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Checklist of the flower flies of Ecuador (Diptera, Syrphidae)
expand article infoDiego Marín-Armijos, Noelia Quezada-Ríos, Carolina Soto-Armijos, Ximo Mengual§
‡ Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Loja, Ecuador
§ Leibniz-Institut für Biodiversität der Tiere, Bonn, Germany
Open Access

Abstract

Syrphidae is one of the most speciose families of true flies, with more than 6,100 described species and worldwide distribution. They are important for humans acting as crucial pollinators, biological control agents, decomposers, and bioindicators. One third of its diversity is found in the Neotropical Region, but the taxonomic knowledge for this region is incomplete. Thus, taxonomic revisions and species checklists of Syrphidae in the Neotropics are the highest priority for biodiversity studies. Therefore, we present the first checklist of Syrphidae for Ecuador based on literature records, and provide as well the original reference for the first time species citations for the country. A total of 201 species were recorded for Ecuador, with more than 600 records from 24 provinces and 237 localities. Tungurahua, Pastaza, and Galápagos were the best sampled provinces. Although the reported Ecuadorian syrphid fauna only comprises 11.2 % of the described Neotropical species, Ecuador has the third highest flower fly diversity density after Costa Rica and Suriname. These data indicate the high species diversity for this country in such small geographic area.

Keywords

faunistics, hoverflies, Neotropical Region, species list, Syrphid fauna

Introduction

Seventeen countries in the world are considered megadiverse, occupying less than 10% of the Earth’s surface and comprising nearly 70% of the global biodiversity (Mittermeier et al. 2005). In this group, Ecuador is listed among the first places in the world ranking based on number of species per area unit for vascular plants, mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians (Mittermeier and Mittermeier 1997, Brehm et al. 2008), but it is the megadiverse country with the smallest land area (Mittermeier et al. 2005). This makes Ecuador rank at the top, or near so, of the megadiversity list if diversity per unit area is taken into consideration. The geographic position of Ecuador and a series of biotic and abiotic elements have resulted in an extraordinary biological diversity in this nation. For instance, there are ca. 20,000 estimated plants in Ecuador, of which up to 5,000 are most likely endemics. In terms of vertebrate diversity, 1.3% of the global diversity of non-fish vertebrates is endemic to Ecuador (Mittermeier et al. 2005).

Insects are the most successful group of living organisms in our planet in number of species and different natural histories. From all known and described species on Earth, ca. 1.5–1.7 millions, between 65 and 75% are insects, and among the insect orders only four orders represent more than 80% of the species: Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Hymenoptera (Adler and Foottit 2009). Despite being abundant and ubiquitous, insects are understudied in Ecuador and many new species and genera are waiting to be formally described (Dangles et al. 2009, Barragán et al. 2009). Furthermore, there is no estimate on the number of invertebrates for Ecuador, neither a checklist for most of the invertebrate groups present in this country (Salazar and Donoso 2014).

Diptera, which includes mosquitoes and true flies, comprises more than 153,000 described species (about 10–12% of the planet’s biodiversity) and has a rate of near 1,000 new species described per year (Pape and Thompson 2013). Diptera is not only rich in number of species, but also in morphology and structure, habitats use and human interactions (Courtney et al. 2009). Most recent studies in this country have focused mostly on Lepidoptera (Piñas and Manzano 1997, Bollino and Onore 2001, Piñas and Manzano 2003a, 2003b, Hilt and Fiedler 2005, Brehm 2005, Fiedler et al. 2007, Bodner et al. 2010), and Coleoptera (Celi et al. 2004, Moret 2005, Carpio et al. 2009, Carvajal et al. 2011, Domínguez et al. 2015, Thormann et al. 2016). Salazar and Donoso (2014) present some numbers for the invertebrate fauna of Ecuador and report 722 dipteran species from the literature, but this number is probably an underestimation, which was biased by the research focus of the previous works in Ecuador. Thus, the actual species number of species of Diptera for the country is far from being known.

Commonly called flower or hoverflies, the family Syrphidae is one of the most diverse in Diptera with more than 6,000 described species (Brown 2009), and the third taxon with most species in the Neotropical Region (Amorim 2009). Their coloration, from orange-brown in a few species to striking yellow and black patterns, causes them to be confused with bees or wasps (Hymenoptera). Adults of the family Syrphidae have the ability to hover and are associated with flowers, which are used as mating sites and food sources (pollen and nectar). Therefore, the imagoes are considered important pollinators of herbs, shrubs, and arboreal plants in natural ecosystems as well as in agricultural areas (Speight and Lucas 1992, Marinoni and Thompson 2003, Pérez-Bañón et al. 2003, Ssymank and Kearns 2009, Inouye et al. 2015). Syrphid species have been used as bioindicators as well to assess biodiversity loss and the efficiency of restoration and conservation policies (Sommaggio 1999, Tscharntke et al. 2005, Ricarte et al. 2011, Sommaggio and Burgio 2014).

Larvae are very variable in structure, habits, and feeding modes, including fungal fruiting bodies, brood in nests of social Hymenoptera, dung, decaying wood and water bodies of several types (Rotheray 1993, Rotheray and Gilbert 1999, 2011). Larvae of some species can mine leaves and stems of numerous plant families, or even feed on pollen, and others are predators of arthropods (aphids, caterpillars, larvae of flies or beetles, adult flies, etc.) or are kleptoparasitic or parasitoids (Rojo et al. 2003, Weng and Rotheray 2008, Reemer and Rotheray 2009, Rotheray et al. 2000, Ureña and Hanson 2010, Zuijen and Nishida 2011, Pérez-Lachaud et al 2014, Jordaens et al. 2015, Fleischmann et al. 2016, Dumbardon-Martial 2016). Due to their feeding mode, some syrphid species play an important role as biological control agents of pests (Greco 1998, Schmidt et al. 2004, Bergh and Short 2008, Bugg et al. 2008, Pineda and Marcos-García 2008, Nelson et al. 2012, Amorós-Jiménez et al. 2014, Eckberg et al. 2015) and as decomposers of organic matter (Lardé 1989, Rotheray et al. 2009, Martínez-Falcón et al. 2012).

Flower flies are distributed worldwide, with the exception of Antarctica and a few remote oceanic islands, and their greatest species diversity is found in the tropics (Vockeroth 1992, Reemer 2013, Reemer and Ståhls 2013b). The classification of Neotropical Syrphidae has been largely reviewed by Vockeroth (1969), Thompson (1972, 1999) and Reemer (2014), but the taxonomy of Syrphidae is far from being complete in the Neotropical Region yet, and many new species remain to be described (Mengual and Thompson 2008, Mengual et al. 2009, Thompson et al. 2010, Mengual 2011, Mengual and Thompson 2011, Reemer 2010, 2014, 2016). Moreover, the almost absence of identification keys for Neotropical species makes difficult the elaboration of regional checklists or the discovery of new species to science (Thompson et al. 2010, Montoya et al. 2012). Previously, species lists based on single surveys (Campos 1960, Linsley and Usinger 1966, Linsey 1977), for specific taxa (genus Toxomerus Macquart, 1855 by Gerdes, 1974a), or for limited areas, such as Galapagos Islands (Sinclair 2015, Sinclair et al. 2016), have been published for Ecuador.

Amorim (2009) considers Syrphidae among the still underexplored dipteran families in the Neotropical Region, and Ecuador among the most poorly collected areas in South America. Nevertheless, there have been some efforts during the last years to teach Syrphidae taxonomy to young students via workshops and courses with the great help of F.C. Thompson (USNM, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution) as a coordinator (Colombia 2006, Peru 2008, Ecuador 2012), with the purpose to educate new taxonomists that may help to elucidate the thrilling evolutionary history of this group. As a fruit from these workshops, a strong collaboration among the authors was established years ago to study the flower flies of Ecuador. Currently, there is no species list for Ecuadorian flower flies that can help as a starting point, and the existing records are few and scattered thorough the literature. Consequently, a species checklist of the family Syrphidae in Ecuador for further biodiversity studies was the highest priority. In this survey, we present the first species checklist of Syrphidae for Ecuador based on literature records and provide as well the original reference for the first time species citations for the country of Ecuador.

Materials and methods

Thompson et al. (1976) was used as the primary source to check for species cited previously for Ecuador. Based on that keystone publication and Thompson et al. (2010), we reviewed all the published literature up to date in order to find references to Ecuadorian syrphids. Moreover, bibliographic searches were performed in public and scientific journal databases such as Google Scholar, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, BioOne, Redalyc, Scielo, BioOne, ScienceDirect, and ResearchGate. Our keywords in English and Spanish for the searches were invertebrates, Ecuador, Diptera, Syrphidae, Neotropics, distribution, flower flies and hoverflies. In addition, we studied representative collections of Ecuador, i.e. Museo de Zoología de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador (QCAZ) and Museo de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional.

To illustrate the flower fly records in a geographic map we used the coordinates available in the literature. For the localities without geographic coordinates we used Google Earth ® to obtain them. Figure 1 was created using QGIS software (QGIS Development Team, 2009).

Results

A total of 201 species plus four unidentified species and two misidentified taxa, belonging to 51 syrphid genera and subgenera, have been recorded up to date for Ecuador. More than 600 records from 24 provinces and 237 different localities of Ecuador are given in Table 1. Although there are records from all the Ecuadorian provinces, they do not show an even collecting effort for the whole country. Tungurahua (with 80 collecting events), Pastaza (72), and Galápagos (60) are the best sampled provinces, while the flower fly records for Orellana (3), Los Ríos (2), Santa Elena (2), Santo Domingo de Los Tsáchilas (2), and Esmeraldas (1) provinces are almost anecdotal. In terms of geographic Ecuadorian regions, the Sierra of Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands have been more extensively sampled and studied (Table 1 and Figure 1). On the other hand, the Costa Region, North and South Amazonia, and Austral Region of Ecuador have been little explored (Figure 1).

Figure 1. 

Distribution map of flower fly records in Ecuador.

Checklist of Syrphidae species recorded from Ecuador, with the Ecuadorian province, locality, altitude (when cited in the original reference), and the original reference for Ecuador.

Species Province Locality (Altitude masl) References for Ecuador
Alipumilio femoratus Shannon, 1927 Pastaza Puyo Rotheray et al. 2000: 137
Allograpta annulipes (Macquart, 1850) Pastaza Santa Inés, Río Pastaza (1200) Fluke 1942: 16 (as A. geminata)
Allograpta browni Fluke, 1942 Imbabura Cuicocha (3200) Fluke 1942: 18
Allograpta exotica (Wiedemann, 1830) Tungurahua Baños Fluke 1942: 19
Tungurahua Juive Fluke 1942: 19
Ecuador Fluke 1950a: 146 (as Syrphus exoticus)
Allograpta falcata Fluke, 1942 Tungurahua Baños (1800) Fluke 1942: 16
Tungurahua Baños (2200) Fluke 1942: 16
Allograpta neosplendens Sinclair & Thompson, 2016 Galápagos Española Sinclair and Peck 2002; Sinclair et al. 2016: 87
Galápagos Fernandina Sinclair et al. 2016: 87
Galápagos Floreana Coquillett 1901: 374; Linsley and Usinger 1966: 168; Linsley 1977: 39; Sinclair and Peck 2002; Sinclair 2015; Sinclair et al. 2016: 87
Galápagos Genovesa Sinclair et al. 2016: 87
Galápagos Isabela Sinclair and Peck 2002; Sinclair 2015; Sinclair et al. 2016: 87
Galápagos Marchena Sinclair 2015
Galápagos Pinta Sinclair and Peck 2002; Sinclair et al. 2016: 87
Galápagos San Cristóbal Curran 1934: 153; Linsley and Usinger 1966: 168; Linsley 1977: 39; Sinclair and Peck 2002; Sinclair et al. 2016: 87
Galápagos Santa Cruz Boada 2005: 84; Sinclair 2015; Sinclair et al. 2016: 87
Galápagos Santa Fé Sinclair 2015
Galápagos Santiago Coquillett 1901: 374; Curran 1934: 153; Linsley and Usinger 1966: 168; Linsley 1977: 39; Sinclair and Peck 2002; Sinclair et al. 2016: 87
Galápagos Thomson 1869: 501 (as Syrphus splendens)
Allograpta neotropica Curran, 1936 Tungurahua Baños Fluke 1942: 20
Pastaza Santa Inés Fluke 1942: 20
Allograpta obliqua (Say, 1823) Tungurahua Baños Fluke 1942: 19
Carchi Tulcán Campos 1960: 25
Chimborazo Riobamba Campos 1960: 25
Allograpta tectiforma Fluke, 1942 Imbabura Cuicocha (3200) Fluke 1942: 19
Imbabura Cuicocha (3500) Fluke 1942: 19
Ecuador Fluke 1950a: 146
Allograpta teligera Fluke, 1942 Tungurahua Baños (1800) Fluke 1942: 18
Argentinomyia agonis (Walker, 1849) Galápagos Walker 1849: 588; Linsley 1977: 39
Galápagos Floreana Sinclair and Peck 2002; Sinclair 2015
Galápagos Isabela Sinclair and Peck 2002; Sinclair et al. 2016: 85
Galápagos Pinta Sinclair and Peck 2002; Sinclair et al. 2016: 85
Galápagos San Cristóbal Sinclair 2015
Galápagos Santa Cruz Boada 2005: 86; Sinclair 2015; Sinclair et al. 2016: 85
Argentinomyia altissima (Fluke, 1945) Imbabura Cuicocha (3200) Fluke 1945: 20
Ecuador Fluke 1958: 266
Argentinomyia bolivariensis (Fluke, 1945) Bolívar Hda. Talahua (3100) Fluke 1945: 19
Ecuador Fluke 1958: 266
Argentinomyia browni (Fluke, 1945) Bolívar Hda. Talahua (3100) Fluke 1945: 19
Ecuador Fluke 1958: 266
Argentinomyia festiva (Fluke, 1945) Tungurahua Baños (1800) Fluke 1945: 10
Argentinomyia longicornis (Walker, 1836) Pastaza Puyo (3000) Fluke 1945: 4
Argentinomyia luculenta (Fluke, 1945) Tungurahua Baños (2300) Fluke 1945: 18
Tungurahua Pondoa (2800) Fluke 1945: 18
Argentinomyia opaca (Fluke, 1945) Chimborazo Urbina (3650) Fluke 1945: 11
Ecuador Fluke 1958: 266
Argentinomyia rex (Fluke, 1945) Bolívar Hda. Talahua (3100) Fluke 1945: 22
Ecuador Fluke 1958: 266
Argentinomyia tropica (Curran, 1937) Tungurahua Baños (2300) Fluke 1945: 17
Claraplumula latifacies Shannon, 1927 Bolívar Hda. Talahua (3100) Fluke 1942: 4
Ecuador Fluke 1950a: 146
Copestylum (Copestylum) otongaensis Rotheray & Hancock, 2007 Cotopaxi Otonga Rotheray et al. 2007: 290
Copestylum (Copestylum) tapia Rotheray & Hancock, 2007 Cotopaxi Otonga Rotheray et al. 2007: 307
Copestylum (Phalacromya) araceorum Ricarte & Rotheray, 2015 Cotopaxi Otonga Ricarte et al. 2015: 13
Copestylum (Phalacromya) beatricea (Hull, 1950) Azuay Cuenca (2650) Fluke 1951b: 15 (as Volucella ecuadorea)
Tungurahua Baños Fluke 1951b: 15 (as Volucella ecuadorea)
Imbabura Cuicocha (3300) Fluke 1951b: 15 (as Volucella ecuadorea)
Ecuador Hull 1950: 236
Copestylum (Phalacromya) brunneum (Thunberg, 1789) Chimborazo Huigra Campos 1960: 27 (as Volucella esuriens)
Cañar Azogues Campos 1960: 27 (as Volucella esuriens)
Copestylum (Phalacromya) bulbosum (Fluke, 1951) Tungurahua Minza Chica (3750) Fluke 1951b: 25
Copestylum (Phalacromya) camposi (Curran, 1939) Guayas Isla Puná, Puerto Grande Curran 1939: 8
Copestylum (Phalacromya) chaetophorum (Williston, 1887) Guayas San Rafael Campos 1960: 27
Guayas Bucay Campos 1960: 27
Copestylum (Phalacromya) currani (Fluke, 1951) Pichincha Guayllabamba Rotheray et al. 2009: 714
Tungurahua Baños Fluke 1951b: 13
Imbabura Cuicocha (3300) Fluke 1951b: 13
Azuay Cuenca (2650) Fluke 1951b: 13
Copestylum (Phalacromya) fulvicorne (Bigot, 1883) Guayas San Eduardo Campos 1960: 27
Guayas Durán Campos 1960: 27
Guayas San Rafael Campos 1960: 27
Copestylum (Phalacromya) hambletoni (Fluke, 1951) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 77
Copestylum (Phalacromya) multipunctatum Rotheray & Hancock, 2009 Pichincha Guayllabamba Rotheray et al. 2009: 704
Copestylum (Phalacromya) nigripes (Bigot, 1857) El Oro Chillacocha Campos 1960: 29 (as Phalacromyia concolor)
Copestylum (Phalacromya) placivum (Hull, 1943) Pastaza Santa Inés Hull 1943b: 31
Copestylum (Phalacromya) rufoscutellare (Philippi, 1865) Chimborazo Mirador Campos 1960: 29
Copestylum (Phalacromya) scintillans (Hull, 1949) Galápagos San Cristóbal (730) Sinclair et al. 2016: 83
Galápagos Santa Cruz Sinclair 2015 (as C. cf. viridana)
Copestylum (Phalacromya) sica (Curran, 1953) Pichincha Guayllabamba Rotheray et al. 2009: 720
Tungurahua Baños Curran 1953: 9
Azuay Tarqui Curran 1953: 9
Copestylum (Phalacromya) splendens (Townsend, 1897) Pichincha Cotocollao Campos 1960: 27 (as Volucella opalina)
Tungurahua Ambato Campos 1960: 27 (as Volucella opalina)
Loja Loja Campos 1960: 27 (as Volucella opalina)
Chimborazo Riobamba Campos 1960: 27 (as Volucella opalina)
Copestylum (Phalacromya) viridigaster (Hull, 1943) Ecuador Hull 1943h: 41
Dasysyrphus aff. lotus (Williston, 1887) Pichincha Pichincha (3300) Fluke 1942: 3
Dolichogyna chilensis (Walker, 1836) Azuay Narihuiña Campos 1960: 29
Dolichogyna mulleri Fluke, 1951 Azuay Girón Fluke 1951a: 472
Imbabura Cuicocha (3200) Fluke 1951a: 472
Eosalpingogaster nigriventris (Bigot, 1883) Guayas Isla Puná, Puerto Grande (253) Fluke 1937: 11 (as Salpingogaster liposeta)
Eristalis (Eoseristalis) bogotensis Macquart, 1842 Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 101
Napo-Pichincha Antisamilla to Pinatura (3350) Thompson 1997: 223
Pichincha Santa Catalina Expt. Station (2780) Thompson 1997: 223
Pichincha Quito (2850) Thompson 1997: 223
Eristalis (Eoseristalis) bogotensis Macquart, 1842 Chimborazo 8 mi NE of Tixan Thompson 1997: 223
Chimborazo Lago Zurucuchu Thompson 1997: 223
Tungurahua Ambato (2700) Thompson 1997: 223
Carchi Troya Thompson 1997: 223
Carchi Tulcan (2800) Thompson 1997: 223
Carchi El Ángel (2700) Thompson 1997: 223
Cañar El Tambo (2800) Thompson 1997: 223
Pichincha Pomasqui (2200) Thompson 1997: 223
Pichincha Valle de Machachi (2900) Thompson 1997: 223
Loja Loja (2500) Thompson 1997: 223
Azuay Tarqui (2800) Thompson 1997: 223
Azuay 28 km S of Cuenca (2500–2800) Thompson 1997: 223
Azuay Cuenca (2200) Thompson 1997: 223
Eupeodes (Metasyrphus) rojasi Marneff, 1999 Azuay Gualaduisa Road (2150) Thompson 1999: 339
Tungurahua Baños Thompson 1999: 339
Bolívar Chota River, Carchi (2000) Thompson 1999: 339
Imbabura NW Ibarra, Taguando River (1650–1900) Thompson 1999: 339
Carchi El Ángel (2700) Thompson 1999: 339
Carchi 10 km SW Tulcán (2900) Thompson 1999: 339
Imbabura 3km N Ibarra, Yaguarcocha (1950) Thompson 1999: 339
Pichincha Pichincha, 2km W Cayambe (2300) Thompson 1999: 339
Fazia alta (Curran, 1936) Tungurahua Baños Fluke 1942: 14
Tungurahua Juive Fluke 1942: 14
Ecuador Fluke 1950a: 146
Fazia altissima (Fluke, 1942) Tungurahua Volcán Tungurahua, Minza Chica (3200) Fluke 1942: 10
Tungurahua Pondoa (2800) Fluke 1942: 10
Pichincha Páramo del Cerro, Pasochoa (3300) Fluke 1942: 10
Pichincha Hda. San Rafael, Río San Pedro (2700) Fluke 1942: 10
Pichincha Uyumbicho (2650) Fluke 1942: 10
Pichincha Hda. San Rafael (3000) Fluke 1942: 10
Imbabura Cuicocha (3200) Fluke 1942: 10
Ecuador Fluke 1950a: 145
Pastaza Puyo (1000) Fluke 1942: 14
Pichincha Uyumbicho (2700) Fluke 1942: 14
Imbabura Cuicocha (3200) Fluke 1942: 14
Fazia argentipila (Fluke, 1942) Tungurahua Baños, Runtun trail (2100) Fluke 1942: 14
Pichincha Hda. San Rafael (3000) Fluke 1942: 14
Azuay Cuenca (2500) Fluke 1942: 14
Tungurahua Baños, San Pablo (2200) Fluke 1942: 14
Bolívar Hda. Talahua (3100) Fluke 1942: 14
Ecuador Fluke 1950a: 145
Fazia colombia (Curran, 1925) Tungurahua Baños (2100) Fluke 1942: 13
Azuay Cuenca (2500) Fluke 1942: 13
Pichincha Pichincha (2700) Fluke 1942: 13
Morona Santiago Sucúa (900) Fluke 1942: 13
Ecuador Fluke 1950a: 146
Fazia decemmaculata (Shannon, 1927) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 34 (as F. bullaephora); Mengual et al. 2009: 17 (as F. bullaephora)
Fazia fasciata (Curran, 1932) Tungurahua Juive (1900) Fluke 1942: 13
Tungurahua Baños (1900) Fluke 1942: 13
Imbabura Cuicocha (3200) Fluke 1942: 13
Ecuador Fluke 1950a: 146
Fazia fascifrons (Macquart, 1846) Bolívar Hda. Talahua (3100) Fluke 1942: 12 (as Epistrophe armillata)
Ecuador Fluke 1950a: 145 (as Epistrophe armillatus)
Fazia imitator (Curran, 1925) Tungurahua Río Mapoto (1400) Fluke 1942: 11
Fazia luna (Fluke, 1942) Tungurahua Volcán Tungurahua, Minza Chica (3200) Fluke 1942: 8
Bolívar Hda. Talahua (3100) Fluke 1942: 8
Ecuador Fluke 1950a: 146
Fazia micrura (Osten Sacken, 1877) Morona Santiago Sucúa Fluke 1942: 14
Morona Santiago Macas Fluke 1942: 14
Carchi Tulcán Campos 1960: 26 (as Sphaerophoria picticauda)
Fazia remigis (Fluke, 1942) Tungurahua Volcán Tungurahua, Minza Chica (3200) Fluke 1942: 9
Bolívar Hda. Talahua (3100) Fluke 1942: 9
Ecuador Fluke 1950a: 145
Fazia roburoris (Fluke, 1942) Bolívar Hda. Talahua (3100) Fluke 1942: 11
Ecuador Fluke 1950a: 146
Hypselosyrphus marshalli Reemer, 2013 Napo Tiputini Diodiversity Station Reemer 2013: 28
Leucopodella boadicea (Hull, 1943) El Oro Piñas (1506) Hull 1943i: 73
Leucopodella delicatula (Hull, 1943) Tungurahua Baños Hull 1943i: 78
Leucopodella gracilis (Williston, 1891) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 46 (as L. asthenia)
Leucopodella zenilla (Hull, 1943) Bolívar Hda. Talahua (3100) Hull 1943g: 77
Lycastrirhyncha nitens Bigot, 1859 Ecuador Montoya et al. 2012: supplementary material page 3; Montoya et al. 2016: 492
Mallota aberrans Shannon, 1927 Napo 7 km S of Baeza (2000) Thompson and Zumbado 2002: 93
Mallota nigra Shannon, 1927 Pastaza Santa Inés Shannon 1927: 17
Mallota rubicunda Curran, 1940 Tungurahua Volcán Tungurahua (2600) Curran 1940: 13
Meromacrus laconicus (Walker, 1852) Guayas Isla Puná (253) Blatch et al. 2003: 26
Meromacrus panamensis Curran, 1930 Guayas San Eduardo Campos 1960: 29
Meromacrus pratorum (Fabricius, 1775) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 113
Meropidia rufa Thompson, 1983 Morona Santiago Limón Indanza (900) Hippa and Thompson 1983: 110
Microdon (Chymophila) fulgens Wiedemann, 1830 Guayas Guayaquil, San Eduardo Campos 1960: 24
Microdon (Microdon) violaceus (Macquart, 1842) Guayas Durán Campos 1960: 24
Microdon sp. Guayas env. of Guayaquil Campos 1960: 24
Mixogaster thecla (Hull, 1954) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 59
Ocyptamus (Calostigma) elnora (Shannon, 1927) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 17
Ocyptamus (Hermesomyia) wulpianus (Lynch Arribalzaga, 1891) Pastaza Puyo (1250) Hull 1943a: 50 (as Baccha phobifer)
Pichincha 40 km SW Quito, Tandapi (1300–1500) Vockeroth 1969: 123 (as Hermesomyia bacchiformis)
Ocyptamus (Hybobathus) flavipennis (Wiedemann, 1830) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 18
Ocyptamus (Mimocalla) bonariensis (Curran, 1941) Tungurahua Baños Curran 1941: 284 (as Salpingogaster flukei)
Tungurahua Baños, Chaupi Hull 1943a: 51 (as Baccha phobia)
Ocyptamus (Ocyptamus) aeolus (Hull, 1943) Pastaza Machai, Río Pastaza (1300) Hull 1943g: 70
Ocyptamus (Ocyptamus) anonus (Hull, 1943) Pastaza Puyo (1000) Hull 1943d: 91
Ocyptamus (Ocyptamus) cultratus (Austen, 1893) Manabí Palmar Hull 1943g: 78 (as Baccha satyra)
Ocyptamus (Ocyptamus) cymbellina (Hull, 1944) Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas Santo Domingo (950) Hull 1944b: 64
Ocyptamus (Ocyptamus) dimidiatus (Fabricius, 1781) Guayas Guayaquil, San Eduardo Campos 1960: 24
Guayas San Eduardo Campos 1960: 24
Ocyptamus (Ocyptamus) niobe (Hull, 1943) Manabí Palmar (200) Hull 1943i: 74
Ocyptamus (Ocyptamus) princeps (Hull, 1944) Pastaza Puyo (1000) Hull 1944b: 57
Ocyptamus (Ocyptamus) saffrona (Hull, 1943) Manabí Palmar Hull 1943i: 74
Ocyptamus (Ocyptamus) zilla (Hull, 1943) Pastaza Puyo Hull 1943j: 215
Ocyptamus (Orphnabaccha) cerberus (Hull, 1943) Imbabura Cuicocha Hull 1943g: 67
Ocyptamus (Orphnabaccha) opacus (Fluke, 1950) Tungurahua Volcán Tungurahua (2800) Fluke 1950b: 444
Tungurahua Baños (1900) Fluke 1950b: 444
Napo-Orellana Sumaco [as Río Zumac] (1400) Fluke 1950b: 444
Ocyptamus (Orphnabaccha) pteronis (Fluke, 1942) Tungurahua Volcán Tungurahua, Minza Chica (3200) Fluke 1942: 5
Bolívar Hda. Talahua Fluke 1942: 5
Ecuador Fluke 1950a: 145
Ocyptamus (Orphnabaccha) trabis (Fluke, 1942) Tungurahua Volcán Tungurahua, Runtun (2900) Fluke 1942: 6
Imbabura Cuicocha (3200) Fluke 1942: 6
Pichincha Páramo de Pasachoa Fluke 1942: 6
Ecuador Fluke 1950a: 145
Ocyptamus (Orphnabaccha) virga (Fluke, 1942) Imbabura Cuicocha (3200) Fluke 1942: 7
Ocyptamus (Orphnabaccha) volcanus (Fluke, 1942) Pastaza Santa Inés, Río Pastaza (1200) Fluke 1942: 7
Ocyptamus (Pipunculosyrphus) scintillans (Hull, 1943) Guayas Morro (1500) Hull 1943e: 136
Ocyptamus (Styxia) eblis (Hull, 1943) Bolívar Hda. Talahua Hull 1943g: 66
Ocyptamus sp. Guayas Guayaquil, San Eduardo Campos 1960: 24
Ornidia major Curran, 1930 Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 69; Thompson 1991: 255
Ornidia obesa (Fabricius, 1775) Galápagos Peck 1996
Galápagos Isabela Peck et al. 1998: 228; Causton et al. 2006: 135; Sinclair 2015; Sinclair et al. 2016: 84
Galápagos San Cristóbal Peck et al. 1998: 228; Causton et al. 2006: 135; Sinclair 2015; Sinclair et al. 2016: 84
Galápagos Santa Cruz Sinclair 2015
Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 69; Thompson 1991: 257
Guayas Guayaquil Campos 1960: 26
Guayas* El Salado Campos 1960: 26
Guayas San Eduardo Campos 1960: 26
Guayas Durán Campos 1960: 26
Guayas Naranjito Campos 1960: 26
Guayas San Rafael Campos 1960: 26
Guayas Barraganetal Campos 1960: 26
Guayas Bucay Campos 1960: 26
Guayas Posorja Campos 1960: 26
Guayas Playas del Morro Campos 1960: 26
Guayas Naranjal Campos 1960: 26
Zamora Chinchipe Valle del Zamora Campos 1960: 26
Ornidia obesa (Fabricius, 1775) Loja Loja Campos 1960: 26
Esmeraldas Telembí, Río Cayapas Campos 1960: 27
Palpada aemula (Williston, 1891) Ecuador Montoya et al. 2012: supporting information, page 5; Montoya et al. 2016: 498
Palpada albifrons (Wiedemann, 1830) Galápagos Santa Cruz Sinclair 2015
Galápagos Floreana Sinclair et al. 2016: 81
Galápagos Isabela Sinclair et al. 2016: 81
Galápagos Marchena Sinclair et al. 2016: 82
Guayas San Eduardo Campos 1960: 28 (as Eristalis albiceps)
Palpada atrimana (Loew, 1866) Ecuador Montoya et al. 2016: 496
Palpada conica (Fabricius, 1805) Napo Tena Morales and Marinoni 2009: 320
Zamora Chinchipe Morales and Marinoni 2009: 320
Palpada cosmia (Schiner, 1868) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 104
Palpada erratica (Curran, 1930) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 105
Azuay Morales and Marinoni 2009: 332
Sucumbíos Morales and Marinoni 2009: 332
Palpada fasciata (Wiedemann, 1819) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 105
Guayas Guayaquil Campos 1960: 28
Guayas San Eduardo Campos 1960: 28
Palpada funerea (Rondani, 1851) Ecuador Río Napo Rondani 1851: 357
Palpada furcata Wiedemann, 1819) Pichincha Quito Macquart 1855: 110 (as Eristalis quitensis)
Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 106
Palpada geniculata (Fabricius, 1805) Guayas Guayaquil Campos 1960: 28 (as Eristalis obsoletus)
Palpada macula (Sack, 1941) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 106
Palpada mexicana (Macquart, 1847) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 110 (as Palpada testaceicornis)
Palpada monticola (Röder, 1892) Carchi 10 km SW Tulcan (2900) Thompson 1997: 232 (as Palpada eristaloides)
Carchi Troya (2950) Thompson 1997: 232 (as Palpada eristaloides)
Azuay Cerro Tinajillas (3100) Thompson 1997: 232 (as Palpada eristaloides)
Napo 0°22’S 78°8’W (3500) Thompson 1997: 232 (as Palpada eristaloides)
Palpada pusilla (Macquart, 1842) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 108
Guayas Durán Campos 1960: 28 (as Eristalis tricolor)
Palpada pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 108
Palpada ruficeps (Macquart, 1842) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 108
Palpada rufiventris (Macquart, 1846) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 108
Palpada scutellaris (Fabricius, 1805) Napo Morales and Marinoni 2009: 344
Pastaza Morales and Marinoni 2009: 344
Guayas Guayaquil Campos 1960: 28
Guayas* El Salado Campos 1960: 28
Guayas San Eduardo Campos 1960: 28
Guayas Durán Campos 1960: 28
Guayas Yaguachi Campos 1960: 28
Guayas Naranjito Campos 1960: 28
Guayas San Rafael Campos 1960: 28
Palpada scutellaris (Fabricius, 1805) Guayas Bucay Campos 1960: 28
Guayas Posorja Campos 1960: 28
Guayas Isla Puná, Puerto Grande Campos 1960: 28
Palpada suprarufa Thompson, 1999 Imbabura S Otavalo (3100–3300) Thompson 1999: 345
Napo Papallacta (2900) Thompson 1999: 345
Pichincha 28 miles S Quito Thompson 1999: 345
Cañar Pimo (3200) Thompson 1999: 345
Palpada urotaenia (Curran, 1930) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 110
Palpada vinetorum (Fabricius, 1799) Galápagos Española Sinclair et al. 2016: 82
Galápagos San Cristóbal Sinclair et al. 2016: 82
Galápagos Santa Cruz Linsley 1977: 39; Sinclair 2015; Sinclair et al. 2016: 82
Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 110
Guayas Guayaquil Campos 1960: 28
Guayas San Eduardo Campos 1960: 28
Pelecinobaccha adspersa (Fabricius, 1805) Napo Jatun Sacha Biol. Res. 6 km E Misahuali (450) Miranda et al. 2014: 18
Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 12
Pelecinobaccha andrettae Miranda, 2014 Napo Jatun Sacha Biol. Res. 6 km E Misahuali (450) Miranda et al. 2014: 22
Pastaza Pompeya, Napo R. Miranda et al. 2014: 24
Pelecinobaccha avispas Miranda, 2014 Napo Coca, Napo R. (250) Miranda et al. 2014: 26
Pelecinobaccha brevipennis (Schiner, 1868) Napo Coca, Napo R. (250) Miranda et al. 2014: 30
Pelecinobaccha clarapex (Wiedemann, 1830) Pichincha Río Palenque Station (250) Miranda et al. 2014: 33
Pelecinobaccha dracula (Hull, 1943) El Oro Piñas (1200) Hull 1943j: 215 (as Baccha nerissa); Hull 1949: 162 (as Baccha nerissa)
Pelecinobaccha ida (Curran, 1941) Napo 7 km S Baeza Miranda et al. 2014: 49
Pelecinobaccha ovipositoria (Hull, 1943) Napo Jatun Sacha Biol. Res. 6 km E Misahuali (450) Miranda et al. 2014: 62
Pelecinobaccha pilipes (Schiner, 1868) Sucumbíos Limoncocha (250) Miranda et al. 2014: 67
Napo Coca, Napo R. (250) Miranda et al. 2014: 67
Pelecinobaccha transatlantica (Schiner, 1868) Napo Lago Agrio, 41 km W Miranda et al. 2014: 78
Orellana Yasuni Research Stn. (250) Miranda et al. 2014: 78
Pastaza Santa Clara Miranda et al. 2014: 78
Sucumbíos Limoncocha (250) Miranda et al. 2014: 78
Zamora Chinchipe Cumbaratza (700) Miranda et al. 2014: 78
Napo Puerto Misahuallí (350) Miranda et al. 2014: 78
Pastaza Pompeya, Napo R. Miranda et al. 2014: 78
Peradon aureus (Hull, 1944) Napo Jatun Yacu, Río Naxo, Watershed (700) Hull 1944a: 36
Platycheirus (Carposcalis) chalconotus (Philippi, 1865) Chimborazo Ríobamba (2700) Fluke 1945: 16
Azuay Cuenca (2500) Fluke 1945: 16
Platycheirus (Carposcalis) ecuadoriensis (Fluke, 1945) Imbabura Cuicocha (3200) Fluke 1945: 16
Azuay Cuenca (2500) Fluke 1945: 16
Bolívar Hda. Talahua (3100) Fluke 1945: 16
Chimborazo Ríobamba (2700) Fluke 1945: 16
Chimborazo Ríobamba (2800) Fluke 1945: 16
Pichincha Uyumbicho (2650) Fluke 1945: 16
Pichincha Chillo Valley, Hda. Teno (2500) Fluke 1945: 16
Ecuador Fluke 1958: 265
Platycheirus (Carposcalis) inflatifrons (Fluke, 1945) Bolívar Hda. Talahua (3100) Fluke 1945: 21
Ecuador Fluke 1958: 265
Platycheirus (Carposcalis) punctulatus (Wulp, 1888) Ecuador (2100–3300) Fluke 1945: 15
Platycheirus (Carposcalis) cf. saltanus (Enderlein, 1938) Ecuador (4200) Fluke 1945: 15
Platycheirus (Carposcalis) scutigera (Fluke, 1945) Pichincha Uyumbicho (2700) Fluke 1945: 20
Platycheirus (Carposcalis) stegnus (Say, 1829) Santa Elena La Rinconada Campos 1960: 24
Chimborazo Alausí Campos 1960: 24
Carchi El Ángel Campos 1960: 24
Pichincha Casitagua Campos 1960: 24
Carchi Tulcán Campos 1960: 24
Pseudodoros (Dioprosopa) clavatus (Fabricius, 1794) Galápagos Baltra Sinclair et al. 2016: 89
Galápagos Española Kassebeer 2000: 83; Sinclair et al. 2016: 89
Galápagos Genovesa Kassebeer 2000: 83; Sinclair et al. 2016: 89
Galápagos Floreana Smith 1877: 84 (as Syrphus albomaculatus); Coquillett 1901: 374; Linsley and Usinger 1966: 168; Linsley 1977: 39; Kassebeer 2000: 83; Sinclair 2015; Sinclair et al. 2016: 89
Galápagos Isabela Curran 1934: 154; Linsley and Usinger 1966: 168; Linsley 1977: 39; Kassebeer 2000: 83; Sinclair 2015; Sinclair et al. 2016: 89
Galápagos Pinta Sinclair et al. 2016: 89
Galápagos Marchena Linsley 1977: 39; Sinclair 2015; Sinclair et al. 2016: 89
Galápagos San Cristóbal Curran 1934: 154; Linsley and Usinger 1966: 168; Linsley 1977: 39; Sinclair 2015; Sinclair et al. 2016: 89
Galápagos Rábida Sinclair et al. 2016: 89
Galápagos Santiago Coquillett 1901: 374; Linsley and Usinger 1966: 168; Linsley 1977: 39; Kassebeer 2000: 83
Galápagos Santa Fé Sinclair et al. 2016: 89
Galápagos Bartolomé Kassebeer 2000: 83
Galápagos Seymour Norte Johnson 1924: 88
Galápagos Santa Cruz Linsley 1977: 39; Kassebeer 2000: 83; Sinclair 2015; Sinclair et al. 2016: 89
Galápagos Thomson 1869 : 548 (as Baccha facialis)
Pseudodoros (Dioprosopa) clavatus (Fabricius, 1794) Azuay 32 km W Santa Isabel (900) Kassebeer 2000: 85
Manabí Manta-Jipijapa rd. (150) Kassebeer 2000: 85
Zamora Chinchipe Zamora (1500) Kassebeer 2000: 85
Zamora Chinchipe Loja, San Pedro (1550) Kassebeer 2000: 85
Pseudodoros (Dioprosopa) vockerothi (Kassebeer, 2000) Bolívar Chota River, Carchi (1800) Kassebeer 2000: 76
Imbabura Ibarra, Yaguarcocha (2300) Kassebeer 2000: 76
Loja S. Pedro-Zaruma rd Loja (850–1100) Kassebeer 2000: 76
Imbabura Taguando R., NW Ibarra (1650–1900) Kassebeer 2000: 76
Quichuana aff. quixotea Hull, 1946 Napo Limoncocha Ricarte et al. 2012: 129
Relictanum crassum (Walker, 1852) Cotopaxi Latacunga (330) Miranda et al. 2014: 91
Los Ríos Río Palenque (150) Miranda et al. 2014: 91
Napo Puerto Misahuallí (350) Miranda et al. 2014: 91
Sucumbíos Limoncocha (250) Miranda et al. 2014: 91
Relictanum johnsoni (Curran, 1934) Napo Coca, Napo R. (250) Miranda et al. 2014: 93
Rhingia (Rhingia) longirostris Fluke, 1943 Bolívar Hda. Talahua (3100) Fluke 1943: 431
Rhingia (Rhingia) nigra Macquart, 1846 Ecuador Montoya et al. 2016: 506
Rhinoprosopa lucifer (Hull, 1943) El Oro Piñas (1600) Hull 1943j: 216
Rhinoprosopa nasuta (Bigot, 1884) Carchi R. Chota (2000) Mengual 2015: 16
Rhopalosyrphus ecuadoriensis Reemer, 2013 Orellana Yasuni Research Station Reemer and Ståhls 2013a: 119
Salpingogaster browni Curran, 1941 Tungurahua Volcán Tungurahua, Minza Chica (3200) Curran 1941: 286
Scaeva melanostoma (Macquart, 1842) Azuay Thompson et al. 1976: 9
Pichincha 2 km W Cayambe (2300) Kassebeer 1999: 99
Carchi El Ángel (2700) Kassebeer 1999: 99
Pichincha Valle de Machachi (2900) Kassebeer 1999: 99
Chimborazo Riobamba Campos 1960: 29; Kassebeer 1999: 99
Chimborazo env. of Riobamba Kassebeer 1999: 99
Scaeva occidentalis Shannon, 1927 Pichincha Valle de Machachi (2900) Kassebeer 1999: 101
Sterphus (Crepidomyia) chloropyga (Schiner, 1868) Ecuador Schiner 1868: 366 (type-locality as “Colombien”, referring to Colombia, Ecuador, or Venezeula); Montoya et al. 2016: 504
Sterphus (Crepidomyia) plagiatus (Wiedemann, 1830) Napo Napo River, Coca (250) Thompson 1973: 220
Napo Napo River Thompson 1973: 220
Pastaza Napo River, Pompeya Thompson 1973: 220
Sterphus (Telus) telus Thompson, 1973 Azuay Tarqui (2800) Thompson 1973: 198
Stipomorpha guianica (Curran, 1925) Morona Santiago Limón Indanza (900) Reemer 2013: 54
Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 62
Stipomorpha tenuicauda (Curran, 1925) Napo Jatun Sacha Res., 6 km E Misahualli (450) Reemer 2013: 70
Stipomorpha zophera Reemer, 2013 Napo Limoncocha Reemer 2013: 75
Syrphus aff. lacyorum Thompson, 2000 Morona Santiago Río Blanco Thompson et al. 2000: 39
Syrphus reedi Shannon, 1927 Zamora Chinchipe Valle de Zamora Campos 1960: 25
Syrphus shorae Fluke, 1950 Tungurahua Baños (1500–2100) Fluke 1942: 3 (as S. willistoni)
Tungurahua Juive (1950) Fluke 1942: 3 (as S. willistoni)
Pichincha Hda. San Rafael, Río San Pedro (2700) Fluke 1942: 3 (as S. willistoni)
Ecuador Fluke 1950a: 143 (as S. willistoni)
Talahua fervida (Fluke, 1945) Bolívar Hda. Talahua (3100) Fluke 1945: 23
Ecuador Fluke 1958: 266
Toxomerus anthrax (Schiner, 1868) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 48; Mengual 2011: 9
Pastaza Abitagua Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 14-15
Tungurahua Baños Gerdes 1974a: 14-15
Pastaza Cerro Obitahua Gerdes 1974a: 14-15
Ecuador** Conquista Gerdes 1974a: 14-15
Tungurahua Naguazo Gerdes 1974a: 14-15
Napo Napo Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 14-15
Pastaza Obitahua Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 14-15
Morona Santiago Río Blanco Gerdes 1974a: 14-15
Morona Santiago Río Negro Gerdes 1974a: 14-15
Tungurahua Runtun Gerdes 1974a: 14-15
Chimborazo Sangay Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 14-15
Pastaza Puerto Santana Gerdes 1974a: 14-15
Pastaza Sarayacu Gerdes 1974a: 14-15
Pastaza Sarayacu Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 14-15
Pastaza El Topo Gerdes 1974a: 14-15
Pichincha Chaupi Gerdes 1974a: 14-15
Tungurahua Ulvilla Gerdes 1974a: 14-15
Chimborazo Chilicay Mengual 2011: appendix 1
Chimborazo Huigra Mengual 2011: appendix 1
El Oro Portovelo Mengual 2011: appendix 1
Toxomerus antiopa (Hull, 1951) Bolívar Hda. Talahua (3100) Hull 1951: 5
Chimborazo Urbina (3650) Hull 1951: 5
Toxomerus aquilinus Sack, 1941 Ecuador Metz and Thompson 2001: 233
Toxomerus arcifer (Loew, 1866) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 48
Toxomerus brevifacies (Hull, 1943) Tungurahua Baños, Runtun trail Hull 1943g: 20
Imbabura Cuicocha Hull 1943g: 20
Pastaza San Francisco Hull 1943g: 20
Tungurahua Juive Hull 1943g: 20
Tungurahua Baños Hull 1943g: 20; Gerdes 1974a: 19
Azuay Cuenca Hull 1943g: 20
Tungurahua Baños Gerdes 1974a: 19; Gerdes 1975: 20
Pichincha Chaupi Gerdes 1974a: 20; Gerdes 1975: 20
Ecuador** Conquista Gerdes 1974a: 20; Gerdes 1975: 20
Pastaza Obitagua Gerdes 1974a: 20; Gerdes 1975: 20
Morona Santiago Río Blanco Gerdes 1974a: 20; Gerdes 1975: 20
Morona Santiago Río Negro Gerdes 1974a: 20; Gerdes 1975: 20
Tungurahua Runtun Gerdes 1974a: 20; Gerdes 1975: 20
Chimborazo Sangay Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 20; Gerdes 1975: 20
Pastaza Sarayacu Gerdes 1974a: 20; Gerdes 1975: 20
Pastaza Sarayacu Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 20; Gerdes 1975: 20
Pastaza Topo Gerdes 1974a: 20; Gerdes 1975: 20
Tungurahua Ulvilla Gerdes 1974a: 20; Gerdes 1975: 20
Pastaza Abitagua Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 20; Gerdes 1975: 20
Tungurahua Naguazo Gerdes 1974a: 20; Gerdes 1975: 20
Pastaza Puerto Santana Gerdes 1974a: 20; Gerdes 1975: 20
Toxomerus claracuneus (Hull, 1942) Pastaza Río Margaritas, Río Pastaza (1250) Hull 1942: 107
Ecuador** Conquista Gerdes 1974a: 22
Pastaza Puerto Santana Gerdes 1974a: 22
Toxomerus crockeri (Curran, 1934) Galápagos Floreana Curran 1934: 155; Linsley and Usinger 1966: 168; Linsley 1977: 39; Sinclair and Peck 2002; Sinclair 2015; Sinclair et al. 2016: 91
Galápagos Isabela Curran 1934: 155; Linsley and Usinger 1966: 168; Linsley 1977: 39; Peck 1994; Sinclair and Peck 2002; Boada 2005: 80; Sinclair 2015; Sinclair et al. 2016: 91
Galápagos Pinta Sinclair and Peck 2002
Galápagos San Cristóbal Curran 1934: 155; Linsley and Usinger 1966: 168; Linsley 1977: 39; Sinclair and Peck 2002; Sinclair et al. 2016: 91
Galápagos Santiago Coquillett 1901: 374 (as Mesogramma duplicata); Curran 1934: 155; Linsley and Usinger 1966: 168; Linsley 1977: 39; Sinclair and Peck 2002
Galápagos Española Sinclair et al. 2016: 91
Galápagos Pinta Sinclair et al. 2016: 91
Galápagos Santa Cruz Curran 1934: 155; Boada 2005: 85; Sinclair 2015; Sinclair et al. 2016: 91
Toxomerus dispar (Fabricius, 1794) Tungurahua Baños Hull 1943f: 26 (as Mesogramma basilaris var. bifida); Gerdes 1974a: 17
Napo Napo Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 17 (as Toxomerus basilaris)
Morona Santiago Río Blanco Gerdes 1974a: 17 (as Toxomerus basilaris)
Ecuador Mengual 2011: 13
Toxomerus duplicatus (Wiedemann, 1830) Pichincha Pichincha Hull 1943f: 18 (as Mesogramma arcturus)
Pichincha Tío Loma Campos 1960: 25
Napo Napo Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 23
Toxomerus ecuadoreus (Hull, 1943) Azuay Cuenca (2500) Hull 1943g: 20
Tungurahua Baños (2200) Hull 1943g: 20
Pichincha Pichincha (2500) Hull 1943g: 20
Pichincha Hda. San Rafael, Río San Pedro Hull 1943g: 20; Gerdes 1974a: 26
Pichincha Uyumbicho Hull 1943g: 20; Gerdes 1974a: 26
Tungurahua Baños, Río Pablo (2200) Hull 1943g: 20
Tungurahua Baños, Runtun Hull 1943g: 20
Chimborazo Ríobamba (2700) Hull 1943g: 20
Pichincha Aloag Gerdes 1974a: 26; Gerdes 1975: 22
Tungurahua Baños Gerdes 1975: 22
Pastaza Obitagua Gerdes 1974a: 26; Gerdes 1975: 22
Morona Santiago Río Blanco Gerdes 1974a: 26; Gerdes 1975: 22
Pichincha Chaupi Gerdes 1974a: 26
Tungurahua Ulvilla Gerdes 1974a: 26
Morona Santiago Río Negro Gerdes 1974a: 26; Gerdes 1975: 22
Tungurahua Runtun Gerdes 1974a: 26; Gerdes 1975: 22
Toxomerus flaviplurus (Hall, 1927) Pastaza Cerro Obitahua Gerdes 1974a: 31
Napo Napo Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 31
Pastaza Puyo Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 31
Chimborazo Sangay Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 31
Pastaza 1.5 km S Puyo, Río Pido Grande Mengual 2011: appendix 1
Tungurahua 32 km E Baños (1560) Mengual 2011: appendix 1
Napo Tena Mengual 2011: appendix 1
Napo Santa Cecilia Mengual 2011: appendix 1
Napo 60 km W LagoAgRío Mengual 2011: appendix 1
Napo Limoncocha Mengual 2011: appendix 1
Zamora Chinchipe Zumbi Mengual 2011: appendix 1
Zamora Chinchipe Cumbaratza Mengual 2011: appendix 1
Zamora Chinchipe Yantzaza Mengual 2011: appendix 1
Toxomerus floralis (Fabricius, 1789) Ecuador Thompson and Thompson 2007: 324
Napo Napo Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 35
Toxomerus hieroglyphicus (Schiner, 1868) Tungurahua Baños Gerdes 1974a: 37; Mengual 2011: appendix 1
Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 51; Mengual 2011: 16
Pastaza Cerro Obitahua Gerdes 1974a: 37
Pastaza Obitahua Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 37
Morona Santiago Río Blanco Gerdes 1974a: 37
Tungurahua Runtun Gerdes 1974a: 38
Chimborazo Sangay Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 38
Pastaza Abitagua Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 38
Ecuador** Conquista Gerdes 1974a: 38
Toxomerus idalius (Hull, 1951) Pastaza Puyo (1000) Hull 1951: 12; Hull 1951: 13 (as Mesogramma idalia leda)
Pastaza Río Pastaza, San Francisco (1200) Hull 1951: 13 (as Mesogramma idalia leda); Hull 1951: 18 (as Mesogramma eurydice)
Toxomerus insignis (Schiner, 1868) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 50 (as T. elongatus); Metz and Thompson 2001: 235
Tungurahua Baños Gerdes 1974a: 29 (as Toxomerus elongatus)
Napo Napo Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 29 (as Toxomerus elongatus)
Tungurahua Ulvilla Gerdes 1974a: 29 (as Toxomerus elongatus)
Pastaza Abitagua Gerdes 1974a: 29 (as Toxomerus elongatus)
Pastaza Sarayacu Gerdes 1974a: 29 (as Toxomerus elongatus)
Pastaza Abitagua Gerdes 1974a: 29 (as Toxomerus elongatus)
Toxomerus lacrymosus (Bigot, 1884) Napo Napo Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 40
Pastaza Obitahua Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 40
Nariño [Colombia]** Piedrancha Gerdes 1974a: 40
Chimborazo Sanqay Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 40
Pastaza Sarayacu Gerdes 1974a: 40
Toxomerus laenas (Walker, 1852) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 53 (as T. nitidiventris)
Toxomerus marginatus (Say, 1823) Cañar-Chimborazo Quinua-Loma Campos 1960: 25
Toxomerus minutus (Wiedemann, 1830) Pichincha Casitagua Campos 1960: 26
Carchi El Vínculo Campos 1960: 26
Azuay Borma Campos 1960: 26
Santa Elena La Rinconada Campos 1960: 26
Cañar-Chimborazo Quinua-Loma Campos 1960: 26
Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas Santo Domingo de los Colorados Campos 1960: 26
Carchi Tulcán Campos 1960: 26
Loja Loja Campos 1960: 26
Toxomerus nasutus Sack, 1941 Pichincha Uyumbicho (2700) Hull 1951: 8 (as Mesogramma ultima)
Tungurahua Baños (2500) Hull 1943c: 36 (as Mesogramma sylpha)
Tungurahua Baños (1800) Hull 1943c: 36 (as Mesogramma sylpha)
Tungurahua Baños Gerdes 1975: 14
Pichincha Chaupi Gerdes 1974a: 42; Gerdes 1975: 14
Ecuador** Conquista Gerdes 1974a: 42; Gerdes 1975: 14
Tungurahua Naguazo Gerdes 1974a: 42; Gerdes 1975: 14
Napo Napo Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 42; Gerdes 1975: 14
Toxomerus nasutus Sack, 1941 Pastaza Obitagua Gerdes 1974a: 42; Gerdes 1975: 14
Pastaza Obitahua Gerdes 1974a: 42; Gerdes 1975: 14
Pastaza Abitagua Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 42
Pastaza Cerro Obitahua Gerdes 1974a: 42
Manabí* San José Gerdes 1974a: 42
Tungurahua El Topo Gerdes 1974a: 43
Morona Santiago Río Blanco Gerdes 1974a: 42; Gerdes 1975: 14
Morona Santiago Río Negro Gerdes 1974a: 42; Gerdes 1975: 14
Tungurahua Runtun Gerdes 1974a: 42; Gerdes 1975: 14
Tungurahua* El Salado Gerdes 1974a: 42; Gerdes 1975: 14
Chimborazo Sangay Gerdes 1974a: 43; Gerdes 1975: 14
Pastaza Puerto Santana Gerdes 1974a: 43; Gerdes 1975: 14
Pastaza Sarayacu Gerdes 1974a: 43; Gerdes 1975: 14
Pastaza Sarayacu Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 43; Gerdes 1975: 14
Pichincha* Yunguilla Gerdes 1974a: 44; Gerdes 1975: 14
Toxomerus norma (Hull, 1941) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 52 (as T. mulio); Metz and Thompson 2001: 239 (as T. mulio)
Toxomerus nymphalius (Hull, 1942) Pastaza Río Margaritas (1250) Hull 1942: 106
Morona Santiago Sucúa, Río Blanco (950) Hull 1942: 106
Pastaza Puyo Hull 1942: 106
Pastaza Río Mapeto Hull 1942: 106
Pastaza Cerro Obitahua Gerdes 1974a: 46
Pastaza Obitahua Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 46
Chimborazo Sangay Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 46
Pastaza Sasayacu Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 46
Pichincha* Yunguilla Gerdes 1974a: 46
Toxomerus parvulus (Loew, 1866) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 55 (as T. slossonae)
Toxomerus pichinchae Gerdes, 1974 Pichincha Aloag (2600) Gerdes 1974b: 280
Toxomerus pictus (Macquart, 1842) Pastaza Cerro Obitahua Gerdes 1974a: 48
Chimborazo Sangay Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 48
Napo Napo Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 49
Toxomerus picudus Mengual, 2011 Orellana Estación Tiputini (227) Mengual 2011: 21
Toxomerus politus (Say, 1823) Galápagos Floreana Sinclair 2015
Galápagos Isabela Sinclair 2015
Galápagos Santa Cruz Sinclair et al. 2016: 93
Galápagos San Cristóbal Sinclair 2015
Galápagos Santiago Sinclair et al. 2016: 93
Tungurahua Baños Gerdes 1974a: 51
Napo Napo Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 51
Nariño [Colombia]** Piedrancha Gerdes 1974a: 51
Pastaza Sarayacu Gerdes 1974a: 51
Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 53; Metz and Thompson 2001: 241
Toxomerus porticola (Thomson, 1869) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 54
Toxomerus productus (Curran, 1930) Morona Santiago Macas, Río Upano (1000) Hull 1951: 10 (as Mesogramma cyrilla)
Ecuador Curran 1930: 5
Napo Napo Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 53; Gerdes 1975: 16
Pastaza Obitahua Gerdes 1974a: 53; Gerdes 1975: 16
Chimborazo Sangay Gerdes 1974a: 53; Gerdes 1975: 16
Pastaza Sarayacu Gerdes 1974a: 53; Gerdes 1975: 16
Pastaza Sarayacu Gerdes 1974a: 54; Gerdes 1975: 16
Tungurahua Baños Gerdes 1974a: 54; Gerdes 1975: 16
Pastaza Obitagua Gerdes 1974a: 54; Gerdes 1975: 16
Morona Santiago Río Negro Gerdes 1974a: 54; Gerdes 1975: 16
Tungurahua Runtun Gerdes 1974a: 54; Gerdes 1975: 16
Pastaza Sarayacu Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 54; Gerdes 1975: 16
Toxomerus rombicus (Giglio-Tos, 1892) Azuay Cuenca Campos 1960: 25
Toxomerus saphiridiceps (Bigot, 1884) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 50 (as T. flavus), 54; Metz and Thompson 2001: 246
Tungurahua Baños Gerdes 1974a: 33 (as Toxomerus flavus)
Ecuador** Conquista Gerdes 1974a: 34 (as Toxomerus flavus)
Morona Santiago Río Blanco Gerdes 1974a: 34 (as Toxomerus flavus)
Manabí* San José Gerdes 1974a: 34 (as Toxomerus flavus)
Nariño [Colombia]** Piedrancha Gerdes 1974a: 34 (as Toxomerus flavus)
Tungurahua Runtun Gerdes 1974a: 34 (as Toxomerus flavus)
Pastaza Sarayacu Gerdes 1974a: 34 (as Toxomerus flavus)
Los Ríos Soledad Gerdes 1974a: 34 (as Toxomerus flavus)
Toxomerus sp. Galápagos Santa Cruz Boada 2005: 86
Toxomerus sp. Guayas San Eduardo Campos 1960: 26
Guayas Guayaquil Campos 1960: 26
Guayas Durán Campos 1960: 26
Toxomerus steatogaster (Hull, 1941) Morona Santiago Sucúa, Río Blanco and Río Upano (950) Hull 1943f: 21 (as Mesogramma steatornis)
Pastaza Puyo (1000) Hull 1943f: 21 (as Mesogramma steatornis)
Napo Napo Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 55
Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 55
Toxomerus sylvaticus (Hull, 1943) Tungurahua Baños Hull 1943c: 35; Gerdes 1974a: 57
Pastaza Cerro Obitahua Gerdes 1974a: 57
Pastaza Obitahua Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 57
Morona Santiago Río Blanco Gerdes 1974a: 57
Chimborazo Sanqay Oriente Gerdes 1974a: 57
Pichincha Chaupi Gerdes 1974a: 57
Toxomerus tibicen (Wiedemann, 1830) Guayas Guayaquil, San Eduardo Campos 1960: 25
Toxomerus tubularius (Hull, 1942) Tungurahua Baños (2000) Hull 1942: 104
Toxomerus virgulatus (Macquart, 1850) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 49 (as T. confusus)
Toxomerus watsoni (Curran, 1930) Ecuador Thompson et al. 1976: 56
Tuberculanostoma antennatum Fluke, 1943 Bolívar Talahua (3100) Fluke 1943: 426
Ecuador Fluke 1958: 266
Tuberculanostoma browni Fluke, 1943 Chimborazo Urbina (3650) Fluke 1943: 429
Bolívar Hda. Talahua (3100) Fluke 1943: 430
Bolívar Cumbre de Tililac (4200) Fluke 1943: 430
Tuberculanostoma cilium Fluke, 1943 Tungurahua Volcán Tungurahua, Minza Chica (3200) Fluke 1943: 428
Bolívar Hda. Talahua (3100) Fluke 1943: 428
Tuberculanostoma pectinis Fluke, 1943 Bolívar Hda. Talahua (3100) Fluke 1943: 430
Ubristes ictericus Reemer, 2013 Sucumbíos Sach Lodge (270) Reemer 2013: 80
Xanthandrus (Xanthandrus) palliatus (Fluke, 1945) Bolívar Hda. Talahua (3100) Fluke 1945: 22
Tungurahua Volcán Tungurahua, Minza Chica (3200) Fluke 1945: 22

Some original locality names were difficult to place in the current administrative divisions of Ecuador. The Río Pastaza (= Pastaza river) runs through two Ecuadorian provinces, i.e. Pastaza and Morona Santiago, and we used Pastaza province for this locality. On the other hand, Quinua Loma is a locality situated between two provinces, Cañar and Chimborazo, and we listed both provinces in Table 1.

Most of the uncertainties on geographical localities come from Gerdes (1974a). For instance, Gerdes (1974a) named three localities as different ones, i.e. Obitagua, Obitahua, and Abitagua, although we believe that they might refer to the same area. There is a single locality named Abitagua in Ecuador, but instead of assuming all being the same locality, we left the three names in Table 1. We are not sure if the locality San José (Gerdes (1974a) is the one currently situated in Manabí, and there are two localities named El Salado in Guayas (between 0 and 200 masl) and in Tungurahua (circa 2,000 masl). We listed El Salado in Guayas for the records of Campos (1960), as most of the records in that work were from Guayas, but we used Tungurahua for El Salado of Gerdes (1974a, 1975) for the record of Toxomerus nasutus Sack, 1941 because other records for this species are close to or over 2,000 masl. We had a similar problem with Yunguilla, a locality also found in two different provinces (Azuay and Pichincha), and we used Pichincha in this case because Gerdes had studied material from Pichincha but not from Azuay. All these records are marked with an asterisk (*) in the Province column of Table 1.

The locality Piedrancha belongs to Colombia (Nariño department), but it was left in Table 1 because Gerdes (1974a) listed it as Ecuador. Finally, we were not able to locate Conquista in Ecuador. These records are marked with two asterisks (**) in the Province column of Table 1.

For the elaboration of Tables 1 and 2, the most recent Syrphidae classification has been used (Mengual et al. 2008, 2009, Thompson 2012, 2013, Reemer and Ståhls 2013a, Miranda et al. 2014, 2016, Mengual 2015). Flower fly species recorded in Ecuador are listed in Table 1 in alphabetical order. Genera with the highest number of species were Toxomerus (38), Ocyptamus (22) and Palpada (21) (Table 2).

Number of genera and species registered in Ecuador.

Genus Number of species in Ecuador
Alipumilio Shannon, 1927 1
Allograpta Osten Sacken, 1875 9
Argentinomyia Lynch Arribalzaga, 1891 10
Claraplumula Shannon, 1927 1
Copestylum Macquart, 1846 19
Dasysyrphus Enderlein, 1938 1
Dolichogyna Macquart, 1842 2
Eosalpingogaster Hull, 1949 1
Eristalis Latreille, 1804 1
Eupeodes Osten Sacken, 1877 1
Fazia Shannon, 1927 12
Hypselosyrphus Hull, 1937 1
Leucopodella Hull, 1949 4
Lycastrirhyncha Bigot, 1859 1
Mallota Meigen, 1822 3
Meromacrus Rondani, 1848 3
Meropidia Hippa & Thompson, 1983 1
Microdon Meigen, 1803 3
Mixogaster Macquart, 1842 1
Ocyptamus Macquart, 1834 22
Ornidia Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 2
Palpada Macquart, 1834 21
Pelecinobaccha Shannon, 1927 10
Peradon Reemer, 2013 1
Platycheirus Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 7
Pseudodoros Becker, 1903 2
Quichuana Knab, 1913 1
Relictanum Miranda, 2014 2
Rhingia Scopoli, 1763 2
Rhinoprosopa Hull, 1942 2
Rhopalosyrphus Giglio-Tos, 1891 1
Salpingogaster Schiner, 1868 1
Scaeva Fabricius, 1805 2
Sterphus Philippi, 1865 3
Stipomorpha Hull, 1945 3
Syrphus Fabricius, 1775 3
Talahua Fluke, 1945 1
Toxomerus Macquart, 1855 38
Tuberculanostoma Fluke, 1943 4
Ubristes Walker, 1852 1
Xanthandrus Verrall, 1901 1

Four unidentified species are listed as such (Microdon sp., Ocyptamus sp. and two Toxomerus sp.), and three species are affinis to known species, Dasysyrphus aff. lotus, Syrphus aff. lacyorum and Quichuana aff. quixotea. Ricarte et al. (2012) reviewed the taxonomy of the genus Quichuana Knab, 1913 and mentioned one Quichuana species recorded for Ecuador (Ricarte et al. 2012: 129, figure 84). The identity of this species was not stated by Ricarte et al. (2012), but personal communication with A. Ricarte revealed that it is Quichuana aff. quixotea (Hull 1946). Four specimens from Ecuador labelled as Q. quixotea are known to be deposited in the USNM collection. However, they show some morphological differences with the holotype that prevented Ricarte et al. (2012) to ascertain their identity (Antonio Ricarte, pers. comm.).

There was some ambiguity with Peradon oligonax (Hull, 1944) to either include it or not in the checklist. Peradon oligonax was described from Pto. America, Río Putumayo (Hull 1944c). Thompson et al. (1976: 66) indicated the type-locality as part of Ecuador, but Hull (1944c: 36) listed it as Brazil. Putumayo River forms part of Colombia’s border with Ecuador, as well as most of the frontier with Peru, and it ends as a tributary of the Amazon River in Brazil, but there it is known as Içá. Rasmussen (2016) gave details of the Cornell University expedition to South America (collectors of the type material) and he provided evidences that the expedition never went to Ecuador and the expedition was near Javary island (Santo Antônio do Içá) in the dates when the type material was collected. Thus, the type-locality is in Brazil and not in Ecuador, as indicated by Thompson et al. (1976).

Another uncertain taxon was Priomerus gagathinus Bigot, 1887, originally described from Loja. Thompson et al (1976) declared the type of this taxon as lost and did not recognize the species. Thompson (2015) indicated that the name Priomerus was preoccupied and its species currently belong to four different genera. He did not recognize either the species gagathinus Bigot. Thus, we did not list this species in Table 1.

In the literature, we found two doubtful species records, probably due to a misidentification. Sphaerophoria (Sphaerophoria) sulphuripes (Thomson, 1869) is a Nearctic species found along the west coast of the United States and Canada (Knutson 1973). Thompson et al. (1976: 38) listed one specimen identified as S. sulphuripes (with no details about the responsible of this identification) in The Natural History Museum (BMNH, London, U.K.) from Ecuador with a question mark. This specimen might be mislabeled or it could be an Allograpta specimen, most likely a female, somehow similar to S. sulphiripes. We believe that S. sulphuripes does not occur in Ecuador and it was not included in Table 1. The other taxon that was misidentified is Eristalis (Eoseristalis) pertinax (Scopoli, 1763), identified by Campos (1960). This species ranges from Fennoscandia south to Iberia and the Mediterranean, and from Ireland through much of Europe into European parts of Russia and Turkey; apparently it is not known beyond the Urals (Speight 2016). We do believe that the record might be an Eristalis species, but not E. pertinax as it does not occur in the Neotropics. Thus, this record is not listed in Table 1.

Three species are not listed due to the uncertainty of their taxonomic identity. Syrphus excavatus (Rondani 1851: 359) and Syrphus fasciventris (Rondani 1851: 360), both described from Río Napo, are not included because the type material was not studied and the generic name is probably incorrect. The third species not included is Xanthandrus sp. (Curran 1934: 155; from Pinta Island, Galapagos). Sinclair et al. (2016) could not find the material studied by Curran to confirm if the specimen from Galapagos is truly Xanthandrus or Argentinomyia agonis (Walker 1849).

Discussion

Montoya et al. (2012) recorded 128 species of 40 different genera for Ecuador, indicating that Ecuador shares a high number of species with Brazil (29 species), Colombia (50) and Peru (29). The present work raises those numbers considerably, up to 201 identified species of 51 genera and subgenera. Based on previous studies, the Ecuadorian diversity of flower flies is comparable to the one from Peru (195 spp., 75 genera; Montoya et al. 2012), Costa Rica (228 species, 41 genera; Montoya et al. 2012) or Suriname (183 species, 36 genera; Reemer 2016). It is important to emphasize that Ecuador is one of the smallest countries in the Neotropics and South America, but it has one of the highest diversity densities for the Neotropics with ca. 7.2 species per 10.000 km2. This diversity density makes Ecuador the third top country after Costa Rica and Suriname, the two most explored and well-studied faunae in the Neotropics. It must also be pointed out that the present work is based only on records from the literature, and authors are sure that the flower fly diversity in Ecuador is higher.

This study confirms the argument of Montoya et al. (2012) when stating that “The understanding of the distribution and composition of Syrphidae in the Neotropical Region remains far from complete”. Since Thompson et al. (1976) there have been mostly taxonomic contributions on the Neotropical flower flies, but little faunistic studies have been published. Thompson (1999) provided a key to the Neotropical genera of Syrphidae, including a glossary of taxonomic terms and the description of a few new species, and Thompson (2006) compiled all the taxonomic knowledge of Neotropical flower flies up to that date, but those cannot be considered faunistic studies. In the Systema Dipterorum, Thompson (2013) had some distributional range notes for each species, but the fauna of the Neotropical countries has not been studied more thoroughly yet. The syrphid fauna of three Neotropical countries have been recently revised: a catalogue for Colombia (Montoya 2016, see also Gutierrez et al. 2005), another online catalogue for Brazil (Morales and Marinoni 2017), and an extensive taxonomic study of the flower flies of Suriname (Reemer 2010, 2014, 2016). In addition, Thompson et al. (2010) gave a very comprehensive synopsis of the Central American Syrphidae.

Thompson et al. (2010) stated that ca. 1,800 flower fly species are described from the Neotropical Region, but other authors argue that this may be only half of the actual number of species (Reemer 2016). Thus, Ecuadorian syrphid fauna comprises roughly 11.2% of the described Neotropical species. Emulating the arguments of Reemer (2016), the syrphid fauna of Ecuador might be two to four times larger, up to 900 species, if we compare the known species of other taxa in this country with the total number of species in the Neotropical Region. Cárdenas et al. (2009) estimated that Ecuador has 16.3% of the Neotropical species of the family Tabanidae (Diptera). Mittermeier et al. (2005) calculated that the bird species present in Ecuador are ca. 47% of the total number of species in the Neotropics. With an estimate of 4,000 species of butterflies (Salazar and Donoso 2014, M. Espeland pers. comm.), Ecuador probably hosts half of the Neotropical diversity of this order. In other words, considering these numbers and the fact that Syrphidae is underexplored in Ecuador (Amorim 2009), we are far from having a good estimate of the total number of flower fly species for Ecuador.

We think that the inventory and study of the Syrphidae fauna are essential not only to describe new species from Ecuador, but also to help in the selection of areas to protect, based on species richness, and to improve the management of conservation areas in this country. Salazar and Donoso (2014) mentioned that the taxonomic complexity, the lack of experts for some groups, the high species richness, and the endemicity of many invertebrates in Ecuador make the study of its invertebrate fauna a major challenge in science. Moreover, Ecuador has two biodiversity hotspot regions: Tropical Andes and Tumbes-Chocó-Magdalena (Myers et al. 2000, Mittermeier et al. 2004). These regions are heavily threatened and need urgent conservation efforts. In such cases, faunistic studies should have priority to understand the biological diversity of those hotspots. Furthermore, the poor knowledge of the relationships between flower flies and their prey, as well as the unknown associations with host plants, make the study of this group essential 1) to improve our understanding about their roles in the ecosystem performance and organic matter decomposition, 2) to evaluate the biological richness of Ecuador in order to establish new management and control protocols over its natural resources, and 3) to revise the quarantine and international trade policies for preventing potential pest species dispersal and creating new banned species list.

Acknowledgments

We thank the Alexander Koenig Gesellschaft (AKG) for funding support for field equipment to start the preliminary studies on Syrphidae in Ecuador. We are grateful to the Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas (UTPL), Carlos Iván Espinosa, Augusta Cueva, and Carlos Naranjo for funding support for the organization of a Syrphidae Workshop. We also thank Ximena Cueva and Ángel Romero for their help with literature and laboratory work. XM thanks the library staff, especially the Digitization department, of the Western Illinois University for providing a copy of the PhD thesis of Charles Frederick Gerdes. We thank Gil F. Miranda and Mírian N. Morales for their comments and suggestions, which greatly improved our manuscript.

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