Research Article
Print
Research Article
Review of the genus Craspedolcus Enderlein sensu lato in China, with the description of a new genus and four new species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae)
expand article infoYang Li, Cornelis van Achterberg§, Xue-xin Chen|
‡ Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
§ Northwest University, Xi’an, China
| Zhejiang University, Hangzhou , China
Open Access

Abstract

A new genus is split off the genus Craspedolcus Enderlein, 1920 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae): Maculibracon gen. n. with type species Maculibracon abruptus sp. n. The genus Craspedolcus Enderlein sensu stricto is redefined, a key to both genera and to their species in China, Thailand and Vietnam is included. Craspedolcus obscuriventris Enderlein, 1920, (syn. n.) is a new synonym of C. vagatus (Smith, 1858), as Ipobracon maculicosta Enderlein, 1920 and Iphiaulax bhotanensis Cameron, 1907 of Maculibracon simlaensis (Cameron, 1899), comb. n. The genus Craspedolcus is recorded from China for the first time with two species: Craspedolcus fraternus Enderlein, 1920, and C. politus sp. n. The genus Maculibracon is represented by three species in China: M. simlaensis (Cameron, 1899), comb. n. (also present in Vietnam), M. hei sp. n. and M. luteonervis sp. n. and a fourth species is described from Thailand: M. abruptus sp. n. Hybogaster zebripterae Wang & Chen, 2008, from China (Fujian) is transferred to Iphiaulax Foerster, 1863, (comb. n.) and the following names are new combinations in Maculibracon gen. n.: Bracon lepcha Cameron, 1899; B. phaedo Cameron, 1899; B. simlaensis Cameron, 1899; Iphiaulax bhotanensis Cameron, 1907; I. laertius Cameron, 1903; I. leptopterus Cameron, 1903; I. lineaticarinatus Cameron, 1907; Ipobracon lissotomus Roman, 1914; I. maculicosta Enderlein, 1920 and I. pallidicornis Roman, 1914. Craspedolcus montezuma (Cameron, 1887) is provisionally transferred to the genus Digonogastra Viereck, 1912.

Keywords

Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae, Craspedolcus, Maculibracon, new genus, new species, Oriental, China, Thailand, Vietnam

Introduction

Craspedolcus Enderlein, 1920 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae) is an Oriental and Wallacean genus that neither has been revised nor has its type species fully illustrated. Quicke (1985) redescribed the genus and gives a list of species belonging to it, later augmented by Quicke and van Achterberg (1990). In the Taxapad database 18 species are listed as valid (Yu et al. 2016). The only included New World species, C. montezuma (Cameron, 1887) from Mexico, was transferred by Enderlein (1920) from Iphiaulax Foerster, 1863, to Craspedolcus but is here excluded. The short description does not give a clue why it should be included in Craspedolcus except for “the centre [of first tergite] with a keel down the middle”. A median keel at the middle of the first tergite occurs also in other genera, and a similar species described in the same paper (Iphiaulax chontalensis) has been transferred to Digonogastra Viereck, 1912. Most likely C. montezuma belongs to the latter genus and is here excluded from Craspedolcus. Based on the original descriptions of the remaining species three are synonyms: C. obscuriventris Enderlein, 1920 (syn. n.) of C. vagatus (Smith, 1858), and Ipobracon maculicosta Enderlein, 1920 (syn. n.) and Iphiaulax bhotanensis Cameron, 1907 (syn. n.) of Bracon simlaensis Cameron, 1899. Iphiaulax bhotanensis was already informally synonymised with B. simlaensis by Yu et al. (2016). It results in 15 valid species of Craspedolcus s. lat. with a general distribution from Myanmar, Bhutan and India, Sundanese islands, Sulawesi up to the Philippines. So far Craspedolcus s. lat. is unknown from China, but among the Braconinae in the collection of the Institute of Zoology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Beijing) five species were found originating from southern China. The variation in the genus as defined by Quicke (1987) is extreme and the genus is likely polyphyletic after the recognition of Serraulax Quicke, 1987, as a separate genus. The latter genus is more similar to one part of the genus than to the other. Two very similar, but well separable genera are present in China: Craspedolcus s. str. and a new genus, Maculibracon gen. n. The latter genus was also found by the second author among material from Vietnam and Thailand deposited in the collection of Naturalis Biodiversity Center (Leiden). The biology of the new species is unknown, but members of the related genus Campyloneurus Szépligeti, 1900, are koinobiont endoparasitoids of larvae of Cerambycidae and Pyralidae. For the recognition of the subfamily Braconinae, see van Achterberg (1990, 1993) and for the terminology used in this paper, see van Achterberg (1988). For additional references see Yu et al. (2016).

Materials and methods

The terminology and measurements used follow van Achterberg (1988, 1993). The following abbreviations are used: POL = postocellar line; OOL = ocular-ocellar line; OD = maximum diameter of lateral ocellus. The stigmal spot of the fore wing is the dark spot below the parastigma (Figs 1, 15). The medial length of the third metasomal tergite is measured from the posterior border of the second suture to the posterior margin of the tergite.

Figures 1–13.

Craspedolcus trisulcatus Enderlein, ♀, lectotype. 1 wings 2 head dorsal 3 detail of vein 1-SR of fore wing 4 head anterior 5 first–third metasomal tergites dorsal 6 hind leg lateral 7 mesosoma dorsal 8, outer hind claw lateral 9 habitus lateral 10 apex of ovipositor lateral 11 ovipositor 12 scapus outer side lateral 13 antenna lateral. 1, 6, 9, 11, 13: scale-line (= 1 ×); 2–5, 7: 2 ×; 8, 10, 12: 5 ×.

Photographs were made with a Keyence VHX-2000 digital microscope and the photos were slightly processed (mainly cropped and the background modified) in Photoshop CC. For the descriptions and measurements a Leica M125 stereomicroscope was used. The specimens are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (IZCAS) and in Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden (RMNH). An asterisk indicates a new record for the country.

Results

Key to Craspedolcus auctt. in China, Vietnam and Thailand

1 Scapus elongate, 2.6–2.9 times longer ventrally than its maximum width (Figs 12, 26, 41); third and fourth tergites with transverse subposterior groove (Figs 5, 9); median carina of first tergite low (Figs 5, 9); antero-lateral areas of second tergite large and touching large medio-basal area (Figs 5, 19, 33); surroundings of vein cu-a of hind wing setose; vein cu-a of fore wing subinterstitial (Fig. 1) or shortly postfurcal and perpendicular (Fig. 15); median carina of second tergite shorter and weak (Fig. 5); propodeum flat posteriorly in lateral view (Figs 9, 25, 40); vein 1r-m of hind wing shorter than vein SC+R1 (Fig. 1); antero-lateral grooves of third tergite medium-sized and remaining far removed from each other (Figs 5, 19, 33); hypopygium long and acute apically, reaching level of apex of metasoma (Figs 9, 14); second metasomal tergite below basal smooth areas densely striate (Figs 19, 33); medial area of first tergite gradually lowered anteriorly (Figs 9, 25, 40); Craspedolcus Enderlein, 1920 s. str. 2
Scapus stout, 1.5–2.2 times longer than its maximum width (Figs 49, 66, 74, 91); third and fourth tergites without transverse subposterior groove (Figs 47, 60, 72, 85); median carina of first metasomal tergite high anteriorly (Figs 55, 60); antero-lateral areas of second tergite minute and remaining from small medio-basal area (Figs 47, 60, 72, 85); surroundings of vein cu-a of hind wing glabrous; vein cu-a of fore wing distinctly postfurcal and inclivous (Figs 43, 56, 68, 81); median carina of second tergite long and high (Figs 47, 60, 72, 85); propodeum medio-posteriorly more or less protruding in lateral view (Figs 53, 65, 78, 90); oblique antero-lateral grooves of third tergite long and almost meeting submedially (Figs 47, 60, 72, 85); hypopygium medium-sized and subtruncate apically, not reaching level of apex of metasoma (Figs 55, 67); second metasomal tergite below basal smooth areas smooth (Figs 47, 60, 72, 85); medial area of first tergite steep anteriorly (Figs 53, 65, 78, 90)...Maculibracon gen. n 3
2 Anterior half of second metasomal tergite more or less longitudinally striate behind smooth basal areas (Fig. 19); stigmal spot medium-sized, not or hardly intruding into first discal cell of fore wing (Fig. 15); Sumatra, *China (Yunnan) Craspedolcus fraternus Enderlein, 1920
Anterior half of second metasomal tergite smooth, at most with some short striae near basal areas (Fig. 33); stigmal spot large, intruding into cells of fore wing below parastigma (Fig. 29); *China (Hainan) Craspedolcus politus sp. n.
3 Propodeum medio-posteriorly with smooth protuberance in lateral view (Figs 78, 90); scapus mainly yellowish brown (except for dark brown stripe on outer side) and similar to colour of head in dorsal view, rather slender and less protruding ventrally (Figs 74, 91); head less narrowed posteriorly (Figs 76, 88); medial area of first tergite low anteriorly (Figs 78, 90); slightly infuscate apical area of fore wing wide, and rather close to vein 1r-m (Figs 68, 81); stigmal spot often larger, at least up to middle of first discal cell (Figs 68, 81) 4
Propodeum medio-posteriorly with ribbed protuberance in lateral view (Figs 53, 65); scapus dark brown or blackish, darker than head in dorsal view, rather stout and more protruding ventrally (Figs 49, 66); head more narrowed posteriorly (Figs 51, 63); medial area of first tergite high anteriorly (Figs 53, 65); slightly infuscate apical area of fore wing narrow to medium-sized, remaining far from vein 1r-m (Figs 43, 56); stigmal spot smaller, up to dorsal third or half of first discal cell (Figs 43, 56) 5
4 Stigmal spot of fore wing larger and up to vein m-cu, enclosing nearly entire vein 1-SR+M (Fig. 81); pterostigma narrowly blackish apically (Fig. 81); medio-basal area of second tergite distinctly triangular (Fig. 85); vein 1-SR+M of fore wing dark brown (Fig. 81); Indonesia (Java), India, Bhutan, Myanmar, *Vietnam, *China (Hainan) Maculibracon simlaensis (Cameron, 1899), comb. n.
Stigmal spot of fore wing up to anterior half of first discal cell, enclosing 0.6 of vein 1-SR+M (Fig. 68); pterostigma yellow apically (Fig. 68); medio-basal area of second tergite nearly rhombic (Fig. 72); vein 1-SR+M of fore wing yellow (Fig. 68); *China (Yunnan) Maculibracon luteonervis sp. n.
5 Stigmal spot of fore wing smaller, up to anterior third of first discal cell (Fig. 56); pterostigma anteriorly dark brown (Fig. 56); medial area of first tergite gradually lowered anteriorly (Fig. 65); distal rim of fore wing distinctly infuscate and area wider (Fig. 56); medio-posterior protuberance of propodeum with two medium-sized round tubercles (Fig. 65); *China (Yunnan) Maculibracon hei sp. n.
Stigmal spot of fore wing larger, up to middle of first discal cell (Fig. 43); pterostigma anteriorly yellow (Fig. 43); medial area of first tergite steep anteriorly (Fig. 53); distal rim of fore wing only posteriorly narrowly infuscate (Fig. 43); medio-posterior protuberance of propodeum with small round tubercle anteriorly followed by two short transverse crests (Fig. 53); *Thailand Maculibracon abruptus sp. n.

Descriptions

Craspedolcus Enderlein, 1920, s. str.

Figs 1–13, 14, 15–27, 28, 29–41

Craspedolcus Enderlein, 1920: 92; Shenefelt 1978: 1673; Quicke 1985: 354–357 (group A), 1987: 108; Quicke and van Achterberg 1990: 252. Type species (by original designation): Craspedolcus trisulcatus Enderlein, 1920.

Diagnosis

Scapus elongate, 2.6–2.9 times longer ventrally than its maximum width and protruding ventrally, rounded subbasally (Figs 12, 26, 41) and inner side without distinct ledge apically; face evenly convex; propodeum flat medio-posteriorly in lateral view (Figs 9, 25, 40); vein 3-SR of fore wing 2.5–3.4 times vein 2-SR (Figs 1, 15, 29); vein 1r-m of hind wing shorter than vein SC+R1 (Figs 1, 16, 30); vein cu-a of fore wing subinterstitial (Figs 1, 29) or shortly postfurcal and perpendicular (Fig. 15); fore wing elongate (Figs 1, 15, 29); hind wing with 3–5 subbasal bristles; surroundings of vein cu-a of hind wing setose; median carina of first tergite low and medial area gradually lowered anteriorly in lateral view (Figs 5, 9, 25, 40); second metasomal tergite below basal smooth areas striate; antero-lateral areas of second tergite large and touching large medio-basal area (Figs 5, 19, 33); median carina of second tergite medium-sized and weak (Figs 5, 19, 33); antero-lateral grooves of third tergite medium-sized and remaining far removed from each other (Figs 5, 19, 33); maximum width of third tergite 2.4–4.1 times its medial length (Figs 5, 19, 33); third and fourth tergites with transverse subposterior groove (Figs 5, 9, often crenulate but smooth in Chinese spp.); fifth and sixth tergites largely exposed and flat; subapically upper valve of ovipositor with small nodus, its lower valve fully exposed and with small teeth ventrally (Figs 10, 21, 35); hypopygium long and acute apically, reaching level of apex of metasoma (Figs 9, 14, 28); ovipositor sheath with short setae and 0.7–1.0 times as long as body.

Figure 14.

Craspedolcus fraternus Enderlein, ♀, China (Yunnan), habitus lateral.

Figures 15–27.

Craspedolcus fraternus Enderlein, ♀, China (Yunnan). 15 fore wing 16 hind wing 17 mesosoma lateral 18 mesosoma dorsal 19 metasoma dorsal 20 hind leg lateral 21 apex of ovipositor lateral 22 head, anterior 23 head, dorsal 24 head lateral 25 propodeum lateral 26 scapus outer side lateral 27 apex of antenna.

Figure 28.

Craspedolcus politus sp. n., ♀, holotype, habitus lateral.

Figures 29–41.

Craspedolcus politus sp. n., ♀, holotype. 29 fore wing 30 hind wing 31 mesosoma lateral 32 mesosoma dorsal 33 metasoma dorsal 34 hind leg lateral 35 apex of ovipositor lateral 36 head anterior 37 head dorsal 38 apex of antenna 39 head dorsal 40 propodeum lateral 41 scapus outer side lateral.

Distribution

Oriental (India, *China, Philippines, Sundanese region) and Wallacea (Sulawesi).

Craspedolcus fraternus Enderlein, 1920

Figs 14, 15–27

Craspedolcus fraternus Enderlein, 1920: 92; Shenefelt 1978: 1673; Quicke and van Achterberg 1990: 252, 256 (lectotype designation).

Material

(6 ♀; IZCAS): 1 ♀, “[China:] Yunnan, Xishuangbanna, Meng’a, 1050–1080 m, 11.V.1958, Shuyong Wang, No. IOZ(E)1964633”; 1 ♀, “Yunnan, Xiaomengyang, 810 m, 31.III.1957, Shuyong Wang, No. IOZ(E)1964540”; 1 ♀, “Yunnan, Xishuangbanna, Mengla, 620–650 m, 15.XI.1958, Fuji Pu, No. IOZ(E)1964636”; 1 ♀, “Yunnan, Xishuangbanna, Menghai, 1200–1600 m, 16.VIII.1957, Lingchao Zang, No. IOZ(E)1964634”; 1 ♀, “Yunnan, Simao, Mt. Puwenlong, 950–1300 m, 11.V.1957, Dahua Liu, No. IOZ(E)1964544”; 1 ♀, “Yunnan, Xishuangbanna, Gannanba, 650 m, 20.III.1957, Shuyong Wang, No. IOZ(E)1964545”.

Diagnosis

Body and hind leg brownish yellow; pterostigma yellow, at most apically infuscate (Fig. 15); fore wing with a distinct but small stigmal spot near parastigma, not intruding into first discal cell of fore wing (Fig. 15) or slightly so; first tergite smooth except for its median carina (Fig. 19); anterior half of second metasomal tergite longitudinally striate (except for smooth basal areas; Fig. 19) and remainder of tergite smooth; third tergite smooth basally and its transverse subposterior groove smooth (Fig. 19); length of ovipositor sheath 0.8–1.0 times both length of body and of fore wing.

Craspedolcus fraternus and C. politus are the only species of Craspedolcus s. str. having the transverse subposterior groove and basal half of the third tergite smooth, the first tergite smooth, shiny and its median carina low, second tergite smooth posteriorly, and ovipositor sheath with yellowish setae. Craspedolcus fraternus has a smaller stigmal spot than C. politus (Fig. 15 versus Fig. 29) and the anterior half of the second tergite more extensively striate (Fig. 19 versus Fig. 33).

Variation. Length of body of female 9.5–14.4 mm, of fore wing of female 11.0–15.2 mm, and of ovipositor sheath 9.6–15.0 mm; antenna of female with 68 (1), 69 (2), 71 (1) segments; vein 3-SR of fore wing 2.4–2.9 times vein 2-SR; length of first tergite 1.2–1.3 times its apical width; length of ovipositor sheath 0.82–0.99 times fore wing; mesosoma and metasoma ventrally yellowish brown or infuscated; fore wing with irregular stigmal spot up to vein 1-SR+M or apical 0.2 of first submarginal cell; ventrally apex of scapus more or less yellowish; vein cu-a of fore wing interstitial or narrowly postfurcal; extent of apical infuscation of hind wing as figured (Fig. 16) or somewhat less; face colour similar to that of mesoscutum or distinctly paler; vein 1-SR+M of fore wing yellow or partly brown; fore tarsus 1.3–1.4 times as long as fore tibia; long ventral setae of scapus appressed or erect.

Distribution

Indonesia (Sumatra), *China (Yunnan).

Craspedolcus politus sp. n.

Figs 28, 29–41

Type material

Holotype, ♀ (IZCAS), “[China:] Hainan, Jianfengling, 4.V.1985, Maobin Gu, No. IOZ(E)1964586”. Paratypes (3 ♀; IZCAS): 1 ♀, same data as holotype, but No. IOZ(E)1964591; 1 ♀ id., 4.IV.1984, Youdong Lin, No. IOZ(E)1964590; 1 ♀, Hainan, [locality unknown], 8.VII.1982, Youdong Lin, No. IOZ(E)1964610.

Diagnosis

Body and hind leg yellowish brown; pterostigma yellow, but apically dark brown (Fig. 29); fore wing with stigmal spot up to vein CU1b, intruding in cells of fore wing below parastigma and included veins dark brown (Fig. 29); first tergite smooth except for its median carina and few striae (Fig. 33); second metasomal tergite smooth except for crenulae or short striae near outer side of antero-lateral areas and below nearly rhombical medio-basal area (Fig. 33); third tergite (including its transverse subposterior groove and both antero-lateral grooves) smooth (Fig. 33); length of ovipositor sheath 0.9 times body. For the separation from other species of Craspedolcus, see the diagnosis of C. fraternus Enderlein.

Description

Holotype, ♀, length of body 12.0 mm, of fore wing 12.8 mm, of ovipositor sheath 10.3 mm.

Head. Antenna 0.85 times as long as fore wing, with 71 segments; apical antennal segment with short spine, scapus slender, parallel-sided and distinctly protruding ventro-apically, with narrow indistinct apical ledge at inner side and basally gradually narrowed, its ventral setae erect (Figs 38, 41); third, fourth and penultimate segments 1.8, 1.2 and 1.1 times their maximum width, respectively; length of maxillary palp 0.8 times height of head; eye not emarginated (Fig. 36); face weakly and evenly convex, remotely finely punctate and with long erect yellowish setae; clypeus flat, superficially rugose, dorsally with weak carina and ventral margin thin and lamelliform protruding, with a row of long yellowish setae ventrally; hypoclypeal depression 0.5 times as wide as minimum width of face (Fig. 36); frons shallowly concave behind antennal sockets, with deep median groove, smooth except for a few punctures laterally (Fig. 36); vertex smooth except for few punctures and weakly convex, glabrous; OOL:diameter of posterior ocellus:POL = 30:7:5; in dorsal view length of eye 1.4 times temple; temples subparallel-sided behind eyes, with spaced setiferous punctures and long setae (Figs 37, 39); malar suture absent present and curved; length of malar space 0.8 times basal width of mandible; mandible twisted and with two wide teeth.

Mesosoma. Length of mesosoma 1.9 times its height (Fig. 31); side of pronotum shiny and smooth; propleuron with spaced punctures; pronotum vertical anteriorly and with a shallow groove and no antescutal depression; mesopleuron smooth and glabrous, anteriorly punctulate and sparsely setose; mesosternal sulcus smooth and narrow; metapleuron smooth and with long setae, convex; mesoscutum glabrous except some setae near notaulic courses, shiny and smooth; notauli shallowly impressed, smooth; scutellar sulcus present and with distinct fine crenulae; scutellum nearly flat anteriorly and smooth; side of scutellum smooth; metanotum medio-anteriorly with short carina, posteriorly evenly convex and smooth; propodeum smooth, with many long setae and evenly convex, medio-apically smooth in lateral view (Fig. 40).

Wings. Fore wing (Fig. 29): m-cu 0.8 times as long as 1-M; 1-SR+M sharply angled after arising from 1-M, 1.5 times as long as 1-M; 3-SR weakly curved, and SR1 straight; r:3-SR:SR1 = 6:36:41; 2-SR:3-SR:r-m = 13:35:13; r-m largely sclerotised; 1-CU1 widened and 0.06 times 2-CU1; cu-a vertical; CU1b narrower than 3-CU1. Hind wing (Fig. 30): with 4 coarse subbasal bristles on C+SC+R and with 3 hamuli on R1; SR weakly curved basally and marginal cell parallel-sided apically; subbasal cell near cu-a setose; 1r-m straight and 0.9 times as long as SC+R1; 2-SC+R 1.3 times longer than wide.

Legs. Tarsal claws simple and with long bristly setae ventrally; fore tarsus 1.5 times as long as fore tibia and tibia bristly setose and pimply anteriorly; length of femur, tibia and basitarsus of hind leg 4.2, 10.1 and 6.2 times their maximum width, respectively; hind tibia with dense appressed setae (Fig. 34); hind tibial spurs 0.3 and 0.4 times as long as hind basitarsus; inner side of hind tibia and tarsus densely bristly setose.

Metasoma. Length of first tergite 1.2 times its apical width, medial area low anteriorly, dorso-lateral carinae strongly developed, medial area smooth except for low median carina and few striae; second tergite largely smooth (including deep oblique anterior grooves) except for median carina connected to nearly rhombical medio-basal area and weak crenulae near medio-basal area and outer side of antero-lateral triangular areas (Fig. 33); second metasomal suture strongly crenulate, laterally narrowed and oblique; medially second tergite about as long as third tergite; maximum width of third tergite 3.5 times its medial length; third–fifth tergites smooth and with smooth transverse subposterior groove and antero-lateral grooves; ovipositor sheath 0.80 times as long as fore wing and 0.9 times body; hypopygium just surpassing apex of metasoma.

Colour. Yellowish brown; antenna (including entire scapus), mandible apically, stemmaticum, and ovipositor sheath dark brown or black; posterior half of mesosoma largely infuscate; apical 0.2 of pterostigma dark brown; remainder of pterostigma and wing membrane yellow, but fore wing with irregular stigmal spot up to vein CU1b, including dark brown veins 1-SR, 1-SR+M, m-cu and 3-CU1 and apically wings with wide infuscate area; remainder of veins brownish yellow (Figs 29, 30).

Variation. Length of body of female 10.4–12.0 mm, of fore wing of female 12.0–13.4 mm, and of ovipositor sheath 9.3–12.0 mm; antenna of female with 71 (2), 68 (1) segments; vein 3-SR of fore wing 2.6–3.0 times vein 2-SR; length of first tergite 1.2–1.3 times its apical width; length of ovipositor sheath 0.78–0.90 times fore wing; mesosoma and metasoma ventrally yellowish brown or infuscated; infuscate apical part of fore wing up to vein r-m or somewhat narrower; ventrally apex of scapus more or less yellowish vein cu-a of fore wing interstitial or narrowly postfurcal; fore tarsus 1.4–1.5 times as long as fore tibia; apical infuscation of hind wing as figured (Fig. 30) or somewhat wider; face colour similar to that of mesoscutum or paler.

Distribution

China (Hainan).

Etymology

Named “politus” (Latin for “made smooth”) because of the smooth transverse subposterior grooves of the metasoma and the smooth third tergite.

Maculibracon gen. n.

Figs 42, 43–54, 55, 56–66, 67, 68–79, 80, 81–91

Craspedolcus Enderlein, 1920: 92 (p.p.); Shenefelt 1978: 1673 (p.p.); Quicke 1985: 354–357 (group B), 1987: 108 (p.p.); Quicke and van Achterberg 1990: 252 (p.p.).

Type species

Maculibracon abruptus sp. n.

Diagnosis

Scapus stout, 1.5–2.2 times longer than its maximum width and protruding ventrally (Figs 49, 66, 74, 91), rounded subbasally and inner side at most with narrow ledge apically; face flattened medially; propodeum medio-posteriorly more or less protruding in lateral view (Figs 53, 65, 78, 90); vein 3-SR of fore wing 2.4–2.8 times vein 2-SR (Figs 43, 56, 68, 81); vein 1r-m of hind wing 1.0–1.6 times as long as vein SC+R1 (Figs 44, 57, 69, 82); vein 3-SR of fore wing 0.9 times as long as vein SR1 or longer (Figs 43, 56, 68, 81); hind wing with 4-5 subbasal bristles; vein cu-a of fore wing strongly postfurcal and inclivous (Figs 43, 56, 68, 81); fore wing elongate (Figs 43, 56, 68, 81); median carina of first tergite high and medial area steep anteriorly in lateral view (Figs 53, 65, 78, 90); second metasomal tergite below basal areas smooth; antero-lateral areas of second tergite minute and remaining from small medio-basal area (Figs 47, 60, 72, 85); median carina of second tergite long and high (Figs 47, 60, 72, 85); strongly oblique antero-lateral grooves of third tergite long and almost meeting submedially (Figs 47, 60, 72, 85); maximum width of third tergite 2.7–3.2 times its medial length (Figs 47, 60, 72, 85); third and fourth tergites without transverse subposterior groove (Figs 47, 60, 72, 85); fifth and sixth tergites largely exposed and flat; subapically upper valve of ovipositor with small nodus, its lower valve fully exposed and with small teeth ventrally (Figs 54, 79); hypopygium medium-sized and subtruncate apically, not reaching level of apex of metasoma (Figs 42, 55, 67, 80); ovipositor sheath narrow, with short yellowish setae and 0.4–0.8 times as long as body.

Figure 42.

Maculibracon abruptus sp. n., ♀, holotype, habitus lateral.

Figures 43–54.

Maculibracon abruptus sp. n., ♀, holotype. 43 fore wing 44 hind wing 45 mesosoma lateral 46 mesosoma dorsal 47 metasoma dorsal 48 hind leg lateral 49 scapus outer side lateral 50 head anterior 51 head dorsal 52 head lateral 53 propodeum lateral 54 apex of ovipositor lateral.

Figure 55.

Maculibracon hei sp. n., ♀, holotype, habitus lateral.

Figures 56–66.

Maculibracon hei sp. n., ♀, holotype. 56 fore wing 57 hind wing 58 mesosoma lateral 59 mesosoma dorsal 60 metasoma dorsal 61 hind leg lateral 62 head anterior 63 head dorsal 64 head lateral 65 propodeum lateral 66 scapus outer side lateral.

Figure 67.

Maculibracon luteonervis sp. n., ♀, holotype, habitus lateral.

Figures 68–79.

Maculibracon luteonervis sp. n., ♀, holotype. 68 fore wing 69 hind wing 70 mesosoma lateral 71 mesosoma dorsal 72 metasoma dorsal 73 hind leg lateral 74 scapus outer side lateral 75 head anterior 76 head dorsal 77 head lateral 78 propodeum lateral 79 apex of ovipositor lateral.

Figure 80.

Maculibracon simlaensis (Cameron), ♀, Vietnam, habitus lateral.

Figures 81–91.

Maculibracon simlaensis (Cameron), ♀, Vietnam. 81 fore wing 82 hind wing 83 mesosoma lateral 84 mesosoma dorsal 85 metasoma dorsal 86 hind leg lateral 87 head anterior 88 head dorsal 89 head lateral 90 propodeum lateral 91 scapus outer side lateral.

Distribution

Oriental (India, Bhutan, Myanmar, *Thailand, *Vietnam, *China, Philippines, Sundanese region).

Etymology

Name derived from “macula” (Latin for “spot, mark”) and the generic name Bracon, because of the conspicuous dark spot of the fore wing. Gender: masculine.

Notes

Quicke (1985) already indicated that Craspedolcus was heterogeneous; he divided the genus in two groups. Group A includes the type species (= Craspedolcus s. str.) and group B is described in this paper as new genus. The new genus is similar to the Afrotropical genus Serraulax Quicke, 1987, but differs by having the inner apex of scapus simple or with a minor ledge (versus with moderately wide ledge formed by a false margin in Serraulax), vein 1r-m of hind wing about as long as vein SC+R1 (versus distinctly longer), vein 2-SC+R of hind wing hardly longer than wide (versus distinctly longer than wide), vein cu-a of fore wing distinctly inclivous (versus more or less perpendicular), median carina of first tergite present anteriorly (versus absent anteriorly), second tergite smooth (versus distinctly longitudinally striate) and third tergite without subposterior transverse groove (versus with subposterior groove present).

Some species of the genus Hybogaster Szépligeti, 1906, are very similar to the new genus (e.g. first tergite with strong median carina and medial area protuberant anteriorly, wings elongate and mainly yellow, and fore wing with a dark stigmal spot). They differ by having the second tergite spaced longitudinally striate, the scapus short ovoid and not protruding ventrally, antero-lateral grooves of third tergite subvertical and indistinct because of the depression near it, vein 1-SR+M of fore wing straight or nearly so and upper valve of ovipositor without subapical nodus, depressed and covering the narrow and ventrally smooth lower valve. The genus Hybogaster remains unknown from China; the holotype of the only reported species, Hybogaster zebripterae Wang & Chen, 2008, from China (Fujian) has been examined and proved to belong to Iphiaulax Foerster, 1863, comb. n.

The following names form new combinations in Maculibracon gen. n.: Bracon lepcha Cameron, 1899; B. phaedo Cameron, 1899; B. simlaensis Cameron, 1899; Iphiaulax bhotanensis Cameron, 1907; I. laertius Cameron, 1903; I. leptopterus Cameron, 1903; I. lineaticarinatus Cameron, 1907; Ipobracon lissotomus Roman, 1914; I. maculicosta Enderlein, 1920, and I. pallidicornis Roman, 1914.

Maculibracon abruptus sp. n.

Figs 42, 43–54

Type material

Holotype, ♀ (RMNH), “Peninsular Thailand, NW [of] Phuket, Nai Yang, 26.II-4.III.[20]07, [S.] Risch”.

Diagnosis

Entire scapus dark brown, rather stout and rather protruding ventrally; head distinctly narrowed posteriorly (Fig. 51); pterostigma entirely yellow; stigmal spot of fore wing rather large, up to middle of first discal cell (Fig. 43); wing membrane of fore wing yellow distally only posteriorly narrowly infuscate remaining far from vein 1r-m (Fig. 43); medio-posterior protuberance of propodeum with small round tubercle anteriorly followed by two short transverse crests, ribbed in lateral view (Fig. 53); medial area of first tergite high and steep anteriorly (Fig. 53); body and hind leg brownish yellow; length of ovipositor sheath 0.5 times fore wing and 0.6 times body. Similar to M. leptopterus (Cameron, 1903) because of dark scapus, stigmal spot up to middle of first discal cell and anteriorly steep medial area of first tergite. The new species differs by the longer ovipositor sheath (0.7 times versus 0.4 times in M. leptopterus according to the original description), the sculpture of the second metasomal tergite (absent versus crenulate or striate near smooth antero-lateral areas), colour of the setae of the face (yellow versus fuscous), the shape of the medio-posterior protuberance of the propodeum (posteriorly with two short transverse crests versus no crests) and the colour of the pterostigma (yellow apically versus dark brown).

Description

Holotype, ♀, length of body 14.5 mm, of fore wing 16.2 mm, of ovipositor sheath 8.7 mm.

Head. Antenna incomplete, with 60 segments remaining; scapus rather stout, 1.6 times longer than wide and distinctly emarginated apically, slightly longer ventrally than dorsally in lateral view, with a narrow apical ledge at inner side and gradually narrowed basally (Fig. 49); third and fourth segments 1.5 and 0.9 times their maximum width, respectively; length of maxillary palp as long as the height of head; inner side of eye not emarginated but slightly sinuate (Fig. 50); face moderately convex but flattened medially and medio-dorsally with weak median crest, sparsely punctate, and with long erect setae; clypeus flat, nearly smooth, dorsally with coarse curved carina and ventral margin thin and lamelliform, with few long setae ventrally; hypoclypeal depression 0.4 times as wide as minimum width of face (Fig. 50); frons shallowly concave behind antennal sockets, smooth, except for a rather shallow median groove (Fig. 50); vertex smooth, except for with some shallow setiferous punctures with long setae and shiny; stemmaticum distinctly protruding; OOL:diameter of posterior ocellus:POL = 31:15:9; in dorsal view length of eye 2.1 times temple; temples linearly narrowed behind eyes, with some long setae, punctate dorsally and sparsely punctate ventrally (Fig. 51, 52); malar suture shallow, curved; length of malar space 0.8 times basal width of mandible; mandible twisted, both teeth robust and subequal.

Mesosoma. Length of mesosoma 1.7 times its height; side of pronotum shiny and smooth (Fig. 45); propleuron with spaced punctures; pronotum vertical anteriorly, with a shallow pronope and groove and narrow antescutal depression; mesopleuron smooth and glabrous, except for an oblique band with punctures and short setae; mesosternal sulcus smooth and narrow; metapleuron smooth and with long setae, convex; mesoscutum glabrous except some setae near notaulic courses, shiny and smooth; notauli smooth, only distinct anteriorly and medially shallowly impressed; scutellar sulcus present and with distinct fine crenulae; scutellum distinctly convex and smooth except for some punctures; side of scutellum smooth; metanotum medio-anteriorly with short carina, posteriorly evenly convex and smooth; propodeum distinctly remotely punctate, with long setae, evenly convex but medio-posteriorly with protuberance consisting of small round tubercle anteriorly followed by two short transverse crests (Fig. 46), ribbed in lateral view (Fig. 53).

Wings. Fore wing (Fig. 43): m-cu 0.8 times as long as 1-M; 1-SR+M weakly bent subbasally 1.3 times as long as 1-M; 3-SR weakly curved, and SR1 straight; r:3-SR:SR1 = 10:56:46; 2-SR:3-SR:r-m = 20:54:20; r-m largely sclerotised; 1-CU1 slightly widened and 0.14 times 2-CU1; cu-a weakly inclivous; CU1b nearly as wide as 3-CU1. Hind wing (Fig. 44): with 4 coarse subbasal bristles on C+SC+R and with 3 hamuli on R1; SR weakly curved basally and marginal cell parallel-sided apically; area near cu-a glabrous; 1r-m straight and 1.6 times as long as SC+R1; 2-SC+R as wide as long.

Legs. Tarsal claws simple and with long bristly setae ventrally; length of femur, tibia and basitarsus of hind leg 5.0, 12.0 and 7.3 times their maximum width, respectively; hind tibia with dense and rather appressed setae; hind tibial spurs 0.3 and 0.4 times as long as hind basitarsus; inner side of hind tibia and tarsus densely bristly setose (Fig. 48).

Metasoma. Length of first tergite 1.3 times its apical width, dorso-lateral carinae strongly developed, medial area smooth except for high median carina and medial area steep anteriorly (Figs 47, 53); second tergite smooth (including deep oblique anterior grooves) except strong median carina connected to minute triangular medio-basal area, antero-lateral triangular areas large (Fig. 47); second metasomal suture strongly crenulated, laterally narrowed and weakly up curved; medially second tergite 1.6 times longer than third tergite; maximum width of third tergite 3.0 times its medial length; third–fifth tergites smooth and without transverse subposterior groove and with long antero-lateral grooves; ovipositor sheath 0.54 times as long as fore wing and 0.6 times body; hypopygium ending just anterior of apex of metasoma.

Colour. Yellowish brown; antenna (but small part of scapus brown) and mandible apically dark brown; ovipositor sheath blackish with yellow setae; stigmal spot medium-sized, up to dorsal third of first discal cell (Fig. 43); veins yellow except dark brown basal half of 1-SR+M and most of 1-SR; wing membrane yellow, except for stigmal spot and infuscate narrow apical margin (Figs 43, 44).

Distribution

*Thailand.

Etymology

Named after the medio-anterior steep part of the first tergite: “abruptus” is Latin for “steep”.

Maculibracon hei sp. n.

Figs 55, 56–66

Type material

Holotype, ♀ (IZCAS), “[China:] Yunnan, Lancang, 1000 m, 30.VII.1957, Lingchao Zang, No. IOZ(E)1964638”.

Diagnosis

Entire scapus dark brown or black, rather stout and more protruding ventrally; head rather directly narrowed posteriorly (Fig. 63); stigmal spot rather small, up to anterior third of first discal cell (Fig. 56); wing membrane yellow with slightly infuscate apical area of fore wing medium-sized, but remaining far from vein 1r-m (Figs 56, 57); pterostigma anteriorly dark brown and remainder yellow; medio-posterior protuberance of propodeum with two medium-sized round tubercles, ribbed in lateral view (Fig. 65); medial area of first tergite high anteriorly and gradually lowered basally (Figs 60, 65); body and hind leg brownish yellow; length of ovipositor sheath 0.6 times fore wing and 0.7 times body. Similar to M. leptopterus (Cameron, 1903) because of dark scapus and medium-sized stigmal spot. The new species differs by the longer ovipositor sheath (0.7 times versus 0.4 times in M. leptopterus according to the original description), the sculpture of the second metasomal tergite (absent versus crenulate or striate near smooth antero-lateral areas), colour of the setae of the face (yellow versus fuscous), the size of the stigmal spot (up to anterior third of first discal cell (versus up to middle of cell) and the colour of the pterostigma (anteriorly dark brown versus yellow except dark brown apex).

Description

Holotype, ♀, length of body 17.2 mm, of fore wing 17.8 mm, of ovipositor sheath 11.2 mm.

Head. Antenna incomplete, left antenna with 83 segments remaining, right antenna with 67 segments remaining; scapus rather stout, 1.5 times longer than wide and distinctly emarginate apically, longer ventrally than dorsally in lateral view, with a narrow apical ledge at inner side and gradually narrowed basally (Fig. 66); third and fourth segments 1.7 and 1.1 times their maximum width, respectively; length of maxillary palp as long as height of head; inner side of eye not emarginated but slightly sinuate (Fig. 63); face moderately convex but flattened medially and medio-dorsally with weak median crest, coarsely and densely punctate, and with long erect setae; clypeus flat, rugose, dorsally with coarse curved carina and ventral margin thin and lamelliform, with few long setae ventrally; hypoclypeal depression 0.3 times as wide as minimum width of face (Fig. 62); frons shallowly concave behind antennal sockets, rugose, with a rather shallow median groove (Fig. 62); vertex smooth, with few long setae and shiny; stemmaticum distinctly protruding; OOL:diameter of posterior ocellus:POL = 25:10:8; in dorsal view length of eye 2.3 times temple; temples directly narrowed behind eyes, with some long setae, punctate dorsally and sparsely punctate ventrally (Fig. 63, 64); malar suture shallow, curved; length of malar space 0.8 times basal width of mandible; mandible twisted, both teeth robust and subequal.

Mesosoma. Length of mesosoma 1.8 times its height (Fig. 58); side of pronotum shiny and smooth; propleuron with spaced punctures; pronotum vertical anteriorly, with a shallow pronope and groove and narrow antescutal depression; mesopleuron smooth and glabrous, except for an oblique band with punctures and short setae; mesosternal sulcus smooth and narrow; metapleuron smooth and with long setae, convex; mesoscutum glabrous except some setae near notaulic courses, shiny and smooth; notauli smooth, only distinct anteriorly and medially shallowly impressed; scutellar sulcus present and with distinct fine crenulae; scutellum distinctly convex and smooth except for some very sparse punctulation; side of scutellum smooth; metanotum medio-anteriorly with short carina, posteriorly evenly convex and smooth; propodeum distinctly remotely punctate, with long setae, evenly convex but medio-posteriorly with protuberance consisting of small medium-sized round tubercles anteriorly followed by two short transverse crests (Fig. 59), ribbed in lateral view (Fig. 65).

Wings. Fore wing (Fig. 56): m-cu 0.6 times as long as 1-M; 1-SR+M angularly bent subbasally 1.2 times as long as 1-M; 3-SR weakly curved, and SR1 straight; r:3-SR:SR1 = 5:29:24; 2-SR:3-SR:r-m = 11:29:11; r-m largely sclerotised; 1-CU1 slightly widened and 0.17 times 2-CU1; cu-a weakly inclivous; CU1b nearly as wide as 3-CU1. Hind wing (Fig. 57): with 4 or 5 coarse subbasal bristles on C+SC+R and with 3 hamuli on R1; SR weakly curved basally and marginal cell subparallel-sided apically; area near cu-a glabrous; 1r-m straight and 1.3 times as long as SC+R1; 2-SC+R as wide as long.

Legs. Tarsal claws simple and with long bristly setae ventrally; length of femur, tibia and basitarsus of hind leg 5.2, 12.5 and 7.9 times their maximum width, respectively; hind tibia with dense and rather appressed setae; hind tibial spurs 0.3 and 0.4 times as long as hind basitarsus; inner side of hind tibia and tarsus densely bristly setose (Fig. 61).

Metasoma. Length of first tergite 1.3 times its apical width, dorso-lateral carinae strongly developed, medial area smooth except for high median carina and medial area steep anteriorly (Fig. 60, 65); second tergite smooth (including deep oblique anterior grooves) except strong median carina connected to minute triangular medio-basal area, antero-lateral triangular areas large (Fig. 60); second metasomal suture strongly crenulated, laterally narrowed and weakly up curved; medially second tergite 1.5 times longer than third tergite; maximum width of third tergite 2.7 times its medial length; third and fourth tergites with rather weakly median carina; third–fifth tergites smooth and without transverse subposterior groove and with long antero-lateral grooves; ovipositor sheath 0.63 times as long as fore wing and 0.65 times body; hypopygium ending just anterior of apex of metasoma (Fig. 55).

Colour. Yellowish brown; antenna (included scapus) and mandible apically dark brown; ovipositor sheath blackish with yellow setae; stigmal spot rather small, up to 0.4 anterior of first discal cell (Fig. 56); apical 0.2 of pterostigma dark brown and remainder yellow; veins yellow except dark brown basal half of 1-SR+M and most of 1-SR; wing membrane yellow, except for stigmal spot and slightly infuscate apical area of fore wing medium-sized, but remaining far from vein 1r-m (Figs 56, 57).

Distribution

*China (Yunnan).

Etymology

Named in honour of Prof. Dr Jun-hua He (Hangzhou) for his significant contribution to our knowledge of the Chinese Hymenoptera.

Maculibracon luteonervis sp. n.

Figs 67, 68–79

Type material

Holotype, ♀ (IZAS), “[China:] Yunnan, Xishuangbanna, Menghun, 750 m, 1.VI.1958, Yiran Zhang, No. IOZ(E)1964632”.

Diagnosis

Scapus mainly yellowish brown, except for dark brown stripe on outer side, rather slender and less protruding ventrally (Fig. 74); head roundly narrowed posteriorly (Fig. 76); propodeum medio-posteriorly with smooth protuberance in lateral view (Fig. 78); medial area of first tergite low anteriorly (Fig. 78); wing membrane yellow with slightly infuscate apical area of fore wing wide and rather close to vein 1r-m; stigmal spot of fore wing up to anterior half of first discal cell, enclosing 0.6 of vein 1-SR+M (Figs 68, 69); pterostigma entirely yellow (Fig. 68); medio-basal area of second tergite nearly rhombic (Fig. 72); vein 1-SR+M of fore wing yellow; body and hind leg brownish yellow; length of ovipositor sheath 0.8 times fore wing and 0.8 times body. Similar to M. laertius (Cameron, 1903) because of the yellowish scapus in dorsal view, medium-sized stigmal sport of the fore wing, anteriorly low medial area of the first tergite and the wide apical infuscate area of the fore wing. The new species differs by having the apex of the pterostigma yellow (versus dark brown in M. laertius), ovipositor sheath 0.8 times fore wing (versus about 0.4 times), stigmal spot nearly square (versus obliquely narrowed) and head gradually roundly narrowed posteriorly in dorsal view (versus obliquely narrowed).

Description

Holotype, ♀, length of body 17.1 mm, of fore wing 16.7 mm, of ovipositor sheath 13.0 mm.

Head. Antenna incomplete, left antenna with 75 segments remaining; scapus rather stout, 1.5 times longer than wide and distinctly emarginated apically, slightly longer ventrally than dorsally in lateral view, with a narrow apical ledge at inner side and gradually narrowed basally (Fig. 74); third and fourth segments 1.4 and 1.0 times their maximum width, respectively; length of maxillary palp as long as the height of head; inner side of eye not emarginated but slightly sinuate (Fig. 75); face moderately convex but flattened medially and medio-dorsally with weak median crest, densely punctate, and with long erect setae; clypeus flat, punctate, dorsally with coarse curved carina and ventral margin thin and lamelliform, with few long setae ventrally; hypoclypeal depression 0.4 times as wide as minimum width of face (Fig. 75); frons shallowly concave behind antennal sockets, smooth, except for a rather shallow median groove (Fig. 75); vertex smooth, with few long setae and shiny; stemmaticum distinctly protruding; OOL:diameter of posterior ocellus:POL = 24:9:8; in dorsal view length of eye 1.9 times temple; temples gradually roundly narrowed behind eyes, with some long setae, almost smooth dorsally and sparsely punctate ventrally (Figs 76, 77); malar suture shallow, curved; length of malar space 0.8 times basal width of mandible; mandible twisted, both teeth robust and subequal.

Mesosoma. Length of mesosoma 2.1 times its height (Fig. 70); side of pronotum shiny and smooth; propleuron with spaced punctures; pronotum vertical anteriorly, with a shallow pronope and groove and narrow antescutal depression; mesopleuron smooth and glabrous, except for an oblique band with punctures and short setae; mesosternal sulcus smooth and narrow; metapleuron smooth and with long setae, convex; mesoscutum glabrous except some setae near notaulic courses, shiny and smooth; notauli smooth, only distinct anteriorly and medially shallowly impressed; scutellar sulcus present and with distinct fine crenulae; scutellum distinctly convex and smooth except for some punctures; side of scutellum smooth; metanotum medio-anteriorly with short carina, posteriorly evenly convex and smooth; propodeum distinctly remotely punctate, with long setae, evenly convex but medio-posteriorly with one smooth protuberance (Fig. 71), ribbed in lateral view (Fig. 78).

Wings. Fore wing (Fig. 68): m-cu 0.8 times as long as 1-M; 1-SR+M angularly bent subbasally 1.4 times as long as 1-M; 3-SR weakly curved, and SR1 straight; r:3-SR:SR1 = 10:55:59; 2-SR:3-SR:r-m = 20:55:19; r-m largely sclerotised; 1-CU1 slightly widened and 0.18 times 2-CU1; cu-a weakly inclivous; CU1b nearly as wide as 3-CU1. Hind wing (Fig. 69): with 6 coarse subbasal bristles on C+SC+R and with 3 hamuli on R1; SR weakly curved basally and marginal cell parallel-sided apically; area near cu-a glabrous; 1r-m straight and 0.95 times as long as SC+R1; 2-SC+R twice longer than wide.

Legs. Tarsal claws simple and with long bristly setae ventrally; length of femur, tibia and basitarsus of hind leg 5.3, 10.0 and 7.9 times their maximum width, respectively; hind tibia with dense and rather appressed setae; one hind tibial spur 0.2 times as long as hind basitarsus, the other is broken; inner side of hind tibia and tarsus densely bristly setose (Fig. 73).

Metasoma. Length of first tergite 1.5 times its apical width, dorso-lateral carinae strongly developed, medial area smooth except for high median carina and medial area steep anteriorly (Figs 72, 78); second tergite smooth (including deep oblique anterior grooves) except strong median carina connected to minute nearly rhombic medio-basal area, antero-lateral triangular areas large (Fig. 72); second metasomal suture strongly crenulate, laterally narrowed and weakly up curved; medially second tergite 1.4 times longer than third tergite; maximum width of third tergite 2.7 times its medial length; third–fifth tergites smooth and without transverse subposterior groove and with long antero-lateral grooves; ovipositor sheath 0.78 times as long as fore wing and 0.76 times body; hypopygium ending just anterior of apex of metasoma (Fig. 67).

Colour. Brownish yellow; antenna (scapus mainly yellowish brown, except for dark brown stripe on outer side) and mandible apically dark brown; ovipositor sheath blackish with yellow setae; stigmal spot medium-sized, up to anterior half of first discal cell, enclosing 0.6 of vein 1-SR+M (Fig. 68); veins yellow (included 1-SR+M) except dark brown basal half of 1-SR; pterostigma entirely yellow (Fig. 68); wing membrane yellow, with slightly infuscate apical area of fore wing wide and rather close to vein 1r-m (Figs 68, 69).

Distribution

*China (Yunnan).

Etymology

Named after the yellow vein 1-SR+M of the fore wing, contrasting with the dark brown surrounding stigmal spot. “Luteus” is Latin for “yellow” and “nervus” for “sinew, vein”.

Maculibracon simlaensis (Cameron, 1899), comb. n.

Figs 80, 81–91

Bracon simlaensis Cameron, 1899: 65–66.

Iphiaulax simlaensis; Baltazar 1972: 273 (lectotype designation); Shenefelt 1978: 1795.

Craspedolcus simlaensis; Quicke 1985: 357; van Achterberg and O’Toole 1993: 37.

Bracon lepcha Cameron, 1899: 69–68.

Iphiaulax lepcha; Baltazar 1972: 272; Shenefelt 1978: 1776.

Craspedolcus lepcha; Quicke 1985: 356; van Achterberg and O’Toole 1993: 24 (as synonym of Craspedolcus simlaensis (Cameron, 1899)).

Iphiaulax bhotanensis Cameron, 1907: 4; Dover 1925: 40 (as synonym of Iphiaulax lepcha (Cameron, 1899); Shenefelt 1978: 1776. Syn. n.

Craspedolcus bhotanensis; Quicke 1985: 357.

Ipobracon maculicosta Enderlein, 1920: 71–72; Shenefelt 1978: 1824. Syn. n.

Craspedolcus maculicosta; Quicke and van Achterberg 1990: 252, 259 (lectotype designation).

Material

(2 ♀; IZCAS): 1 ♀, “[China:] Hainan, Ledong, 26.VIII.1984, Zhiqing Chen, No. IOZ(E)1964588”; 1 ♀, “Hainan, Jianfengling, 13.V.1984, Maobin Gu, No. IOZ(E)1964589”; 1 ♀ (RMNH), “C. Vietnam: Thua Thien Hué, Phong Dién N. R., n[ea]r base-camp, 50-100 m, 25.iii.2001, C. v. Achterberg, RMNH’01”.

Diagnosis

Scapus mainly yellowish brown, except for dark brown stripe on outer side, rather slender, twice as long as wide and less protruding ventrally (Fig. 91); head less narrowed posteriorly (Fig. 88); propodeum medio-posteriorly with smooth protuberance in lateral view (Fig. 90); wing membrane yellow except wide and slightly infuscate apical area of fore wing, rather close to vein 1r-m; stigmal spot of fore wing up to vein m-cu, enclosing nearly entire vein 1-SR+M (Figs 81, 82); vein 1-SR+M of fore wing dark brown; pterostigma narrowly blackish apically and remainder yellow (Fig. 81); medial area of first tergite low anteriorly (Figs 85, 90); medio-basal area of second tergite distinctly triangular (Fig. 85); body and hind leg brownish yellow; length of ovipositor sheath 0.7 times fore wing and 0.7 times body.

Variation. Length of body of female 16.7–19.2 mm, of fore wing of female 16.3–18.5 mm, and of ovipositor sheath 11.2–12.5 mm; antenna of female with 83 (1), 95 (1) segments; apical antennal segment with short spine; penultimate segment 1.1–1.2 times their maximum width; vein 3-SR of fore wing 2.4–2.5 times vein 2-SR; length of first tergite 1.4–1.7 times its apical width; length of ovipositor sheath 0.68–0.69 times fore wing; mesosoma and metasoma ventrally yellowish brown or infuscated.

Distribution

India, Bhutan, Myanmar, Indonesia (Java), *Vietnam, *China (Hainan).

Acknowledgements

The second author thanks the staff of the Instytut Zoologii of the Polish Academy of Sciences (Warsaw) for the loan of the lectotype of Craspedolcus trisulcatus and help during his visit to Łom, and Mrs Hong Liu (IZCAS) for the loan of specimens. This research was supported by the State Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (31230068), 973 Program (2013CB127600), the National Special Basic Research Funds (2011FY120200-2-8), and the Fund for Innovative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31321063).

References

  • Baltazar CR (1972) Reclassification of some Indo-Australian and African Braconinae and Rogadinae (Braconidae, Hymenoptera). Philippine Journal of Science 98(1969): 259–277.
  • Cameron P (1899) Hymenoptera Orientalia, or contributions to a knowledge of the Hymenoptera of the Oriental Zoological Region. Part VIII. The Hymenoptera of the Khasia Hills. First paper. Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society 43(3): 1–220.
  • Dover C (1925) Synonymie und neue Fundorte der Braconiden Indiens. Entomologische Mitteilungen 14(1): 39–40.
  • Quicke DLJ (1985) Redescription of Craspedolcus with notes on included species and related genera (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Oriental Insects 18(1984): 354–360.
  • Quicke DLJ, van Achterberg C (1990) The type specimens of Enderlein’s Braconinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) housed in Warsaw. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 133: 251–264.
  • Shenefelt RD (1978) Braconidae 10. Braconinae, Gnathobraconinae, Mesostoinae, Pseudodicrogeniinae, Telengainae, Ypsistocerinae, plus Braconidae in general, major groups, unplaced genera and species. Hymenopterorum Catalogus (nova editio) 15: 1425–1872.
  • van Achterberg C (1988) Revision of the subfamily Blacinae Foerster (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Zoologische Verhandelingen Leiden 249: 1–324.
  • van Achterberg C (1990) Illustrated key to the subfamilies of the Holarctic Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). Zoologische Mededelingen Leiden 64: 1–20.
  • van Achterberg C (1993) Illustrated key to the subfamilies of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). Zoologische Verhandelingen Leiden 283: 1–189.
  • van Achterberg C, O’Toole C (1993) Annotated catalogue of the types of Braconidae (Hymenoptera) in the Oxford University Museum. Zoologische Verhandelingen Leiden 287: 1–48.
  • Yu DS, van Achterberg C, Horstmann K (2016) Taxapad 2016, Ichneumonoidea 2015. Database on flash-drive. www.taxapad.com, Nepean, Ontario, Canada.