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Research Article
Three new species of Pinelema from caves in Guangxi, China (Araneae, Telemidae)
expand article infoYang Song§, Huifeng Zhao|, Yufa Luo, Shuqiang Li|
‡ Gannan Normal University, Ganzhou, China
§ Chinese Academy of Sciences, Menglun, China
| Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Open Access

Abstract

Three new Pinelema species, P. cunfengensis Zhao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), P. podiensis Zhao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), and P. qingfengensis Zhao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), are described from the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China, bringing the total number of Pinelema species to eight. All occur in Yunnan Province or the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The male palp of Telemidae was studied for the first time using scanning electron microscope.

Keywords

Haplogynae, karst region, SEM photographs, taxonomy, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau

Introduction

Telemidae Fage, 1913 is a small family of haplogyne spiders with nine genera and sixty-six extant species, with one questionable fossil species, Telema moritzi Wunderlich, 2004 (Wunderlich 2004). Thirty-seven species in three genera have been described from China (World Spider Catalog 2017), and most of these species are distributed on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau (Lin and Li 2010, Wang and Li 2010, 2016). Two species, Telema cucphongensis Lin & Li, 2009 and Telema exiloculata Lin & Li, 2009, were described from neighboring northern Vietnam (Lin et al. 2009).

The five described Pinelema Wang & Li, 2012 species are: P. bailongensis Wang & Li 2012, P. curcici Wang & Li, 2016, P. huobaensis Wang & Li, 2016, P. xiushuiensis Wang & Li, 2016, and P. yaosaensis Wang & Li, 2016. All are known from caves in southern China. Here, three new species of Pinelema are described, and the details of the male palp were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Materials and methods

All specimens were examined and measured using a Leica M205 C stereomicroscope. The bodies, male palps, and female receptacles were photographed using an Olympus C7070 digital camera mounted on an Olympus SZX12 stereomicroscope. Images were subsequently combined using Helicon Focus version 6.7.1 image stacking software (http://www. heliconsoft.com). Further morphological details were studied under an Olympus BX41 compound light microscope. The left palps of the male were photographed with a Hitachi SU8010 Scanning Electron Microscope. Vulvae were removed and treated in lactic acid before being photographed. All measurements are reported in millimeters. Leg measurements are shown as total length (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus).

Abbreviations: CA, cymbial apophysis; Em, embolus; Re, receptacle; Pa, papillae; SR, spiral ridge; SS, spine-like structures.

Type specimens were preserved in 95% ethanol and deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IZCAS), Beijing, China.

Taxonomy

Family Telemidae Fage, 1913

Pinelema Wang & Li, 2012

Type species

Pinelema bailongensis Wang & Li, 2012 from Guangxi.

Diagnosis and description

See Wang and Li (2012, 2016).

Composition

Pinelema currently comprises eight species, including three new species described here. Five of them occur in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: P. bailongensis, P. cunfengensis sp. n., P. podiensis sp. n., P. qingfengensis sp. n., P. xiushuiensis; the others are known from Yunnan Province in southern China: P. curcici, P. huobaensis, P. yaosaensis.

Pinelema bailongensis Wang & Li, 2012

Figs 7A, 8A, 9A, 10A, 11A, 12A

Pinelema bailongensis Wang & Li, 2012: 82, figs 1–17 (♂♀).

Material examined

1♂ (IZCAS), China: Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Baise Prefecture: Pingguo County, Bailong Cave, N23°19', E107°34', 111 m, 1.VIII.2009, C. Wang & Z. Yao.

Diagnosis

The species is similar to P. xiushuiensis and can be distinguished by a kidney-shaped palpal bulb, many fine papillae at the retrolateral posterior part of the bulb (noted by arrows on Fig. 8A) and spine-like structures on the tip of the embolus (noted by arrows on Figs 8A, 10A) (the bulb is ovoid, and papillae and spine-like structures are absent in P. xiushuiensis).

Description

Described by Wang and Li (2012). Here we add the description of the male palp: embolus long, tube shaped, outer margin distinctly protuberant, forming a spiral ridge (Figs 7A, 8A, 9A, 10A, 11A), continuing for approximately 180° around the embolus (Fig. 11A); the groove of the embolus has a cluster of spine-like structures (Figs 8A, 10A) (Wang and Li 2012: figs 1, 4); a distinct slit occurs in the groove, from the tip to the mesal part of the embolus (Figs 8A, 10A).

Distribution

Known only from the type locality.

Pinelema cunfengensis Zhao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

Type material

Holotype ♂: China: Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Nanning Prefecture: Longan County: Cunfeng Cave, N23°12.58', E107°35.43', 115 m, 13.V.2015, Z. Chen & Y. Li. Paratypes: 3♂ and 5♀, same data as holotype.

Etymology

The specific name refers to the type locality; adjective.

Diagnosis

The new species is similar to P. podiensis sp. n., and can be distinguished by the well-developed eyes and greenish abdomen (Figs 1A, 2A) (eyes reduced to white spots, abdomen pale yellow in P. podiensis sp. n.); relatively shorter embolus (about 0.33 of bulbal length) (Figs 1C–D, 7B, 8B, 9B, 10B) (0.38 of kidney shaped bulb in P. podiensis sp. n.); cymbial apophysis with 3 setae (Fig. 12B) (4 setae in P. podiensis sp. n.); receptacle slightly curved at anterior 1/3 (Fig. 2C) (almost straight in P. podiensis sp. n.).

Figure 1. 

Pinelema cunfengensis sp. n., male holotype. A Habitus, dorsal view B Tip of embolus, apical view C Palp, prolateral view D Palp, retrolateral view. Scale bars: 0.2 mm (A), 0.05 mm (B), 0.1 mm (C–D).

Figure 2. 

Pinelema cunfengensis sp. n., female paratype. A Habitus, dorsal view B Habitus, ventral view C Vulva, lateral view. Scale bars: 0.2 mm (A–B), 0.05 mm (C).

Description

Male (holotype): Total length 1.33. Carapace 0.50 long, 0.49 wide. Abdomen 0.79 long, 0.60 wide. Carapace dark yellow with purple-brown pattern (Fig. 1A). Six eyes, all well-developed, ringed with black. Chelicerae, legs, labium and endites dark yellow. Sternum dark brown, with sparse setae. Leg measurements: I 4.11 (1.18, 0.19, 1.33, 0.85, 0.56); II 3.59 (1.08, 0.19, 1.13, 0.69, 0.51); III 2.56 (0.81, 0.17, 0.75, 0.46, 0.36); IV 3.08 (0.99, 0.18, 0.92, 0.60, 0.38). Abdomen blue-green with purple-brown pattern ventrally.

Palp: tibia 2.5 times longer than patella, cymbium approximately two times longer than tibia, cymbial apophysis with 3 setae (Fig. 12B); bulb almost pear shaped (Figs 1C–D, 7B, 8B, 9B, 10B), the spiral ridge makes a continues approximately 180° around the embolus (Figs 1B, 11B); tip of embolus with two grooves, embolus opening slit-like, with the slit originating from the tip and terminating mesally (Figs 8B, 10B).

Female: Total length 1.42. Carapace 0.48 long, 0.48 wide. Abdomen 0.87 long, 0.71 wide. Coloration and pattern as in male (Figs 2A–B). Leg measurements: I 3.67 (1.08, 0.18, 1.15, 0.75, 0.51); II 3.08 (0.95, 0.16, 0.98, 0.61, 0.38); III 2.30 (0.69, 0.17, 0.65, 0.41, 0.38); IV 2.94 (0.92, 0.16, 0.89, 0.56, 0.41).

Distribution

Known only from the type locality (Fig. 13).

Pinelema podiensis Zhao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

Type material

Holotype ♂: China: Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Baise Prefecture: Debao County: Podi Cave, N23°23.51', E106°38.40', 578 m, 4.VIII.2011, C. Wang. Paratypes: 1♂ and 4♀, same data as holotype.

Etymology

The specific name refers to the type locality; adjective.

Diagnosis

The new species is similar to P. bailongensis, and can be distinguished by the strongly reduced eyes and pale yellow abdomen (Figs 3A, 4A) (eyes well-developed and abdomen greenish in P. bailongensis); shorter embolus, about 0.38 of the bulb length (0.59 of the bulb length in P. bailongensis) (Figs 3C–D, 7C, 8C, 9C, 10C); receptacle coiled approximately 270° (Fig. 4C) (approximately 450° in P. bailongensis); the 1st and 2nd setae on cymbial apophysis located at the same height (Fig. 12C) (setae at different heights in P. bailongensis).

Figure 3. 

Pinelema podiensis sp. n., male holotype. A Habitus, dorsal view B Tip of embolus, apical view C Palp, prolateral view D Palp, retrolateral view. Scale bars: 0.2 mm (A), 0.05 mm (B), 0.1 mm (C–D).

Figure 4. 

Pinelema podiensis sp. n., female paratype. A Habitus, dorsal view B Habitus, ventral view C Vulva, lateral view. Scale bars: 0.2 mm (A–B), 0.05 mm (C).

Description

Male (holotype): Total length 1.25. Carapace 0.48 long, 0.48 wide. Abdomen 0.73 long, 0.56 wide. Carapace yellow, with black yellow margins (Fig. 3A). Reduced eyes appear as white spots. Chelicerae, legs, labium and endites yellow. Sternum pale yellow, with sparse long setae. Leg measurements: I 4.35 (1.25, 0.20, 1.41, 0.89, 0.60); II 3.67 (1.06, 0.20, 1.10, 0.75, 0.56); III 2.64 (0.80, 0.20, 0.72, 0.53, 0.40); IV 3.23 (1.03, 0.19, 0.93, 0.63, 0.46). Abdomen pale yellow, with some green stripes.

Palp: tibia approximately two times longer than patella, cymbium 2.2 times longer than tibia, cymbial apophysis with 4 setae (Fig. 12C); bulb almost kidney shaped, with many fine papillae at the retrolateral posterior part of the bulb (Figs 3D, 8C); embolus long, tube shaped (Figs 3C–D, 7C, 8C, 9C, 10C); the spiral ridge continues approximately 180° around the embolus (Figs 3B, 11C); the opening of the embolus is distinct and as long as 2/3 of the embolus length (Figs 8C, 10C).

Female: Total length 1.45. Carapace 0.46 long, 0.45 wide. Abdomen 0.60 long, 0.60 wide. Coloration and pattern as in male (Figs 4A–B). Leg measurements: I 4.25 (1.22, 0.23, 1.34, 0.84, 0.61); II 3.59 (1.08, 0.20, 1.09, 0.71, 0.51); III 2.59 (0.83, 0.16, 0.71, 0.48, 0.41); IV 3.36 (1.10, 0.19, 0.97, 0.64, 0.46). Receptacle bent at anterior 2/3, curved approximately 270°, with a swollen sac at distal part (Fig. 4C).

Distribution

Known only from the type locality (Fig. 13).

Pinelema qingfengensis Zhao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

Type material

Holotype ♂: China: Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Chongzuo Prefecture: Tiandeng County: Qingfeng Cave, N23°10.31', E107°09.38', 444 m, 26.XII.2012, Z. Chen & Z. Zhao. Paratypes: 1♂ and 6♀, same data as holotype.

Figure 5. 

Pinelema qingfengensis sp. n., male holotype. A Habitus, dorsal view B Tip of embolus, apical view C Palp, prolateral view D Palp, retrolateral view. Scale bars: 0.2 mm (A), 0.05 mm (B), 0.1 mm (C–D).

Figure 6. 

Pinelema qingfengensis sp. n., female paratype. A Habitus, dorsal view B Habitus, ventral view C Vulva, lateral view. Scale bars: 0.2 mm (A–B), 0.05 mm (C).

Figure 7. 

Prolateral view of male palp of P. bailongensis (A); P. cunfengensis sp. n. (B); P. podiensis sp. n. (C); P. qingfengensis sp. n. (D). Scale bars: 0.1 mm.

Etymology

The specific name refers to the type locality; adjective.

Diagnosis

The new species is similar to P. bailongensis and can be distinguished by the completely reduced eyes and yellow abdomen (Figs 5A, 6A) (eyes well-developed and abdomen greenish in P. bailongensis); the shorter embolus, 0.40 of bulb length (Figs 5C–D, 7D, 8D, 9D, 10D) (0.59 of bulb length in P. bailongensis); receptacle curves approximately 450° (Fig. 6C) (receptacle curves approximately 540° in P. bailongensis) and cymbial apophysis with five setae (Fig. 12 D) (four setae in P. bailongensis).

Figure 8. 

Retrolateral view of male palp of P. bailongensis (A); P. cunfengensis sp. n. (B); P. podiensis sp. n. (C); P. qingfengensis sp. n. (D). Scale bars: 0.1 mm.

Figure 9. 

Prolateral view of embolus of P. bailongensis (A); P. cunfengensis sp. n. (B); P. podiensis sp. n. (C); P. qingfengensis sp. n. (D). Scale bars: 0.05 mm.

Figure 10. 

Retrolateral view of embolus of P. bailongensis (A); P. cunfengensis sp. n. (B); P. podiensis sp. n. (C); P. qingfengensis sp. n. (D). Scale bars: 0.05 mm.

Description

Male (holotype): Total length 1.72. Carapace 0.71 long, 0.59 wide. Abdomen 1.00 long, 0.80 wide. Carapace yellow (Fig. 5A). Eyes entirely reduced. Chelicerae, legs, labium, and endites yellow. Sternum pale yellow. Leg measurements: I 6.53 (2.00, 0.25, 2.08, 1.44, 0.77); II 5.91 (1.76, 0.26, 1.90, 1.28, 0.71); III 4.23 (1.47, 0.23, 1.16, 0.84, 0.53); IV 4.60 (1.56, 0.23, 1.33, 0.92, 0.56). Abdomen pale yellow, with sparse long setae.

Palp: tibia 2.2 times longer than patella, tarsus 1.9 times longer than tibia, cymbial apophysis with five setae (Fig. 12D); bulb subconical; embolus long, tube shaped (Figs 5C–D, 7D, 8D, 9D, 10D); the spiral ridge makes a complete 360° turn around the embolus (Figs 5B, 11D), opening of embolus indistinct, as long as half length of embolus (Figs 8D, 10D).

Female: Total length 1.72. Carapace 0.65 long, 0.65 wide. Abdomen1.04 long, 0.89 wide. Coloration and pattern as in male (Figs 6A–B). Leg measurements: I 5.94 (2.13, 0.27, 2.13, 1.42, 0.75); II 5.23 (1.86, 0.26, 1.88, 1.24, 0.63); III 3.81 (1.41, 0.24, 1.31, 0.85, 0.51); IV 4.67 (1.72, 0.24, 1.60, 1.11, 0.59). Receptacle curved, 450° (Fig. 6C).

Figure 11. 

Apical view of embolus of P. bailongensis (A); P. cunfengensis sp. n. (B); P. podiensis sp. n. (C); P. qingfengensis sp. n. (D). Scale bars: 0.04 mm.

Figure 12. 

Cymbial apophysis of male palp of P. bailongensis (A); P. cunfengensis sp. n. (B); P. podiensis sp. n. (C); P. qingfengensis sp. n. (D). Scale bars: 0.01 mm. Arabic numerals refer to 1st–5th setae. First seta in P. podiensis sp. n. is lost.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality (Fig. 13).

Figure 13. 

Type localities of three new Pinelema species from caves in Guangxi, China.

Acknowledgements

The manuscript benefitted greatly from comments by Yuri M. Marusik (Magadan, Russia), Sarah C. Crews (San Francisco, USA), and three anonymous referees. This study was supported by the National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (NSFC-31660611, 31460554, 31471960, 31530067) and the Southeast Asia Biodiversity Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (2015CASEABRI005, Y4ZK111B01). Part of the laboratory work was financially supported by the Key Project of Science and Technology of Jiangxi (20161BBF60076), the Landing Project of Science and Technology of Colleges and Universities in Jiangxi Province of China (KJLD14081), and the Science and Technology Foundation of Educational Commission of Jiangxi Province of China (GJJ14663).

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