Research Article
Print
Research Article
Magadhaideus, a new genus of the tribe Plectoderini with the description of a new species from China (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Achilidae)
expand article infoJian-Kun Long, Zhi-Min Chang, Lin Yang, Xiang-Sheng Chen
‡ Guizhou University, Guiyang, China
Open Access

Abstract

A new planthopper genus and species from China, Magadhaideus xiphos Long & Chen, gen. et sp. n. (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Achilidae: Plectoderini), is described and illustrated. A new combination, Magadhaideus cervina (Fennah, 1956), comb. n. transferred from Magadha Distant and a key to species of the new genus are also given.

Keywords

Achilid, distribution, Fulgoroidea, new taxa, planthopper

Introduction

The planthopper tribe Plectoderini (Hemiptera: Achilidae) established by Fennah (Fennah, 1950), containing about 98 genera 335 species to date (Bourgoin 2017), is the largest tribe of Achilidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha). It is also the most widely dispersed in the world.

Approximately four tribes, 20 genera, and 99 species of Achilidae are known in China. Plectoderini consists of 15 genera and 79 species. Almost all members of the tribe in China are distributed in the Oriental region, especially in southern China. Here, a new genus and species of the tribe from South China are described and illustrated. A new combination and a key to the species of the new genus are also provided.

Materials and methods

The morphological terminology and measurements used in this study mainly follow Chen et al. (1989) and Yang and Chang (2000). The standard terminology for hind and forewing venation follow Bourgoin et al. (2015). The methods follow Long et al. (2014). The genital segments of the examined specimens were macerated in 10% KOH and drawn from preparations in glycerine jelly using an Leica M125 stereomicroscope. The type material is deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, China (GUGC).

Taxonomy

Magadhaideus Long & Chen, gen. n.

Figs 1–4, 5–15

Type species

Magadhaideus xiphos Long & Chen, sp. n., here designated.

Differential diagnosis

The new genus and Magadha are readily distinguished from other known genera in the tribe Plectoderini by mesonotum with a transverse callus on anterior third of disc (Fig. 5). The new genus differs from Magadha in: pygofer (Fig. 11) in lateral view with dorsal margin distinctly shorter than ventral margin (dorsal margin at least as long as ventral margin in Magadha); medioventral process (Fig. 12) broad and short, with a small sharp process lateroapically (relatively slender and without small sharp process lateroapically in Magadha); genital style (Fig. 13) without a finger-like process from near base of dorsal margin (with a finger-like process from near base of dorsal margin in Magadha); phallobase (Figs 14–15) with apical half branched into much more and longer processes (apical half, in Magadha, at most branched into one dorsal, one ventral and two lateral lobes, all of them short).

Figures 1–4. 

Magadhaideus xiphos sp. n. 1–2 Male habitus (dorsal and lateral views) 3–4 Female habitus (dorsal and lateral views).

Figures 5–15. 

Magadhaideus xiphos sp. n. 5 Head and thorax, dorsal view 6 Face 7 Head, lateral view 8 Forewing 9 Hindwing 10 Anal segment of male, dorsal view 11 Male genitalia, lateral view 12 Male genitalia, ventral view 13 Left genital style, dorsal view 14 Aedeagus, dorsal view 15 Aedeagus, ventral view. Scale bars: 0.3 mm (10, 13, 15); 0.5 mm (5–7, 11–12, 14); 1 mm (8–9).

Description

Width of head with eyes 0.8 times wider than width of pronotum. Vertex (Figs 1, 3, 5) with disc distinctly depressed, width at base wider than length in midline, median carina obsolete, anterior margin carinate, angularly convex, lateral margins slightly foliate, diverging basally, posterior margin subangularly concave. Triangular areolets (Fig. 5) at lateroapical angles of head distinct. Frons (Fig. 6) slightly convex in lateral view, with length in midline distinctly longer than maximum width, median carina complete , lateral margins slightly foliate, straight diverging to below level of antennae then gradually incurved to suture. Clypeus (Fig. 6) with median and lateral carinae distinct, length in midline shorter than frons. Rostrum reaching base of hind femurs, with length of subapical segment shorter than apical segment. Antenna (Figs 2, 4, 6–7) subglobose, not sunk in a depression. Ocelli (Figs 2, 4, 7) separated from eyes. Eyes (Figs 2, 4, 7) almost not excavate beneath. Pronotum (Figs 1, 3, 5) with length in midline as long as length behind eyes, with anterior margin roundly convex, posterior margin subangularly excavate about 130 degrees; median carina distinct, lateral carinae straight, posteriorly diverging and reaching hind margin, with length 1.5 times to length of median carina; lateral lobe slightly inclined antero-ventrally. Mesonotum (Figs 1, 3, 5) with three carinae distinctly, length in midline longer than vertex and pronotum combined, area between lateral carinae with one transverse callus at anterior third. Forewing (Figs 1–4, 8) with costal margin slightly convex; apical margin roundly convex; posterior margin angularly excavate (160 degrees) at apex of clavus; vein Cu1 forking slightly basally of ScP+R fork, equal to level of veins Pcu and A1 fork, vein MP forking nearly level of nodal line, clavus terminating slightly distally of middle. Hindwing (Fig. 9) Cu with two branches, partly fused with M3+4, CuP and Pcu single, A1 two branched, A2 not reaching wing margin and enlarged apically. Post-tibiae with one lateral spine basalto middle.

Male genitalia

Each side of anal segment (Figs 10–11) with a strong spinous process, directed ventrally. Pygofer (Fig. 11) in lateral view with dorsal margin distinctly shorter than ventral margin, medioventral process (Fig. 12) broad and short, lateroapical margin produced in a small sharp process. Genital style (Fig. 13) without a finger-like process from near the base of dorsal margin, only a larger process rising from near middle of dorsal margin. Aedeagus with phallobase (Figs 14–15) sheath-shaped, asymmetrical, apical half branched into several long processes which narrowing apically and with apexes sharp. Aedeagal appendages (Figs 14–15) relatively straight, clearly exceeding the apical margin of phallobase.

Etymology

The genus name, which is masculine, is a combination of “Magadha” (name of the related genus) and “-ideus” (similar to), which indicates the new genus is similar to the genus Magadha.

Host plant

Unknown.

Distribution

Oriental region (South China).

Key to species of Magadhaideus Long & Chen, gen. n

1 Forewing with a dark brown stripe from base to apex of clavus (Figs 1–4, 8); medioventral process of pygofer with two small lateroapical processes, directed outward, apical margin truncate (Fig. 12); genital style with dorsal process large and broad, almost not branched into lobes (Fig. 13) M. xiphos sp. n.
Forewing without stripe from base to apex of clavus (Fennah 1956); medioventral process of pygofer with two lateroapical processes, directed inward, apical margin not truncate (Fennah 1956: fig. 15: B); genital style with dorsal process distinctly branched into three lobes (Fennah 1956: fig. 15: C) M. cervina comb. n.

Magadhaideus cervina (Fennah, 1956), comb. n.

Magadha cervina Fennah, 1956: 488.

Material examined

No specimens of this species were available for this study. But following Fennah, 1956: fig. 15: A–E, the species here is transferred into Magadhaideus gen. n.

Host plant

Unknown.

Distribution

China (Sichuan: Emeishan, 29°32'N, 103°19'E).

Magadhaideus xiphos Long & Chen, sp. n.

Figs 1–4, 5–15, 16–20

Type material

Holotype: ♂, CHINA, Fujian: Wuyishan National Natural Reserve (26°54'N, 116°42'E), sweeping, 21 August 2013, Y. Liu. Paratypes, Fujian: 2 ♂♂, same data as holotype; 2 ♂♂ 2 ♀♀, Wuyishan National Natural Reserve (26°54'N, 116°42'E), sweeping, 21 August 2013, Y.-Y. Liu; 2 ♂♂, Wuyishan National Natural Reserve (26°54'N, 116°42'E), sweeping, 24 August 2013, Y. Liu. Shanxi: 1 ♂, Lishan National Natural Reserve (35°25'N, 111°58'E), sweeping, 24 July 2012, P. Zhang. Jiangxi: 1 ♂ 2 ♀♀, Jiulianshan National Natural Reserve (24°38'N, 114°33'E), 600–700 m, sweeping, 19–27 July 2009, Z.-H. Meng. Zhejiang: 2 ♀♀, Qingliangfeng National Natural Reserve (30°07'N, 118°51'E), sweeping, 25 July 2009, T.-T. He. Guizhou: 1 ♀, Maolan National Natural Reserve (25°30'N, 107°98'E), sweeping, 4 August 2006, F.-L. Xu. Guangdong: 2 ♀♀, Nankunshan National Natural Reserve (23°38'N, 114°38'E), sweeping, 23 August 2010, Y.-J. Li.

Diagnosis

The salient features of the new species include the following: forewing with a dark brown stripe from base to apex of clavus (Figs 1–4, 8); medioventral process of pygofer with two small lateroapical processes, directed outward, apical margin truncate (Fig. 12); and phallobase of aedeagus with apical 1/2 branched into seven long processes (Figs 14–15).

Description

Measurements. Body length (from apex of vertex to tip of forewing): male 4.2–4.6 mm (n = 7), female 4.9–5.1 mm (n = 10); forewing length: male 3.5–3.9 mm (n = 7), female 4.2–4.3 mm (n = 10).

Colouration. Head pale yellowish brown. Vertex (Figs 1, 3, 5) along each lateral margin with one dark brown marking at base and another one brown marking at level of anterior margin of eyes; along midline with two brow to dark brown markings apically. Triangular areolets (Figs 1, 3, 5) at lateroapical angles of head with a dark brown marking. Frons (Fig. 6) with seven dark brown markings along lateral margin, disc in middle scattered ivory-white dots between eyes. Postclypeus ivory-white, with a transverse brown band apically. Frontoclypeus (Fig. 6) dark brown, with the base and apex ivory-white. Rostrum yellowish brown, with apex brown. Genae, as in Fig. 7, with four and two transverse short dark brown stripes, respectively along anterior margin and above eyes; another two large parallel transverse stipes, one above and one beneath antennae. Eyes (Figs 17) generally reddish brown; ocellus (Figs 2, 4, 7) yellowish white. Antennae (Figs 2, 4, 6–7) yellowish brown. Pronotum (Figs 1, 3, 5) brown, lateral lobe with five dark brown areas along posterior margin. Mesonotum (Figs 1, 3, 5) dark brown, posterior two-thirds between lateral carinae with few scattered ivory-white dots, apical angle and areas along posterior margin between lateral carinae ivory-white, each lateral angle with a large ivory-white marking along posterior margin. Tegula (Figs 15) yellowish brown, along posterior margin paler. Forewing (Figs 1–4, 8) greyish white, with a broad irregular longitudinal dark brown band from base to apex of clavus, small variably sized markings scattered as in Fig. 8. Hindwing pale brown, veins brown. Legs (Figs 2, 4) ivory-white to pale yellowish brown; tibiae yellow basally, the first tarsomeres dark brown; pro- and mesofemora with a dorsal dark brown spot near base, pro- and mesotibiae with a ring dark brown spot respectively near base and in the middle; hind tibia with two ring dark brown spot near base. Abdomen dark brown.

Head and thorax. Ratio width of vertex at posterior margin to its length in midline 1.8 (Fig. 5), anterior third produced before eyes. Ratio length of frons in midline to its maximum width 1.3, ratio maximum of width to width at apex 1.9. Ratio length of postclypeus in midline to length of frons 0.5 (Fig. 6). Rostrum with ratio apical to subapical segment 1.2. Lateral lobes of pronotum with three short longitudinal carinae behind eye, ratio length in midline to length of vertex 0.8 (Fig. 5). Mesonotum (Fig. 5) in midline 5.1 times longer than pronotum, 2.3 times longer than pronotum and vertex combined. Forewing (Fig. 8) with ratio of length to maximum width 2.9, vein R with subapical cell. Hindwing (Fig. 9) with length to maximum width ratio of 2.0. Post-tibiae with a lateral spine in basal two-fifths, spinal formula 7–6–6.

Male genitalia. Anal segment in dorsal view (Fig. 10) with ratio length to maximum width 1.2, basal margin roundly convex in middle, apical margin slightly convex to subtruncate, anal style not exceeding apical margin of anal segment; in lateral view (Fig. 11) apex of anal segment bent ventrally, apical margin roundly convex, lateral margin near middle with a strong spinous process, directed ventrally. Pygofer in lateral view (Fig. 11) with posterior margin strongly sinuate, medioventral process (Fig. 12) short and broad, with two small lateroapical processes, directed outward, apical margin truncate. Genital style (Fig. 13) relatively narrow and long with apical margin roundly convex, a large and broad process, with apical margin sinuate, rising from middle of dorsal margin. Aedeagus (Figs 14–15) asymmetrical, phallobase with apical half branched into seven long processes which narrowing apically, acute at apexes; among them, two lateral processes with apexes bent, directed inwards. Phallic appendages straight, xiphoid, distinctly exceeding apical margin of phallobase.

Female genitalia. Seventh abdominal sternum with anterior and posterior margins parallel, posterior margin truncate or slightly concave (Fig. 16). Anal segment (Figs 17–18) in dorsal view suborbicular, apical margin incised in the middle, basal margin M-shaped approximatively, with finger-like process in the middle; apex of anal stylet reaching or slightly exceeding apex of anal segment. First valvula with five spines (Fig. 19). Second valvula with two lateral lobes incompletely symmetrical, narrowing and sharp apically, directed postero-ventrally (Fig. 20). Third valvula with outer surface shagreen (Figs 16, 18); in lateral view (Fig. 18) apical margin sinuate, with an angulate process ventrally, directed inwards.

Figures 16–20. 

Magadhaideus xiphos sp. n. 16 Female genitalia, ventral view 17 Anal segment of female, dorsal view 18 Female genitalia, lateral view 19 First valvula, from inside 20 Second valvula, ventral view. Scale bars: 0.2 mm (17–20); 0.5 mm (16).

Remarks

This new species differs from Magadhaideus cervina (Fennah, 1956) comb. n. by: forewing with a dark brown stripe from base to apex of clavus (without stripe in cervina); medioventral process of pygofer with two small lateroapical processes, directed outward (directed inward in cervina); genital style with dorsal process almost not branched into lobes (distinctly branched into three lobes in cervina).

Etymology

The species name refers to the phallic appendage xiphoid.

Host plant

Unknown.

Distribution

China (Fujian, Shanxi, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Guizhou and Guangdong).

Discussion

On the basis of the characteristics of the vertex being at least two-thirds as wide as the pronotum and the post-tibiae with one spine characteristically present, Magadhaideus gen. n. is attributed to the tribe Plectoderini, following the tribal definition of Emeljanov (1992). On the basis of the peculiar characteristic of the mesonotum with a transverse callus on the anterior third of the disc, Magadha is clearly distinguished from other genera of Plectoderini, following the generic definition of Fennah (1950). Although the new genus also has the transverse callus, its male genitalia distinctly differs from that of Magadha. According to the descriptions and illustrations of Magadha cervina Fennah, 1956 (Fennah 1956: fig. 15: A–E), it is here attributed to the new genus.

The members of Plectoderini are found in seven zoogeographic regions of the world (Bourgoin 2017). Here, the new genus (Fig. 21) is distributed in the Oriental region of southern China. The adults of Plectoderini feed on the sap of trees and shrubs and the nymphs on fungi (O’ Brien 1971). However, more precise ecological records for most members of the tribe, including the hosts for Magadhaideus gen. n., have not yet been documented.

Figure 21. 

Geographic distribution of Magadhaideus species in China. M. cervina (Fennah, 1956), comb. n. (); M. xiphos sp. n. ().

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to all collectors of specimens and two anonymous reviewers. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31601886, 31093430), the Program of Science and Technology Innovation Talents Team, Guizhou Province (No. 20144001), the Program of Excellent Innovation Talents, Guizhou Province (No. 20154021), the Provincial Outstanding Graduate Program for Agricultural Entomology and Pest Control (ZYRC-2013) and the International cooperation base for insect evolutionary biology and pest control (No. 20165802).

References

  • Bourgoin T (2017) FLOW (Fulgoromorpha Lists on The Web): a world knowledge base dedicated to Fulgoromorpha. Version 8, updated 14 June 2017. http://hemiptera-databases.org/flow/ [accessed 26 June 2017]
  • Bourgoin T, Wang RR, Asche M, Hoch H, Soulier-Perkins A, Stroinski A, Yap S, Szwedo J (2015) From micropterism to hyperpterism: recognition strategy and standardized homology-driven terminology of the fore wing venation patterns in planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha). Zoomorphology 134(1): 63–77. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00435-014-0243-6
  • Emeljanov AF (1992) Description of tribes of the subfamily Achilinae (Homoptera, Achilidae) and reconsideration of their volume. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 71(3): 574–594.
  • Fennah RG (1950) A generic revision of the Achilidae (Homoptera, Fulgoroidea). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology 1(1): 1–170.
  • Fennah RG (1956) Fulgoroidea from southern China. Proceedings of the California Academy of Science 28(4): 441–527.
  • O’Brien LB (1971) The systematics of the tribe Plectoderini in America, north of Mexico (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Achilidae). University of California Publications in Entomology 64: 1–79.
  • Yang C-T, Chang T-Y (2000) The external male genitalia of Hemiptera (Homoptera-Heteroptera). Shih Way Publishers, Taichung, China, 746 pp.