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Status of the new genera in Gistel’s “Die Insecten-Doubletten aus der Sammlung des Herrn Grafen Rudolph von Jenison Walworth” issued in 1834
expand article infoYves Bousquet, Patrice Bouchard§
‡ ECORC, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Canada
§ Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Canada
Open Access

Abstract

All new genus-group names included in Gistel’s list of Coleoptera from the collection of Count Rudolph von Jenison Walwort, published in 1834, are recorded. For each of these names, the originally included available species are listed and for those with at least one available species included, the type species and current status are provided.

The following new synonymies are proposed [valid names in brackets]: Auxora [Nebria Latreille, 1806; Carabidae], Necrotroctes [Velleius Leach, 1819; Staphylinidae], Epimachus [Ochthephilum Stephens, 1829; Staphylinidae], Ocys [Anaulacaspis Ganglbauer, 1895; Staphylinidae], Hydatobia [Autalia Samouelle, 1819; Staphylinidae], Hedonius [Pyrophorus Billberg, 1820; Elateridae], Charmionus [Chalcolepidius Eschscholtz, 1829; Elateridae], Lamprias [Alaus Eschscholtz, 1829; Elateridae], Trypheus [Aeolus Eschscholtz, 1829; Elateridae], Antiphus [Cardiorhinus Eschscholtz, 1829; Elateridae], Phyletus [Lygistopterus Dejean, 1833; Lycidae], Phyllogaster [Lucidota Laporte, 1833; Lampyridae], Pyrrhigius [Phosphaenus Laporte, 1833; Lampyridae], Erota [Luciola Laporte, 1833; Lampyridae], Oxypterus [Aspisoma Laporte, 1833; Lampyridae], Phyllophagus [Chauliognathus Hentz, 1830; Cantharidae], Epaphius [Astylus Laporte, 1836; Melyridae], Isomerus [Choleva Latreille, 1797; Leiodidae], Berecyntha [Aulacochilus Chevrolat, 1836; Erotylidae], Geophilus [Psammodius Fallén, 1807; Scarabaeidae], Ceraunus [Golofa Hope, 1837; Scarabaeidae], Atrimedeus [Pentodon Hope, 1837; Scarabaeidae], Eupalus [Temnorhynchus Hope, 1837; Scarabaeidae], Polycarmes [Anoxia Laporte, 1832; Scarabaeidae], Acidota [Amphicoma Latreille, 1807; Glaphyridae], Cecrops [Mylaris Pallas, 1781; Tenebrionidae], Pythonissus [Zophobas Dejean, 1834; Tenebrionidae], Physignathus [Cymatothes Dejean, 1834; Tenebrionidae], Pelops [Prionychus Solier, 1835; Tenebrionidae], Accantosomus [Semiotus Eschscholtz, 1829; Elateridae].

The type species of the following genus-group taxa are proposed: Ocys [Aleochara nigra Gravenhorst, 1802; Staphylinidae], Hydatobia [Staphylinus impressus Olivier, 1795; Staphylinidae], Hedonius [Elater noctilucus Linnaeus, 1758; Elateridae], Charmionus [Elater porcatus Linnaeus, 1767; Elateridae], Epaphius [Dasytes variegatus Germar, 1823; Melyridae], Geophilus [Scarabeus asper Fabricius, 1775; Scarabaeidae], Atrimedeus [Scarabaeus punctatus Villers, 1789; Scarabaeidae], Polycarmes [Melolontha villosa Fabricius, 1781; Scarabaeidae], Cecrops [Tenebrio gigas Linnaeus, 1763; Tenebrionidae], Pythonissus [Helops morio Fabricius, 1777; Tenebrionidae], Ceratades [Cerambyx sutor Linnaeus, 1758; Cerambycidae].

The following genus-group names are declared nomina oblita [nomina protecta in square brackets]: Berecyntha [Aulacochilus Chevrolat, 1836; Erotylidae], Ceraunus [Golofa Hope, 1837; Scarabaeidae], Atrimedeus [Pentodon Hope, 1837; Scarabaeidae], Eupalus [Temnorhynchus Hope, 1837; Scarabaeidae], Pelops [Prionychus Solier, 1835; Tenebrionidae].

Keywords

Beetles, nomenclature, Gistel, genus-group names, type species, nomen oblitum, nomen protectum

Introduction

Gistel [1809–1873], also spelled Gistl, was an enigmatic and controversial man. Evenhuis (2016) provided valuable biographical information on this personage who sometimes used pseudonyms (i.e., G. Tilesius and Garduus). He was described as vainglorious, sensationalistic, and sometimes superficial and inaccurate (Strand 1919: 125) and accused of being a cheater and a liar. He often changed specific names, sometimes just to be able to dedicate them to his friends (Mannerheim 1838: 207). He also proposed many new generic names, often in groups out of his area of expertise, most without descriptions. Although they were largely ignored by Gistel’s contemporaries, some of these genus-group names turned out to be nomenclaturally available when he listed at least one available species names within them (ICZN 1999: Article 12.2.5).

One of Gistel’s publications with several new generic names proposed without description was issued in 1834 under the title “Die Insecten-Doubletten aus der Sammlung des Herrn Grafen Rudolph von Jenison Walworth.” The 36-page booklet is a list of duplicate beetles in the collection of Count Rudolph von Jenison Walworth [1778–1835] of Regensburg offered for purchase or exchange (Gistel 1834b). Several of the names included in this work have been assessed nomenclaturally in recent years but others have not. To add to the confusion, the status of some genus-groups names has been incorrectly interpreted. The objective of this paper is to summarize the nomenclatural status of all new genus-group names proposed in this work.

Presentation

The presentation of the information relevant to the new genus-group names is similar to that used for the names in Dejean’s catalogue (Bousquet and Bouchard 2013). Under each new genus, the following information is provided: a list of originally included available species, the type species of the genus, and its current status. Genus- and species-group names are given in the order they appear in Gistel’s work.

The earliest known date of publication for the publication of Gistel’s booklet is 23 September 1834 (Kielmeyer and Jäger 1835: 101). All available species-group taxa published before that date and included in Gistel’s booklet are considered to be originally included in the new genus-group names. In addition, all genus-group names issued before that date take precedence over Gistel’s names.

Note on some generic names in Gistel (1834b)

One genus mentioned in Gistel’s work is Necrobius (Gistel 1834b: 14), a junior objective synonym of Necrophilus Latreille, 1829 [Agyrtidae: Necrophilinae]. This genus was however first made available by Gistel (1834a: 147) in the third Heft (pp. 129–190) of the first volume of his journal “Faunus. Zeitschrift für Zoologie und vergleichende Anatomie.” This Heft was issued before 16 August 1834 as it was recorded in Die Bayer’sche Landbötin No 98 (p. 802) on this date. Necrobius is therefore excluded from the list below.

In Gistel’s booklet, the generic names Cychramus (p. 15) and Heliophilus (p. 21) are credited to himself. It is quite obvious that Gistel made lapses regarding authorship of these names since they were established for the same species by Kugelann (1794) and Dejean (1821) respectively and used subsequently by several authors prior to Gistel (1834b). These names are therefore also excluded from the list below.

The genus Macropterum is credited to Gistel (1834b: 9) in the literature (e.g., Blackwelder 1952: 229; Herman 2001: 636, Gamarra and Outerelo 2009: 209; Schülke and Smetana 2015a: 357). However, the name was first made available in Gistel (1829: 37). The genus is considered valid but listed as a nomen dubium [Staphylinidae: Proteininae: Proteinini] by Schülke and Smetana (2015a: 357).

The genus-group name Hammionus was first used as valid by Dahl (1823: 22) but this work was suppressed by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature in Opinion 710 (ICZN 1964). It was subsequently listed by Latreille (1829: 456) as a synonym of Campylus Fischer von Waldheim, 1821 and by Gistel (1834b: 11) as a valid name. Following Article 11.6 (ICZN 1999), the name must be attributed to Latreille (1829). The species first directly associated with the name are those mentioned in Gistel (1834b: 11). The type species is Elater bructeri Panzer, 1795 (= Elater aeneoniger DeGeer, 1774) by subsequent designation (Ruiz 1996: 109). Hammionus Latreille, 1829 is a junior homonym of Hammionus Charpentier, 1825 (Coleoptera: Elateridae) and a senior objective synonym of Pheletes Kiesenwetter, 1858 [Elateridae: Dendrometrinae: Dendrometrini: Dendrometrina] (fide Cate 2007: 166).

Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyall (1999: 27) treated Camplirhynchus Gistel (1834b: 27, as “Camplirhynchus Meg.”) as an available name. However, we believe it is an incorrect subsequent spelling of Campylirhynchus Dejean (1821: 84, as “Campylirhynchus Meg.”) since both names were used, in part, for the same species.

List of new genus-group names

Auxora Gistel, 1834b: 3

Originally included available species: Nebria heydenii Dejean, 1831 (as “heidenii Par. Ins. Jon.”).

Type species: Nebria heydenii Dejean, 1831 by monotypy.

Current status: junior synonym of Nebria Latreille, 1806 [Carabidae: Nebriinae: Nebriini] (new synonymy).

Lymnaeus Gistel 1834b: 7

Originally included available species: Dytiscus fuscus Linnaeus, 1758 (as “fuscus Fab.”); Dytiscus striatus Linnaeus, 1758 (as “striatus id. [Fab.]”); Dytiscus dolabratus Paykull, 1798 (as “dolobratus Pay.”).

Type species: Dytiscus dolabratus Paykull, 1798 by subsequent designation (Nardi and Nilsson 2006: 35).

Current status: junior subjective synonym of Colymbetes Clairville, 1806 [Dytiscidae: Colymbetinae: Colymbetini] (fide Nardi and Nilsson 2006: 35).

Note: Gistel’s name is not a junior homonym of Cuvier’s “Lymnaeus” since this name is an incorrect subsequent spelling of Lymnaea Lamarck, 1799 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) not in prevailing usage.

Hydatobius Gistel 1834b: 7

Originally included available species: Dytiscus oblongus Illiger, 1801.

Type species: Dytiscus oblongus Illiger, 1801 (= Dytiscus haemorrhoidalis Fabricius, 1787) by monotypy.

Current status: junior objective synonym of Liopterus Dejean, 1833 [Dytiscidae: Copelatinae] (fide Nardi and Nilsson 2006: 35).

Pelidus Gistel, 1834b: 7

Originally included available species: Dytiscus notatus Bergsträsser, 1778 (as “notatus Fab.”); Dytiscus agilis Fabricius, 1792; Dytiscus adspersus Panzer, 1796 (as “adspersus id. [Fab.]”).

Type species: Dytiscus agilis Fabricius, 1792 (=Dytiscus haemorrhoidalis Fabricius, 1787) by subsequent designation (Nardi and Nilsson 2006: 35).

Current status: junior subjective synonym of Liopterus Dejean, 1833 [Dytiscidae: Copelatinae] (fide Nardi and Nilsson 2006: 35).

Hydronectes Gistel, 1834b: 8

Originally included available species: Gyrinus villosus O.F. Müller, 1776 (as “villosus Fab.”).

Type species: Gyrinus villosus O.F. Müller, 1776 by monotypy.

Current status: junior objective synonym of Orectochilus Dejean, 1833 [Gyrinidae: Gyrininae: Orectochilini] (fide Nardi and Nilsson 2006: 35).

Necrotroctes Gistel, 1834b: 8

Originally included available species: Staphylinus dilatatus Fabricius, 1787.

Type species: Staphylinus dilatatus Fabricius, 1787 by monotypy.

Current status: junior objective synonym of Velleius Leach, 1819 [Staphylinidae: Staphylininae: Staphylinini: Quediina, Quedius Stephens] (new synonymy).

Aemulus Gistel, 1834b: 8

Originally included available species: Staphylinus lateralis Gravenhorst, 1802; Staphylinus fuliginosus Gravenhorst, 1802; Staphylinus molochinus Gravenhorst, 1806; Staphylinus nitidus Fabricius, 1787; Staphylinus scitus Gravenhorst, 1806; Staphylinus impressus Panzer, 1796 (as “impressus Gra.”); Staphylinus boops Gravenhorst, 1802.

Type species: Staphylinus fuliginosus Gravenhorst, 1802 by subsequent designation (Blackwelder 1952: 40).

Current status: junior subjective synonym of Quedius Stephens, 1829 [Staphylinidae: Staphylininae: Staphylinini: Quediina] (fide Schülke and Smetana 2015b: 1067).

Laxobates Gistel, 1834b: 8

Originally included available species: Staphylinus coenosus Gravenhorst, 1806; Staphylinus cyanipennis Fabricius, 1792 (as “cyanipennis Gra.”); Staphylinus splendens Fabricius, 1792; Staphylinus laminatus Creutzer, 1799 (as “laminatus Gra.”); Staphylinus aeneus Rossi, 1790 (as “aeneus id. [Gra.]”); Staphylinus metallicus Gravenhorst, 1802; Staphylinus cephalotes Gravenhorst, 1802; Staphylinus decorus Gravenhorst, 1802; Staphylinus politus Linnaeus, 1758 (as “politus Fab.”); Staphylinus atratus Gravenhorst, 1802; Staphylinus carbonarius Gravenhorst, 1802; Staphylinus ebeninus Gravenhorst, 1802 (as “ebeneninus Gra.”); Staphylinus varians Paykull, 1789 (as “varians Gyll.”); Staphylinus varius Gyllenhal, 1810; Staphylinus immundus Gravenhorst, 1806 (as “immundus Gyll.”); Staphylinus fuscus Gravenhorst, 1802; Staphylinus sanguinolentus Gravenhorst, 1802; Staphylinus bipustulatus Linnaeus sensu Panzer, 1795 (as “bipustulatus Fab.”) (= Staphylinus cruentatus Gmelin, 1789); Staphylinus bimaculatus Gravenhorst, 1802; Staphylinus fulvipes Fabricius, 1792 (as “fulvipes Gra.”); Staphylinus tenuis Fabricius, 1792 (as “tenuis id. [Gra.]”); Staphylinus fimetarius Gravenhorst, 1802; Staphylinus agilis Gravenhorst, 1806; Staphylinus splendidulus Gravenhorst, 1802; Staphylinus aterrimus Gravenhorst, 1802.

Type species: Staphylinus splendens Fabricius, 1792 by subsequent designation (Blackwelder 1952: 212).

Current status: junior objective synonym of Philonthus Stephens, 1832 [Staphylinidae: Staphylininae: Staphylinini: Philonthina] (fide Schülke and Smetana 2015b: 1034).

Epimachus Gistel, 1834b: 8

Originally included available species: Paederus fracticornis Paykull, 1800 (as “fracticornis Gra.”).

Type species: Paederus fracticornis Paykull, 1800 by monotypy.

Current status: junior homonym of Epimachus Cuvier, 1817 (Aves); junior objective synonym of Ochthephilum Stephens, 1829 [Staphylinidae: Paederinae: Cryptobiina] (new synonym).

Note: Gistel included one species “fracticornis Gra. Bav.” Blackwelder (1952: 150) referred the species to Staphylinus fracticornis Paykull, 1790 [a senior synonym of Bledius gallicus (Gravenhorst, 1806), see Schülke and Smetana (2015b: 763)] but this species was placed in the genus Dicarenus by Gistel (1834b: 9).

Sepedomorphus Gistel, 1834b: 9

Originally included available species: Staphylinus fragilis Gravenhorst, 1802; Staphylinus orbiculatus Paykull, 1789 (as “orbiculatus Fab.”).

Type species: Staphylinus orbiculatus Paykull, 1789 by subsequent designation (Blackwelder 1952: 350).

Current status: junior objective synonym of Rugilus Leach, 1819 [Staphylinidae: Paederinae: Stilicina] (fide Schülke and Smetana 2015b: 998).

Dicarenus Gistel, 1834b: 9

Originally included available species: Staphylinus tricornis Herbst, 1784 (as “tricornis Gra.”); Oxytelus pallipes Gravenhorst, 1806 (“pallipes Gyll.”); Staphylinus fracticornis Paykull, 1790 (as “fracticornis Gyl.”); Oxytelus talpa Gyllenhal, 1810; Staphylinus arenarius Paykull, 1800 (as “arenarius id. [Gyll.]”).

Type species: Staphylinus arenarius Paykull, 1800 (= Bledius fergussoni Joy, 1912) by subsequent designation (Blackwelder 1952: 124).

Current status: valid subgenus of Bledius Leach, 1819 [Staphylinidae: Oxytelinae: Blediini] (fide Schülke and Smetana 2015a: 760).

Batychrus Gistel, 1834b: 9

Originally included available species: Oxytelus corticinus Gravenhorst, 1806.

Type species: Oxytelus corticinus Gravenhorst, 1806 by monotypy.

Current status: junior objective synonym of Trogophloeus Mannerheim, 1830 [Staphylinidae: Oxytelinae: Oxytelini, Carpelimus Leach] (fide Schülke and Smetana 2015a: 785).

Helobium Gistel, 1834b: 9

Originally included available species: Staphylinus crenatus Fabricius, 1792.

Type species: Staphylinus crenatus Fabricius, 1792 by monotypy.

Current status: junior homonym of Helobium Leach, 1815 (Coleoptera: Carabidae); junior objective synonym of Acidota Stephens, 1829 [Staphylinidae: Omaliinae: Anthophagini] (fide Schülke and Smetana 2015a: 304).

Psyllius Gistel, 1834b: 9

Originally included available species: Staphylinus depressus Paykull, 1789 (as “depressus Gyll.”).

Type species: Staphylinus depressus Paykull, 1789 by monotypy.

Current status: junior objective synonym of Megarthrus Stephens, 1829 [Staphylinidae: Proteininae: Proteinini] (fide Schülke and Smetana 2015a: 353).

Bolitoglyphus Gistel, 1834b: 9

Originally included available species: Staphylinus atricapillus Fabricius, 1775; Staphylinus striatus Olivier, 1795 (as “striatus Gra.”); Staphylinus analis Fabricius sensu Gravenhort, 1802 (as “analis Gra.”) (= Megacronus castaneus Stephens, 1832); Staphylinus merdarius Fabricius, 1775; Oxyporus melanocephalus Fabricius, 1792 (as “melanocephalus Gra.”)

Type species: Megacronus castaneus Stephens, 1832 fixed by Schülke (1999: 982) (under Article 70.3 of the Code), misidentified as Staphylinus analis Fabricius, 1787 in the original designation by Blackwelder (1952: 82).

Current status: junior objective synonym of Bolitobius Leach, 1819 [Staphylinidae: Tachyporinae: Mycetoporini] (fide Schülke and Smetana 2015a: 456).

Leichotes Gistel, 1834b: 9

Originally included available species: Tachinus punctus Gravenhorst, 1806; Tachinus lepidus Gravenhorst, 1806; Tachinus splendidus Gravenhorst, 1806.

Type species: Tachinus splendidus Gravenhorst, 1806 by subsequent designation (Blackwelder 1952: 212).

Current status: junior objective synonym of Ischnosoma Stephens, 1829 [Staphylinidae: Tachyporinae: Mycetoporini] (fide Schülke and Smetana 2015a: 459). Genus placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology (ICZN 1993).

Hesperophilus Gistel, 1834b: 9

Originally included available species: Lomechusa dentata Gravenhorst, 1806.

Type species: Lomechusa dentata Gravenhorst, 1806 by monotypy.

Current status: junior homonym of Hesperophilus Stephens, 1829 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae); junior objective synonym of Dinarda Leach, 1819 [Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae: Oxypodini: Dinardina] (fide Schülke and Smetana 2015a: 681).

Agaricola Gistel, 1834b: 10

Originally included available species: Staphylinus canaliculatus Fabricius, 1787.

Type species: Staphylinus canaliculatus Fabricius, 1787 by monotypy.

Current status: junior objective synonym of Drusilla Leach, 1819 [Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae: Lomechusini: Myrmedoniina] (fide Schülke and Smetana 2015a: 665).

Ocys Gistel, 1834b: 10

Originally included available species: Aleochara obscura Gravenhorst, 1802; Aleochara nigra Gravenhorst, 1802; Aleochara picea Gravenhorst, 1802.

Type species: Aleochara nigra Gravenhorst, 1802 by present designation.

Current status: junior homonym of Ocys Stephens, 1828 (Coleoptera: Carabidae); senior objective synonym of Anaulacaspis Ganglbauer, 1895 [Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae: Falagriini] (new synonym).

Hydatobia Gistel, 1834b: 10

Originally included available species: Aleochara rivularis Gravenhorst, 1802; Staphylinus impressus Olivier, 1795 (“as impressa id. [Gra.]”).

Type species: Staphylinus impressus Olivier, 1795 by present designation.

Current status: junior objective synonym of Autalia Samouelle, 1819 [Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae: Autaliini] (new synonym).

Charytonia Gistel, 1834b: 10

Originally included available species: Buprestis chrysis Fabricius, 1775; Buprestis sternicornis Linnaeus, 1758 (as “sternicornis id. [Fab.]”).

Type species: Buprestis chrysis Fabricius, 1775 by subsequent designation (Bilý 2001: 148).

Current status: junior objective synonym of Sternocera Eschscholtz, 1829 [Buprestidae: Julodinae] (fide Bellamy 2008a: 85).

Phyllis Gistel, 1834b: 10

Originally included available species: Buprestis fascicularis Linnaeus, 1758 (as “fascicularis Fab.”); Buprestis hirta Linnaeus, 1758 (as “hirta id. [Fab.]”); Buprestis vulnerata Perty, 1830.

Type species: Buprestis fascicularis Linnaeus, 1758 by subsequent designation (Bellamy 2003: 11).

Current status: junior homonym of Phyllis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera, now a nomen oblitum following Evenhuis et al. 2010: 137); junior objective synonym of Julodis Eschscholtz, 1829 [Buprestidae: Julodinae] (fide Bellamy 2008a: 46).

Andromeda Gistel, 1834b: 10

Originally included available species: Buprestis ornata Fabricius, 1775; Buprestis pulcra Fabricius, 1792; Buprestis octodecimguttata Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783 (as “octodecimguttata Her.”); Buprestis taeniata Fabricius, 1787; Buprestis cylindrica Fabricius, 1775; Buprestis gibbosa Olivier, 1790 (as “gibbosa id. [Fab.]”).

Type species: Buprestis ornata Fabricius, 1775 by subsequent designation (Bellamy 2003: 10).

Current status: junior subjective synonym of Acmaeodera Eschscholtz, 1829 [Buprestidae: Polycestinae: Acmaeoderini] (fide Bellamy 2008a: 148).

Pyranthe Gistel, 1834b: 10

Originally included available species: Buprestis ocellata Fabricius, 1775; Buprestis vittata Fabricius, 1775; Buprestis fulgida Olivier, 1790 (as “fulgida id. [Fab.]”).

Type species: Buprestis vittata Fabricius, 1775 by subsequent designation (Bilý 2001: 149).

Current status: valid subgenus of Chrysochroa Dejean, 1833 [Buprestidae: Chrysochroinae: Chrysochroini] (fide Bellamy 2008a: 429).

Phalantha Gistel, 1834b: 10

Originally included available species: Buprestis scabra Fabricius, 1775.

Type species: Buprestis scabra Fabricius, 1775 by monotypy.

Current status: junior objective synonym of Steraspis Dejean, 1833 [Buprestidae: Chrysochroinae: Chrysochroini] (fide Bellamy 2008a: 461).

Archonta Gistel, 1834b: 10

Originally included available species: Buprestis gigantea Linnaeus, 1758 (as “gigantea Fab.”).

Type species: Buprestis gigantea Linnaeus, 1758 by monotypy.

Current status: junior homonym of Archonta de Montfort, 1810 (Mollusca); junior objective synonym of Euchroma Dejean, 1833 [Buprestidae: Chrysochroinae: Paraleptodemini: Euchromatina] (fide Bellamy 2008a: 572).

Polydora Gistel, 1834b: 10

Originally included available species: Buprestis equestris Fabricius, 1792; Buprestis amoena Kirby, 1819; Buprestis speculigera Perty, 1830 (as “speculifera Pty.”).

Type species: Buprestis amoena Kirby, 1819 by subsequent designation (Bellamy 2003: 11).

Current status: junior homonym of Polydora Bosc, 1802 (Polychaeta) and Polydora Oken, 1816 (Annelida); junior objective synonym of Conognatha Eschscholtz, 1829 [Buprestidae: Buprestinae: Stigmoderini] (fide Bellamy 2008b: 1217).

Hiperantha Gistel, 1834b: 10

Originally included available species: Buprestis interrogationis Klug, 1825.

Type species: Buprestis interrogationis Klug, 1825 by monotypy.

Current status: valid genus [Buprestidae: Buprestinae: Stigmoderini] (fide Bellamy 2008b: 1253).

Caloptera Gistel, 1834b: 10

Originally included available species: Buprestis cariosa Pallas, 1776 (as “cariosa Fab.”); Buprestis tenebrionis Linnaeus, 1761 (as “Tenebrionis id. [Fab.]”); Buprestis tenebricosa Olivier, 1790 (as “tenebricosa id. [Fab.]”).

Type species: Buprestis tenebrionis Linnaeus, 1761 by subsequent designation (Bellamy 2003: 10).

Current status: junior homonym of Caloptera Guérin-Méneville, 1831 (Diptera); junior subjective synonym of Capnodis Eschscholtz, 1829 [Buprestidae: Chrysochroinae: Dicercini: Dicercina] (fide Bellamy 2008b: 951).

Argante Gistel, 1834b: 10

Originally included available species: Buprestis moesta Fabricius, 1792; Bupestris aenea Linnaeus, 1761; Buprestis berolinensis Herbst, 1779 (as “berolinensis id. [Fab.]”); Buprestis calcarata Fabricius, 1801; Buprestis alni Fischer von Waldheim, 1824 (as “Var. Alni Meg.”); Buprestis acuminata Pallas, 1781 (as “acuminata Fab.”).

Type species: Buprestis moesta Fabricius, 1792 by subsequent designation (Richter 1952: 108).

Current status: junior subjective synonym of Dicerca Eschscholtz, 1829 [Buprestidae: Chrysochroinae: Dicercini: Dicercina] (fide Bellamy 2008b: 974).

Note: Neoargante, proposed by Nelson (2006: 373), is an unnecessary replacement name for Argante Gistel, 1834.

Gymnota Gistel, 1834b: 10

Originally included available species: Buprestis rustica Linnaeus, 1758 (as “rustica Fab.”); Buprestis punctata Fabricius, 1787; Buprestis flavopuncta DeGeer, 1774 (as “flavomaculata id. [Fab.]”); Buprestis octoguttata Linnaeus, 1758 (as “octoguttata id. [Fab.]”).

Type species: Buprestis rustica Linnaeus, 1758 by subsequent designation (Holyński 1993: 28).

Current status: Gymnota Gistel, 1834 is a senior homonym of Gymnota Gistel, 1847 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an unjustified emendation for Lina Latreille, 1829; junior objective synonym of Ancylocheira Eschscholtz, 1829 [Buprestidae: Buprestinae: Buprestini: Buprestina] (fide Bellamy 2008b: 1025).

Note: Fabricius (1801: 193) incorrectly wrote DeGeer’s name “flauomaculata” instead of flavopuncta.

Euptera Gistel, 1834b: 10

Originally included available species: Buprestis angularis Dalman, 1817 (as “angularis Schö.”).

Type species: Buprestis angularis Dalman, 1817 by monotypy.

Current status: junior objective synonym of Pelecopselaphus Solier, 1833 (= Pristiptera Dejean, 1833; see Bousquet and Bouchard 2013: 22) [Buprestidae: Chrysochroinae: Paraleptodemini: Pristipterina] (fide Bellamy 2008a: 586).

Note: Euptera Gistel, 1834 is a senior homonym of Euptera Staudinger, 1891, currently a valid genus in Lepidoptera (Nymphalidae). A new name is needed for the lepidopteran generic name.

Lycaste Gistel, 1834b: 10

Originally included available species: Buprestis porcata Fabricius, 1775.

Type species: Buprestis porcata Fabricius, 1775 by monotypy.

Current status: junior objective synonym of Polycesta Dejean, 1833 [Buprestidae: Polycestinae: Polycestini: Polycestina] (fide Bellamy 2008a: 365).

Amblis Gistel, 1834b: 10

Originally included available species: Buprestis chrysostigma Linnaeus, 1758 (as “chrysostigma Fab.”); Buprestis affinis Fabricius, 1794.

Type species: Buprestis chrysostigma Linnaeus, 1758 by subsequent designation (Bellamy 2003: 10).

Current status: junior objective synonym of Chrysobothris Eschscholtz, 1829 [Buprestidae: Buprestinae: Chrysobothrini] (fide Bellamy 2008c: 1587).

Chrysodora Gistel, 1834b: 11

Originally included available species: Buprestis antiqua Illiger, 1803; Buprestis geminata Illiger, 1803.

Type species: Buprestis antiqua Illiger, 1803 by subsequent designation (Bellamy 2003: 10).

Current status: junior objective synonym of Sphenoptera Dejean, 1833 [Buprestidae: Chrysochroinae: Sphenopterini] (fide Bellamy 2008b: 635).

Xanthus Gistel, 1834b: 11

Originally included available species: Elater obscurus Linnaeus, 1758 (as “obscurus Fab.”); Elater fulvipes Herbst, 1806; Elater castanipes Paykull, 1800; Elater niger Linnaeus sensu Fabricius, 1792 (as “niger Fab.”).

Type species: Elater niger Linnaeus sensu Fabricius, 1792 (= Elater punctolineatus Pelerin, 1829) by subsequent designation (Ruiz 1996: 167).

Current status: junior subjective synonym of Melanotus Eschscholtz, 1829 [Elateridae: Elaterinae: Melanotini] (fide Cate 2007: 141).

Note: Ruiz (1996: 167) selected “Elater niger Fabricius, 1792” as type species but Fabricius (1792: 221) referred the species to “Linn. Syst. nat. 2. 656. 36. Fn. Sv. 743.”

Hedonius Gistel, 1834b: 11

Originally included available species: Elater noctilucus Linnaeus, 1758 (as noctilucus Fab.”); Elater phosphoreus Linnaeus, 1758; Elater ignitus Fabricius, 1787; Elater luminosus Illiger, 1807.

Type species: Elater noctilucus Linnaeus, 1758 by present designation.

Current status: junior objective synonym of Pyrophorus Billberg, 1820 [Elateridae: Agrypninae: Pyrophorini] (new synonym).

Charmionus Gistel, 1834b: 11

Originally included available species: Elater sulcatus Fabricius, 1777; Elater porcatus Linnaeus, 1767 (as “porcatus id. [Fab.]”); Elater striatus Linnaeus, 1767 (as “striatus id. [Fab.]”); Elater virens Fabricius, 1787.

Type species: Elater porcatus Linnaeus, 1767 by present designation.

Current status: junior subjective synonym of Chalcolepidius Eschscholtz, 1829 [Elateridae: Agrypninae: Hemirhipini] (new synonym).

Lamprias Gistel, 1834b: 11

Originally included available species: Elater oculatus Linnaeus, 1758 (as “oculatus Fab.”).

Type species: Elater oculatus Linnaeus, 1758 by monotypy.

Current status: junior homonym of Lamprias Dejean, 1825 (Coleoptera: Carabidae); junior objective synonym of Alaus Eschscholtz, 1829 [Elateridae: Agrypninae: Hemirhipini] (new synonym).

Gripus Gistel, 1834b: 11

Originally included available species: Elater rufus Fabricius, 1792; Elater rhombeus Olivier, 1790; Elater undulatus DeGeer, 1774 (as “undulatus Pay.”); Elater scrutator Herbst, 1806; Elater testaceus Fabricius sensu Paykull, 1800 (= Elater scrutator Herbst, 1806); Elater hirtus Herbst, 1784; Elater aterrimus Linnaeus, 1761 (as “aterrimus Fab.”); Elater procerus Illiger, 1807; Elater longicollis Olivier, 1790 (as “longicollis Fab.”); Elater suturalis Panzer, 1795; Elater marginatus Linnaeus sensu Paykull, 1800 (= Elater longicollis Olivier, 1790); Elater haemorrhoidalis Fabricius, 1801; Elater ruficadis Gyllenhal, 1808 (as “ruficaudis Gyll.”); Elater inunctus Panzer, 1795; Elater vittatus Fabricius, 1792; Elater subfuscus Gyllenhal, 1808.

Type species: Elater vittatus Fabricius, 1792 by subsequent designation (Ruiz 1996: 75).

Current status: junior objective synonym of Athous Eschscholtz, 1829 [Elateridae: Dendrometrinae: Dendrometrini: Dendrometrina] (fide Cate 2007: 156).

Notopeda Gistel, 1834b: 11

Originally included available species: Elater denticollis Fabricius, 1794; Elater linearis Linnaeus, 1758 (as “linearis id. [Fab.]”; Elater mesomelus Linnaeus, 1758 (as “mesomelas id. [Fab.]”).

Type species: Elater linearis Linnaeus, 1758 by subsequent designation (Ruiz 1996: 110).

Current status: junior subjective synonym of Denticollis Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783 [Elateridae: Dendrometrinae: Dendrometrini: Denticollina] (fide Cate 2007: 167).

Melanotus Gistel, 1834b: 11

Originally included available species: Elater thoracicus Fabricius, 1775; Elater ruficollis Linnaeus, 1758 (as “ruficollis id. [Fab.]”); Elater discicollis Herbst, 1806; Elater biguttatus Olivier, 1790 (as “biguttatus Fab.”); Elater testaceus Fabricius, 1792; Elater equiseti Herbst, 1784; Elater lateralis Fabricius, 1794; Elater advena Fabricius, 1787; Elater rufipes Fabricius, 1792.

Type species: Elater thoracicus Fabricius, 1775 (= Elater gramineus Scopoli, 1763) by subsequent designation (Ruiz 1996: 53).

Current status: junior homonym of Melanotus Erichson, 1829 (Coleoptera: Elateridae) and Melanotus Dejean, 1831 (Coleoptera: Carabidae); junior subjective synonym of Cardiophorus Eschscholtz, 1829 [Elateridae: Cardiophorinae] (fide Cate 2007: 194).

Acanthus Gistel, 1834b: 12

Originally included available species: none. Therefore this name is a nomen nudum.

Amphius Gistel, 1834b: 12

Originally included available species: Elater riparius Fabricius, 1792; Elater rivularis Gyllenhal, 1808; Elater pulchellus Linnaeus, 1761 (as “pulchellus Fab.”); Elater quadripustulatus Fabricius, 1792.

Type species: Elater riparius Fabricius, 1792 by subsequent designation (Ruiz 1996: 166).

Current status: junior objective synonym of Hypnoidus Dillwyn, 1829 [Elateridae: Dendrometrinae: Hypnoidini] (fide Cate 2007: 154).

Trypheus Gistel, 1834b: 12

Originally included available species: Elater elegans Fabricius, 1792.

Type species: Elater elegans Fabricius, 1792 by monotypy.

Current status: junior subjective synonym of Aeolus Eschscholtz, 1829 [Elateridae: Agrypninae: Oophorini] (new synonymy).

Epistrophus Gistel, 1834b: 12

Originally included available species: Elater bimaculatus Rossi, 1790 (as “bimaculatus Fab.”).

Type species: Elater bimaculatus Rossi, 1790 by monotypy.

Current status: junior objective synonym of Drasterius Eschscholtz, 1829 [Elateridae: Conoderinae: Conoderini] (fide Cate 2007: 105).

Morous Gistel, 1834b: 12

Originally included available species: Elater ferrugineus Linnaeus, 1758 (as “ferrugineus Fab.”).

Type species: Elater ferrugineus Linnaeus, 1758 by monotypy.

Current status: junior objective synonym of Elater Linnaeus, 1758 [Elateridae: Elaterinae: Elaterini] (fide Cate 2007: 131).

Antiphus Gistel, 1834b: 12

Originally included available species: Elater plagiatus Germar, 1823.

Type species: Elater plagiatus Germar, 1823 by monotypy.

Current status: junior subjective synonym of Cardiorhinus Eschscholtz, 1829 [Elateridae: Elaterinae: Agriotini: Cardiorhinina] (new synonym).

Anchialus Gistel, 1834b: 12

Originally included available species: none. Therefore this name is a nomen nudum.

Lepidotus Gistel, 1834b: 12

Originally included available species: Elater pilosus Fabricius, 1792; Elater vilis Herbst, 1806 (as “vilis Ill.”); Elater gilvellus Dufour, 1824 (as “gilvellus Zieg.”); Elater segetis Bjerkander, 1779 (as “Segetis Gyll.”); Elater variabilis Fabricius, 1792; Elater sputator Linnaeus, 1758 (as “sputator Fab.”).

Type species: Elater sputator Linnaeus, 1758 by subsequent designation (Ruiz 1996: 129).

Current status: junior homonym of Lepidotus Asso, 1801 (Pisces) and Lepidotus Stephens, 1830 (Coleoptera: Elateridae); junior objective synonym of Agriotes Eschscholtz, 1829 [Elateridae: Elaterinae: Agriotini: Agriotina] (fide Cate 2007: 114).

Amphilabris Gistel, 1834b: 12

Originally included available species: Elater brunneus Linnaeus, 1758 (as “brunneus Fab.”); Elater fugax Fabricius, 1801.

Type species: Elater brunneus Linnaeus, 1758 by subsequent designation (Ruiz 1996: 155).

Current status: junior objective synonym of Sericus Eschscholtz, 1829 [Elateridae: Elaterinae: Elaterini] (fide Cate 2007: 134).

Eumenus Gistel, 1834b: 12

Originally included available species: Elater theseus Germar, 1817; Elater aterrimus Linnaeus, 1761; Elater atratus Illiger, 1805.

Type species: Elater aterrimus Linnaeus, 1761 by subsequent designation (Ruiz 1996: 140).

Current status: junior objective synonym of Ectinus Eschscholtz, 1829 [Elateridae: Elaterinae: Agriotini] (fide Cate 2007: 119).

Phyletus Gistel, 1834b: 12

Originally included available species: Cantharis sanguineus Linnaeus, 1758 (as “sanguineus Fab.”).

Type species: Cantharis sanguineus Linnaeus, 1758 by monotypy.

Current status: junior objective synonym of Lygistopterus Dejean, 1833 [Lycidae: Lycinae: Calochromini] (new synonym).

Homalysus Gistel, 1834b: 12 (as “Homalysus Ill. ”)

Note: This name is an unjustified emendation for Omalisus Geoffroy, 1762 [Omalisidae] and therefore a junior objective synonym of Omalisus Geoffroy, 1762.

Phyllogaster Gistel, 1834b: 13

Originally included available species: Lampyris laticornis Fabricius, 1792.

Type species: Lampyris laticornis Fabricius, 1792 (= Lampyris atra Olivier, 1790) by monotypy.

Current status: junior subjective synonym of Lucidota Laporte, 1833 [Lampyridae: Lampyrinae: Lucidotini: Lucidotina] (new synonym).

Pyrrhigius Gistel, 1834b: 13

Originally included available species: Lampyris hemipterus Geoffroy, 1762 (as “hemipterus Fab.”).

Type species: Lampyris hemipterus Geoffroy, 1762 by monotypy.

Current status: junior objective synonym of Phosphaenus Laporte, 1833 [Lampyridae: Lampyrinae: Lucidotini: Photina] (new synonym).

Erota Gistel, 1834b: 13

Originally included available species: Lampyris italica Linnaeus, 1767 (as “italica Fab.”).

Type species: Lampyris italica Linnaeus, 1767 by monotypy.

Current status: junior objective synonym of Luciola Laporte, 1833 [Lampyridae: Luciolinae: Luciolini] (new synonym).

Oxypterus Gistel, 1834b: 13

Originally included available species: Lampyris maculata DeGeer, 1774 (as “maculatus Fab.”).

Type species: Lampyris maculata DeGeer, 1774 by monotypy.

Current status: junior homonym of Oxypterus Rafinesque, 1814 (Mammalia) and Oxypterus Fleming, 1822 (Aves); junior subjective synonym of Aspisoma Laporte, 1833 [Lampyridae: Lampyrinae: Cratomorphini] (new synonym).

Note: Gistel (1834b: 13) also included “hesperae? Fab.” (= Lampyris hespera Linnaeus, 1767) and “4-punctulatus Pty.” The first species is conditionally included in the genus and therefore is not an originally included species (ICZN 1999: Article 67.2.5) and the second one is a nomen nudum.

Phyllophagus Gistel, 1834b: 13

Originally included available species: Telephorus xanthomelas Perty, 1830 (as “xanthomelas. Gistl. Pty.”).

Type species: Telephorus xanthomelas Perty, 1830 by monotypy.

Current status: junior subjective synonym of Chauliognathus Hentz, 1830 [Cantharidae: Chauliognathinae: Chauliognatini] (new synonym).

Note: Gistel (1831: 307) described a new species under the name Cantharis xanthomelas which, based on Gistel’s (1834b: 13) entry, is a junior synonym of Telephorus xanthomelas Perty, 1830. The second species mentioned by Gistel (1834b: 13) under Phyllophagus (“dichrous Pty.”) is a nomen nudum.

Epaphius Gistel, 1834b: 13

Originally included available species: Dasytes variegatus Germar, 1823; Anobium lineatum Fabricius, 1775; Dasytes antis Perty, 1830 (as “antis id. [Fab.]”).

Type species: Dasytes variegatus Germar, 1823 by present designation.

Current status: junior homonym of Epaphius Samouelle, 1819 (Coleoptera: Carabidae); senior subjective synonym of Astylus Laporte, 1836 [Melyridae: Melyrinae: Astylini] (new synonym).

Odontomerus Gistel, 1834b: 13

Originally included available species: none. Therefore this name is a nomen nudum.

Isomerus Gistel, 1834b: 14

Originally included available species: Choleva oblonga Latreille, 1806.

Type species: Choleva oblonga Latreille, 1806 by monotypy.

Current status: junior subjective synonym of Choleva Latreille, 1797 [Leiodidae: Cholevinae: Cholevini: Cholevina] (new synonym).

Berecyntha Gistel, 1834b: 15

Originally included available species: Erotylus quadripustulatus Fabricius, 1801.

Type species: Erotylus quadripustulatus Fabricius, 1801 by monotypy.

Current status: senior objective synonym of Aulacochilus Chevrolat, 1836 [Erotylidae: Erotylinae: Encaustini] (new synonym).

Note: Gistel’s name Berecyntha has not been used as a valid name after 1899 and Aulacochilus has been used for a particular taxon in at least 25 works, published by at least 10 authors in the immediately preceding 50 years and encompassing a span of not less than 10 years (see Appendix 1). Accordingly, following Article 23.9 (ICZN 1999), Berecyntha Gistel, 1834 is treated as a nomen oblitum and Aulacochilus Chevrolat, 1836 as a nomen protectum.

Atomaria Gistel, 1834b: 15

Originally included available species: none. Therefore this name is a nomen nudum.

Geophilus Gistel, 1834b: 18

Originally included available species: Scarabaeus sabuleti Panzer, 1797 (as “sabuleti Fab.”); Scarabeus asper Fabricius, 1775; Scarabaeus porcatus Fabricius, 1775; Scarabaeus caesus Creutzer, 1796 (as caesus id. [Fab.]”).

Type species: Scarabeus asper Fabricius, 1775 by present designation.

Current status: junior homonym of Geophilus Leach, 1814 (Chilopoda); junior objective synonym of Psammodius Fallén, 1807 [Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae: Psammodiini] (new synonym).

Ceraunus Gistel, 1834b: 18

Originally included available species: Scarabaeus aegeon Drury, 1773.

Type species: Scarabaeus aegeon Drury, 1773 by monotypy.

Current status: senior subjective synonym of Golofa Hope, 1837 [Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Dynastini] (new synonym).

Note: Gistel’s name Ceraunus has not been used as a valid name after 1899 and Golofa has been used for a particular taxon in at least 25 works, published by at least 10 authors in the immediately preceding 50 years and encompassing a span of not less than 10 years (see Appendix 2). Accordingly, following Article 23.9 (ICZN 1999), Ceraunus Gistel, 1834 is treated as a nomen oblitum and Golofa Hope, 1837 as a nomen protectum.

Atrimedeus Gistel, 1834b: 18

Originally included available species: Scarabaeus monodon Fabricius, 1792; Scarabaeus punctatus Villers, 1789 (as “punctatus id. [Fab.]”).

Type species: Scarabaeus punctatus Villers, 1789 by present designation.

Current status: senior objective synonym of Pentodon Hope, 1837 [Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Pentodontini] (new synonym).

Note: Gistel’s name Atrimedeus has not been used as a valid name after 1899 and Pentodon has been used for a particular taxon in at least 25 works, published by at least 10 authors in the immediately preceding 50 years and encompassing a span of not less than 10 years (see Appendix 3). Accordingly, following Article 23.9 (ICZN 1999), Atrimedeus Gistel, 1834 is treated as a nomen oblitum and Pentodon Hope, 1837 as a nomen protectum.

Eupalus Gistel, 1834b: 18

Originally included available species: Scarabaeus retusus Fabricius, 1781.

Type species: Scarabaeus retusus Fabricius, 1781 by monotypy.

Current status: junior objective synonym of Coptorhinus Dejean, 1833 but Dejean’s name was suppressed in Opinion 1838 (ICZN 1996); senior objective synonym of Temnorhynchus Hope, 1837 [Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Pentodontini] (new synonym).

Note: Gistel’s name Eupalus has not been used as a valid name after 1899 and Temnorhynchus has been used for a particular taxon in at least 25 works, published by at least 10 authors in the immediately preceding 50 years and encompassing a span of not less than 10 years (see Appendix 4). Accordingly, following Article 23.9 (ICZN 1999), Eupalus Gistel, 1834 is treated as a nomen oblitum and Temnorhynchus Hope, 1837 as a nomen protectum.

Achates Gistel, 1834b: 18

Originally included available species: none. Therefore this name is a nomen nudum.

Polycarmes Gistel, 1834b: 18

Originally included available species: Melolontha orientalis Krynicki, 1832 (as “orientalis Zieg.); Melolontha australis Gyllenhal, 1817 (as “australis Schö.”); Melolontha pilosa Fabricius, 1792; Melolontha villosa Fabricius, 1781.

Type species: Melolontha villosa Fabricius, 1781 by present designation.

Current status: junior objective synonym of Anoxia Laporte, 1832 [Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Melolonthini] (new synonym).

Note: Polycarmes Gistel, 1834 is a senior homonym of Polycarmes Stål, 1867, currently a valid genus in Hemiptera (Pentatomidae). A new name is needed for the hemipteran generic name.

Eurytes Gistel, 1834b: 19

Note: This name was proposed as a junior synonym of Schizonycha Dejean, 1833 [Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Melolonthini] and not treated as valid subsequently. Therefore Eurytes Gistel, 1834 is a nomen nudum.

Hylecharis Gistel, 1834b: 19

Originally included available species: none. Therefore this name is a nomen nudum.

Phaedinus Gistel, 1834b: 19

Originally included available species: none. Therefore this name is a nomen nudum.

Sogines Gistel, 1834b: 19

Originally included available species: none. Therefore this name is a nomen nudum.

Demophila Gistel, 1834b: 19

Note: Gistel proposed this name for Melolontha strigosa Illiger, 1803 but in the errata (p. [36]) mentioned to replace Demophila with “Hymenoptia Esch.” (= Hymenoplia Eschscholtz, 1830) [Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Sericini] and to add “H. bifrons Esch. Californ.” to this genus. Therefore Gistel’s Demophila is a nomen nudum.

Nefaria Gistel, 1834b: 19

Originally included available species: none. Therefore this name is a nomen nudum.

Acidota Gistel, 1834b: 19

Originally included available species: Melolontha abdominalis Fabricius, 1792.

Type species: Melolontha abdominalis Fabricius, 1792 by monotypy.

Current status: junior homonym of Acidota Stephens, 1829 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae); junior objective synonym of Amphicoma Latreille, 1807 [Glaphyridae: Amphicominae] (new synonym).

Erymantis Gistel, 1834b: 19

Originally included available species: none. Therefore this name is a nomen nudum.

Ostracodermus Gistel, 1834b: 20

Originally included available species: none. Therefore this name is a nomen nudum.

Cecrops Gistel, 1834b: 21

Originally included available species: Tenebrio gigas Linnaeus, 1763; Upis maxima Germar, 1823.

Type species: Tenebrio gigas Linnaeus, 1763 by present designation.

Current status: junior objective synonym of Mylaris Pallas, 1781 [Tenebrionidae: Stenochiinae: Cnodalonini] (new synonym).

Pythonissus Gistel, 1834b: 21

Originally included available species: Helops morio Fabricius, 1777; Tenebrio elongatus Palisot de Beauvois, 1817.

Type species: Helops morio Fabricius, 1777 (= Tenebrio atratus Fabricius, 1775) by present designation.

Current status: junior objective synonym of Zophobas Dejean, 1834 [Tenebrionidae: Tenebrioninae: Tenebrionini] (new synonym).

Physignathus Gistel, 1834b: 22

Originally included available species: Helops undatus Fabricius, 1792.

Type species: Helops undatus Fabricius, 1792 (= Erotylus nebulosus Fabricius, 1781) by monotypy.

Current status: junior homonym of Physignathus Cuvier, 1829 (Reptilia); junior objective synonym of Cymatothes Dejean, 1834 [Tenebrionidae: Tenebrioninae: Amarygmini] (new synonym).

Pelops Gistel, 1834b: 22

Originally included available species: Helops ater Fabricius, 1775.

Type species: Helops ater Fabricius, 1775 by monotypy.

Current status: senior objective synonym of Prionychus Solier, 1835 [Tenebrionidae: Alleculinae: Alleculini: Alleculina] (new synonym).

Note: Gistel’s name Pelops has not been used as a valid name after 1899 and Prionychus has been used for a particular taxon in at least 25 works, published by at least 10 authors in the immediately preceding 50 years and encompassing a span of not less than 10 years (see Appendix 5). Accordingly, following Article 23.9 (ICZN 1999), Pelops Gistel, 1834 is treated as a nomen oblitum and Prionychus Solier, 1835 as a nomen protectum.

Gerontes Gistel, 1834b: 27

Note: This name was proposed as a junior synonym of Mecocorhynus Schönherr, 1825 [Curculionidae: Molytinae: Ithyporini: Ithyporina] and not treated as valid subsequently. Therefore Gerontes Gistel, 1834 is a nomen nudum as mentioned by Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyall (1999: 203).

Gymnotrion Gistel, 1834b: 27

Originally included available species: none. Therefore this name is a nomen nudum.

Ceratias Gistel, 1834b: 28

Originally included available species: none. Therefore this name is a nomen nudum.

Ceratades Gistel, 1834b: 29

Originally included available species: Cerambyx sutor Linnaeus, 1758; Lamia sartor Fabricius, 1787.

Type species: Cerambyx sutor Linnaeus, 1758 by present designation.

Current status: junior objective synonym of Monochamus Dejean, 1821 [Cerambycidae: Lamiinae: Monochamini] (fide Adlbauer et al. 2010: 281).

Dendrobius Gistel, 1834b: 30

Originally included available species: Cerambyx curculionoides Linnaeus, 1760.

Type species: Cerambyx curculionoides Linnaeus, 1760 by monotypy.

Current status: junior homonym of Dendrobius Meyen, 1833 (Mammalia); junior objective synonym of Mesosa Latreille, 1829 [Cerambycidae: Lamiinae: Mesosini] (fide Adlbauer et al. 2010: 272).

Eurypedus Gistel, 1834b: 31

Originally included available species: Cassida oblonga Thon, 1826.

Type species: Cassida oblonga Thon, 1826 by monotypy.

Current status: valid genus [Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Ischyrosonychini] (fide Shin 2016: 329).

Accantosomus Gistel, 1834b: [36]

Originally included available species: Elater ligneus Linnaeus, 1763 (as “ligneus Fab.”).

Type species: Elater ligneus Linnaeus, 1763 by monotypy.

Current status: junior subjective synonym of Semiotus Eschscholtz, 1829 [Elateridae: Semiotinae] (new synonym).

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Aleš Smetana (Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, Ottawa, Ontario), Alfred F. Newton, Jr. (Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois), Frank Krell (Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, Colorado), and Aaron Smith (Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona) for providing helpful suggestions to improve this manuscript.

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Appendix 1

References supporting the conservation of Aulacochilus Chevrolat, 1836 [Erotylidae] over Berecyntha Gistel, 1834 through the reversal of precedence.

Chûjô M (1968) Erotylid beetles from south-China, Hainan, Taiwan and the Ryukyus. Studies on the erotylid beetles (20). Pacific Insects 10: 539–550.

Chûjô M (1968) Erotylid beetles from Thailand, Laos and Viet-Nam. Pacific Insects 10: 551–573.

Chûjô M (1969) Erotylidae (Insecta: Coleoptera). Fauna Japonica. Academic Press of Japan, Tokyo. xii + 316 pp.

Chûjô M (1974) Erotylid-beetles from Thailand, Malaysia, Sarawak and Philippines. Studies on the erotylid-beetles (22). Bulletin of the Japan Entomological Academy 9: 1–19.

Chûjô M (1975) Coleoptera: Erotylidae and Languriidae from Ceylon. Entomologica scand (Suppl. ) 4: 195–198.

Chûjô M (1987) Erotylidae from New Guinea and her adjacent islands I (Coleoptera). Esakia 25: 5–36.

Chûjô M, Chûjô M (1988) A catalog of the Erotylidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) from the Old World (excl. the Ethiopian Region). Esakia 26: 139–185.

Chûjô M, Chûjô M, Lee CE (1993) Erotylidae from Korea (Insecta, Coleoptera). Esakia 33: 99–108.

Drilling K, Dettner K, Klass K-D (2013) The distribution and evolution of exocrine compound glands in Erotylinae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Erotylidae). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (Nouvelle Série) 49: 36–52. https://doi.org/10.1080/00379271.2013.763458

Iablokoff-Khnzorian SM (1975) Etude sur les Erotylidae (Coleoptera) palearctiques. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 20: 201–249.

Jung SH, Oh SH (2012) Insect Fauna of Yeongsil in Mt. Hallasan National Park (excluding Lepidoptera). Journal of Korean Nature 5: 27–36. https://doi.org/10.7229/jkn.2012.5.1.027

Klimov PB (2000) A description of a new genus, Umakefeq gen. n., including three new species of mycetophagous acarid mites (Acariformes, Acaridae) from eastern Palaearctic. Acarina 7: 93–106.

Kobayashi T, Sota T (2016) Distance decay of similarity in fungivorous insect communities: assessing dispersal limitation using genetic data. Ecosphere 7(6): 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1358

Lafer GS (2000) Lioptera erotyloides Bates, 1883 newly recorded species of the ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Lebiinae) from South Korea. Far Eastern Entomologist 91: 11–12.

Lawrence JF (1988) Notes on the classification of some Australian Cucujoidea (Coleoptera). Journal of Australian Entomological Society 27: 53–54. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-6055.1988.tb01144.x

Lawrence JF, Ślipiński A (2013) Australian beetles: morphology, classification and keys. Volume 1. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

Li J, Ren GD, Zhao X (2013) Two new record species of the genus Aulacochilus (Coleoptera: Erotylidae) from China. Journal of Hebei University Natural Science Edition 33: 520–523.

Lim JS, Lee BW, Park SY, Jo DG (2011) Insect fauna of Maebongsan Mountain, Hongcheon-gun, Gangwon-do. Journal of Korean Nature 4: 293–307. https://doi.org/10.7229/jkn.2011.4.4.293

Pal TK (1993) On a collection of clavicorn beetles (families Erotylidae, Endomychidae and Languriidae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 90 [1992]: 203–210.

Pal TK (2003) Insecta: Coleoptera: Erotylidae. Pp. 99–106 in: Alfred JRB (Ed) Fauna of Sikkim (part-3). State Fauna Series 9. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 411 pp.

Robertson JA, McHugh JV, Whiting MF (2004) A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the pleasing fungus beetles (Coleoptera: Erotylidae): evolution of colour patterns, gregariousness and mycophagy. Systematic Entomology 29: 173–187. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0307-6970.2004.00242.x

Sasakawa M, Negishi T (1973) Laboratory and field studies on behaviouristic response of the minute pine beetle, Cryphalus fulvus Niijima (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to the female pheromone. Applied Entomology and Zoology 8: 143–156.

Setsuda K (1993) The component and structure of the beetle community inhabiting fruit bodies of wood-rotting fungi. Akitu (Suppl. No. 1): 1–21.

Skelley PE (1998) A catalogue of the Crotch collection of Erotylidae (Coleoptera). Annales Zoologici 48: 1–44.

Wêgrzynowicz P (2002) Morphology, phylogeny and classification of the family Erotylidae based on adult characters (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea). Genus 13: 435–504.

Wêgrzynowicz P (2007) Family Erotylidae Latreille, 1802. Pp. 531–546 in: Löbl I, Smetana A (Eds) Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Volume 4. ElateroideaDerodontoideaBostrichoideaLymexyloideaCleroideaCucujoidea. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 935 pp.

Zaitsev AA, Kompantsev AV, Zaitsev AI (2016) A review of larval Encaustini (Coleoptera: Erotylidae) from Russia. Russian Entomological Journal 25: 367–386.

Appendix 2

References supporting the conservation of Golofa Hope, 1837 [Scarabaeidae] over Ceraunus Gistel, 1834 through the reversal of precedence.

Abadie EI (2007) A new species of Golofa Hope, 1837 from Jujuy State, Argentina (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae). Lambillionea (Supplement Tome II) 107(3): 462–465.

Arnaud P, Joly AL (2006) Description d’une nouvelle espèce du genre Golofa (Coleoptère Dynastidae). Besoiro: Bulletin de Liaison de l’Association Entomologique pour la Connaissance de la Faune Tropicale 15: 7–8.

Cespedes AA, Ratcliffe BC (2010) Golofa clavigera (Linnaeus, 1771) in Bolivia: a new country record (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastidae). Ecología en Bolivia 45: 73–76.

Dechambre R-P (1975) Note sur divers Megaceras et Golofa (Col. Dynastidae). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (Nouvelle Série) 11: 619–630.

Dechambre R-P (1989) Une nouvelle espèce de Golofa (Coleoptera, Dynastidae). Revue Francaise d’Entomologie (Nouvelle Série) 11: 151–152.

Dechambre R-P (1995) Note synonymique sur le genre Golofa Hope (Coleoptera, Dynastidae). Revue Francaise d’Entomologie (Nouvelle Serie) 17: 62.

Eberhard WG (1978) Fighting behavior of male Golofa porteri beetles (Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae). Psyche (Cambridge) 84 [1977]: 292–298.

Faundez EI, Aguilar Julio C (2010) Un ejemplar teratologico de Golofa porteri (Hope, 1837) (Coleoptera: Dynastidae) de Venezuela. Boletin de la SEA 46: 585–586.

Howden HF, Campbell JM (1974) Observations on some Scarabaeoidea in the Colombian Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. The Coleopterists Bulletin 28: 109–114.

Lachaume G (1985) Dynastini. 5. Dynastes, Megasoma, Golofa. Les coléoptères du monde 5. Sciences Nat, Compiègne, 85 pp.

Lugo-Garcia GA, Moron MA, Aragon-Garcia A, Ortega-Arenas LD, Reyes-Olivas A, Valdez-Carrasco J (2011) Especies fotofilas de Coleoptera Lamellicornia en la region de los Tascates, Sinaloa 7 Chihuahua (Mexico). Boletin de la SEA 49: 179–188.

Maes J-M (1994) Los Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) de Nicaragua. Revista Nicaraguense de Entomologia 30: 1–44.

Maes J-M (1997) Euthyrhynchus floridanus Linnaeus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), depredador de Golofa imperialis Thomsom [Thomson], en el norte de Nicaragua. Revista Nicaraguense de Entomologia 39: 47–48.

Mal N (1992) L’élevage d’un dynaste néotropical: Golofa porteri Hope (Coleoptera, Dynastidae). Insectes (Supplement No. 85): 11–12.

McCullough EL, Tobalske BW, Emlen DJ (2014) Structural adaptations to diverse fighting styles in sexually selected weapons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111: 14484–14488. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1409585111

Morón MA (1995) Review of the Mexican species of Golofa Hope (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae, Dynastinae). The Coleopterists Bulletin 49: 343–386.

Morón MA, Pardo-Locarno LC (1994) Larvae and pupae of two species of Golofa Hope (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae, Dynastinae) from Colombia. The Coleopterists Bulletin 48: 390–399.

Ordonez Resendiz MM, Cuauhtemoc A, Lopez D (2003) New Mexican state record for Golofa incas Hope (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae). The Coleopterists Bulletin 57: 296. https://doi.org/10.1649/646

Pardo Locarno LC (2005) Sinopsis preliminar de los Dynastini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) del Choco biogeografico, Colombia. Boletin Cientifico Museo de Historia Natural Universidad de Caldas 9: 206–220.

Ratcliffe BC (1989) A case of gynandromorphy in Golofa tersander Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). The Coleopterists Bulletin 43: 256–258.

Ratcliffe BC (2003) The dynastine scarab beetles of Costa Rica and Panama (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae). Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 16: i-vi + 1-506.

Ratcliffe BC, Cave RD (2006) The dynastine scarab beetles of Honduras, Nicaragua, and El Salvador (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae). Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 21: 1–424.

Ratcliffe BC, Cave RD, Cano EB (2013) The dynastine scarab beetles of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize. Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 27: 1–656.

Rowland JM, Miller KB (2012) Phylogeny and systematics of the giant rhinoceros beetles (Scarabaeidae: Dynastini). Insecta Mundi 0263: 1–15.

Voirin JP (1984) Deux nouvelles espèces de Golofa Hope et une nouvelle espèce de Heterogomphus Burmeister (Col., Scarabaeoidea, Dynastinae). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 57: 287–289.

Voirin JP (1994) Trois nouvelles espèces de Golofa Hope (Col. Scarabaeoidea - Dynastinae). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 67: 289–295.

Appendix 3

References supporting the conservation of Pentodon Hope, 1837 [Scarabaeidae] over Atrimedeus Gistel, 1834 through the reversal of precedence.

Arinton M, Ciornei C (2015) Data concerning the diversity of scarabeoid larvae (Coleoptera: Scarab[a]eoidea: Dynastidae, Melolonthidae, Cetoniidae and Lucanidae) in forest nurseries from Iasi County, Romania. Oltenia Studii si Comunicari Stiintele Naturii 31: 105–113.

Baraud J (1985) Coléoptères Scarabaeoidea. Faune du Nord de l’Afrique, du Maroc au Sinai. Lechevalier, Paris, 651 pp.

Baraud J (1992) Coléoptères Scarabaeoidea d’Europe. Faune de France 78. Fédération française des Sociétés de sciences naturelles, Paris. ix + 856 pp. + 11 pls.

Bunalski M, Ghahari H (2015) Contribution to the knowledge Scarabaeoidea (Coleoptera) of Guilan Province, Northern Iran. Wiadomości Entomologiczne 34: 19–28.

Chimisliu C (2005) Contributii la cunoasterea subfamiliei Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Scarabaeidae) din fauna Olteniei. Oltenai Studii si Comunicari Stiintele Naturii 21: 121–126.

Chimisliu C, Mogoseanu G (2009) Considerations on the Dynastidae family (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea), from the fauna of Oltenia, Romania. Oltenia Studii si Comunicari Stiintele Naturii 25: 125–128.

Drumont A, Dutto M (2008) Découverte de la présence de Pentodon bidens (Pallas, 1771) en Autriche (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea, Dynastidae). Joannea Zoologie 10: 183–186.

Drumont A, Saltin J-P, Atique Akhter M, Ponchel Y (2010) New records of Palaearctic dynastid beetles (1): species from Pakistan (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea, Dynastidae). Lambillionea (Supplément Tome 1) 110: 57–61.

Drumont A, Warzee N (2000) Contribution à la connaissance du genre Pentodon Hope. Découverte de Pentodon algerinum (Herbst) en Crête (Coleoptera, Dynastidae). Lambillionea (Supplément Tome 2) 100: 298–304.

Ebied AM, Mostafa FM, Yaseen AE, Kawashti IS (2000) Studies on the chromosomal analysis of nine Egyptian species of families Tenebrionidae and Scarabaeoidea (Coleoptera: Insecta). Journal of the Egyptian German Society of Zoology 33: 295–315.

Endrődi S, Al-Houty W (1985) Pentodon kuwaitense sp. n. from Kuwait (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 77: 205.

Faragalla ARA (2000) Major species of the dung beetles (superfamily: Scarabaeoidea) in three ecological systems in western Saudi Arabia. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 33: 225–237. https://doi.org/10.1080/03235400009383348

Ibrahim SAM, El-Mergawy RG, Moghaeib REA (2009) Molecular and biochemical diagnosis of three scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) commonly infect sugarcane plantation in Upper Egypt. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 3: 1287–1295.

Keith D (2008) Observations sur quelques Scarabaeoidea (Coleoptera) de Turquie. Biocosme Mésogéen 25: 63–69.

Krell F-T (2002) On nomenclature and synonymy of Old World Dynastinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae). Entomologische Blätter für Biologie und Systematik der Käfer 98: 37–46.

Krell F-T (2006) Subfamily Dynastinae MacLeay, 1819. Pp. 277–283 in: Lönl I, Smetana A (Eds) Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Volume 3. ScarabaeoideaScirtoideaDascilloideaBuprestoideaByrrhoidea. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 690 pp.

Leo P, Pisano P (1984) Distribuzione in Sardegna delle specie del genere Pentodon Hope (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea, Dynastidae). Bollettino dell’Associazione Romana di Entomologia 37 [1982]: 37–39.

Modarres Awal M (2006) Preliminary studies on Scarabaeoidea (Coleoptera) fauna of Razavi Khorasan province of Iran. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi 30: 163–172.

Perez Valcarel J (2010) Fragmenta entomologica. Coleoptera, Familia Dynastidae. Datos ineditos de dinastidos de la Peninsula Iberica, Islas Baleares e Islas Canarias. Arquivos Entomolóxicos 4: 81–82.

Pesarini C (2004) Insetti della Fauna Italiana Coleotteri Lamellicorni. Natura (Milan) 93: 1–132.

Rafales MT (1992) Primera cita de Musurgus stridens Vauloger, 1898 y Pentodon variolopunctatum deserti Heyden, 1899, (Coleoptera, Dynastidae), para la fauna marroqui. Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomologia 16: 249.

Sabatinelli G, Schembri S (1990) Gli scarabeidi floricoli delle isole maltesi (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae). Bollettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 122: 31–36.

Sakenin Chelav H, Samin N (2015) A study on the fauna of Scarabaeoidea (Coleoptera) from Golestan province, Northern Iran. Entomofauna 36: 513–520.

Schweigkofler W (2004) Occurrence of the cockchafer Melolontha spp. and other noxious scarabaeid beetles in northern Italy and strategies of their control: an overview. Laimburg Journal 1: 176–178.

Vitturi R, Colomba M, Volpe N, Lannino A, Zunino M (2003) Evidence for male XO sex-chromosome system in Pentodon bidens punctatum (Coleoptera Scarabaeoidea: Scarabaeidae) with X-linked 18S-28S rDNA clusters. Genes & Genetic Systems 78: 427–432. https://doi.org/10.1266/ggs.78.427

Voirin JP (1997) Six nouvelles espèces de Dynastinae de Nouvelle-Guinée (Col. Scarabaeoidea). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 70: 271–283.

Zhang Y (1991) Revision of the family Dynastidae from China (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) [in Chinese]. Scientific Treatise on Systematic and Evolutionary Zoology 1: 173–188.

Appendix 4

References supporting the conservation of Temnorhynchus Hope, 1837 [Scarabaeidae] over Eupalus Gistel, 1834 through the reversal of precedence.

Atwa AA (2009) Comparison between inoculative and inundative release for controlling scarab beetles in strawberry using entompathogenic nematodes under field conditions. Bulletin of Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University 60: 197–205.

Atwa AA, Hassan SH (2014) Bioefficacy of two entomopathgenic nematodes against Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval (Lepidoptera) and Temnorhynchus baal Reiche (Coleoptera) larvae. Journal of Biopesticides 7: 104–109.

Brooke RK, Crowe TM (1982) Variation in species richness among the offshore islands of the southwestern Cape. African Zoology 17: 49–58. https://doi.org/10.1080/02541858.1982.11447780

Carpaneto GM, Piattella E, Pittino R (2000) The scarab beetles of Turkey: an updated checklist and chorotype analysis (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea). Biogeographia 21: 217–240. https://doi.org/10.21426/B6110170

Dechambre R-P (1986) Insectes coléoptères Dynastidae. Faune de Madagascar 65. Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 215 pp.

Dechambre R-P, Madge RB (1979) A new genus and species of dynastine beetle from Ethiopia (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae). Bulletin de l’Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noire 41: 829–836.

Forshage M, Krell F-T (2016) Two exotic dynastines collected in Sweden (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae). Entomologisk Tidskrift 137: 147–149.

Gillett MPT, Gillett CPDT (2009) Confirmation of the occurrence of Temnorhynchus baal Reiche & Saulcy on the island of Naxos, Greece (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae). Lambillionea 109: 198–199.

Harrison J du G (2009) Synonymic notes on African Dynastinae I: genus Callistemonus Péringuey (including Idioschema Arrow and Syrictoides Endrödi) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Annals of the Transvaal Museum 46: 81–90.

ICZN [International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature] (1996) Opinion 1838. Temnorhynchus Hope, 1837 (Insecta, Coleoptera): conserved. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 53: 134–135.

Jackson HD, Oatley TB (2000) Food of the nightjars in Zimbabwe. Ostrich 71: 404–407. https://doi.org/10.1080/00306525.2000.9639841

Jameson ML, Oishi DE, Ratcliffe BC, McQuate GT (2009) Two additional invasive scarabaeoid beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) in Hawaii. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 41: 25–30.

Kheswa N, Laing M, Conlong DE (2016) Evaluation of two Beauveria brongniartii isolates for pathogenicity against different life stages of white grub species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in South African sugarcane. Proceedings of the South African Sugar Technologists’ Association 89: 98–115.

Krell F-T (1992) Verschmelzung von Antennomeren (Symphysocerie) als Regelfall bei Temnorhynchus repandus Burmeister, 1847, sowie phylogenetische, taxonomische, faunistische und nomenklaturische Anmerkungen zu diversen Taxa dieser Gattung (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea, Melolonthidae, Dynastinae, Pentodontini). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 39: 295–367. https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnd.19920390408

Krell F-T (1993) Beschreibung von Temnorhynchus kasanganus sp. n. sowie phänogeographische und taxonomische Diskussion von T. cribratus Bates, 1884 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae). Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 44: 251–266.

Krell F-T (1993) Phylogenetisch-systematische Revision des Genus Temnorhynchus Hope, 1837 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Pentodontini). 1. Teil: Phylogenetische Analyse, mit Anmerkungen zur phylogenetisch-systematischen Methodologie. Beiträge zur Entomologie 43: 237–318.

Krell F-T (1994) Chorologische und taxonomische Notizen über südeuropäische und nordafrikanische Lamellicornia. (Insecta: Coleoptera). Mitteilungen des Internationalen Entomologischen Vereins e.V., Frankfurt a.M. 19: 5–19.

Krell F-T (1994) Phylogenetisch-systematische Revision des Genus Temnorhynchus Hope, 1837 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Pentodontini). 2. Teil: Bestimmungstabelle, Katalog, Bibliographie, Gazetteer und Material-Listen. Beitäge zur Entomologie 44: 83–156.

Krell F-T (1995) Beschreibung und systematische Stellung von Temnorhynchus zairensis, spec. nov. aus Zaire. (Insecta, Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea, Melolonthidae, Dynastinae, Pentodontini). Spixiana 18: 157–164.

Krell F-T (1996) Historical biogeography of Temnorhynchus species (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae). Zoologischer Anzeiger 234: 209–226.

Krell F-T (1997) Towards a causal history of present range patterns in the rhinoceros beetle genus Temnorhynchus Hope (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Pp. 161–164 in: Ulrich H (Ed) Tropical biodiversity and systematics. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biodiversity in Tropical Ecosystems, Bonn, 1994. Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut und Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn.

Krell F-T (2006) Subfamily Dynastinae MacLeay, 1819. Pp. 277–283 in: Löbl I, Smetana A (Eds) Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Volume 3. ScarabaeoideaScirtoideaDascilloideaBuprestoideaByrrhoidea. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 690 pp.

Krell F-T, Hangay G (1998) The African rhinoceros beetle Temnorhynchus retusus (Fabricius) established in eastern Australia (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae). Australian Journal of Entomology 37: 312–314. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-6055.1998.tb01588.x

Shamseldean MM, Atwa AA (2004) Laboratory and field tests of entomopathogenic nematodes against the scarab beetle Temnorhynchus baal (Reiche) a novel insect pest of strawberry in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control 14: 127–133.

Uliana M, Yildirim E (2012) Temnorhynchus baal Reiche & Saulcy, 1856, a new species for Turkish fauna (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae). Munis Entomology & Zoology 7: 523–525.

Visser D, Stals R (2012) Temnorhynchus coronatus (Fabricius) (Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae), potentially a pest of sweet potato in South Africa. African Entomology 20: 402–407. https://doi.org/10.4001/003.020.0222

Appendix 5

References supporting the conservation of Prionychus Solier, 1835 [Tenebrionidae] over Pelops Gistel, 1834 through the reversal of precedence.

Atay E, Jansson N, Gürkan T (2012) Saproxylic beetles on old hollow oaks (Quercus spp.) in a small isolated area in southern Turkey (Insecta: Coleoptera). Zoology in the Middle East 57: 105–114. https://doi.org/10.1080/09397140.2012.10648969

Blanco Villero JM, Sáez Bolaño JA (2011) Descripción de una nueva especie del género Prionychus Solier, 1835 de Marruecos y redescripción de Prionychus anthracinus (Mulsant, 1856) y Prionychus lugens (Küster, 1850) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Alleculinae). Graellsia 67: 175–185. https://doi.org/10.3989/graellsia.2011.v67.044

Bousquet Y, Bouchard P, Campbell JM (2015) Catalogue of genus-group names in Alleculinae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The Coleopterists Society Monograph 14: 131–151. https://doi.org/10.1649/0010-065X-69.mo4.131

Bouyon H (2011) A propos des genres et du genre des genres chez les Alleculinae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 116: 191–193.

Bouyon H (2014) Sous-famille Alleculinae Laporte de Castelnau, 1840. Pp. 535–537 in: Tronquet M (Ed) Catalogue des coléoptères de France. Association Roussillonnaise d’Entomologie, Perpignan, 1052 pp.

Bunalski M, Ghahari H (2015) A study on some families of Coleoptera from Savadkooh County, Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Wiadomości Entomologiczne 34(3): 5–12.

Bunalski M, Konwerski S, Przewoźny M, Ruta R (2007) Nowe dane o rozmieszczeniu chrząszczy z rodziny czarnuchowatych (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) na Nizinie Wielkopolsko-Kujawskiej. Część I: Cisawki (Alleculinae). Wiadomości Entomologiczne 26: 69–78.

Drees M (1996) Zur ökologischen Einnischung dreier in Baumhöhlen lebender Alleculinen-Arten (Coleoptera: Alleculidae). Entomologische Zeitschrift 106: 181–188.

Freeman J-C, Grancher C (2014) La forêt domaniale de Bastard (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) : un espace riche en Coléoptères saproxyliques aux portes de Pau. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux 149: 77–88.

Iwan D, Kubisz D, Tykarski P (2012) Coleoptera Poloniae: Tenebrionoidea (Tenebrionidae, Boridae): Critical checklist, distribution in Poland and meta-analysis. University of Warsaw, Faculty of Biology: Natura optima dux Foundation, Warszawa, 480 pp.

Krause R (1995) Zur Fauna der heteromeren Käfer der Sächsischen Schweiz (3) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Heteromera). Faunistische Abhandlungen (Dresden) 20: 15–18.

Lillig M (2000) Die Schwarzkäfer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) des Saarlandes Teil II: Die Unterfamilien Lagriinae und Alleculinae sowie Nachtrag zu Teil I. Abhandlungen der Delattinia 26: 89–98.

Micó E, García-López A, Sánchez A, Juárez M, Galante E (2015) What can physical, biotic and chemical features of a tree hollow tell us about their associated diversity? Journal of Insect Conservation 19: 141–153. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10841-015-9754-9

Murria Beltrán F, Murria Beltrán A (2001) Presencia de Elater ferrugineus L., 1758 (Coleoptera Elateridae) en Aragón. Boletín de la S.E.A. 28: 126.

Novák V, Ghahari H (2015) A checklist of comb-clawed beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Alleculinae) from Iran. Zootaxa 4027: 101–116. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4027.1.4

Novák V, Pettersson R (2008) Subfamily Alleculinae Laporte, 1840. Pp. 319–339 in: Löbl I, Smetana A (Eds) Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Volume 5. Tenebrionoidea. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 670 pp.

Novák V, Purchart L (2012) New species of the genus Socotralia and first record of the genus Alogista from Socotra Island (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Alleculinae). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 52 (Supplementum 2): 323–336.

Ranius T (2002) Osmoderma eremita as an indicator of species richness of beetles in tree hollows. Biodiversity and Conservation 11: 931–941. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015364020043

Ranius T (2002) Influence of stand size and quality of tree hollows on saproxylic beetles in Sweden. Biological Conservation 103: 85–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(01)00124-0

Recalde Irurzun JI, San Martín Moreno AF (2012) Confirmación de la presencia en la Península Ibérica de Tenebrio opacus Duftschmid, 1812, y otros tenebriónidos saproxílicos de Irañeta (Navarra) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Heteropterus Revista de Entomología 12: 85–92.

Saez Bolaño JA, Blanco Villero JM, Bahillo de la Puebla P, López Colón JI (2010) Aportación a la corología del género Prionychus Solier, 1835 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, Alleculinae) en España y Marruecos. Boletín de la S.E.A. 47: 229–234.

Sebek P, Cizek L, Hauck D, Schlaghamerský J (2012) Saproxylic beetles in an isolated pollard willow stand and their association with Osmoderma barnabita (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Pp. 67–72 in: Jurc M (Ed) Saproxylic beetles in Europe: monitoring, biology and conservation. Studia Forestalia Slovenica. Slovenian Forestry Institute, Ljubljana.

Torrella-Allegue LP, Marín-Lacomba I, Romero-Rodríguez B (2015) Contribución ao coñecemento da coroloxía ibérica de Prionychus fairmairii (Reiche, 1860) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Alleculinae). Braña 13: 5–8.

Troukens W (2005) Rouwtorren en enkele verwanten aan de westrand van Brussel (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, Alleculidae, Lagriidae, Serropalpidae). Phegea 33: 23–30.

Viñolas A, Muñoz Batet J, Masó G, Soler J (2014) Nuevos registros de coleópteros interesantes del Parque Natural del Cadí-Moixeró, Cataluña (Península Ibérica) (Coleoptera). Arquivos Entomolóxicos 12: 91–96.

Whitehead PF (1990) Points of distinction in the larvae of Prionychus ater (Fab.) and Prionychus melanarius (Germ.) (Alleculidae). Coleopterist’s Newsletter (Supplement 40): 7–8.