Research Article
Research Article
Description of a new species of Parens Fibiger, 2011 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Hypenodinae) from Korea
expand article infoJi-Young Lee, Bong-Kyu Byun
‡ Hannam University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
Open Access


The genus Parens comprises small moths, with a wingspan of 9–13 mm, belonging to the family Erebidae. Until now, only four species have been described worldwide. In Korea, only one species, P. occi (Fibiger & Kononenko, 2008) has been known to date. In this study, a new species from Korea, P. fibigerina Lee & Byun, sp. nov., is described. As a result, two Parens species are now known from Korea. Figures of adults, male and female genitalia, and a key to the species of Parens in Korea are provided.

Key words

Checklist, identification key, Micronoctuini, new species, taxonomy


The genus Parens Fibiger, 2011 belongs to the tribe Micronoctuini, subfamily Hypenodinae of the family Erebidae. Early authors considered Parens as a member of the family Micronoctuidae based the simple male genitalia without a uncus and the two-veined hindwing (Kononenko and Han 2007; Fibiger and Kononenko 2008; Fibiger et al. 2011; Fibiger 2011). More recently, Zahiri et al. (2012) proposed a new taxonomy of the Erebidae based on molecular phylogenetics. The family Micronoctuidae was downgraded to a tribe within the subfamily Hypenodinae, with its subfamilies given the rank of subtribes. This genus was established by Fibiger (2011) with Parens paraocci Fibiger, 2011 as the type species. Parens is a relatively small genus with only four recognized species worldwide. In Korea, only one species, P. occi (Fibiger & Kononenko, 2008) is known, which was first reported by Kononenko and Han (2007) as Micronoctua sp. In the present study, a new species, P. fibigerina Lee & Byun, sp. nov., is described from Korea.

Materials and methods


We follow the general terminology proposed by Fibiger (2011).

Collection and preparation of specimens

The specimens were mainly collected using a bucket light trap with a 20 W black-light lamp and a LepiLED, standard model (WIF, Dr Gunnar Brehm, Sonnenblumenweg, Germany) and a 200 V / 400 W mercury-vapor lamp (220 V / 400 W).

All specimens were photographed before the dissection of their genitalia. Images of the adults were taken using a Canon EOS 600D digital camera (Canon Inc., Ota, Tokyo, Japan). Male and female genitalia were dissected and mounted in Euparal solution, following the procedure described in Holloway et al. (1987). The genitalia slides were photographed using a digital camera attached to a Leica M205C microscope (Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar, Germany) and refined with Photoshop CS5 (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, CA, USA).

Most specimens examined in this study were deposited in the Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Hannam University, Daejeon, Korea (HNSUEL). Additional specimens examined are from the Korea National Insect Collection, Korea National Arboretum, Korea (KNA). Abbreviations for localities in Korea are as follows: GG (Gyeonggi-do), GW (Gangwon-do), CB (Chungcheongbuk-do), DJ (Daejeon), GB (Gyeongsangbuk-do), GN (Gyeongsangnam-do), JN (Jeollanam-do), and JJ (Jeju-do). Other abbreviations are TL (type locality) and TD (type depository).

Systematic accounts

Family Erebidae Leech, [1815]

Subfamily Hypenodinae Forbes, 1954

Parens Fibiger, 2011

Type species

Parens paraocci Fibiger, 2011.

Key to Parens species in Korea

1 In female genitalia, ductus bursae coiled at terminal margin Parens occi
In female genitalia, ductus bursae not coiled at terminal margin Parens fibigerina

Parens fibigerina sp. nov.

Figs 1A, 2A, B

Type material

Holotype Female, Korea, Donghae-si, GW, 12.viii.2021 (BK Byun), gen. slide no. HNUSEL-6442-coll. HNUSEL.


This species is distinguished from P. occi by the shape of the signum in the corpus bursae. In P. occi, the cross-shaped signum in the corpus bursae, while P. fibigerina has a triangular signum. Additionally, the P. fibigerina has the forewing with a more rounded apex, a whitish-beige ground color, and a terminal margin covered with more blackish scales. The hindwing is grayish with mixed black scales. Also, the new species is distinguished from P. chekiangi Fibiger, 1911 by characters of the 8th abdominal segment and the shape of the signum. The new species has the 8th abdominal segment is 2/3 length of the posterior apophyses and is well sclerotized. The antrum is strongly sclerotized. The new species has a triangular signum in the corpus bursae, while in P. chekiangi has a cross-shaped signum.


Adult (Fig. 1A). Wingspan 11 mm. Head bend down, black; antenna filiform, black; frons rounded; labial palps porrect. Thorax and abdomen with sparse scales, beige; A8–10 dark brown. Forewing ground color whitish beige, with black line from base to costal margin; base with half-round, blackish patch; apex rounded and with four yellowish blotches; antemedial and postmedial lines parallel, wavy, dark brown; spot reniform with whitish inner area and light brown outline. Hindwing ground color grayish brown, mixed black, and outline slightly curved to inner side with many cilia.

Figure 1. 

Adults of Parens A P. fibigerina sp. nov. (gen. slide no. HNUSEL_6442) B P. occi (gen. slide no. HNUSEL_5931) Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Male genitalia. Unknown.

Female genitalia (Fig. 2A, B). Papillae anales normal shape, rounded apex, with many short hairs, and well sclerotized. Posterior apophyses length equal to papillae anales ; anterior apophyses extremely short. Ostium bursae placed in the median of abdomen. Antrum short, strongly sclerotized. Ductus bursae long, almost straight, narrow, membranous, and dilated at junction to corpus bursae (ca twice as broad as main tube). Corpus bursae globular and membranous, with triangular signum positioned slightly to left. Signum strongly sclerotized at base; upper side rather weakly sclerotized.

Figure 2. 

Male and female genitalia of Korean Parens species A ♀, P. fibigerina sp. nov., holotype (gen. slide no. HNUSEL_6442) B ditto, signum C ♂, P. occi (gen. slide no. HNUSEL_5931, 5937) D ♀, P. occi (gen. slide no. HNUSEL_6958) E ditto, signum. Scale bars: 0.1 mm.


Korea (endemic).


This new species is dedicated to the memory of Michael Fibiger, a Danish entomologist, who was a renowned researcher of the tribe Micronoctuini.

Parens occi (Fibiger & Kononenko, 2008)

Figs 1B, 2C–E

Micronoctua occi Fibiger & Kononenko, 2008: 52. TL: Russia, Primorye territory, Gornotaezhnoe.

Micronoctua sp.: Kononenko and Han 2007: 29.

Parens occi: Fibiger 2011: 19.

Parens occi: Lee and Byun 2022: 612.


Adult (Fig. 1B). Wingspan 10–12 mm. See Lee and Byun (2022).

Male genitalia (Fig. 2C). See Lee and Byun (2022).

Female genitalia (Fig. 2D, E). See Lee and Byun (2022).

Materials examined

[GG] 1♂, Mt. Bongmisan, 03.xi.2008 (BW Lee, SY Park, DH Kwon), genitalia slide no. HNUSEL-5936-coll. KNAE; [GW] 1♂, Girin-myeon, (BK Byun), genitalia slide no. HNUSEL-5931-coll. HNUSEL; 1♂, Yeongwol-gun, 26.viii.2021 (BK Byun), genitalia slide no. HNUSEL-6438-coll. HNUSEL; [CB] 2♂, Boeun-gun, 17.ix.2021 (BK Byun), genitalia slide no. HNUSEL-6309-coll. HNUSEL; Chungju-si, 10.vii.2020 (BK Byun), genitalia slide no. HNUSEL-6437-coll. HNUSEL; [DJ] 1♀, Masan-dong, 9.viii.2022 (BK Byun), genitalia slide no. HNUSEL-6958-coll. HNUSEL; [JN] 3♂, Isl. Jindo, (BK Byun), genitalia slide no. HNUSEL-6763, 6913, 6914-coll. HNUSEL; [JJ] 1♂, Sanghyo-dong, 01.viii.2018 (BK Byun), genitalia slide no. HNUSEL-5937-coll. HNUSEL.


Korea, China, Japan, Russia (Russian Far East).


This species was reported first time from Korea by Kononenko and Han (2007).


We thank to Dr Thomas Pape and Dr Ole Karsholt for opportunity of a visiting study on the Hypenodinae and allied groups in Natural History Museum of Denmark.

Additional information

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Ethical statement

No ethical statement was reported.


This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIBR202333201).

Author contributions

Conceptualization: BKB. Data curation: JYL. Investigation: JYL. Visualization: JYL. Writing - original draft: JYL. Writing - review and editing: BKB.

Author ORCIDs

Ji-Young Lee

Bong-Kyu Byun

Data availability

All of the data that support the findings of this study are available in the main text.


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