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Research Article
Two new species of the genus Dahlica Enderlein (Lepidoptera, Psychidae) from Korea
expand article infoSeung Jin Roh, Bong-Woo Lee, Bong-Kyu Byun§
‡ Korea National Arboretum, Pocheon, Korea, South
§ Hannam University, Daejeon, Korea, South
Open Access

Abstract

The genus Dahlica Enderlein, 1912 is reported for the first time from Korea with two new species: Dahlica (Dahlica) somae Roh & Byun, sp. n. and Dahlica (Dahlica) ochrostigma Roh & Byun, sp. n. Adults and genitalia are illustrated, and DNA barcodes for precise identification of the species are also provided.

Keywords

bagworms, DNA barcode, Naryciinae, new species, Psychidae

Introduction

The family Psychidae is a medium-sized family of moths consisting of 241 named genera and 1,350 species (Sobczyk 2011; van Nieukerken et al. 2011). Phylogenetically, Psychidae belong to the oldest clades of the suborder Ditrysia in the order Lepidoptera, and have usually been placed in the superfamily Tineoidea (Davis and Robinson 1998), with Eriocottidae, Tineidae, Meessiidae, and Dryadaulidae as phylogenetically allied groups (Mutanen et al. 2010; Regier et al. 2015). Most species of Psychidae produce characteristic cases or bags at different larval stages (Sugimoto 2009a, 2009b), which gives rise to their common name, bagworms. Parthenogenesis is known in several species of the genus Dahlica Enderlein, 1912 in the Naryciinae (Grapputo et al. 2005; Elzinga et al. 2013). Identification of these species and classification of the females based on morphological and ecological characters alone is difficult (Grapputo et al. 2005; Elzinga et al. 2013). In Korea, Roh et al. (2016) reviewed the nine known species including a new species, Psyche yeongwolensis Byun & Roh, 2016 and recorded a species new for the country, Proutia maculatella Saigusa & Sugimoto, 2014. Later, Roh and Byun (2016) recorded Ceratosticha leptodeta Meyrick, 1935 new for Korea. Recently, three more species were reported: Bacotia sakabei Seino, 1981, (Roh and Byun 2017a), Bruandella niphonica (Hori, 1926), and Proutia nigra Saigusa & Sugimoto, 2014 (Roh and Byun 2017b). Consequently, 13 species in total are now known from Korea.

The genus Dahlica was based on the type species Dahlica larviformis Enderlein, 1912 by Enderlein in 1912 (Sobczyk 2011). The members of Dahlica are superficially similar to Siederia Meier, 1957 (Grapputo et al. 2005), but can be distinguished from the latter by the absence of an epiphysis on the fore-tibia of the male (Herrmann 1988; Herrmann and Weidlich 1999; Rekelj et al. 2014; Arnscheid 2016), the absence of the medial cell in the fore- and hindwings, presence of accessory cells, and six veins arising from the discoidal cell of the hindwing (Rekelj and Predovnik 2014).

Meier (1958) and Sieder (1953) proposed to divide Dahlica in various subgenera, which were later raised to genus. Recently Arnscheid and Weidlich (2017) reviewed the five allied genera, Dahlica, Siederia, Brevantennia Sieder, 1953, Postsolenobia Meyer, 1958, and Praesolenobia Sieder, 1955, and decided on the basis of the venation of the male hindwings, male forewing scale morphology, presence of an epiphysis in the males, the structure of reproductive organs, and the female antennae to sank these genera again as subgenera of Dahlica. They diagnosed the subgenus Dahlica by the following characters: the absence of an epiphysis, presence of six veins from the hindwing discal cell, and the long female antennae, with more than eleven segments (Arnscheid and Weidlich 2017).

Females of the genus Dahlica are unable to fly because of their degenerate wings (Sauter and Hättenschwiler 1999). The larvae feed on moss, algae, and lichens, which are attached to walls or the bark of trees via a sac constructed of small sand particles (Sauter and Hättenschwiler 1999; Sugimoto 2009a; Arnscheid and Weidlich 2017).

In total, 42 species of the subgenus Dahlica have been reported worldwide and are distributed throughout the Palaearctic region in Europe (41 species) and Asia (one species) (Sobczyk 2011; Arnscheid and Weidlich 2017).

In this study, Dahlica (Dahlica) somae sp. n. and D. (D.) ochrostigma sp. n. are described as new species and the genus Dahlica is reported for the first time from Korea. All available information is presented, including the collection locations, micro-habitats, and illustrations of adults and their genitalia. DNA barcodes are also provided for precise identification of each species.

Materials and methods

The material examined in this study is preserved in the Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Hannam University (SEL/HNU), Daejeon, Korea, and the Entomological Collection of the Korea National Arboretum, Pocheon, Korea (KNAE). Specimens were dissected and examined after mounting on slide glass; male genitalia and wing scales in 80 % glycerol solution, females in euparal solution and wing venation on dried condition. Photographs of adults and genitalia were taken using a PAXcam digital camera (PAXcam Microscope Cameras Co., Chicago, IL, USA) attached to a Carl Zeiss Axio Imager A1 microscope (Carl Zeiss Ltd., Cambridge, MA, USA).

Terminology and morphological characters of the adult, wing venation, and genitalia follows Dierl (1964), Kristensen (2003), and Arnscheid and Weidlich (2017) (Figs 1–4) and the terminology for forewing scales (class 1 to 6) follows Sauter (1956). The set-up of the data matrix for morphological characters of the genus Dahlica follows Arnscheid (2016) (Table 2).

Figures 1–4. 

Terminology of morphological characters. 1 Male (Dierl (1964), Arnscheid and Weidlich (2017)) 2 Male genitalia, dorso-ventral part (Dierl (1964), Kristensen (2003) and Arnscheid and Weidlich (2017)) 3 Ditto, lateral part (Dierl (1964), Kristensen (2003) and Arnscheid and Weidlich (2017)) 4 Female (Arnscheid and Weidlich (2017)).

Species with DNA barcodes and GenBank accession numbers used in this study.

Scientific name Country BIN number Accession number (GenBank) Basepair length
Dahlica (Dahlica) somae sp. n. Korea BOLD:ADJ8202 MF508656 658
D. (D.) somae Korea BOLD:ADJ8201 MF664099 658
D. (D.) somae Korea BOLD:ADJ8201 MF664100 658
D. (D.) ochrostigma sp. n. Korea BOLD:ADK4708 MF508657 658
D. (D.) ochrostigma Korea BOLD:ADK8063 MF664101 658
D. (D.) ochrostigma Korea BOLD:ADK8063 MF664102 658
D. (D.) triquetrella (Hübner) Canada KR941436 591
D. (D.) triquetrella Switzerland KX045622 658
D. (D.) triquetrella Slovenia KX045823 658
D. (D.) lichenella (Linnaeus) Canada KR941275 591
D. (D.) fennicella (Suomolainen) Finland JX307942 657
D. (D.) lazuri (Clerck) Finland JX307894 657
D. (D.) goltella Rekelj & Predovnik Slovenia KX045455 658
D. (D.) charlottae (Meier) Finland JX307874 657
D. (D.) parthenogenesis (Saigusa) Japan LC094189 665
Dahlica (Postsolenobia) juliella (Rebel) Slovenia KX047137 658
Dahlica (Siederia) listerella (Linnaeus) Japan LC094179 665
D. (S.) listerella Austria KP150244 658
D. (S.) listerella Finland KJ192386 658
D. (S.) rupicolella (Sauter) Finland KJ192382 658
Dahlica (Bevantennia) adriatica (Rebel) Slovenia KX045214 658
Narycia emikoae Niitsu, Jinbo & Nasu Japan LC160295 658
Narycia duplicella (Goeze) Slovenia KX045830 658
N. duplicella Belgium KC305219 658

Data matrix for morphological characters (Arnscheid 2016) of Dahlica species in Korea.

Species Male wingspan Scales (classes) Hindwing venation (M2/M3) Genitalia index
D. (D.) somae 12.3–13.4 mm. 2–4 free 1.46–1.56
D. (D.) ochrostigma 9.8–11.2 mm. 1–2 short stalked 0.79–1.08

Genomic DNA was extracted from the legs of dried specimen for males and thorax parts of immersion specimen for females, preserved in 100% alcohol using a Genomic Cell/Tissue Spin Mini Kit (Mbiotech, Inc., Hanam, Korea), according to the manufacturer’s protocol. A total of six specimens were sequenced for, the 658 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene, the DNA barcode, was amplified using the primer pair LepF1 and LepR1 (Hebert et al. 2004). PCR conditions for amplification followed the manufacturer’s protocol (Platinum Taq, Invitrogen, Carlsbad City, CA, USA). Amplicons were purified using the QIAquick® PCR purification kit (QIAGEN, Inc.) and directly sequenced at Genotech Corp. (Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea). Contigs were assembled using CodonCode aligner version 2.0.6 (CodonCode Co., Centerville City, MA, USA) and were aligned using MAFFT (Katoh and Toh 2008).

The new barcodes were compared to 18 DNA barcodes of the genera Dahlica and Narycia downloaded from GenBank (National Center for Biotechnology Information, USA, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) (Table 1). A neighbor-joining (NJ) analysis was performed with MEGA 6.0 (Tamura et al 2013) under the K2P model for nucleotide substitutions. Successful sequences were uploaded to BOLD systems (project. KNAE) and submitted to GenBank (Table 1).

Systematic accounts

Dahlica Enderlein, 1912

Subgenus Dahlica Enderlein, 1912

Dahlica Enderlein 1912: 264.

Type species

Dahlica larviformis Enderlein, 1912: 264 by monotypy.

Key to the males of Dahlica in Korea

1 Hindwing M2 and M3, originate at apical corner of posterior part of discoidal cell (Fig. 28), dorsum of genitalia gently curved to apical part and harpe hooked (Fig. 11) D. (D.) somae sp. n.
Hindwing M3 stalked at 1/4 M2, dorsum strongly arched to apical part (Fig. 29) and harpe needle shape (Fig. 18) D. (D.) ochrostigma sp. n.

Dahlica (Dahlica) somae Roh & Byun, sp. n.

Figs 5–12, 24–27, 28, 32, 33

Type material

Holotype. ♂, Korea: Daejeon, Mt. Heungnyongsan, 15.ii.2015, S.J. Roh & D.S. Kim, genitalia mounted on 80% glycerol solution, genitalia No. KNAESJ01, scales of forewing mounted on 80% glycerol solution, scales of forewing No. KNAESSJ01, venation of forewing No. KNAEVSJ01, DNA barcode accession No. MF508656. Deposited at SEL/HNU.

Paratypes. 2♂, 1♀. Korea: 1♂ Daejeon, Isa-dong, 2.ii.2015, S.J. Roh, genitalia mounted on 80% glycerol solution, genitalia No. KNAESJ02, scales of forewing mounted on 80% glycerol solution, scales of forewing No. KNAESSJ02, venation of forewing No. KNAEVSJ02, DNA barcode accession No. MF664099; 1♂ Daejeon, Mt. Heungnyongsan, 6.iii.2017, S.J. Roh & D.S. Kim, genitalia mounted on 80% glycerol solution, genitalia No. KNAESJ03; 1♀ Mt. Heungnyongsan, 6.iii.2017, S.J. Roh & D.S. Kim, DNA barcode accession No. MF664100. Deposited at SEL/HNU.

Diagnosis

Male of this species is superficially similar to D. triquetrella (Hübner, 1813), but can be distinguished by a slightly longer transtilla and a relatively short ampulla of the male genitalia (lateral aspect). This species can be readily differentiated by the veins of the male hindwing; M2 and M3 originate at the apical corner of the posterior part of the discoidal cell. Female apophyses posteriores 1.75 times longer than apophyses anteriores.

Description

Adult. Male (Figs 5–12). Wingspan 12.3–13.4 mm (Table 2). Coloration and vestiture: Vertex of head roughly covered with grayish brown hairs. Thoracic notum covered with blackish brown hairs. Upper side of forewing: ground color grayish black; white spots present regularly; scales (Fig. 10) slightly narrow and evenly widened apically; apical margin usually produced into two to four laciniations (classes 2–4) (Table 2). Hindwing covered with grayish white scales; postmarginal part present with slight long shiny white hairs. Structure: head and compound eyes slightly large; ocelli absent. Antennae (Fig. 8) filiform, longer than 2/3 forewing. Forewing: slightly long and narrow; costa straight; termen shortly arched to posterior margin, discoidal cell 0.64 times as long as forewing; venation (Fig. 28) with nine veins, originating at the discoidal cell; accessory cell present; intercalary cell absent; Sc arising with 3/5 costa; R2 and R3 originating at corner of accessory cell; R4 and R5 fused and originating at apical corner of anterior part of the discoidal cell reaching to the apex; M1 and M2 parallel; M2 and M3 stalked at apical corner of posterior part of the discoidal cell; Cu1 and Cu2 parallel. Hindwing (Fig. 28): costa straight; discoidal cell 0.51 times as long as hindwing; Sc straight to 4/5 costa; R terminating at apex; M1 and M2 parallel, M2 and M3 originating at apical corner of posterior part of the discoidal cell (Table 2); Cu1 and Cu2 parallel to tornus. Legs: epiphysis absent (Fig. 9); femora and tibiae covered with brown hairs; tarsi covered with grayish brown scales.

Figures 5–12. 

Male of Dahlica (Dahlica) somae, holotype. 5 Male 6 Close-up of rightwing- pattern 7 Head, frontal view 8 Antenna 9 Absence of foreleg-tibia 10 Scales of forewing (slide No. KNAESSJ01) 11 Genitalia (slide No. KNAESJ01), lateral view 12 Ditto, dorso-ventral view.

Female (Figs 24–27). Adult 4.2 mm in length. Coloration: Head, meso-, and metanotum dark brown. Membranous areas of abdomen yellowish brown. Abdomen covered with light brown scales; corethrogyne densely covered with white hairs on ventral part only. Structure: apterous. Head and compound eyes small, antennae slightly developed with basal flagellomeres 17 segmented, bipectinated. Legs well developed with tarsi divided into four tarsomeres; hind legs present with apical spurs.

Male genitalia (Figs 11, 12). In lateral aspect. Genitalia index, 1.46–1.56 (Table 2). Dorsum gently curved. Saccus very short; ampulla narrow and short with club shape, setae present sparsely; harpe short with hooked shape; phallus slender and very long with whip shape. In dorso-ventral aspect, uncus slightly concave; gnathos and juxta absent; valva slightly narrow, apical part of valva densely covered.

Female genitalia (Fig. 27). Oviscapt and ostium bursae well sclerotized. Apophyses posteriores 1.75 times longer than apophyses anteriores, very slender. Sclerotizations of the seventh sternite present with bundle of hairs

Larval case (Figs 32, 33). Length 4.0 mm. Larvae build their cases by putting together small sand particles, forming oval-shaped cases rather than angular cases.

Distribution

Korea.

DNA barcode

DNA barcode sequences were generated from three individuals. Multiple alignments using the BLAST tool in the NCBI database showed the following species as nearest neighbor: Dahlica charlottae with a similarity between 97 and 95%.

Etymology

The species is named in honor of Ms. Da-Som Kim, collector of the material.

Dahlica (Dahlica) ochrostigma Roh & Byun, sp. n.

Figs 13–19, 20–23, 29, 34, 35

Type material

Holotype. Korea: Gangwon-do, Taebaek-si, Changjuk-dong, 6.iii.2015, S.J. Roh & J.H. Jeon & T.H. Yoo, genitalia mounted on 80% glycerol solution, genitalia No. KNAESJ04, scales of forewing mounted on 80% glycerol solution, scales of forewing No. KNAESSJ03. venation of forewing No. KNAEVSJ03, Deposited at SEL/HNU.

Paratypes. 7♂, 3♀. Korea: 3♂, 2♀, Gangwon-do, Pyeongchang-gun, Nodong-ri, 6.iii.2015, S.J. Roh & J.H. Jeon & T.H. Yoo, male genitalia mounted in 80% glycerol solution, genitalia No. KNAESJ05, scales of forewing mounted in 80% glycerol solution, scales of forewing No. KNAESSJ04, venation of forewing No. KNAEVSJ04, DNA barcode accession No. of male MF508657, DNA barcode accession No. of female MF664101; 4♂, 1♀ Gangwon-do, Taebaek-si, Changjuk-dong, GW, 6.iii.2015, S.J. Roh & J.H. Jeon & T.H. Yoo, scales of forewing mounted in 80% glycerol solution, scales of forewing No. KNAESSJ05, DNAbarcode accession No. of female MF664102. Deposited at SEL/HNU. Other material. 1♂ Korea: Gyeonggi-do, Paju-si, 2.iv.2007, B.W. Lee, genitalia mounted in 80% glycerol solution, genitalia No. KNAESJ06. Deposited at KNAE.

Diagnosis

Male, this species is superficially similar to D. somae sp. n., but can be distinguished by slightly shorter antennae, a narrow forewing, and the venation of hindwing M3 stalked at 1/4 of M2. This species can be readily differentiated by the dorsum of male genitalia, which is strongly arched to the apical part and in the shape of a hat, and a very short phallus (lateral aspect). Female, apophyses posteriores 1.16 times longer than apophyses anteriores.

Description

Adult. Male (Figs 13–19). Wingspan 9.8–11.2 mm (Table 2). Coloration and vestiture: Vertex of head roughly covered with short grayish brown hairs. Thoracic notum covered with brown hairs. Upper side of forewing: ground color gray with sparsely yellow spots; scales (Fig. 16) considerably narrow; apical margin usually produced into two to three laciniations (classes 1–2) (Table 2). Postmarginal part of hindwing present with long shiny white hairs. Structure: head slightly small, compound eyes relatively large; ocelli absent. Antennae filiform (Fig. 15), less than 1/2 forewing. Forewing: short and narrow; costa straight; apex strongly arched to termen, discoidal cell 0.67 times as long as forewing; venation (Fig. 29) with nine veins, originating at the discoidal cell; intercalary cell absent and accessory cell present; Sc reaching to 3/5 costa; R4 and R5 fused; R3 and R4 + R5 originating at apical corner of anterior part of discoidal cell; M1 and M2 parallel; M2 and M3 stalked at apical corner of posterior part of the discoidal cell; Cu1 and Cu2 parallel. Hindwing (Fig. 29): costa straight; discoidal cell 0.52 times as long as hindwing; Sc straight and reaching to 4/5 costa; R originated at apical corner of anterior part of discoidal cell and reaching the apex; M1 and M2 parallel, M3 stalked at 1/4 M2 (Table 2); Cu1 and Cu2 parallel. Legs covered with shiny brown scales, epiphysis absent (Fig. 17).

Figures 13–19. 

Male of Dahlica (Dahlica) ochrostigma. 13 Male, holotype 14 Close-up of rightwing-pattern, Paratype (Korea, Gangwon-do, Taebaek-si, Changjuk-dong, GW, 6.iii.2015) 15 Antenna, ditto 16 Scales of forewing, holotype (slide No. KNAESSJ03) 17 Absence of foreleg-tibia, holotype 18 Genitalia, holotype (slide No. KNAESJ04), lateral view 19 Ditto, dorso-ventral view.

Female (Figs 20–23). 4.5 mm in length. Coloration: Head dark-brown. Meso and metanotum red-brown. Membranous areas of abdomen yellow. Abdomen clothed with light brown scales; corethrogyne densely covered with yellowish white hairs at only ventral part. Structure: Apterous. Head slightly small, antennae relatively developed and long. Legs well developed, slightly long, tarsi 4-segmented.

Figures 20–27. 

Females. 20 Dahlica (Dahlica) ochrostigma preserved in 70% ethanol, paratype (Korea, Gangwon-do, Taebaek-si, Changjuk-dong, GW, 6.iii.2015) 21 Ditto, head and antenna, macerated 22 Ditto, legs, foreleg to hindleg (left to right), macerated 23 Ditto, genitalia, macerated 24 Dahlica (Dahlica) somae, paratype (Korea, Daejeon, Mt. Heungnyongsan, 6.iii.2017) 25 Ditto, head and antenna, macerated 26 Ditto, legs, foreleg to hindleg (left to right), macerated 27 Ditto, genitalia, macerated.

Figures 28–29. 

Wing venation of males. 28 Dahlica (Dahlica) somae, holotype (KNAEVSJ01) 29 Dahlica (Dahlica) ochrostigma, holotype (KNAEVSJ03).

Male genitalia (Figs 18, 19). In lateral aspect. Genitalia index, 0.79–1.08 (Table 2). Dorsum strongly arched to apical part with the shape of a hat. Saccus relatively short; ampulla slightly long and club shape, setae sparsely; harpe short with needle shape; phallus slender and short with whip shape. In dorso-ventral aspect, uncus slightly concave shape; gnathos and juxta absent; valva slightly narrow and apical part produced into weak rounded claviform.

Female genitalia (Fig. 23). Oviscapt and ostium bursae sclerotized. Apophyses posteriores 1.16 times longer than apophyses anteriores, slender. Sclerotizitions of seventh sternite present with bundle of hairs.

Larval case (Figs 34, 35). Length 3.6-3.9 mm. Their cases are superficially similar to those of D. somae sp. n.

Figures 30–35. 

Microhabitat and larval cases with pupal exuviae. 30 Microhabitat of Dahlica (Dahlica) ochrostigma (Korea: Gangwon-do, Pyeongchang-gun, Nodong-ri, 6.iii.2015). 31 Ditto, close up 32 Male of Dahlica (Dahlica) somae, larval case with pupal exuviae 33 Female of D. (D.) somae, ditto 34 Male of D. (D.) ochrostigma, ditto 35 female of D. (D.) ochrostigma, ditto.

Distribution

Korea.

DNA barcode

DNA barcode sequences were generated from three individuals (Table 1). Multiple alignments using the BLAST tool in the NCBI database showed the following species as nearest neighbor, Dahlica charlottae with a similarity between 96 and 94%.

Etymology

The specific name is derived from the Greek words ochro and stigma (= pale spots), referring to the forewing pattern.

Discussion

The taxonomy of Dahlica has until recently been confusing owing to the similar morphology of the species in this genus and those in the allied genera Siederia, Postsolenobia, Brevantennia, and Praesolenobia. The proposal by Arnscheid and Weidlich (2017) to treat all these as subgenera of Dahlica has partly solved this problem. In this study, two new Korean species of Dahlica were reported for the first time with COI barcodes (Table 1). The results of comparison with related taxa, including subgenera of Dahlica, revealed no distinct differences (Fig. 36). Therefore, the taxonomic positions of the species in genus Dahlica needs to be redefined through future systematic studies with additional samples.

Figure 36. 

A Neighbor-joining tree, generated under the Kimura 2 parameter model (MEGA 6, Tamura et al. 2013) for the species of genera Dahlica and Narycia (DNA barcode data from NCBI). Branch lengths represent the number of substitutions per site as percentage.

Most species of the genus Dahlica have been reported from Europe (48 species) to date, only one species, D. (D.) parthenogenesis Saigusa, 1961 was collected in Japan (Saigusa 1961). Thus, the two new species described in this study represent the first records for continental East Asia and serve as important basic data for future research on this genus and allied taxa in Asia.

Acknowledgements

We thank Mr. JH Jeon, TH Yoo, and Ms. DS Kim (Systematic Entomology Lab., Hannam University Korea) for their assistance in collecting specimens. This study was carried out with the support of the ‘R&D Program for Forest Science Technology (Project No.: S111616L050120)’ provided by Korea Forest Service (Korea Forestry Promotion Institute) and Korea National Arboretum (Project No. KNA1-1-20, 16-1).

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