: figs 2, 4) B. nigropunctata
Vertex dark brown, basal compartment of vertex without a black oval spot; anal segment with a very long process that surpasses base of genital styles; pygofer with conjugated medioventral processes (Chen and Liang 2007: figs 46, 49) B. pianmaensis
3 Mesonotum with blackish brown markings 4
Mesonotum without blackish brown markings 12
4 Pronotum with blackish brown markings on lateral areas 5
Pronotum without blackish brown markings on lateral areas 11
5 Forewings with basal 1/3 black or with black markings at basal half 6
Forewings with a large irregular pale brown stripe along transverse vein hence bending along posterior margin to apex (Fig. 8) B. yingjiangensis sp. n.
6 Forewings with basal 1/3 black 7
Forewings with large black markings at base 10
7 Anal segment without a process on ventral margin (Yang and Chen 2011: fig. 6) B. kunmingensis
Anal segment with a very long process on ventral margin 8
8 Anal spiny process at left lateroapical angle of anal segment 9
Anal spiny process at right lateroapical angle of anal segment (Hou and Chen 2010: fig. 14) B. basifusca
9 Pygofer with a medioventral process; aedeagus with two apical processes (Qin et al. 2012: figs 12, 16–17) B. taibaishana
Pygofer without medioventral process; aedeagus without apical processes (Ding and Hu 1987: figs 1, 3) B. fascia
10 Forewings with a large black marking at base; anal segment with a long process on ventral margin (Chen et al. 2000: figs 3–4) B. maculata
Forewings with two large black markings at base; anal segment without process on ventral margin (Figs 29, 31) B. ventroprocessa sp. n.
11 Forewings somewhat reddish orange, costal margin blackish brown; genital styles relatively broad and short (Huang et al. 1980: figs 8c, 8f) B. nigromariginata
Forewings somewhat yellowish brown, costal margin yellowish brown; genital styles relatively slender (Yang and Yang 1986: figs 20C, 20E; Miur 1917: fig. 44) B. taiwanensis
12 Anal segment with a process on ventral margin 13
Anal segment without a process on ventral margin 17
13 Pygofer with a medioventral process (Muir 1919: fig. 3) B. bakeri
Pygofer without a medioventral proces 14
14 Anal segment with the process on ventral margin very long, reaching ventral margin of pygofer 15
Anal segment with the process on ventral margin very short 16
15 Genital styles with a process at base, apex rounded (Ding et al. 1986: figs 1 (5–6)) B. jinghongensis
Genital styles without a process at base, apex forked (Huang et al. 1979: fig. 18) B. mirostylis
16 Tegula with apical 1/2 blackish brown; pygofer with hind margin produced at an acute angle medially; genital styles slender; aedeagus without phallobase (Ding and Hu 1982: figs 1–4) B. huangi
Tegula fully yellowish brown; pygofer with hind margin not produced medially; genital styles broad and short; aedeagus with developed phallobase (Chen and Li 2000: figs 11, 13, 15–16) B. wangmoensis
17 Pygofer with a spine on ventral margin 18
Pygofer without a spine on ventral margin 20
18 Genital style with an inversed spine on caudal side near apex which is as long as 1/5 of genital style; aedeagus with three spines subapically (Yang and Chen 2011: figs 20–22) B. yangi
Genital style with an angular or tooth-like process on caudal side near apex; aedeagus without spines subapically 19
19 Genital styles asymmetrical, right one shorter than left one, without tooth-like process subapically on caudal side; aedeagus with an inversed process on right side near apical 1/3 (Miur 1919: fig. 8) B. singaporensis
Genital styles symmetrical; aedeagus without any processes (Ding 1982: figs 3, 5) B. luodianensis
20 Genital styles with a finger-like process at base 21
Genital styles without a finger-like process at base 22
21 Genital styles with a finger-like process subapically; aedeagus curved in middle (Chen and Liang 2007: figs 20–22) B. maolanensis
Genital styles with a lamellate process subapically; aedeagus almost straight (Hou and Chen 2010: figs 9–10) B. hainanensis
22 Genital styles forked apically 23
Genital styles not forked apically 25
23 Frons longer at middle line than wide at widest part, about 2.0: 1; basocaudal portion of genital styles in profile produced at a right angle (Yang and Yang 1986: figs 22B, 22H) B. membranacea
Frons longer at middle line than wide at widest part, about 2.5: 1; basocaudal portion of genital styles in profile not produced at a right angle 24
24 Median portion of genital styles granulate (Huang et al. 1979: figs 8–11) B. furca
Median portion of genital styles not granulate (Aschi 1983: fig. 4) B. lynchi
25 Ventral margin of anal segment incised medially; genital styles short, lamellate (Huang et al. 1979: fig. 20) B. lacticolorata
Ventral margin of anal segment not incised medially; genital styles slender 26
26 Apex of vertex obviously broadened, frons widest at base; apex of genital styles without small teeth; aedeagus short and stout (Huang et al. 1979: fig. 17) B. similis
Apex of vertex not broadened, frons widest at apex; apex of genital styles with several small teeth; aedeagus relatively long (Huang et al. 1979: figs 13–15) B. citricolorata

Bambusiphaga yingjiangensis sp. n.

Figs 1–9, 10–21

Type material

Holotype: ♂, China: Yunnan Province, Yingjiang County (97°56'E, 24°41'N), on bamboo, 17 Aug. 2015, X.-S. Chen and L. Yang; paratypes, 5♂♂, 23♀♀, same data as holotype.

Etymology

This new species is named after the type locality, Yingjiang, Yunnan Province in China.

Measurements

Body length (from apex of vertex to tip of forewings): male 3.2–3.4 mm (N = 6); female 3.6–3.9 mm (N = 23); forewings length: male 2.5–2.7 mm (N = 6); female 3.2–3.5 mm (N = 23).

Diagnosis

The salient features of the new species include the following: pronotum and mesonotum with blackish brown markings (Figs 3–4); forewings with a large irregular pale brown stripe along transverse vein hence bending along posterior margin to apex (Fig. 8); aedeagus with phallobase, apical 1/4 with three branches (Figs 17–18); genital styles with apical forked (Figs 15–16).

Figures 1–9. 

Bambusiphaga yingjiangensis sp. n. 1 Male habitus, dorsal view 2 Same, lateral view 3–4 Head and thorax, dorsal view 5–6 Face 7 Frons and clypeus, lateral view 8 Forewing 9 Hindwing. Scale bars 1–7 0.2 mm; 8–9 0.5 mm.

Description

Coloration. General color light yellow with dark brown markings (Figs 1–2). Vertex, frons, genae, clypeus and antennae light yellow (Figs 1–7). Eyes reddish brown, ocelli red (Figs 5, 7). Pronotum (Figs 3–4) light yellow to yellowish white, outside of each lateral carina with a large dark brown marking. Mesonotum (Figs 3–4) light yellow, outside of each lateral carina with two large dark brown markings, middle area with two small bilateral dark brown markings at apical 1/3, the scutellum with apex dark brown. Forewings (Fig. 8) hyaline, with a large irregular pale brown stripe along transverse vein hence bending along posterior margin to apex, another large pale brown transverse marking from vein Rs+M1 to apex of vein Sc2. Hindwings (Fig. 9) with a pale brown longitudinal stripe along apical margin.

Head and thorax. Vertex with anterior margin broadly rounded, lateral and submedian carinae distinct, ratio width at base to width at apex 1.4, ratio of length to width at base 0.5 (Figs 3–4). Frons with ratio of length at midline to width at widest part 2.2, widest at apex, median carina forked at base (Figs 5–6). Base of postclypeus as wide apex of frons (Figs 5–6). Antennae with basal segment long equal to wide, shorter than second segment (0.4: 1), two segments together reaching to frontoclypeal suture (Figs 5–6). Pronotum with ratio length in midline to length of vertex 1.7 (Figs 3–4). Mesonotum 2.5 times as long as vertex and pronotum combined in middle line (Figs 3–4). Forewings (Fig. 8) longer in middle line than broad at widest part (2.6: 1), apical margin rounded.

Male genitalia. Pygofer (Figs 12–13) without medioventral process, opening longer than wide in posterior view (Fig. 12), dorsal margin shorter than ventral margin in lateral view (Fig. 13). Aedeagus (Figs 17–18) with phallobase process small and simple, arising from base of aedeagus, with basal 1/2 thick, apical 1/2 thin, S-shaped; phallus complex, apical 1/4 with three branches—the left one curved, directed basad, the middle one small and straight, and the right one, longest slightly curved and directed ventrad; gonopore located at apical 1/4 of phallus, node-like. Genital styles (Figs 15–16) long, with two processes forked at apical 1/3 (Fig. 16), with apex in profile triangular, a large tooth-like located at middle of subapex, directed basad (Fig. 15). Anal segment (Figs 10–11) short, ring-like, without processes, ventral margin convex medially in posterior view (Fig. 11).

Figures 10–21. 

Bambusiphaga yingjiangensis sp. n. 10 Anal segment, lateral view 11 Male genitalia, posterior view 12 Pygofer, posterior view 13 The same, lateral view 14 Male genitalia, lateral view 15 Genital style, lateral view 16 Same, posterior view 17 Aedeagus, right lateral view 18 Same, left lateral view 19 Female genitalia, posterior view 20 Gonocoxa VIII, posterior view 21 Gonapophysis IX. Scale bars 0.2 mm.

Female genitalia. Female pygofer (Fig. 19) with gonocoxa VIII moderately large. Ovipositor (Fig. 19) overpassing the pygofer. Gonangulum large, apex blunt, connected gonocoxa VIII. Gonapophyses IX (Fig. 21) curved basally, straight and narrowing apically, dorsal margin with apical 1/2 serrated, ventral margin with three small teeth near the tip.

Host plant

Bamboo.

Distribution

Southwest China (Yunnan) (Fig. 40).

Remarks

This new species resembles B. nigropunctata Huang & Ding, 1979, but differs from the latter by: lateral areas of pronotum and mesonotum with several dark brown markings (without dark brown marking in nigropunctata); genital styles forked apically (genital styles not forked apically in nigropunctata); aedeagus with three branches subapically (aedeagus with two branches apically in nigropunctata).

This new species is also similar to B. taiwanensis (Muir, 1917) and can be distinguished by: lateral areas of pronotum and mesonotum with several dark brown markings (without dark brown marking in taiwanensis); genital styles forked apically (genital styles not forked apically in taiwanensis); aedeagus with three branches without tooth (aedeagus with several small teeth on dorsal and lateral sides of the main branch in taiwanensis).

Based on the characters of male genitalia, this species should belong to the nigropunctata group.

Bambusiphaga ventroprocessa sp. n.

Figs 22–30, 31–39

Type material

Holotype: ♂, China: Hainan Province, Lingshui County (110°01'E, 18°30'N), on bamboo, 16 Apr. 2017, H.-X. Li; paratypes, 3♂♂, 10♀♀, same data as holotype.

Etymology

The specific name is a combination of the Latin word venter (truncated, with o- connecting vowel), meaning belly, ventral; and the Latin word processus, meant in the modern biological sense of a projection or appendage, truncated with the feminine termination -a.

Measurements

Body length (from apex of vertex to tip of forewings): male 2.4–2.6 mm (N = 4); female 2.4–2.7 mm (N = 10); forewings length: male 2.0–2.2 mm (N = 4); female 2.0–2.3 mm (N = 10).

Diagnosis

The salient features of the new species include the following: forewings with two large black markings at base (Fig. 29); pygofer with mediovental process large and inversed (Fig. 32); aedeagus with numerous inversed spines at apical 1/2 (Fig. 36).

Figures 22–30. 

Bambusiphaga ventroprocessa sp. n. 22 Male habitus, dorsal view 23 Same, lateral view 24–25 Head and thorax, dorsal view 26–27 Frons and clypeus 28 Same, lateral view 29 Forewing 30 Hindwing. Scale bars 22–28 0.2 mm; 29–30 0.5 mm.

Description

Coloration. General color yellowish white to black (Figs 22–30). Vertex, frons, clypeus, antennae and legs yellowish white. Genae black brown. Eyes and ocelli brownish red (Figs 26, 28). Pronotum (Figs 24–25) black, disc with anterior 1/3 between lateral carinae and median carina yellowish white. Mesonotum (Figs 24–25) blackish brown, apex of scutellum yellowish white. Forewings (Fig. 29) with two large dark brown markings at basal area.

Head and thorax. Vertex (Figs 24–25) with anterior margin angled convex medially, Y-shaped carina with stalk absent, ratio of length to width at base 0.9, ratio width at base to width at apex 1.4. Frons (Figs 26–27) with ratio of length in middle line to width at widest 2.6, widest at apex, median carina simple and obscure apically. Clypeus (Figs 26–27) with width at base as same as frons at apex. Antennae (Figs 26–27) with basal segment subequal to broad, shorter than second segment (1.0: 3.0), reaching to frontoclypeal suture. Pronotum (Figs 24–25) with carinae distinct, lateral carinae attaining hind margin, length in midline as long as vertex. Mesonotum (Figs 24–25) with lateral carinae straight, subparallel, attaining hind margin, median carina obscured apically, ratio length to pronotum and vertex combined in middle line 1.3. Forewings (Fig. 29) with radio of length in middle line to width at widest part 2.5, apical margin rounded. Hindwings (Fig. 30) elongate.

Male genitalia. Pygofer in posterior view (Fig. 32) with medioventral process large and inversed, opening longer than wide, lateral margins sinuate; in lateral view (Fig. 33) dorsal margin shorter than ventral margin distinctly, posterior margin concave. Aedeagus (Fig. 36) stout, tubular, apical 1/2 with numerous inversed spines. Genital styles (Fig. 35) moderately long, tapering apically. Anal segment (Fig. 31) short, ring-like, ventral margin without process.

Figures 31–39. 

Bambusiphaga ventroprocessa sp. n. 31 Male genitalia, posterior view 32 Pygofer, posterior view 33 Same, lateral view 34 Male genitalia, lateral view 35 Genital style, posterior view 36 Aedeagus 37 Female genitalia, posterior view 38 Gonocoxa VIII, posterior view 39 Gonapophysis IX. Scale bars 0.1 mm.

Female genitalia. Female pygofer (Fig. 37) with gonocoxa VIII moderately large. Ovipositor (Fig. 37) overpassing apical margin of pygofer distinctly. Gonangulum with apical margin blunt, connected gonocoxa VIII. Gonapophyses IX (Fig. 39) long and large, curved and directed basad, apex sharp, dorsal margin with apical 1/2 serrated.

Host plant

Bamboo.

Distribution

South China (Hainan) (Fig. 40).

Figure 40. 

Geographic distributions of two new Bambusiphaga species in China: B. yingjiangensis sp. n. (▲); B. ventroprocessa sp. n. (●).

Figure 41. 

Adult of Bambusiphaga yingjiangensis sp. n. resting on leaf of bamboo. Photograph by X.-S. Chen.

Figures 42–43. 

Host plant of Bambusiphaga ventroprocessa sp. n. 42 View of the area where the specimens of B. ventroprocessa sp. n. were captured, in Lingshui (Hainan, China). 43 View of the plant. Photograph by H.-X. Li.

Remarks

This species is similar to B. kunmingensis Yang & Chen, 2011, but can be distinguished by the basal area of forewing with two dark brown markings (forewing with basal 1/3 full dark brown in kunmingensis); the mediovental process of pygofer large (without mediovental process in kunmingensis); the aedeagus without phallobase (phallobase arising from base of aedeagus, as long as aedeagus in kunmingensis).

This new species is also similar to B. basifusca Hou & Chen, 2010, but can be distinguished by the ventral margin of anal segment without process (ventral margin of anal segment with a long process in basifusca); the ventral margin of pygofer with a medioventral process (ventral margin of pygofer with three medioventral processes in basifusca); and the aedeagus without phallobase (aedeagus with phallobase in basifusca).

Based on the characters of male genitalia, this species should belong to the kunmingensis group.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31472033, 31160163), the Program of Science and Technology Innovation Talents Team, Guizhou Province (No. 20144001), and the Program of Excellent Innovation Talents, Guizhou Province (No. 20154021).

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