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Annotated checklist of fish cestodes from South America
expand article infoPhilippe V. Alves, Alain de Chambrier§, Tomáš Scholz|, José L. Luque
‡ Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Brazil
§ Natural History Museum of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
| Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, České Budějovice, Czech Republic
¶ Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, Brazil
Open Access

Abstract

An exhaustive literature search supplemented by a critical examination of records made it possible to present an annotated checklist of tapeworms (Cestoda) that, as adults or larvae (metacestodes), parasitize freshwater, brackish water and marine fishes, i.e. cartilaginous and bony fishes, in South America. The current knowledge of their species diversity, host associations and geographical distribution is reviewed. Taxonomic problems are discussed based on a critical evaluation of the literature and information on DNA sequences of individual taxa is provided to facilitate future taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. As expected, the current knowledge is quite uneven regarding the number of taxa and host-associations reported from the principal river basins and marine ecoregions. These differences may not only reflect the actual cestode richness but may also be due to the research effort that has been devoted to unravelling the diversity of these endoparasitic helminths in individual countries. A total of 297 valid species, 61 taxa identified to the generic level, in addition to unidentified cestodes, were recorded from 401 species of fish hosts. Among the recognized cestode orders, 13 have been recorded in South America, with the Onchoproteocephalidea displaying the highest species richness, representing c. 50% of all species diversity. The majority of records include teleost fish hosts (79%) that harbour larval and adult stages of cestodes, whereas stingrays (Myliobatiformes) exhibit the highest proportion of records (39%) among the elasmobranch hosts. Fish cestodes are ubiquitous in South America, being mostly recorded from the Warm Temperate Southeastern Pacific (WTSP; 31%) for marine hosts and the Amazon River basin (45%) for freshwater ones. The following problems were detected during the compilation of literary data: (i) unreliability of many records; (ii) poor taxonomic resolution, i.e. identification made only to the genus or even family level; (iii) doubtful host identification; and (iv) the absence of voucher specimens that would enable us to verify identification. It is thus strongly recommended to always deposit representative specimens in any type of studies, including faunal surveys and ecological studies. An analysis of the proportion of three basic types of studies, i.e. surveys, taxonomic and ecological papers, has shown a considerable increase of ecological studies over the last decade.

Keywords

Biodiversity, marine ecoregions, river basins, species richness, tapeworms

Introduction

Tapeworms (Cestoda) are a monophyletic assemblage of flatworms (Phylum Platyhelminthes) and they are obligate internal parasites of vertebrates. Their complex life-cycles include one or more intermediate hosts in a wide array of animal phyla (mostly arthropods) and they are exclusively transmitted perorally, i.e. via the food chain (Caira and Littlewood 2013; Littlewood et al. 2015). The cestodes are the second species-richest group of platyhelminths, with more than 5000 species in 751 recognized genera that have radiated through marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments (Waeschenbach et al. 2012; Caira and Littlewood 2013).

Cestodes parasitizing elasmobranchs and teleost fishes in at least one stage of development comprise one of the most diverse lineages of tapeworms (Caira et al. 2014; Caira and Jensen 2014), only comparable in species richness with cyclophyllidean cestodes, parasites of tetrapods (Caira and Littlewood 2013). Since these parasites usually exhibit a strict host specificity, they are considered suitable models for studies of host-parasite co-evolution (Caira and Jensen 2014) or even helping in circumscribing species boundaries of cestode hosts (Caira and Jensen 2015).

South America is a megadiverse continent, including at least five of the world’s biodiversity ‘hotspots’, more than 30.000 km of coastline and two of the 10 largest freshwater drainage systems of the world, i.e. the Amazon and Paraná River basins, which is reflected in its species-rich ichthyofauna (Myers et al. 2000; Miloslavich et al. 2011; Reis 2013). Bearing that in mind, one might expect a high diversity of fish cestodes as well, even though there are no comprehensive checklists or other faunistic studies encompassing the whole continent that could provide an overview of the cestode diversity, except those with regional focus (e.g. Thatcher 2006 for Amazonia; Tantaléan and Huiza 1994 for Peru; Muñoz and Olmos 2008 for Chile).

Studies on fish cestodes from South America date back to the early 19th Century, when C. A. Rudolphi described Anthocephalus macrourus Rudolphi, 1819 from an unidentified sparid fish and Anthocephalus interruptum Rudolphi, 1819 (both cestodes of the order Trypanorhyncha) from Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus off the Brazilian coast, even though these species are no longer valid (Campbell and Beveridge 1996). Subsequently, K. M. Diesing (1850, 1856) described several species that are now included in three different orders. Both workers studied cestodes collected by renowned naturalists, such as F. Sellow, I.F.W.M. Von Olfers and J. Natterer. With few exceptions, the number of descriptions and/or reports have considerable increased in the 20th Century and a large amount of information has been generated, yet many studies are faunal surveys dispersed in regional journals that are not readily accessible.

Detailed taxonomic studies combining morphological and molecular approaches have recently expanded our knowledge at lower and higher taxonomic levels, mostly under the framework of the National Science Foundation (Planetary Biodiversity Inventory program) funded project called “A survey of the tapeworms (Cestoda: Platyhelminthes) from vertebrate bowels of the earth” (see http://tapewormdb.uconn.edu). This project funded, amongst others, intensive research on fish cestodes in South America, which were mainly undertaken by A. de Chambrier, T. Scholz and A. A. Gil de Pertierra for teleost hosts, and V. A. Ivanov, F. P. L. Marques and F. Reyda for elasmobranch hosts. The present paper aims at addressing the following objectives: (1) to provide for the first time an annotated checklist that summarizes records of cestodes in marine and freshwater fishes from South America, including detailed information on their hosts, site of infection, geographical distribution, stage of development and molecular data; (2) to critically assess some doubtful reports; and (3) to depict the problems that impede a better understanding of the diversity and host associations of cestodes in South America.

Materials and methods

Parasite-host and host-parasite checklists for fish cestodes from South America were compiled on the basis of an exhaustive search of literature published until August 2016; abstracts of meetings, theses and reports without primary data were not considered. The bibliographic search was complemented by the information gathered from Helminthological Abstracts, Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London (Gibson et al. 2005), Global Cestode Database (GDC) (Caira et al. 2012), Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Web of Knowledge, as well as some previously published books (e.g. Palm 2004; Thatcher 2006). The classification of cestodes proposed by Khalil et al. (1994) is basically followed, but it is updated based on revisional papers on individual cestode orders or molecular phylogenetic studies at the ordinal level, such as Kuchta et al. (2008) for bothriocephalideans and diphyllobothriideans, Olson et al. (2010) for trypanorhynchs, Caira et al. (2014) for onchoproteocephalideans, phyllobothriideans and ‘tetraphyllideans’, Healy et al. (2009) and Ruhnke et al. (2015) for rhinebothriideans, and Jensen et al. (2016) for lecanicephalideans.

The species are arranged according to taxonomic categories and are presented in alphabetical order followed by data on their hosts (species name, class and family), habitat, site of infection, stage of development, marine ecoregion according to Spalding et al. (2007), river basins or lakes, country and references (between parentheses). All cestodes presented herein follow the most recent taxonomic literature and the validity of individual taxa or the reliability of their records were critically assessed by the present authors, who consulted with experts for some tapeworm groups.

Host species are arranged in taxonomic and then alphabetical order. The scientific names of hosts have been updated based on Froese and Pauly (2016) and supplemented by the most recent taxonomic papers for certain problematic taxa (e.g. Cichla Bloch & Schneider, Pseudoplatystoma Bleeker and Zungaro Bleeker).

The following abbreviations are used for collections:

BMNH The British Museum (Natural History) Collection at the Natural History Museum, London, UK

CHIOC Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

HWML Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology, University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, Nebraska

MLP Departamento de Zoología de Invertebrados (Parasitología), La Plata, Argentina

MHNG Natural History Museum, Geneva, Switzerland

MNHB Museum der Naturkunde für Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Germany

NHMW Natural History Museum, Vienna, Austria

USNPC United States National Parasite Collection, Beltsville, Maryland, USA , which has been transferred recently to the National Museum of Natural History (USNM) of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA

The following abbreviations are used for marine ecoregions according to Spalding et al. (2007):

JFD Juan Fernández and Desventuradas

NBS North Brazil Shelf

TEP Tropical Eastern Pacific

TNA Tropical Northwestern Atlantic

TSA Tropical Southwestern Atlantic

WTSA Warm Temperate Southwestern Atlantic

WTSP Warm Temperate Southeastern Pacific

The following abbreviations are used for molecular markers:

18S small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene

ITS1 first nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer

5.8S 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene

ITS2 second nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer

28S large subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene

16S large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA gene

cox1 cytochrome c oxidase I

The following abbreviation is used for records of metacestodes in the host-parasite list:

L larvae

* Asterisks in the parasite-host list indicate the type species of the genus.

Parasite-Host List

Class Cestoda Rudolphi, 1808

Order Amphilinidea Poche, 1922

Family Amphilinidae Claus, 1879

Nesolecithus janickii Poche, 1922*

[Syns. Monostoma liguloideum Diesing, 1850 (pro parte); Amphilina liguloidea Monticelli, 1892 sensu Janicki (1808); Schizochoerus janickii (Poche, 1922) Bandoni & Brooks, 1987]

Arapaima gigas (Actinopterygii: Arapaimidae); freshwater; body cavity; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Janicki 1908; Poche 1922; Travassos and Teixeira de Freitas 1964; Rego et al. 1974; Araújo et al. 2009).

Notes: type host. Bandoni and Brooks (1987) proposed Schizochoerus janickii as a new combination for this species, but we are following the classification proposed by Gibson (1994).

Schizochoerus liguloideus (Diesing, 1850) Poche, 1922*

[Syns. Monostoma liguloideum Diesing, 1850 (pro parte); Amphilina liguloidea Monticelli, 1892]

Arapaima gigas (Actinopterygii: Arapaimidae); freshwater; body cavity; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (Diesing 1850; Poche 1922; Travassos and Teixeira de Freitas 1964; Rego et al. 1974; Mariaux 1998; Olson and Caira 1999; Araújo et al. 2009; Serrano-Martínez et al. 2015).

Notes: type host. Diesing (1850) described M. liguloideum based on a mixture of S. liguloideus and N. janickii. Monticelli (1892) transferred the former species to Amphilina Wagener, 1858, whereas the latter was described by Janicki (1908) also under the name Amphilina liguloidea. Poche (1922) distinguished the both species and proposed the name N. janickii. Sequences of partial 18S (Z98305, Z98306, Z98307, AF124454) (Mariaux 1998; Olson and Caira 1999).

Order Bothriocephalidea Kuchta, Scholz, Brabec & Bray, 2008

Family Bothriocephalidae Blanchard, 1849

Bothriocephalus timii Gil de Pertierra, Arredondo, Kuchta & Incorvaia, 2015

Cottoperca gobio (Actinopterygii: Bovichtidae); marine; intestine, pyloric caeca; adult; Magellanic; Argentina (Brabec et al. 2015; Gil de Pertierra et al. 2015).

Notes: type host. Sequences of 18S (KR780929), 28S (KR780885), 16S (KR780839) and cox1 (KR780787) (Brabec et al. 2015).

Bothriocephalus sp.

Eleginops maclovinus (Actinopterygii: Eleginopsidae); marine; intestine; adult; WTSP; Chile (George-Nascimento et al. 2009).

Engraulis anchoita (Actinopterygii: Engraulidae); marine; pyloric caeca; adult; Magellanic, WTSA; Argentina (Timi 2003; Timi and Poulin 2003).

Engraulis ringens (Actinopterygii: Engraulidae); marine; intestine; adult; WTSP; Chile (Chávez et al. 2007; Valdivia et al. 2007; George-Nascimento and Moscoso 2013).

Helicolenus lengerichi (Actinopterygii: Sebastidae); marine; intestine; adult; WTSP; Chile (George-Nascimento and Iriarte 1989; Balboa and George-Nascimento 1998).

Clestobothrium crassiceps (Rudolphi, 1819) Lühe, 1899*

[Syn. Bothriocephalus crassiceps Rudolphi, 1819]

Aphos porosus (Actinopterygii: Batrachoididae); marine; intestine; adult (immature); WTSP; Chile (Cortés and Muñoz 2008, 2009).

Dissostichus eleginoides (Actinopterygii: Nototheniidae); marine; intestine, pyloric caeca; stage of development not given; Magellanic; Falkland Islands (Brickle et al. 2006).

Note: R. Kuchta (pers. comm.) suggested that this report might be wrong.

Macruronus magellanicus (Actinopterygii: Merlucciidae); marine; intestine;

adult; Magellanic; Argentina, Chile (Szidat 1961; Oliva 2001; Chávez et al. 2012).

Merluccius gayi gayi (Actinopterygii: Merlucciidae); marine; intestine; adult; WTSP; Chile (Carvajal et al. 1979; George-Nascimento 1996; Oliva and Ballón 2002; Chávez et al. 2012).

Note: Carvajal et al. (1979) reported the species as Clestobothrium sp., and R. Kuchta (pers. comm.) suggested that it belongs to C. crassiceps.

Merluccius gayi peruanus (Actinopterygii: Merlucciidae); marine; intestine; adult; WTSP; Peru (Durán and Oliva 1980; Jara 1998; Chero et al. 2014a).

Merluccius sp. (Actinopterygii: Merlucciidae); marine; intestine; adult; Magellanic, WTSP; Argentina, Chile (Oliva 1982; Gil de Pertierra et al. 2011).

Note: Gil de Pertierra et al. (2011) studied the vouchers deposited in BMNH; they reported the species as Clestobothrium sp., and R. Kuchta (pers. comm.) suggested that it belongs to C. crassiceps.

Micromesistius australis australis (Actinopterygii: Gadidae); marine; intestine; adult; Magellanic; Chile (Chávez et al. 2012).

Clestobothrium cristinae Gil de Pertierra, Incorvaia & Arrendondo, 2011

Merluccius hubbsi (Actinopterygii: Merlucciidae); marine; intestine; adult; Magellanic; Argentina (Szidat 1955, 1961; MacKenzie and Longshaw 1995; Sardella and Timi 1996, 2004; Gil de Pertierra et al. 2011; Brabec et al. 2015).

Notes: type host. R. Kuchta (pers. comm.) suggested that all reports from M. hubbsi before the original description of C. cristinae were erroneously reported as C. crassiceps. Sequences of 18S (KR780948), 28S (KR780901), 16S (KR780862) and cox1 (KR7808301) (Brabec et al. 2015).

Clestobothrium splendidum Gil de Pertierra, Incorvaia & Arredondo, 2011

Merluccius australis (Actinopterygii: Merlucciidae); marine; intestine; adult; Magellanic; Argentina, Chile (Fernández 1985; George-Nascimento and Arancibia 1994; González and Carvajal 1994; MacKenzie and Longshaw 1995; Gil de Pertierra et al. 2011; Chávez et al. 2012; Brabec et al. 2015).

Notes: type host. R. Kuchta (pers. comm.) suggested that all reports from M. australis before the original description of C. splendidum as well as that of Chávez et al. (2012) were erroneously reported as C. crassiceps. Sequences of 18S (KR780967), 28S (KR780920), 16S (KR780877) and cox1 KR7808271 (Brabec et al. 2015).

Schyzocotyle acheilognathi (Yamaguti, 1934) Brabec, Waeschenbach, Scholz, Littlewood & Kuchta, 2015*

[For synonyms, see Kuchta and Scholz (2007) and Brabec et al. (2015)]

Cyprinus carpio (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná State (fishpond), Negro River basin; Argentina, Brazil (Rego et al. 1999a; Waicheim et al. 2014).

Notes: these reports from South America are probably result of the import of common carp from Europe to Brazil (Rego et al. 1999a; Scholz et al. 2011).

Waicheim et al. (2014) reported the cestode as Bothriocephalus sp., but it was most probably S. acheilognathi (R. Kuchta, pers. comm.).

Pethia conchonius (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Santa Catarina State; Brazil (Piazza et al. 2006).

Notes: host reported as Puntius conchonius.

Poecilia reticulata (Actinopterygii: Poeciliidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River Basin; Brazil (Moreira et al. 2014).

Note: tapeworms reported as ‘Pseudophyllidea’, but considered as S. acheilognathi by R. Kuchta (pers. comm.).

Xiphophorus hellerii (Actinopterygii: Poeciliidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Santa Catarina State; Brazil (Piazza et al. 2006).

Xiphophorus maculatus (Actinopterygii: Poeciliidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Santa Catarina State; Brazil (Piazza et al. 2006)

Notes: P. conchonius, X. hellerii and X. maculatus are ornamental fish imported to South America (Froese and Pauly 2016); their tapeworms were reported as ‘cestodes’, but they were most probably conspecific with S. acheilognathi (R. Kuchta, pers. comm.).

Senga sp.

Astyanax altiparanae (Actinopterygii: Characidae); freshwater; pyloric caeca; adult; Rio das Pedras Farm (lakes); Brazil (Azevedo et al. 2007).

Astyanax scabripinnis (Actinopterygii: Characidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; São Paulo State; Brazil (Rego 1997).

Unidentified bothriocephalid cestode

Girella laevifrons (Actinopterygii: Kyphosidae); marine; site of infection not given; adult; WTSP; Chile (Muñoz and Delorme 2011).

Family Echinophallidae Schumacher, 1914

Neobothriocephalus aspinosus Mateo & Bullock, 1966*

Seriolella violacea (Actinopterygii: Centrolophidae); marine; intestine, stomach; adult; WTSP; Chile, Peru (Mateo and Bullock 1966; Soto and Carvajal 1979; Oliva 1982; Iannacone 2003; Brabec et al. 2015).

Notes: type host; it was originally reported as Neptomenus crassus. Sequences of 18S (KR780944), 28S (KR780897), 16S (KR780857) and cox1 (KR780805) (Brabec et al. 2015).

Neobothriocephalus sp.

Hippoglossina macrops (Actinopterygii: Paralichthyidae); marine; intestine; adult; WTSP; Chile (Riffo 1991; González et al. 2001; Oliva et al. 2004; González et al. 2008).

Note: all but one authors reported the cestode as N. aspinosus. Kuchta et al. (2008) stated that further analyses should be performed to confirm these records since there is no material deposited in any helminthological collection and cestodes from this fish host may represent a new species.

Paralichthys adspersus (Actinopterygii: Paralichthyidae); marine; intestine; adult; WTSP; Chile (Riffo 1995).

Paralichthys microps (Actinopterygii: Paralichthyidae); marine; intestine; adult; WTSP; Chile (Riffo 1995).

Parabothriocephalus sp.

Macrourus holotrachys (Actinopterygii: Macrouridae); marine; intestine, pyloric caeca; adult; WTSP: Chile (Ñacari and Oliva 2016).

Family Triaenophoridae Lönnberg, 1899

Ailinella mirabilis Gil de Pertierra & Semenas, 2006*

Aplochiton zebra (Actinopterygii: Galaxiidae); amphidromous; intestine; adult; Patagonian lakes; Argentina (Ortubay et al. 1994; Fernández et al. 2012).

Note: Ortubay et al. (1994) misidentified the parasite as Nippotaenia sp. (Gil de Pertierra and Semenas 2006; Fernández et al. 2012).

Galaxias maculatus (Actinopterygii: Galaxiidae); amphidromous; intestine; adult; Moreno and Nahuel Huapi Lake systems (Andean-Patagonian region); Argentina (Ortubay et al. 1994; Rauque et al. 2003; Revenga et al. 2005; Gil de Pertierra and Semenas 2006; Viozzi et al. 2009; Fernández et al. 2010).

Notes: type host. Ortubay et al. (1994), Rauque et al. (2003) and Revenga et al. (2005) misidentified the parasite as Nippotaenia sp. (Gil de Pertierra and Semanas 2006).

Anchistrocephalus microcephalus (Rudolphi, 1819) Monticelli, 1890*

[For synonyms, see Kuchta and Scholz (2007)].

Mola mola (Actinopterygii: Molidae); marine; intestine; adult; WTSA; Brazil (Mendes 1944).

Notes: type host. The tapeworms were reported as Amphigonophorus carvalhoi Mendes, 1944. Kennedy and Andersen (1982) synonymized Amphigonophorus with Anchistrocephalus, which was rejected by Bray et al. (1994), but accepted by Kuchta and Scholz (2007). We are following the recent revision of bothriocephalideans by Kuchta et al. (2008).

Mola ramsayi (Actinopterygii: Molidae); marine; intestine; adult; WTSP; Chile (Villalba and Fernández 1985).

Anonchocephalus argentinensis Szidat, 1961

Xystreurys rasile (Actinopterygii: Paralichthyidae); marine; intestine; adult; WTSA; Argentina (Szidat 1961; Alarcos and Timi 2012, 2013).

Anonchocephalus chilensis (Riggenbach, 1896) Lühe, 1902*

[Syn. Bothriotaenia chilensis Riggenbach, 1896]

Genypterus blacodes (Actinopterygii: Ophidiidae); marine; intestine; adult; WTSA, WTSP; Argentina, Chile (Riffo 1994; Sardella et al. 1998; Suriano and Labriola 1998; Brabec et al. 2015).

Notes: Suriano and Labriola (1998) redescribed this species. Sequence of cox1 (KR780782) (Brabec et al. 2015).

Genypterus brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Ophidiidae); marine; intestine; adult; WTSA; Argentina, Brazil (Sardella et al. 1998; Pereira 2000).

Note: Pereira (2000) redescribed this species.

Genypterus chilensis (Actinopterygii: Ophidiidae); marine; intestine, pyloric caeca; adult; WTSP; Chile (Riggenbach 1896a; Vergara and George-Nascimento 1982).

Note: type host.

Genypterus maculatus (Actinopterygii: Ophidiidae); marine; intestine; adult; WTSP; Chile (George-Nascimento and Huet 1984).

Anonchocephalus patagonicus Suriano & Labriola, 1998

Paralichthys patagonicus (Actinopterygii: Paralichthyidae); marine; intestine; adult; Magellanic; Argentina (Suriano and Labriola, 1998).

Note: type host.

Anonchocephalus sp.

Pinguipes brasilianus (Actinopterygii: Pinguipedidae); marine; intestine; adult; WTSA; Argentina (Timi et al. 2009, 2010a).

Galaxitaenia toloi Gil de Pertierra & Semenas, 2005*

Galaxias platei (Actinopterygii: Galaxiidae); amphidromous; intestine; adult; Moreno Lake system (Patagonian region); Argentina (Ortubay et al. 1994; Rauque et al. 2003; Gil de Pertierra and Semenas 2005).

Notes: type host. Ortubay et al. (1994) and Rauque et al. (2003) misidentified the parasite as Nippotaenia sp. (Gil de Pertierra and Semenas 2006).

Unidentified bothriocephalideans

Aplochiton taeniatus (Actinopterygii: Galaxiidae); amphidromous; intestine; adult; Patagonian lakes; Argentina (Ortubay et al. 1994).

Note: reported as Nippotaenia sp. but the nippotaeniids are not found in the Americas (Bray 1994).

Cichla monoculus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Rio das Pedras Farm (lakes); Brazil (Müller et al. 2008).

Note: reported as B. cuspidatus and considered as misidentification by R. Kuchta (pers. comm.).

Odontesthes smitti (Actinopterygii: Atherinopsidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; Magellanic; Argentina (Carballo et al. 2012).

Oncorhynchus mykiss (Actinopterygii: Salmonidae); anadromous; intestine; adult; Moreno and Nahuel Huapi lakes (Patagonian region); Argentina (Rauque et al. 2003).

Note: reported as Nippotaenia sp.

Paralabrax humeralis (Actinopterygii: Serranidae); marine; intestine; adult; WTSP; Chile (Henríquez and González 2014).

Percichthys trucha (Actinopterygii: Percichthyidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Moreno and Nahuel Huapi lakes (Patagonian region); Argentina (Ortubay et al. 1994; Rauque et al. 2003).

Note: reported as Nippotaenia sp.

Percophis brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Percophidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina (Braicovich and Timi 2010).

Plagioscion squamosissimus (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Woodland 1935c).

Note: host reported as P. squamosissima and its tapeworms as an unidentified ptychobothriid (Woodland 1935c), but considered only as Bothriocephalidea by Kuchta and Scholz (2007).

Salvelinus fontinalis (Actinopterygii: Salmonidae); anadromous; intestine; adult; Moreno and Nahuel Huapi lakes (Patagonian region); Argentina (Rauque et al. 2003).

Note: reported as Nippotaenia sp.

Unidentified bothriocephalideans (identified as ‘Pseudophyllidea’)

Eleginops maclovinus (Actinopterygii: Eleginopsidae); marine; intestine; adult; Magellanic; Falkland Islands (Brickle and MacKenzie 2007).

Paralichthys adspersus (Actinopterygii: Paralichthyidae); marine; intestine; adult; WTSP; Chile (Oliva et al. 1996).

Prolatilus jugularis (Actinopterygii: Pinguipedidae); marine; intestine; adult; Magellanic; Chile (Sepúlveda et al. 2004).

Order Caryophyllidea van Beneden in Carus, 1863

[Caryophyllidean tapeworms do not occur in the Neotropical region, where their common hosts, i.e. cyprinid and catostomid fishes, are absent; therefore, these reports need verification]

Unidentified caryophyllideans

Cyprinus carpio (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná State; Brazil (Rego 2004).

Note: introduced fish host (Froese and Pauly 2016).

Geophagus brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná State (dams); Brazil (Bellay et al. 2012).

Order Cathetocephalidea Schmidt & Beveridge, 1990

Family Cathetocephalidae Dailey & Overstreet 1973

Cathetocephalus australis Schmidt & Beveridge, 1990

Carcharhinus brachyurus (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Argentina (Suriano and Labriola 2001a).

Note: type host.

Cathetocephalus thatcheri Dailey & Overstreet, 1973*

Carcharhinus leucas (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (Rivera and Sarmiento 1990).

Note: type host.

Family Disculicepitidae Joyeux & Baer, 1935

Disculiceps galapagoensis Nock & Caira, 1988

Carcharhinus longimanus (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; Galapagos; Ecuador (Nock and Caira 1988).

Note: type host.

Disculiceps pileatus (Linton, 1890) Joyeux & Baer, 1936*

[Syn. Discocephalum pileatum Linton, 1890]

Carcharhinus porosus (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (Tantaleán 1991).

Note: tapeworms reported as Discocephalum pileatum.

Disculiceps sp.

Aetobatus narinari (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Venezuela (Mayes and Brooks 1981).

Note: these specimens probably belong to Tylocephalum (Lecanicephalidea), according to Koch et al. (2012).

Order Cyclophyllidea van Beneden in Braun, 1900

Family Gryporhynchidae Spassky & Spasskaya, 1973

Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1819) Bona, 1994

[For synonyms, see Scholz et al. (2004)]

Poecilia reticulata (Actinopterygii: Poeciliidae); freshwater; mesentery; metacestode; Pampulha Dam, Minas Gerais State; Brazil (Pinto and Melo 2011a).

Parvitaenia macropeos (Wedl, 1855) Baer & Bona, 1960

[For synonyms, see Scholz et al. (2004)]

Australoheros facetus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine; metacestode; Pampulha Dam, Minas Gerais State; Brazil (Pinto and Melo 2011b).

Valipora campylancristrota (Wedl, 1855) Baer & Bona, 1960

[For synonyms, see Scholz et al. (2004)]

Geophagus brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; gallbladder; metacestode; Paraná State (dams); Brazil (Bellay et al. 2012).

Hoplosternum littorale (Actinopterygii: Callichthyidae); freshwater; gallbladder; metacestode; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Takemoto et al. 2009).

Prochilodus lineatus (Actinopterygii: Prochilodontidae); freshwater; gallbladder; metacestode; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Lizama et al. 2005, 2006).

Valipora sp.

Crenicichla britskii (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; gallbladder; metacestode; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Takemoto et al. 2009).

Pimelodus maculatus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; gallbladder; metacestode; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Takemoto et al. 2009).

Prochilodus argenteus (Actinopterygii: Prochilodontidae); freshwater; gallbladder; metacestode; São Francisco River basin; Brazil (Monteiro et al. 2009).

Unidentified cyclophyllideans

Dormitator maculatus (Actinopterygii: Eleotridae); amphidromous; liver, intestine, gonads; metacestode; TNA; Venezuela (Moreno et al. 2008).

Percichthys trucha (Actinopterygii: Percichthyidae); freshwater; body cavity; metacestode; Negro River basin (Patagonian region); Argentina (Ortubay et al. 1994).

Satanoperca pappaterra (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; site of infection and stage of development not given; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Kohn et al. 2011).

Order Diphyllidea van Beneden in Carus, 1863

Family Echinobothriidae Perrier, 1897

Ahamulina catarina Marques, Jensen & Caira, 2012*

Scyliorhinus besnardi (Elasmobranchii: Scyliorhinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Brazil (Marques et al. 2012; Caira et al. 2013).

Notes: type host. Sequences of partial 18S (KC860176KC860180), 28S (KC860128KC860132) and cox1 (KC860220KC860224) (Caira et al. 2013).

Coronocestus notoguidoi (Ivanov, 1997) Caira, Marques, Jensen, Kuchta & Ivanov, 2013

[Syn. Echinobothrium notoguidoi Ivanov, 1997]

Mustelus schmitti (Elasmobranchii: Triakidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WSTA; Argentina (Ivanov 1997; Alarcos et al. 2006; Tyler 2006).

Notes: type host. Tyler (2006) provided new morphological data based on examination of the type specimens deposited in MLP and USNPC.

Halysioncum euzeti (Campbell & Carvajal, 1980) Caira, Marques, Jensen, Kuchta & Ivanov, 2013

[Syn. Echinobothrium euzeti Campbell & Carvajal, 1980]

Sympterygia lima (Elasmobranchii: Arhynchobatidae) marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile (Campbell and Carvajal 1980; Tyler 2006).

Notes: type host; it was originally reported as Psammobatis lima. Tyler (2006) provided new morphological data based on examination of the type specimens deposited in USNPC.

Halysioncum megacanthum (Ivanov & Campbell, 1998) Caira, Marques, Jensen, Kuchta & Ivanov, 2013

[Syn. Echinobothrium megacanthum Ivanov & Campbell, 1998]

Myliobatis goodei (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; Magellanic; Argentina (Ivanov and Campbell 1998b; Tyler 2006).

Notes: type host. Tyler (2006) provided new morphological data based on examination of the type specimens deposited in MLP and USNPC.

Halysioncum pigmentatum (Ostrowski de Núñez, 1971) Caira, Marques, Jensen, Kuchta & Ivanov, 2013

[Syn. Echinobothrium pigmentatum Ostrowski de Núñez, 1971]

Zapteryx brevirostris (Elasmobranchii: Rhinobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Argentina (Ostrowski de Núñez 1971; Tyler 2006).

Note: type host. Tyler (2006) provided new morphological data based on examination of the type specimens deposited in the Ostrowski de Núñez's collection.

Unidentified diphyllideans

Notothenia cf. angustata (Actinopterygii: Nototheniidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (Muñoz et al. 2001).

Sebastes capensis (Actinopterygii: Sebastidae); marine; unspecified site of infection; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (González and Poulin 2005a, b; González et al. 2006).

Note: two morphotypes were distinguished by González et al. (2006).

Order Diphyllobothriidea Kuchta, Scholz, Brabec & Bray, 2008

Family Diphyllobothriidae Lühe, 1910

Adenocephalus pacificus Nybelin, 1931

[For synonyms, see Hernández-Orts et al. (2015)]

Anisotremus scapularis (Actinopterygii: Haemulidae); marine; body cavity, viscera; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Luque 1991).

Ariopsis seemanni (Actinopterygii: Ariidae); brackish, marine; peritoneum; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante and Miranda 1986).

Note: Escalante and Miranda (1986) performed experimental infection in dogs; they reported the host as Galeichthys jordani.

Cilus gilberti (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; viscera; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Chero et al. 2014b).

Cynoscion analis (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; viscera; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante 1983).

Galeichthys peruvianus (Actinopterygii: Ariidae); marine; viscera, peritoneum; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Kuchta et al. 2015).

Note: Kuchta et al. (2015) provided a list of records gathered from published data in an appendix.

Genypterus maculatus (Actinopterygii: Ophidiidae); marine; viscera; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante 1983).

Menticirrhus ophicephalus (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; body cavity, viscera; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Luque 1991).

Merluccius gayi peruanus (Actinopterygii: Merlucciidae); marine; peritoneum, viscera, stomach surface; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante 1983; Chero et al. 2014a).

Note: Chero et al. (2014a) also reported D. arctocephalinum Johnston, 1937 from this host, but this species is a junior synonym of A. pacificus (see Hernández-Orts et al. 2015).

Paralabrax humeralis (Actinopterygii: Serranidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Iannacone and Alvariño 2009).

Paralichthys adspersus (Actinopterygii: Paralichthyidae); marine; stomach surface; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante and Miranda 1986).

Paralonchurus peruanus (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; intestinal surface; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Tantaleán 1975).

Note: the author reported the host as Polyclemus peruanus.

Sarda chiliensis (Actinopterygii: Scombridae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Baer 1969; Hernández-Orts et al. 2015; Kuchta et al. 2015).

Notes: the genus Adenocephalus Nybelin, 1931 was resurrected by Hernández-Orts et al. (2015), based on morphological and molecular data. Sequences of partial 28S (KR269760) and cox1 (KR269747) (Hernández-Orts et al. 2015).

Sciaena callaensis (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; peritoneum, stomach surface; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Tantaleán 1975).

Sciaena deliciosa (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; peritoneum, stomach surface, viscera; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Tantaleán 1975; Escalante and Miranda 1986; Llerena et al. 2001; Wicht et al. 2010; Chero et al. 2014c; Kuchta et al. 2015).

Note: Chero et al. (2014a) also reported D. arctocephalinum (syn. of A. pacificus) from this host.

Scomberomorus sierra (Actinopterygii: Scombridae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Baer 1969).

Note: host reported as S. maculatus.

Seriolella violacea (Actinopterygii: Centrolophidae); marine; peritoneum; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante and Miranda 1986).

Trachinotus paitensis (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; peritoneum; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante and Miranda 1986).

Trachurus murphyi (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Kuchta et al. 2015).

Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitzsch, 1824) Lühe, 1910

[For synonyms, see Scholz et al. (2009)]

Basilichthys australis (Actinopterygii: Atherinopsidae); freshwater; mesentery, liver, muscles; metacestode; Riñihue and Panguipulli Lakes; Chile (Torres et al. 1998, 2004, 2012).

Galaxias maculatus (Actinopterygii: Galaxiidae); amphidromous; liver, body cavity, intestinal surface; metacestode; Nahuel Huapi (Patagonian region), Riñihue Lakes; Argentina, Chile (Ortubay 1994; Torres et al. 1998; Viozzi et al. 2009).

Odontesthes mauleanum (Actinopterygii: Atherinopsidae); freshwater; mesentery; metacestode; Panguipulli Lake; Chile (Torres et al. 2004, 2012).

Oncorhynchus kisutch (Actinopterygii: Salmonidae); anadromous; intestinal surface, mesentery, spleen; metacestode; Llanquihue Lake; Chile (Torres 1990).

Oncorhynchus mykiss (Actinopterygii: Salmonidae); anadromous; body cavity, mesentery, internal organs, muscles; metacestode; lakes of Valdivia River basin, Huechulaufquen, Rosario, Moreno and Nahuel Huapi Lakes (Patagonian region), lakes of Chiloé Island; Argentina, Chile (Szidat and Soria 1957; Szidat 1964; Torres et al. 1981, 1983, 1989a, b, 1991, 2004, 2012; Revenga 1993; Semenas and Kreiter 1995; Rozas et al. 2012).

Notes: tapeworms described as D. microcordiceps by Szidat and Soria (1957). Host reported as Salmo gairdneri by some authors. Sequences of partial 18S +ITS1 + 5.8S + ITS2 (JN153006JN153018) and partial cox1 (JN152993JN153005) (Rozas et al. 2012).

Percichthys trucha (Actinopterygii: Percichthyidae); freshwater; body cavity, mesentery, internal organs, muscles; metacestode; Riñihue Lake; Chile (Torres et al. 1998).

Percilia gillissi (Actinopterygii: Perciliidae); freshwater; body cavity, mesentery, internal organs, muscles; metacestode; Riñihue Lake; Chile (Torres et al. 1989a).

Salmo salar (Actinopterygii: Salmonidae); anadromous; muscles; metacestode; Nahuel Huapi Lake (Patagonian region); Argentina (Szidat and Soria 1957; Szidat 1964).

Salmo trutta (Actinopterygii: Salmonidae); anadromous; body cavity; metacestode; Huechulaufquen and Rosario Lakes (Patagonian region), Valdivia River basin; Argentina, Chile (Torres et al. 1989a, b, 1991; Semenas and Kreiter 1995).

Salvelinus fontinalis (Actinopterygii: Salmonidae); anadromous; body cavity, muscles; metacestode; Huechulaufquen, Rosario, Moreno, Nahuel Huapi Lakes (Patagonian region); Argentina (Szidat and Soria 1957; Szidat 1964; Revenga 1993; Semenas and Kreiter 1995).

Diphyllobothrium latum (Linnaeus, 1758) Lühe, 1910

[For synonyms see Scholz et al. (2009) and references therein]

Basilichthys australis (Actinopterygii: Atherinopsidae); freshwater; muscles; metacestode; Panguipulli Lake; Chile (Torres et al. 2004, 2012).

Diplomystes camposensis (Actinopterygii: Diplomystidae); freshwater; liver; metacestode; Riñihue Lake; Chile (Torres et al. 1989a).

Note: the authors reported the tapeworms as Diphyllobothrium sp., but Muñoz and Olmos (2008) and R. Kuchta (pers. comm.) suggested that they belong to D. latum.

Galaxias maculatus (Actinopterygii: Galaxiidae); amphidromous; body cavity, muscles; metacestode; Panguipulli and Riñihue Lakes; Chile (Torres et al. 1989a, 1998, 2004).

Galaxias platei (Actinopterygii: Galaxiidae); amphidromous; body cavity; metacestode; Valdivia River Basin; Chile (Torres et al. 1989a).

Odontesthes mauleanum (Actinopterygii: Atherinopsidae); freshwater; liver, gonads, mesentery, muscles; metacestode; Panguipulli Lake; Chile (Torres et al. 2004, 2012).

Oncorhynchus mykiss (Actinopterygii: Salmonidae); anadromous; body cavity, internal organs, muscles; metacestode; lakes of Valdivia River basin, Huechulaufquen, Rosario, Moreno and Nahuel Huapi Lakes (Patagonian region); Argentina, Chile (Neghme et al. 1950; Neghme and Bertín 1951; Torres et al. 1989a, 1991, 2004, 2012; Revenga 1993; Semenas and Kreiter 1995).

Note: host reported as Salmo gairdneri by some authors.

Percichthys trucha (Actinopterygii: Percichthyidae); freshwater; body cavity, muscles; metacestode; lakes of Valdivia River basin; Chile (Torres et al. 1989a, 1998, 2004, 2012).

Percichthys sp. (Actinopterygii: Percichthyidae); freshwater; body cavity, pyloric caeca, liver, stomach, gonads, muscles; metacestode; Moreno and Nahuel Huapi Lakes (Patagonian region); Argentina (Revenga 1993).

Salmo trutta (Actinopterygii: Salmonidae); anadromous; body cavity; metacestode; lakes of Valdivia River basin, Huechulaufquen and Rosario Lakes (Patagonian region); Argentina, Chile (Neghme et al. 1950; Neghme and Bertín 1951; Torres et al. 1989a, b, 1991; Semenas and Kreiter 1995).

Note: host reported as Salmo trutta trutta and Salmo trutta fario by some authors.

Salvelinus fontinalis (Actinopterygii: Salmonidae); anadromous; liver; metacestode; Huechulaufquen, Moreno, Nahuel Huapi and Rosario Lakes (Patagonian region); Argentina (Revenga 1993; Semenas and Kreiter 1995).

Diphyllobothrium sp.

[Reports from freshwater fishes most likely correspond to D. dendriticum or D. latum (R. Kuchta, pers. comm.). All reports of unidentified diphyllobothrideans are included in this section]

Basilichthys australis (Actinopterygii: Atherinopsidae); freshwater; liver; metacestode; Riñihue Lake; Chile (Torres et al. 1989a, 1998).

Cilus gilberti (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (Garcías et al. 2001).

Cynoscion analis (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; body cavity, peritoneum, stomach surface; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante 1983).

Engraulis ringens (Actinopterygii: Engraulidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (George-Nascimento and Moscoso 2013).

Galaxias maculatus (Actinopterygii: Galaxiidae); amphidromous; body cavity, liver; metacestode; Moreno Lake (Patagonian region); Argentina (Ortubay 1994; Viozzi et al. 2009).

Galaxias platei (Actinopterygii: Galaxiidae); amphidromous; liver; metacestode; Riñihue Lake; Chile (Torres et al. 1989a).

Genypterus brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Ophidiidae); marine; body cavity, intestinal serosa, intestine, muscles; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Knoff et al. 2008).

Genypterus maculatus (Actinopterygii: Ophidiidae); marine; body cavity, peritoneum, stomach surface; metacestode; WTSP; Chile, Peru (Escalante 1983, George-Nascimento and Huet 1984).

Lophius gastrophysus (Actinopterygii: Lophiidae); marine; body cavity, intestinal serosa; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Knoff et al. 2011).

Merluccius australis (Actinopterygii: Merlucciidae); marine; stomach wall; metacestode; Magellanic, WTSP; Chile, Falkland Islands (MacKenzie and Longshaw 1995).

Merluccius gayi peruanus (Actinopterygii: Merlucciidae); marine; body cavity, mesentery, peritoneum, stomach surface; metacestode: WTSP; Peru (Escalante 1983; Jara 1998).

Merluccius hubbsi (Actinopterygii: Merlucciidae); marine; stomach wall; metacestode; Magellanic; Argentina, Falkland Islands (MacKenzie and Longshaw 1995).

Micromesistius australis australis (Actinopterygii: Gadidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (Niklitschek et al. 2010; George-Nascimento et al. 2011; Chávez et al. 2012).

Odontesthes regia (Actinopterygii: Atherinopsidae); freshwater; liver, gonads; metacestode; Riñihue Lake; Chile (Torres et al. 1989a, 1998).

Oncorhynchus kisutch (Actinopterygii: Salmonidae); anadromous; stomach, spleen, liver, mesentery, gonads; metacestode; Aisén River basin; Chile (Torres et al. 1995, 2000).

Oncorhynchus mykiss (Actinopterygii: Salmonidae); anadromous; body cavity, internal organs, mesentery, muscles; metacestode; lakes of Valdivia River basin, Moreno and Nahuel Huapi Lakes (Patagonian region), Tarahuin Lake (Chiloe Island); Argentina, Chile (Wolffhügel 1949; Torres et al. 1977, 1980, 1982, 1989a, 2002, 2010; González et al. 1978, 1980; Revenga and Semenas 1991; Revenga et al. 1995; Torres and Puga 2011).

Notes: host reported as S. gairdneri or S. gairdneri irideus by some authors. After experimental infections of small rodents with metacestodes, González et al. (1980) recovered tapeworms morphologically similar with D. dentriticum.

Paralichthys isosceles (Actinopterygii: Paralichthyidae); marine; body cavity, mesentery, liver, ovary, stomach; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Felizardo et al. 2010).

Note: Felizardo et al. (2010) distinguished two morphotypes.

Paralonchurus peruanus (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Tantaleán 1975).

Note: host reported as Polyclemus peruanus.

Salmo trutta (Actinopterygii: Salmonidae); anadromous; body cavity, peritoneum, liver, mesentery, muscles; metacestode; Rupanco and Calafquén Lakes, Moreno and Nahuel Huapi Lakes (Patagonian region); Argentina, Chile (González et al. 1978, 1980; Torres et al. 1980; Revenga and Semenas 1991).

Note: host reported as S. trutta fario or S. trutta trutta by some authors.

Salvelinus fontinalis (Actinopterygii: Salmonidae); anadromous; body cavity, muscles; metacestode; Moreno and Nahuel Huapi Lakes (Patagonian region); Argentina (Revenga and Semenas 1991; Revenga et al. 1995).

Sciaena callaensis (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; peritoneum, stomach surface, body cavity; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante 1983).

Sciaena deliciosa (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; body cavity, intestinal surface; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Tantaleán 1975; Llerena et al. 2001).

Scomber japonicus (Actinopterygii: Scombridae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Oliva et al. 2008b).

Sebastes capensis (Actinopterygii: Sebastidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; Magellanic; Chile (González and Poulin 2005a, b; González et al. 2006).

Trachurus murphyi (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; liver; metacestode; WTSP; Chile, Peru (Pérez et al. 1999; George-Nascimento and Oliva 2015).

Unidentified ‘Pseudophyllidea’ (larval stages)

[Larval stages found in the body cavity and mesentery are most likely species of Diphyllobothrium (R. Kuchta, pers. comm.)]

Aphos porosus (Actinopterygii: Batrachoididae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (Cortés and Muñoz 2009).

Balistes capriscus (Actinopterygii: Balistidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque and Poulin 2004; Alves et al. 2005).

Dissostichus eleginoides (Actinopterygii: Nototheniidae); marine; anterior

intestine; metacestode; Magellanic; Chile, Falkland Islands (Brickle et al. 2006; Oliva et al. 2008a; Brown et al. 2013).

Engraulis anchoita (Actinopterygii: Engraulidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina (Timi 2003; Timi and Poulin 2003; Timi et al. 2010b).

Gobiesox marmoratus (Actinopterygii: Gobiesocidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (Muñoz 2014).

Helcogrammoides chilensis (Actinopterygii: Tripterygiidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (Muñoz and Delorme 2011).

Hypsoblennius sordidus (Actinopterygii: Blenniidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; Magellanic; Chile (Sepúlveda et al. 2004).

Macruronus magellanicus (Actinopterygii: Merlucciidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; Magellanic; Argentina, Chile (Oliva 2001; MacKenzie et al. 2013).

Merluccius gayi gayi (Actinopterygii: Merlucciidae); marine; stomach wall; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (Oliva and Ballón 2002).

Merluccius hubbsi (Actinopterygii: Merlucciidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; Magellanic; Argentina (Sardella and Timi 2004).

Note: Sardella and Timi (2004) distinguished two morphotypes.

Micromesistius australis australis (Actinopterygii: Gadidae); marine; unspecified site of infection; metacestode; Magellanic; Chile (Niklitschek et al. 2010; George-Nascimento et al. 2011).

Odontesthes regia (Actinopterygii: Atherinopsidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; Magellanic; Chile (Sepúlveda et al. 2004).

Percophis brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Percophidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina, Uruguay (Braicovich and Timi 2008).

Prolatilus jugularis (Actinopterygii: Pinguipedidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; Magellanic; Chile (Sepúlveda et al. 2004).

Scartichthys viridis (Actinopterygii: Bleniidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSA; Chile (Muñoz and Delorme 2011; Muñoz and Randhawa 2011).

Sicyases sanguineus (Actinopterygii: Gobiesocidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSA; Chile (Muñoz and Delorme 2011; Muñoz and Randhawa 2011).

Trachurus lathami (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina, Brazil (Braicovich et al. 2012).

Trachurus murphyi (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (George-Nascimento and Arancibia 1992; George-Nascimento 2000; George-Nascimento and Oliva 2015).

Order Gyrocotylidea Poche, 1926

Family Gyrocotylidae Benham, 1901

Gyrocotyle maxima MacDonagh, 1927

[Syns. Gyrocotyle meandrica Mendívil-Herrera, 1946; G. urna sensu Manter, 1951; Amphiptyches urna Spencer, 1889]

Callorhinchus callorynchus (Holocephali: Callorhinchidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA, WTSP; Brazil, Chile, Peru, Uruguay (Mendívil-Herrera 1946; Rego et al. 1974; Fernández et al. 1986; Tantaleán 1991).

Note: tapeworms reported as G. meandrica by Mendívil-Herrera (1946) and Rego et al. (1974).

Mustelus schmitti (Elasmobranchii: Triakidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Argentina (MacDonagh 1927).

Notes: type host; it was reported as Mustelus asterias, but most likely MacDonagh (1927) misidentified the elephant fish C. callorynchus (see Caira et al. 2012), common definitive host of G. maxima.

Gyrocotyle rugosa Diesing, 1850*

[Syn. Gyrocotyle plana Linton, 1924]

Callorhinchus callorynchus (Holocephali: Callorhinchidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA, WTSP; Argentina, Chile (MacDonagh 1927; Fernández et al. 1986).

Note: type host.

Unidentified gyrocotylidean

Callorhinchus callorynchus (Holocephali: Callorhinchidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Uruguay (Mendívil-Herrera 1946).

Order Lecanicephalidea Wardle & McLeod, 1952

Family Aberrapecidae Jensen, Caira, Cielocha, Littlewood & Waeschenbach, 2016

Aberrapex arrhynchum (Brooks, Mayes & Thorson, 1981) Jensen, 2001

[Syn. Discobothrium arrhynchum Brooks, Mayes & Thorson, 1981]

Myliobatis goodei (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA (estuary of the La Plata River); Uruguay (Brooks et al. 1981a; Jensen 2001).

Notes: type host.

Family Cephalobothriidae Pintner, 1928

Tylocephalum brooksi Ivanov & Campbell, 2000

Rhinoptera bonasus (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Venezuela (Ivanov and Campbell 2000).

Note: type host.

Tylocephalum sp.

Rhinoptera bonasus (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Venezuela (Mayes and Brooks 1981).

Family Lecanicephalidae Braun, 1900

Lecanicephalum peltatum Linton, 1890*

Dasyatis americana (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TEP; Colombia (Brooks and Mayes 1980).

Family Paraberrapecidae Jensen, Caira, Cielocha, Littlewood & Waeschenbach, 2016

Paraberrapex atlanticus Mutti & Ivanov, 2016

Squatina guggenheim (Elasmobranchii: Squatinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; Magellanic, WTSA; Argentina (Mutti and Ivanov 2016).

Note: type host.

Family Polypocephalidae Meggitt, 1924

Polypocephalus medusia (Linton, 1890) Southwell, 1925

[Syn. Parataenia medusia Linton, 1890]

Dasyatis americana (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae) marine; spiral valve; adult; TEP; Colombia (Brooks and Mayes 1980).

Order Onchoproteocephalidea Caira, Jensen, Waeschenbach, Olson & Littlewood, 2014

(Syns. Proteocephalidea Mola, 1928; Tetraphyllidea Carus, 1863 pro parte)

Family Onchobothriidae Braun, 1900

Acanthobothrium amazonense Mayes, Brooks & Thorson, 1978

Potamotrygon constellata (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Mayes et al. 1978; Brooks et al. 1981b).

Notes: type host; it was reported as P. circularis. Brooks et al. (1981b) studied the type specimens deposited in USNM.

Acanthobothrium americanum Campbell, 1969

Dasyatis americana (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Venezuela (Mayes and Brooks 1981).

Note: type host.

Acanthobothrium annapinkiense Carvajal & Goldstein, 1971

Zearaja chilensis (Elasmobranchii: Rajidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; Magellanic; Chile (Carvajal and Goldstein 1971).

Note: type host; it was reported as Raja chilensis.

Acanthobothrium atahualpai Marques, Brooks & Barriga, 1997

Gymnura afuerae (Elasmobranchii: Gymnuridae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TEP; Ecuador (Marques et al. 1997).

Note: type host.

Acanthobothrium batailloni Euzet, 1955

Myliobatis chilensis (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile, Peru (Carvajal and Jeges 1980; Oliva 1982; Escalante 1986).

Acanthobothrium brevissime Linton, 1908

Myliobatis peruvianus (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (Tantaleán 1991).

Acanthobothrium campbelli Marques, Brooks & Monks, 1995

Dasyatis longa (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TEP; Ecuador (Marques et al. 1997).

Acanthobothrium cartagenense Brooks & Mayes, 1980

Urobatis jamaicensis (Elasmobranchii: Urotrygonidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Colombia (Brooks and Mayes 1980).

Note: type host; it was reported as Urolophus jamaicensis.

Acanthobothrium chilense Rego, Vicente & Herrera, 1968

Sarda chiliensis (Actinopterygii: Scombridae); marine; intestine; adult; WTSP; Peru (Rego et al. 1968).

Notes: type host. Elasmobranchs are the typical definitive host for Acanthobothrium species (Campbell and Beveridge 2002); therefore, the record of adult specimens from a bony fish host needs verification.

Acanthobothrium colombianum Brooks & Mayes, 1980

Aetobatus narinari (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Colombia (Brooks and Mayes 1980).

Note: type host.

Acanthobothrium coquimbense Carvajal & Jeges, 1980

Myliobatis chilensis (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile (Carvajal and Jeges 1980).

Note: type host.

Acanthobothrium costarricense Marques, Brooks & Monks, 1995

Dasyatis longa (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TEP; Ecuador (Marques et al. 1997).

Note: type host.

Acanthobothrium dasybati Yamaguti, 1934

Unidentified ray host (Elasmobranchii); marine; spiral valve; adult (only one immature specimen; WTSA; Brazil (Rego et al. 1974).

Note: this species was described from Dasyatis akajei in the Western Pacific (Japanese Sea) and its report from the Brazilian coast needs verification.

Acanthobothrium electricolum Brooks & Mayes, 1978

Narcine brasiliensis (Elasmobranchii: Narcinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Colombia, Venezuela (Brooks and Mayes 1978; Mayes and Brooks 1981).

Note: type host.

Acanthobothrium fogeli Goldstein, 1964

Gymnura micrura (Elasmobranchii: Gymnuridae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Venezuela (Mayes and Brooks 1981).

Note: type host.

Acanthobothrium gonzalesmugaburoi Severino & Sarmiento, 1979

Myliobatis peruvianus (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (Severino and Sarmiento 1979).

Note: type host.

Acanthobothrium himanturi Brooks, 1977

Himantura schmardae (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Colombia (Brooks 1977).

Note: type host.

Acanthobothrium holorhini Alexander, 1953

Myliobatis chilensis (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (Rodriguez and Tantaleán 1980)

Acanthobothrium lintoni Goldstein, Henson & Schlicht, 1968

Narcine brasiliensis (Elasmobranchii: Narcinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Colombia (Brooks and Mayes 1978).

Note: type host.

Acanthobothrium lusarmientoi Severino & Verano, 1980

Sympterygia brevicaudata (Elasmobranchii: Arhynchobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (Severino and Verano 1980).

Note: type host; it was reported as Psammobatis caudispina.

Acanthobothrium marplatense Ivanov & Campbell, 1998

Atlantoraja castelnaui (Elasmobranchii: Arhynchobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Argentina (Ivanov and Campbell 1998a).

Note: type host; it was reported as Rioraja castelnaui.

Acanthobothrium minusculum Marques, Brooks & Barriga, 1997

Urobatis tumbesensis (Elasmobranchii: Urotrygonidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TEP; Ecuador (Marques et al. 1997).

Note: type host; it was reported as Urolophus tumbesensis.

Acanthobothrium monksi Marques, Brooks & Barriga, 1997

Aetobatus narinari (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TEP; Ecuador (Marques et al. 1997).

Note: type host.

Acanthobothrium obuncum Marques, Brooks & Barriga, 1997

Dasyatis longa (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TEP; Ecuador (Marques et al. 1997).

Note: type host.

Acanthobothrium olseni Dailey & Mudry, 1968

Rhinobatos planiceps (Elasmobranchii: Rhinobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile, Peru (Dailey and Carvajal 1976; Iannacone et al. 2011).

Acanthobothrium peruviense Reyda, 2008

Potamotrygon cf. falkneri (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (Reyda 2008).

Note: host reported as Potamotrygon cf. castexi and the tapeworms as Acanthobothrium cf. peruviense.

Potamotrygon motoro (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral

valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (Reyda 2008).

Note: type host.

Acanthobothrium psammobati Carvajal & Goldstein, 1969

Psammobatis scobina (Elasmobranchii: Arhynchobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile, Peru (Carvajal and Goldstein 1969; Carvajal et al. 1985; Tantaleán 1991).

Note: type host.

Sympterygia brevicaudata (Elasmobranchii: Arhynchobatidae); marine; spiral

valve; adult; WTSP; Chile (Carvajal and Ruíz 1987).

Acanthobothrium quinonese Mayes, Brooks & Thorson, 1978

Potamotrygon magdalenae (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Magdalena River basin; Colombia (Mayes et al. 1978; Brooks et al. 1981b).

Notes: type host. Brooks et al. (1981b) studied the type specimens deposited in USNM.

Potamotrygon yepezi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Maracaibo basin; Venezuela (Brooks et al. 1981b).

Acanthobothrium ramiroi Ivanov, 2005

Potamotrygon motoro (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Argentina, Peru (Ivanov 2005; Reyda 2008).

Notes: type host. Reyda (2008) reported the tapeworms as Acanthobothrium cf. ramiroi.

Acanthobothrium regoi Brooks, Mayes & Thorson, 1981

Potamotrygon falkneri (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Lacerda et al. 2008, 2009).

Potamotrygon motoro (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Brooks and Amato 1992).

Potamotrygon orbignyi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Orinoco River basin; Venezuela (Brooks et al. 1981b).

Note: type host; it was reported as P. hystrix.

Acanthobothrium robustum Alexander, 1953

Rhinobatos planiceps (Elasmobranchii: Rhinobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (Escalante 1986).

Acanthobothrium tasajerasi Brooks, 1977

Dasyatis guttata (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; Maracaibo basin; Venezuela (Mayes and Brooks 1981).

Himantura schmardae (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Colombia (Brooks 1977).

Note: type host.

Acanthobothrium terezae Rego & Dias, 1976

Paratrygon aiereba (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Notes: Reyda and Marques (2011) reported the tapeworms as Acanthobothrium cf. terezae. Sequence of partial cox1 (JF803661) (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Potamotrygon motoro (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Rego and Dias 1976).

Note: type host; it was reported as Paratrygon motoro and Elipesurus sp.

Acanthobothrium tortum (Linton, 1916) Baer & Euzet, 1962

Aetobatus narinari (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Venezuela (Mayes and Brooks 1981).

Note: type host.

Acanthobothrium urotrygoni Brooks & Mayes, 1980

Dasyatis guttata (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Venezuela (Mayes and Brooks 1981).

Urotrygon venezuelae (Elasmobranchii: Urotrygonidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Colombia (Brooks and Mayes 1980).

Note: type host.

Acanthobothrium zapterycum Ostrowski de Núñez, 1971

Zapteryx brevirostris (Elasmobranchii: Rhinobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Argentina (Ostrowski de Núñez 1971).

Note: type host.

Acanthobothrium sp.

Myliobatis chilensis (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (Tresierra et al. 1986).

Myliobatis goodei (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA (La Plata River estuary); Uruguay (Brooks et al. 1981a).

Note: the authors distinguished two morphotypes.

Sympterygia brevicaudata (Elasmobranchii: Arhynchobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile (Carvajal and Ruíz 1987).

Zapteryx brevirostris (Elasmobranchii: Rhinobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Argentina (Ostrowski de Núñez 1971).

Acanthobothroides thorsoni Brooks, 1977*

Dasyatis dipterura (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (Tantaleán and Rodríguez 1987).

Note: host reported as D. brevis.

Dasyatis guttata (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Venezuela (Mayes and Brooks 1981).

Himantura schmardae (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Colombia (Brooks 1977).

Note: type host.

Platybothrium auriculatum Yamaguti, 1952

[Syns. Platybothrium baeri Euzet, 1952; Cylindrophorus posteroporus Riser, 1955]

Prionace glauca (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TSA, WTSP; Brazil, Chile, Peru (Carvajal 1974; Rego and Mayer 1976; Escalante 1986).

Note: Healy (2003) revised the genus Platybothrium Linton, 1890.

Platybothrium sp.

Sphyrna zygaena (Elasmobranchii: Sphyrnidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (López de McDonald and Tantaleán 1985).

Potamotrygonocestus amazonensis Mayes, Brooks & Thorson, 1981

Potamotrygon constellata (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Brooks et al. 1981b; Mayes et al. 1981; Marques et al. 2003).

Notes: type host; it was reported as P. circularis. Marques et al. (2003) reported this host as P. orbignyi, but according to Brooks and Amato (1992), all potamotrygonids collected near Leticia, Colombia should be considered as P. constellata.

Potamotrygon falkneri (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Marques et al. 2003).

Potamotrygon motoro (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Brazil (Marques et al. 2003).

Note: Marques et al. (2003) redescribed this species.

Potamotrygon orbignyi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon and Orinoco River basins; Brazil, Venezuela (Brooks et al. 1981b; Marques et al. 2003).

Note: host reported as P. reticulatus by Brooks et al. (1981b).

Potamotrygon scobina (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Marques et al. 2003).

Potamotrygon yepezi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Maracaibo basin; Venezuela (Brooks et al. 1981b).

Potamotrygon sp. (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Marques et al. 2003).

Potamotrygonocestus chaoi Marques, Brooks & Araujo, 2003

Plesiotrygon iwamae (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Marques et al. 2003; Luchetti et al. 2008).

Notes: type host. Luchetti et al. (2008) redescribed this species.

Potamotrygonocestus fitzgeraldae Marques, Brooks & Araujo, 2003

Paratrygon aiereba (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (Marques et al. 2003; Reyda 2008).

Notes: type host. Reyda (2008) reported this species as P. cf. fitzgeraldae.

Potamotrygon cf. falkneri (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (Caira et al. 2014).

Notes: host reported as P. castexi and the tapeworms as P. cf. fitzgeraldae. Sequences of partial 18S (KF685832) and 28S (KF685773) (Caira et al. 2014).

Potamotrygon leopoldi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Marques et al. 2003).

Potamotrygon motoro (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina (Marques et al. 2003).

Potamotrygon orbignyi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Marques et al. 2003).

Potamotrygonocestus magdalenensis Brooks & Thorson, 1976*

Potamotrygon magdalenae (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Magdalena River basin; Colombia (Brooks and Thorson 1976; Brooks et al. 1981b; Caira and Orringer 1995; Marques et al. 2003).

Note: type host.

Potamotrygonocestus marajoara Luchetti, Marques & Charvet-Almeida, 2008

Plesiotrygon iwamae (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin (estuary); Brazil (Luchetti et al. 2008).

Note: type host.

Potamotrygonocestus maurae Marques, Brooks & Araujo, 2003

Potamotrygon orbignyi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Marques et al. 2003).

Note: type host.

Potamotrygonocestus travassosi Rego, 1979

[Syn. Potamotrygonocestus orinocoensis Brooks, Mayes & Thorson, 1981]

Paratrygon aiereba (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Marques et al. 2003).

Potamotrygon constellata (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Marques et al. 2003).

Potamotrygon falkneri (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Lacerda et al. 2008, 2009).

Potamotrygon motoro (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Brooks and Amato 1992).

Note: tapeworms reported as Potamotrygonocestus orinocoensis.

Potamotrygon orbignyi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon and Orinoco River basins; Brazil, Venezuela (Rego 1979; Brooks et al. 1981b; Brooks and Amato 1992; Marques et al. 2003).

Notes: type host; it was reported as P. reticulatus and P. hystrix. The taxon was considered a species inquirenda by Brooks et al. (1981b) and Brooks and Amato (1992), but its validity was confirmed by Marques et al. (2003) who also considered Potamotrygonocestus orinocoensis, both described from this host, a junior synonym of P. travassosi.

Potamotrygonocestus sp.

Paratrygon aiereba (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (Reyda and Olson 2003).

Note: Reyda and Olson (2003) reported hyperparasitism caused by metacestodes of proteocephalids.

Potamotrygon cf. falkneri (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (Reyda 2008).

Note: host reported as Potamotrygon cf. castexi.

Potamotrygon henlei (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Tocantins-Araguaia River basin; Brazil (Marques et al. 2003).

Note: these cestodes may represent an undescribed species of the genus (Marques et al. 2003).

Potamotrygon motoro (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (Reyda 2008).

Potamotrygon schroederi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Marques et al. 2003).

Note: these cestodes may represent an undescribed species of the genus (Marques et al. 2003).

Family Prosobothriidae Baer & Euzet, 1955

Prosobothrium armigerum Cohn, 1902*

Prionace glauca (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (Rivera and Sarmiento 1990).

Family Proteocephalidae La Rue, 1911

[Even though recent molecular data suggest that most of the traditionally recognized subfamilies are artificial, i.e. non-monophyletic, we are following Woodland’s subfamilial classification for practical reasons]

Subfamily Corallobothriinae Freze, 1965

Corallotaenia sp.

Ageneiosus pardalis (Actinopterygii: Auchenipteridae); freshwater; intestine; adult (immature specimens); Magdalena River basin; Colombia (Brooks and Deardorff 1980).

Notes: host reported as A. caucanus. This is the first record of the genus in South America (Brooks and Deardorff 1980), but since only immature specimens were found, this needs verification.

Megathylacus jandia Woodland, 1934*

[Syn. Megathylacus brooksi Rego & Pavanelli, 1985]

Zungaro jahu (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Rego and Gibson 1989; Rego and Pavanelli 1985; Eiras et al. 1986; Kohn and Fernandes 1987; Pavanelli and Machado 1991; Takemoto and Pavanelli 1994; Kohn et al. 2011; de Chambrier et al. 2014).

Notes: host reported as Paulicea luetkeni or Z. zungaro (for details on the host taxonomic status, see Boni et al. 2011). Rego and Gibson (1989) and Rego and Pavanelli (1985) reported hyperparasitism caused by metacestodes of proteocephalids.

Zungaro zungaro (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (Woodland 1934c; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Hypša et al. 2005; de Chambrier et al. 2014, 2015a).

Notes: type host; it was originally reported as Rhamdia sp., but it is most likely Z. zungaro as discussed by de Chambrier et al. (2014), who reassessed the taxonomic status of this cestode species. Sequences of partial 18S (AY551111), complete ITS2 (AY551147), partial 28S (AJ388596) and 16S (AJ389515) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Hypša et al. 2005).

Megathylacus sp.

Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Rego 1990).

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (also immature specimens); Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2014, 2015a).

Note: host reported as P. punctifer by de Chambrier et al. (2014), however, it falls within the range of genetic variability of P. fasciatum (sensu lato), according to Carvalho-Costa et al. (2011).

Megathylacus travassosi Pavanelli & Rego, 1992

Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Pavanelli and Machado 1991; Pavanelli and Rego 1992; Machado et al. 1994, 1995, 1996; Rego 2002; de Chambrier et al. 2014; Ribeiro et al. 2014).

Notes: type host. Pavanelli and Machado (1991) referred to M. travassosi prior its formal publication one year later, which could render the name a nomen nudum but which was neglected in subsequent works.

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Campos et al. 2008, 2009a, b).

Sciadocephalus megalodiscus Diesing, 1850*

Cichla kelberi (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná

River basin; Brazil (Yamada and Takemoto 2013).

Note: this host should be synonymized with C. ocellaris based on molecular data (Willis et al. 2012).

Cichla monoculus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine, stomach; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Brazil, Peru (Diesing 1850; Woodland 1933b; Rego et al. 1999b; Machado et al. 2000; de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015b).

Notes: type host. C. monoculus should be synonymized with C. ocellaris based on molecular data (Willis et al. 2012), but it is accepted by morphology-based studies (Kullander and Ferreira 2006). Sequence of partial 28S (KP729403) (de Chambrier et al. 2015b).

Cichla piquiti (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná and

Tocantins-Araguaia River basins; Brazil (Franceschini et al. 2013; Yamada and Takemoto 2013).

Subfamily Endorchiinae Woodland, 1934

Endorchis auchenipteri de Chambrier & Vaucher, 1999

Auchenipterus osteomystax (Actinopterygii: Auchenipteridae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Note: type host.

Endorchis piraeeba Woodland, 1934*

Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil; (Woodland 1934b; Rego 1991; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1997; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Zehnder et al. 2000; Hypša et al. 2005).

Notes: type host. In type material, Nominoscolex piraeeba and E. piraeeba are mixed on the same slide (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1997); Rego (1991) synomymized E. piraeeba with the former species, but de Chambrier and Vaucher (1997) re-validated it. Sequences of partial 18S (AY551107), complete ITS2 (AY551142), partial 28S (AJ388603) and 16S (AJ389522) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Hypša et al. 2005).

Brachyplatystoma cf. filamentosum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Endorchis sp.

Pimelodus altissimus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Pimelodus cf. maculatus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Trachelyopterus striatulus (Actinopterygii: Auchenipteridae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Subfamily Ephedrocephalinae Mola, 1929

Ephedrocephalus microcephalus Diesing, 1850*

[Syn. Rudolphiella microcephalus (Diesing, 1850) Brooks, 1995]

Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Diesing 1850, 1855; Mola 1906; Woodland 1933b; Fuhrmann 1934; Rego 1984b; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Hypša et al. 2005; Ruedi and de Chambrier 2012; Scholz et al. 2013).

Notes: type host. Sequences of complete and partial 18S (KC786007, AY551108), respectively; complete ITS2 (AY551143), partial 28S (KC786017, AJ388605), partial 16S (KC785994, AJ389509) and partial cox1 (KC785982) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Hypša et al. 2005; Scholz et al. 2013).

Subfamily Monticelliinae Mola, 1929

Ageneiella brevifilis de Chambrier & Vaucher, 1999*

Ageneiosus inermis (Actinopterygii: Auchenipteridae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina, Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Gil de Pertierra 2009).

Notes: type host; it was reported as A. brevifilis. Sequences of partial 18S (AY551102), complete ITS2 (AY551138), partial 28S (AJ388600) and 16S (AJ389495) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Hypša et al. 2005).

Ageneiosus militaris (Actinopterygii: Auchenipteridae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina (Gil de Pertierra 2009).

Ageneiella sp.

Ageneiosus inermis (Actinopterygii: Auchenipteridae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Chambriella agostinhoi (Pavanelli & Machado, 1992) Rego, Chubb & Pavanelli, 1999*

[Syn. Goezeella agostinhoi Pavanelli & Machado, 1992]

Pimelodus maculatus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Bachmann et al. 2007).

Notes: tapeworms reported as Goezeella agostinhoi. This report needs verification, but apparently, there are no vouchers deposited in any museum collection.

Zungaro jahu (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná

River basin; Brazil (Pavanelli and Machado 1991, 1992; Takemoto and Pavanelli 1994; Ceccarelli et al. 2006; Kohn et al. 2011).

Notes: type host; it was reported as Z. zungaro or P. luetkeni and the tapeworms as Goezeella agostinhoi by some authors. Before formal description of the species, Pavanelli and Machado (1991) had used the name G. agostinhoi. Since Robertiella agostinhoi and R. paranaensis sensu Rego (1999) were not formally described, we considered them as nomina nuda.

Zungaro zungaro (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a).

Chambriella paranaensis (Pavanelli & Rego, 1989) Rego, Chubb & Pavaneli, 1999

[Syns. Goezeella paranaensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1989; Spatulifer paranensis (sic!) (Pavanelli & Rego, 1989) Brooks, 1995]

Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Brazil, Paraguay, Peru (Pavanelli and Rego 1989; Pavanelli and Machado 1991; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Guidelli et al. 2003; de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a).

Chambriella sp.

Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Note: Chambriella sp 1. sensu de Chambrier et al. (2015a).

Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a; Ruedi and de Chambrier 2012).

Note: Chambriella sp. 2 sensu de Chambrier et al. (2015a).

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Note: Chambriella sp. 3 sensu de Chambrier et al. (2015a).

Sorubimichthys planiceps (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (de Chambrier and Scholz 2008; de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Note: Chambriella sp. 4 sensu de Chambrier et al. (2015a).

Choanoscolex abscisus (Riggenbach, 1895) La Rue, 1911*

[Syns. Ichthyotaenia abscisa Riggenbach, 1895; Corallobothrium abscissus (sic!) (Riggenbach, 1895) Meggitt, 1927; Proteocephalus abscissus (sic!) (Riggenbach, 1895) Fuhrmann, 1933; Spatulifer abscissus (sic!) (Riggenbach, 1895) Brooks, 1995]

Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná and São Francisco River basins; Brazil, Paraguay (Riggenbach 1895, 1896b; La Rue 1911, 1914; Rego and Gibson 1989; Rego 1990, 2002; Pavanelli and Machado 1991; Machado et al. 1994, 1995, 1996; Mariaux 1998; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Ceccarelli et al. 2006; Kohn et al. 2011; Ribeiro and Takemoto 2014; Ribeiro et al. 2014).

Notes: type host. Riggenbach (1895, 1896b) reported the host as Silurus sp. and proposed the parasite name twice. Rego and Gibson (1989) reported hyperparasitism caused by metacestodes of proteocephalids. Sequences of partial 18S (AY551105, Z98382, Z98381, Z98380), complete ITS2 (AY551141), partial 28S (AJ388630) and 16S (AJ389501) (Mariaux 1998; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Hypša et al. 2005).

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon, Orinoco, Paraná and São Francisco River basins; Brazil, Peru, Venezuela (Brooks and Rasmussen 1984; Rego 1990, 2002; Zehnder et al. 2000; de Chambrier et al. 2004b, 2015a; Ceccarelli et al. 2006; Campos et al. 2008, 2009a, b; Jerônimo et al. 2013).

Notes: tapeworms reported as Choanoscolex cf. abscisus by Zehnder et al. (2000) and de Chambrier et al. (2004b). Host reported as P. reticulatum by Jerônimo et al. (2013), but it falls within the range of genetic variability of P. fasciatum (sensu lato), according to Carvalho-Costa et al. (2011). Sequence of partial 28S (AJ275064) (Zehnder et al. 2000).

Rhaphiodon vulpinus (Actinopterygii: Cynodontidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Rego and Pavanelli 1990).

Zungaro jahu (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná

River basin; Brazil (Pavanelli and Machado 1991; Ceccarelli et al. 2006).

Notes: host reported as P. luetkeni or Z. zungaro; it was considered an accidental host by de Chambrier and Vaucher (1999).

Choanoscolex sp.

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Paraguay, Peru (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; de Chambrier et al. 2006a).

Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (immature specimens); Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2006a).

Sorubimichthys planiceps (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (mostly immature specimens); Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (de Chambrier and Scholz 2008; de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Goezeella danbrooksi de Chambrier, Rego & Mariaux, 2004

[Syn. Goezeella siluri sensu Brooks & Deardorff, 1980]

Ageneiosus pardalis (Actinopterygii: Auchenipteridae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Magdalena River Basin; Colombia (Brooks and Deardorff 1980; de Chambrier et al. 2004a).

Note: type host; it was originally reported as A. caucanus, whereas the tapeworms have been reported as Goezeella siluri following Brooks and Deardorff’s (1980) description.

Goezeella siluri Fuhrmann, 1916*

[Syns. Goezeella piramutab Woodland, 1933; Monticellia piramutab (Woodland, 1933) Woodland, 1935; M. siluri (Fuhrmann, 1916) Woodland, 1935; Corallobothrium siluri (Fuhrmann, 1916) Harwood, 1933; Spatulifer piramutab (Woodland, 1933) Brooks & Deardorff, 1980; S. siluri (Fuhrmann, 1916) Brooks, 1995]

Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (immature and mature specimens); Amazon and Orinoco River basins; Brazil, Venezuela (Woodland 1933c; Brooks and Rasmussen 1984; de Chambrier et al. 2004a).

Note: the specimens studied by Woodland (1933c) were described as G. piramutab and it corresponds in fact to a mixed infection of the present species and Brooksiella praeputialis, according to de Chambrier et al. (2004a).

Cetopsis coecutiens (Actinopterygii: Cetopsidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Fuhrmann 1916; Rego et al. 1974; Rego 1975; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; de Chambrier et al. 2004a).

Note: type host.

Cetopsis othonops (Actinopterygii: Cetopsidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Orinoco River basin; Venezuela (Brooks and Rasmussen 1984).

Note: host reported as Pseudocetopsis othonops.

Pinirampus pirinampu (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; de Chambrier et al. 2004a; Hypša et al. 2005).

Note: sequences of partial 18S (AY551110), complete ITS2 (AY551146), partial 28S (AJ388612) and 16S (AJ389518) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Hypša et al. 2005).

Lenhataenia megacephala (Woodland, 1934) de Chambrier & Scholz, 2008*

[Syn. Monticellia megacephala Woodland, 1934]

Rhamdia quelen (Actinopterygii: Heptapteridae); freshwater; intestine, stomach; adult; Chascomus lagoon (Salado River basin); Argentina (Rabey 1973).

Note: host reported as Rhamdia sapo.

Sorubimichthys planiceps (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (Woodland 1934c; Rego 1975; de Chambrier and Scholz 2008; de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Notes: type host; it was originally reported as Platystomatichthys sturio.

Manaosia bracodemoca Woodland, 1935*

[Syns. Paramonticellia itaipuensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Goezeella nupeliensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Spatulifer nupeliensis (Pavanelli & Rego, 1991) Brooks, 1995]

Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Pavanelli and Machado 1991).

Sorubim lima (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Brazil, Paraguay, Peru (Woodland 1935b; Pavanelli and Machado 1991; Pavanelli and Rego 1991; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Pavanelli and Takemoto 2000; Takemoto and Pavanelli 2000; Rego 2002; de Chambrier 2003; Kohn et al. 2011; de Chambrier et al. 2015a, b).

Notes: type host. Woodland (1935b) reported the host as Platystoma sp., but it is supposed to be Sorubim lima, locally known as 'braço-de-moça' (de Chambrier 2003). Sequence of partial 28S (KP729414) (de Chambrier et al. 2015b).

Monticellia amazonica de Chambrier & Vaucher, 1997

[Syns. Nomimoscolex piracatinga Woodland, 1935; Monticellia rugata Rego, 1975 (pro parte); Spatulifer rugata (Rego, 1975) Brooks & Deardorff, 1980; Paramonticellia piracatinga (Woodland, 1935) Brooks, 1995]

Calophysus macropterus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (Woodland 1935b; Rego 1975; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1997; de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a; Scholz et al. 2008).

Note: type host; it was originally reported as Pimelodus pati (syn. of Luciopimelodus pati according to Froese and Pauly 2016), but this host does not occur in the Amazon River basin; ‘piracatinga’ is also the vernacular name of C. macropterus, which is endemic to the Amazon and Orinoco River basins (for details, see Scholz et al. 2008).

Monticellia belavistensis Pavanelli, Machado, Takemoto & dos Santos, 1994

Pterodoras granulosus (Actinopterygii: Doradidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Peru (Pavanelli et al. 1994; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Gil de Pertierra 2005; Kohn et al. 2011; de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Note: type host.

Monticellia coryphicephala (Monticelli, 1891) La Rue, 1911*

[Syns. Taenia coryphicephala Monticelli, 1891; Tetracotylus coryphicephala Monticelli, 1891; Ichthyotaenia coryphicephala (Monticelli, 1891) Lönnberg, 1894; Proteocephalus (Proteocephalus) coryphicephala (Monticelli, 1891) Harwood, 1933]

Salminus brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Bryconidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná and São Francisco River basins; Brazil, Paraguay (Monticelli 1891; La Rue 1911, 1914; Rego 1975; Rego and Pavanelli 1990; Pavanelli and Machado 1991; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Zehnder and de Chambrier 2000; Brasil-Sato 2003; Mesquita et al. 2012; Karling et al. 2013a, b).

Notes: type host; it was originally reported as Silurus sp., but this genus only occurs in the Palaearctic region. Sequences of complete ITS2 (AJ238839), partial 28S (AJ238832) and 16S (AJ238831) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Zehnder and de Chambrier 2000).

Salminus franciscanus (Actinopterygii: Bryconidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; São Francisco River basin; Brazil (Rego and Pavanelli 1990).

Note: host reported as S. brevidens.

Monticellia dlouhyi de Chambrier & Vaucher, 1999

Acestrorhynchus altus (Actinopterygii: Acestrorhynchidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Note: type host.

Monticellia magna (Rego, Santos & Silva, 1974) de Chambrier & Vaucher, 1997

[Syns. Nomimoscolex magna Rego Santos & Silva, 1974 (pro parte); Monticellia loyolai Pavanelli & Machado, 1992]

Pimelodus albicans (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina (Gil de Pertierra 2004).

Pimelodus argenteus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina (Gil de Pertierra 2004).

Pimelodus cf. blochii (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Pimelodus maculatus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná and São Francisco River basins; Brazil, Argentina (Rego et al. 1974; Pavanelli and Machado 1991, 1992; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1997, 1999; Brasil-Sato 2003; Gil de Pertierra 2004; Kohn et al. 2011).

Notes: type host; it was reported as Pimelodus clarias. There is a mixture of two species in the type material, originally described as N. magna, which can be differentiated by the position of internal organs (see p. 255 in de Chambrier and Vaucher (1997); Rego et al. (1999a) proposed the name Proteocephalus magna for those specimens considered as Proteocephalus sp. by the former authors, but they superficially circumscribed the new taxon.

Pimelodus cf. maculatus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Note: they reported the tapeworms as Monticellia cf. magna.

Monticellia santafesina Arredondo & Gil de Pertierra, 2010

Megalonema platanum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina (Arredondo and Gil de Pertierra 2010).

Note: type host.

Megalonema platycephalum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Monticellia ventrei de Chambrier & Vaucher, 1999

[Syn. Myzophorus admonticellia Woodland 1934 (pro parte)]

Luciopimelodus pati (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina (Gil de Pertierra 2005).

Pinirampus pirinampu (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Brazil, Paraguay, Peru (Woodland 1934a; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Notes: this host is assumed to be the type, because all possible fish hosts cited by Woodland (1934a), i.e. Pimelodus pinarampu, Pinirampus pirinampus (sic!) and P. typus are junior synonym of P. pirinampu (see Froese and Pauly 2016). Nomimoscolex admonticellia and M. ventrei are mixed in the type material of Myzophorus admonticellia, according to de Chambrier and Vaucher (1999).

Monticellia sp.

Brycon orbignyanus (Actinopterygii: Bryconidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (immature specimens); Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Pinirampus pirinampu (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; São Francisco River basin; Brazil (Brasil-Sato 2003; Santos et al. 2003).

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Santos et al. 2003).

Regoella brevis Arredondo, Gil de Pertierra & de Chambrier, 2013*

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina (Arredondo et al. 2013; de Chambrier et al. 2015b).

Notes: type host. Sequence of partial 28S (KP729389) (de Chambrier et al. 2015b). Host recorded as Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum in the GenBank database.

Spasskyellina lenha (Woodland, 1933) Freze, 1965*

[Syn. Monticellia lenha Woodland, 1933]

Sorubimichthys planiceps (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (Woodland 1933a; de Chambrier and Scholz 2008; de Chambrier et al. 2015a, b).

Notes: type host. Sequence of 28S (KP729413) under the name Lenhataenia megacephala in the GenBank database – see de Chambrier et al. (2015b).

Spasskyellina mandi Pavanelli & Takemoto, 1996

[Syn. Monticellia mandi (Pavanelli & Takemoto, 1996) de Chambrier & Vaucher, 1999]

Pimelodus ornatus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Pavanelli and Takemoto 1996).

Note: type host.

Spasskyellina spinulifera (Woodland, 1935) Freze, 1965

[Syns. Monticellia spinulifera (Woodland, 1935); M. spinulifer (sic!) of Brooks (1995)]

Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay (Rego 1990, 2002; Pavanelli and Machado 1991; Machado et al. 1994, 1995, 1996; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Santos et al. 2003; Ceccarrelli et al. 2006; Kohn et al. 2011; Ribeiro et al. 2014; de Chambrier et al. 2015b).

Note: sequence of 28S (KP729417) (de Chambrier et al. 2015b).

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Brazil, Peru (Woodland 1935a; Rego 1975, 2002; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Santos et al. 2003; de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a; Ceccarrelli et al. 2006).

Note: type host.

Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a).

Sorubim lima (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Pavanelli and Takemoto 2000; Takemoto and Pavanelli 2000).

Spasskyellina sp.

Pimelodus ornatus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Takemoto et al. 2009).

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Santos et al. 2003).

Spatulifer maringaensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1989

Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine, stomach; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Brazil, Paraguay, Peru (Pavanelli and Rego 1989; Pavanelli and Machado 1991; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Guidelli et al. 2003; de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a).

Note: type host.

Sorubim lima (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon

and Paraná River basins; Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Peru (Pavanelli and Rego 1989; Pavanelli and Machado 1991; Mariaux 1998; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Pavanelli and Takemoto 2000; Takemoto and Pavanelli 2000; Hypša et al. 2005; Arrendondo and Gil de Pertierra 2008; de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Notes: Arredondo and Gil de Pertierra (2008) suggested, based on ecological data, that Sorubim lima is the principal final host. Tapeworms reported as Spatulifer cf. maringaensis by de Chambrier and Vaucher (1999) and confirmed to be S. maringaensis by the former authors, who evaluated the vouchers deposited in MHNG. Sequences of partial 18S (AY551136, Z98385, Z98384, Z98383), complete ITS2 (AY551176), partial 28S (AJ388634) and 16S (AJ389507) (Mariaux 1998; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Hypša et al. 2005).

Spatulifer rugosa (Woodland, 1935) Brooks & Deardorff, 1980

[Syn. Monticellia rugosa Woodland, 1935]

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Argentina, Brazil, Peru (Woodland 1935b; Rego 1975, 1989, 2002; de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a; Arrendondo and Gil de Pertierra 2008; Campos et al. 2008, 2009a, b; Lopes et al. 2009).

Notes: type host; it was reported as P. punctifer by de Chambrier et al. (2006a) and Lopes et al. (2009).

Spatulifer surubim Woodland, 1934*

[Syns. Peltidocotyle rugosa sensu Woodland, 1933b nec Diesing, 1850; Spatulifer surubim Woodland, 1934; Monticellia surubim (Woodland, 1934) Woodland, 1935]

Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Woodland 1933b, 1934a; Rego 1975, 2002).

Note: type host.

Spatulifer sp.

Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (immature specimens); Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a).

Note: probably Spatulifer surubim according to de Chambrier et al. (2006a).

Monticelliinae gen. sp.

Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Subfamily Nupeliinae Pavanelli & Rego, 1991

Nupelia portoriquensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991*

Sorubim lima (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná

River basin; Brazil, Paraguay (Pavanelli and Machado 1991; Pavanelli and Rego 1991; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Pavanelli and Takemoto 2000; Takemoto and Pavanelli 2000; de Chambrier et al. 2015b).

Notes: type host. Sequence of partial 28S (KP729401) (de Chambrier et al. 2015b).

Nupelia tomasi de Chambrier & Vaucher, 1999

Trachelyopterus galeatus (Actinopterygii: Auchenipteridae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Note: type host.

Trachelyopterus cf. striatulus (Actinopterygii: Auchenipteridae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Nupelia sp.

Goeldiella eques (Actinopterygii: Heptapteridae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a).

Subfamily Peltidocotylinae Woodland, 1934

Amazotaenia yvettae de Chambrier, 2001*

Brachyplatystoma capapretum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (de Chambrier 2001).

Notes: type host; it was reported as B. filamentosum and re-identified by J. Lundberg (pers. comm.).

Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (de Chambrier 2001).

Jauella glandicephalus Rego & Pavanelli, 1985*

[Syn. Spatulifer glandicephala (Rego & Pavanelli, 1985) Brooks, 1995]

Zungaro jahu (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná

River basin; Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay (Rego and Pavanelli 1985; Eiras et al. 1986; Rego and Gibson 1989; Pavanelli and Machado 1991; Takemoto and Pavanelli 1994; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Gil de Pertierra 2009; de Chambrier et al. 2015b).

Notes: type host; it was reported as P. luetkeni or Z. zungaro. Rego and Pavanelli (1985) proposed the subfamily Jauellinae Rego and Pavanelli, 1985, which was not followed by other workers. Rego and Gibson (1989) and Rego and Pavanelli (1985) reported hyperparasitism caused by metacestodes of proteocephalids. Sequence of partial 28S (KP729399) (de Chambrier et al. 2015b).

Zungaro zungaro (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Luciaella ivanovae Gil de Pertierra, 2009*

Ageneiosus inermis (Actinopterygii: Auchenipteridae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina (Gil de Pertierra 2009).

Note: type host.

Mariauxiella pimelodi de Chambrier & Rego, 1995*

Pimelodus ornatus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil, Paraguay (de Chambrier and Rego 1995; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Pimelodus sp. (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (de Chambrier and Rego 1995; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Note: type host.

Mariauxiella piscatorum de Chambrier & Vaucher, 1999

Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Brazil, Paraguay, Peru (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Guidelli et al. 2003; de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a).

Note: type host.

Peltidocotyle lenha (Woodland, 1933) Woodland, 1934

[Syns. Othinoscolex lenha Woodland, 1933; Othinoscolex myzofer Woodland, 1933; Woodlandiella myzofera (Woodland, 1933) Freze, 1965; Peltidocotyle rugosa of Schmidt, 1986; Rudolphiella lenha (Woodland, 1933) Brooks, 1995]

Sorubimichthys planiceps (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (Woodland 1933a, 1934b; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Zehnder and de Chambrier 2000; Hypša et al. 2005; de Chambrier and Scholz 2008; de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Notes: type host; it was originally reported as Platystomatichthys sturio. Sequences of partial 18S (AY551122), complete IT2 (AJ238842), partial 28S (AJ238836) and 16S (AJ238827) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Zehnder and de Chambrier 2000; Hypša et al. 2005).

Zungaro jahu (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná

River basin; Argentina, Brazil (Rego and Pavanelli 1987; Zehnder and de Chambrier 2000; Gil de Pertierra 2009).

Notes: host reported as Zungaro zungaro or Paulicea luetkeni. Rego and Pavanelli (1987) mistakenly reported the tapeworm as Peltidocotyle rugosa, according to Zehnder and de Chambrier (2000); the former workers also reported hyperparasitism caused by larval cestodes.

Zungaro zungaro (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; de Chambrier et al. 2006a).

Notes: sequences of complete IT2 (AJ238840, AJ238843), partial 28S (AJ238834, AJ238837) and 16S (AJ238826, AJ238829) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Zehnder and de Chambrier 2000).

Peltidocotyle rugosa Diesing, 1850*

Pseudopimelodus mangurus (Actinopterygii: Pseudopimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; locality not given; Argentina (Rego and Pavanelli 1987).

Note: host reported as Zungaro mangurus.

Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina, Brazil (Diesing 1850; Fuhrmann 1934; Rego 1990, 2002; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Zehnder and de Chambrier 2000; Gil de Pertierra 2009).

Note: type host; it was originally reported as Platystoma tigrinum (syn. of Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum), but it does not occur in the Paraná River basin, thus the fish host is assumed to be P. corruscans (see de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Brazil, Paraguay, Peru (Rego 1989, 1990; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Zehnder and de Chambrier 2000; Olson et al. 2001; Rego 2002; Ceccarrelli et al. 2006; Campos et al. 2008, 2009a, b; de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Note: sequence of complete 18S (AF286989) and ITS2 (AJ238841), partial 28S (AJ238835, AF286937) and 16S (AJ238828) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Zehnder and de Chambrier 2000; Olson et al. 2001).

Zungaro jahu (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná

River basin; Brazil (Rego and Gibson 1989; Pavanelli and Machado 1991; Takemoto and Pavanelli 1994; Ceccarrelli et al. 2006; Kohn et al. 2011).

Notes: host reported as P. luetkeni or Z. zungaro. Rego and Gibson (1989) reported hyperparasitism caused by metacestodes of proteocephalids.

Peltidocotyle sp.

Zungaro jahu (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná

River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Note: host reported as Paulicea luetkeni.

Subfamily Proteocephalinae La Rue, 1911

Brayela karuatayi (Woodland, 1934) Rego, 1984*

[Syn. Anthobothrium karuatayi Woodland, 1934]

Platynematichthys notatus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (also immature specimens); Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (Woodland 1934c; Rego 1984a; de Chambrier et al. 2014, 2015a, b).

Notes: type host; it was originally reported as Glanidium sp.; Rego (1984a) erected the new subfamily Brayelainae, which was not accepted by other authors. Sequence of partial 28S (KP729406) (de Chambrier et al. 2015b).

Cangatiella arandasi Pavanelli & Machado, 1991*

Trachelyopterus galeatus (Actinopterygii: Auchenipteridae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Pavanelli and Machado 1990, 1991; Kohn et al. 2011; de Chambrier et al. 2015b).

Notes: host also reported as Parauchenipterus galeatus. Sequence of 28S (KP729411) (de Chambrier et al. 2015b).

Note: type host.

Cangatiella macdonaghi (Szidat & Nani, 1951) Gil de Pertierra & Viozzi, 1999 [Syns. Ichthyotaenia macdonaghi Szidat & Nani, 1951; Proteocephalus macdonaghi (Szidat & Nani, 1951) Yamaguti, 1959]

Odontesthes bonariensis (Actinopterygii: Atherinopsidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; lakes in Buenos Aires and Córdoba Provinces; Argentina (MacDonagh 1932; Ringuelet 1943; Fuster de Plaza and Boschi 1957; Ortubay et al. 1994; Mancini and Grosman 1998; Mancini et al. 2008; Drago 2012; Bethular et al. 2014).

Notes: Mancini and Grosman (1998) reported the tapeworms as Proteocephalus sp. (Mancini et al. 2008), whereas MacDonagh (1932) and Ringuelet (1943) reported it as Ichthyotaenia sp.

Odontesthes hatcheri (Actinopterygii: Atherinopsidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Peligrini lake; Argentina (Szidat and Nani 1951; Gil de Pertierra and Viozzi 1999).

Notes: type host; it was originally reported as Basilichthys microlepidotus.

Euzetiella tetraphylliformis de Chambrier, Rego & Vaucher, 1999*

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (immature); Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Zungaro jahu (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil, Paraguay (de Chambrier et al. 1999).

Zungaro zungaro (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (de Chambrier et al. 1999, 2006a, 2015a).

Notes: host originally reported as Paulicea luetkeni (syn. of Z. jahu and Z. zungaro); since the holotype was described from a fish collected in the Amazon River, Z. zungaro should be considered the type host.

Frezella vaucheri Alves, de Chambrier, Scholz & Luque, 2015*

Tocantinsia piresi (Actinopterygii: Auchenipteridae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Alves et al. 2015).

Notes: type host. Sequence of partial 28S (KM387399) (Alves et al. 2015).

Margaritaella gracilis Arredondo & Gil de Pertierra, 2012*

Callichthys callichthys (Actinopterygii: Callichthyidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina (Arredondo and Gil de Pertierra 2012).

Note: type host.

Proteocephalus bagri Holcman-Spector & Mañé-Garzón, 1988

Rhamdia quelen (Actinopterygii: Heptapteridae); freshwater; intestine; Chis-Chis, Chascomús, Sauce, Diario and Dos Patos lagoons; Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay (Holcman-Spector and Mañé-Garzón 1988; Gil de Pertierra 2002b).

Note: type host; it was originally reported as R. sapo.

Proteocephalus fossatus (Riggenbach, 1895) La Rue, 1911

[Syn. Ichthyotaenia fossata Riggenbach, 1895]

Luciopimelodus pati (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (Riggenbach 1895, 1896; La Rue 1911, 1914).

Note: type host; it was originally reported as Pimelodus pati.

Proteocephalus gibsoni Rego & Pavanelli, 1991

[Syn. Proteocephalus ocellatus sensu Rego & Pavanelli, 1990 nec Proteocephalus ocellatus (Rudolphi, 1802)]

Astronotus ocellatus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (Rego and Pavanelli 1990; de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a; Bittencourt et al. 2014).

Notes: type host. Rego and Pavanelli (1991) proposed the name Proteocephalus gibsoni one year later of its original description in order to avoid the homonym with P. ocellatus (syn. of P. percae [Müller, 1780]), a parasite of percids in Europe (Scholz 1989).

Astronotus sp. (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Rego and Pavanelli 1990).

Geophagus brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná and Doce River basins; Brazil (Rego and Pavanelli 1990; Bellay et al. 2012).

Proteocephalus hemioliopteri de Chambrier & Vaucher, 1997

[Syns. Myzophorus woodlandi Rego, 1984; Nomimoscolex woodlandi (Rego, 1984) Rego & Pavanelli, 1992]

Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (Rego 1984b; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1997; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; de Chambrier et al. 2005, 2015a; Hypša et al. 2005; Ruedi and de Chambrier 2012).

Notes: type host. Sequences of partial 18S (AY551129), complete ITS2 (AY551165) and partial 28S (AJ388622) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Hypša et al. 2005).

Proteocephalus hobergi de Chambrier & Vaucher, 1999

Oxydoras kneri (Actinopterygii: Doradidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon

and Paraná River basins; Paraguay, Peru (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; de Chambrier et al. 2004b; de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Notes: type host. Sequence of partial 28S (AJ275062) (de Chambrier et al. 2004b).

Oxydoras niger (Actinopterygii: Doradidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon

River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2015).

Proteocephalus kuyukuyu Woodland, 1935

Megalodoras uranoscopus (Actinopterygii: Doradidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (immature specimens); Amazon and Orinoco River basins; Peru, Venezuela (Brooks and Rasmussen 1984; de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Note: Brooks and Rasmussen (1984) reported the host as M. irwini and the tapeworms as P. cf. kuyukuyu.

Oxydoras niger (Actinopterygii: Doradidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (immature specimens); Amazon River basin; Brazil (Woodland 1935c; Santos and Tavares-Dias 2010; Silva et al. 2011).

Notes: type host; it was reported as Pseudodoras niger, but Woodland (1935c) also found some specimens in other doradid fish, assumed to be Pseudodoras brunnescens (syn. of Acanthodoras spinosissimus). It is argued that the presence of only immature proglottids in the adults is due to a hyperapolytic development (see de Chambrier et al. 2015a); considered species inquirenda by some authors, e.g. Freze (1965), Rego (1987b) and Rego et al. (1999a).

Pterodoras granulosus (Actinopterygii: Doradidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (immature specimens); Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2015a, b).

Note: sequence of partial 28S (KP729388) (de Chambrier et al. 2015b).

Pterodoras sp. (Actinopterygii: Doradidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (immature specimens); Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850) La Rue, 1914

[Syns. Taenia macrophalla Diesing, 1850; Ichthyotaenia macrophalla (Diesing, 1850) Riggenbach, 1896]

Cichla kelberi (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná and São Francisco River basin; Brazil (Yamada and Takemoto 2013; Santos-Clapp and Brasil-Sato 2014).

Cichla monoculus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Brazil, Peru (Diesing 1850; La Rue 1914; Takemoto and Pavanelli 1996; de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a, b; Machado et al. 2000; Kohn et al. 2011).

Notes: type host; some authors assumed C. ocellaris as the type host, but the taxonomic status of these cichlids is unclear (see notes on p. 33). Sequence of partial 28S (KP729394) (de Chambrier et al. 2015b).

Cichla ocellaris (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon, Orinoco, Paraíba do Sul and Paraná River basins; Brazil, Venezuela (Woodland 1933b; Scholz et al. 1996; Azevedo et al. 2010, 2011).

Cichla piquiti (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine, stomach; adult; Paraná and Tocantins-Araguaia River basins; Brazil (Martins et al. 2009, 2011; Franceschini et al. 2013; Lacerda et al. 2013; Yamada and Takemoto 2013).

Cichla sp. (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Santos et al. 2011).

Proteocephalus mahnerti de Chambrier & Vaucher, 1999

Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Actinopterygii: Erythrinidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Note: type host.

Proteocephalus microscopicus Woodland, 1935

Cichla kelberi (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná and São Francisco River basins; Brazil (Yamada and Takemoto 2013; Santos-Clapp and Brasil-Sato 2014).

Cichla monoculus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Brazil, Peru (Takemoto and Pavanelli 1996; Machado et al. 2000; de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a; Müller et al. 2008; Kohn et al. 2011).

Cichla ocellaris (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Woodland 1935c).

Note: type host.

Cichla piquiti (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná and Tocantins-Araguaia River basins; Brazil (Martins et al. 2009, 2011; Franceschini et al. 2013; Lacerda et al. 2013; Yamada and Takemoto 2013).

Cichla sp. (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Santos et al. 2011).

Proteocephalus pilarensis de Chambrier & Vaucher, 1999

Paraloricaria sp. (Actinopterygii: Loricariidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Note: type host.

Proteocephalus pimelodi (Gil de Pertierra, 1995) de Chambrier & Vaucher, 1997

[Syn. Nomimoscolex pimelodi Gil de Pertierra, 1995]

Pimelodus maculatus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina (Gil de Pertierra 1995; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1997).

Note: type host.

Proteocephalus platystomi Lynsdale, 1959

Pseudoplatystoma sp. (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Lynsdale 1959; Rego 2002).

Note: host originally reported as Platystoma sp.; the specimens collected by Woodland in 1937 were deposited without any identification in BMNH (Lynsdale 1959).

Note: type host.

Proteocephalus regoi de Chambrier, Scholz and Vaucher, 1996

Hoplias malabaricus (Actinopterygii: Erythrinidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier et al. 1996; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Note: type host.

Proteocephalus renaudi de Chambrier & Vaucher, 1994

Franciscodoras marmoratus (Actinopterygii: Doradidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; São Francisco River basin; Brazil (Santos and Brasil-Sato 2006).

Platydoras costatus (Actinopterygii: Doradidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1994, 1999; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999).

Notes: type host; it does not occur in the Paraná River basin (Ferraris 2007; Piorski et al. 2008). Therefore, P. armatulus (Valenciennes), which is the only known Platydoras species from this river basin, is most probably the true host of Proteocephalus renaudi. Sequences of partial 28S (AJ388638) and 16S (AJ389503) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999).

Proteocephalus rhamdiae Holcman-Spector & Mañé-Garzón, 1988

Rhamdia quelen (Actinopterygii: Heptapteridae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Chis-Chis, Chascomús, Sauce, Diario and Dos Patos lagoons and Paraná River basin; Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay (Holcman-Spector and Mañé-Garzón 1988; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Gil de Pertierra 2002b).

Note: type host; it was originally reported as R. sapo.

Proteocephalus serrasalmus Rego & Pavanelli, 1990

Pygocentrus nattereri (Actinopterygii: Serrasalmidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Rego and Pavanelli 1990).

Note: host originally reported as Serrasalmus nattereri.

Serrasalmus maculatus (Actinopterygii: Serrasalmidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil, Paraguay (Rego and Pavanelli 1990; Pavanelli and Machado 1991; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Note: type host; it was originally reported as S. spilopleura.

Proteocephalus soniae de Chambrier & Vaucher, 1994

Platydoras costatus (Actinopterygii: Doradidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1994, 1999).

Note: type host; it was most likely mistaken (see notes for P. renaudi on p. 50 for more details).

Proteocephalus sophiae de Chambrier & Rego, 1994

Zungaro zungaro (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (de Chambrier and Rego 1994; de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Note: type host; it was originally reported as P. luetkeni.

Proteocephalus vazzolerae Pavanelli & Takemoto, 1995

Leporinus friderici (Actinopterygii: Anostomidae); freshwater; caeca, intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Guidelli et al. 2006, 2011).

Leporinus lacustris (Actinopterygii: Anostomidae); freshwater; caeca, intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Guidelli et al. 2006, 2011).

Piaractus mesopotamicus (Actinopterygii: Serrasalmidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Pavanelli and Takemoto 1995).

Note: type host.

Proteocephalus vladimirae de Chambrier & Vaucher, 1999

Pinirampus pirinampu (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Note: type host.

Proteocephalus sp.

Franciscodoras marmoratus (Actinopterygii: Doradidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; São Francisco River basin; Brazil (Santos and Brasil-Sato 2004).

Gymnotus carapo (Actinopterygii: Gymnotidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraiba do Sul River basin; Brasil (Azevedo et al. 2010, 2011).

Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (immature specimens); Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a).

Note: they named this morphotype as Proteocephalus sp. 1 and it is probably a new species (de Chambrier et al. 2006a).

Pimelodus blochii (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (immature specimens); Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Pimelodus maculatus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Rego et al. 1974; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1997).

Note: Rego et al. (1999a) named part of the material described by Rego et al. (1974) as Proteocephalus magna (Rego, Santos and Silva, 1974), but a formal description was not provided.

Platydoras costatus (Actinopterygii: Doradidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1994, 1999).

Note: the host species was most likely misidentified (see notes on p. 50 for more details).

Pterodoras granulosus (Actinopterygii: Doradidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (immature specimens); Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a).

Note: they named this morphotype as Proteocephalus sp. 2 and it is probably a new species (de Chambrier et al. 2006a).

Pseudocrepidobothrium chanaorum Arredondo, Gil de Pertierra & de Chambrier, 2014

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina (Arredondo et al. 2014).

Note: type host; it was reported as P. reticulatum (see the note on p. 36).

Pseudocrepidobothrium eirasi (Rego & de Chambrier, 1995) Rego & Ivanov, 2001*

[Syn. Crepidobothrium eirasi Rego & de Chambrier, 1995]

Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Rego and de Chambrier 1995; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Rego and Ivanov 2001; Hypša et al. 2005; Ruedi and de Chambrier 2012).

Notes: type host. Sequences of partial 18S (AY551106), complete ITS2 (AY551179), partial 28S (AJ388623) and 16S (AJ389494) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Hypša et al. 2005).

Pseudocrepidobothrium ludovici Ruedi & de Chambrier, 2012

Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Ruedi and de Chambrier 2012).

Note: type host.

Pseudocrepidobothrium sp.

Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Zehnder and de Chambrier 2000; de Chambrier et al. 2004b).

Notes: tapeworms reported as Crepidobothrium sp. Sequence of complete ITS2 (AJ238838), partial 28S (AJ238833, AJ275063) and 16S (AJ238830) (Zehnder and de Chambrier 2000; de Chambrier et al. 2004b).

Scholzia emarginata (Diesing, 1850) de Chambrier, Rego & Gil de Pertierra, 2005*

[Syns. Tetrabothrium emarginatum Diesing, 1850; Tetrabothrium (Eutetrabothrium) emarginatum Diesing, 1856; Nomimoscolex emarginatum (Diesing, 1850) Rego, Chubb & Pavaneli, 1999; Myzophorus pirarara Woodland, 1935; Nomimoscolex pirarara (Woodland, 1935) Rego & Pavanelli, 1992; Proteocephalus pirarara (Woodland, 1935) de Chambrier & Vaucher, 1997].

Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (Diesing 1850; Woodland 1935a; Rego 1984b; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1997; Zehnder et al. 2000; de Chambrier et al. 2005, 2006a, 2015a; Ruedi and de Chambrier 2012; Scholz et al. 2013).

Notes: type host. Sequences of partial 18S (AY551131, AY551112, KC786006), complete ITS2 (AY551170, AY551148), partial 28S (AJ388616, KC786016), partial 16S (AJ389513, KC785993) and partial cox1 (KC785981) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Hypša et al. 2005; Scholz et al. 2013). Hypša et al. (2005) deposited two sequences because they considered Myzophorus pirarara and Proteocephalus pirarara as different species.

Subfamily Rudolphiellinae Woodland, 1935

Rudolphiella lobosa (Riggenbach, 1895) Fuhrmann, 1916*

[Syns. Corallobothrium lobosum Riggenbach, 1895; Ephedrocephalus lobosum (Riggenbach, 1895) Mola, 1906]

Luciopimelodus pati (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (Riggenbach 1895, 1896; Fuhrmann 1916; Rego and Gibson 1989; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Gil de Pertierra and de Chambrier 2000).

Notes: type host; it was originally reported as Pimelodus pati, but Gil de Pertierra and de Chambrier (2000) suspected that Megalonema platanum is the true host, since they share the same vernacular name 'patí' and similar tapeworms were found in the latter fish host (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999). Rego and Gibson (1989) reported hyperparasitism caused by metacestodes of proteocephalids.

Megalonema platanum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Hypša et al. 2005).

Note: de Chambrier and Vaucher (1999) reported the tapeworms as Rudolphiella cf. lobosa. Sequences of partial 18S (AY551134) and complete ITS2 (AY551173) (Hypša et al. 2005).

Rudolphiella myoides (Woodland, 1934) Woodland, 1935

[Syn. Amphilaphorchis myoides Woodland, 1934]

Pinirampus pirinampu (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Woodland 1934a, 1935b; Gil de Pertierra and de Chambrier 2000).

Note: type host.

Rudolphiella piracatinga (Woodland, 1935) Gil de Pertierra & de Chambrier, 2000

[Syns. Monticellia piracatinga Woodland, 1935; M. rugata Rego, 1975 (pro parte); Rudolphiella rugata (Rego 1975) Rego, Chubb & Pavanelli, 1999; Spatulifer piracatinga (Woodland, 1935) Brooks & Deardorff, 1980]

Calophysus macropterus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (Woodland 1935b; Rego 1975; Mariaux 1998; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Gil de Pertierra and de Chambrier 2000; de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a).

Notes: host originally described as Pimelodus pati (for details, see Gil de Pertierra and de Chambrier 2000). Rego (1975) described M. rugata, based on a mixture of two different species, Nomimoscolex piracatinga (syn. of M. amazonica) and M. piragatinga (syn. of R. piracatinga) (Gil de Pertierra and de Chambrier 2000). Sequences of partial 18S (Z98391, Z98390, Z98389), 28S (AJ388627) and 16S (AJ389504) (Mariaux 1998; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999).

Note: type host.

Rudolphiella piranabu (Woodland, 1934) Woodland, 1935

[Syn. Amphilaphorchis piranabu Woodland, 1934]

Pinirampus pirinampu (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Brazil (Woodland 1934a, 1935b; Pavanelli and Machado 1991; Gil de Pertierra and de Chambrier 2000; Kohn et al. 2011).

Note: type host.

Rudolphiella szidati Gil de Pertierra & de Chambrier, 2000

Luciopimelodus pati (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Gil de Pertierra and de Chambrier 2000; Hypša et al. 2005).

Notes: type host. Sequences of partial and complete 18S (AY551135, AF286990), respectively, complete ITS2 (AY551174), partial 28S (AJ388617, AF286938) and 16S (AJ389517) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Olson et al. 2001; Hypša et al. 2005).

Rudolphiella sp.

Luciopimelodus pati (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (including immature specimens); Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Pinirampus pirinampu (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (immature specimens); Amazon and Paraná River basins; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Subfamily Zygobothriinae Woodland, 1933

Amphoteromorphus ninoi Carfora, de Chambrier & Vaucher, 2003

Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Carfora et al. 2003; Chambrier et al. 2004b).

Note: sequence of 28S (AJ388624) (Chambrier et al. 2004b).

Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Carfora et al. 2003; Chambrier et al. 2004b).

Notes: type host. Tapeworms reported as Amphoteromorphus piraeeba by Zehnder and Mariaux (1999). Sequence of partial 28S (AJ275066) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999).

Amphoteromorphus ovalis Carfora, de Chambrier & Vaucher, 2003

Brachyplatystoma cf. filamentosum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Brachyplatystoma sp. (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Carfora et al. 2003).

Note: type host.

Amphoteromorphus parkamoo Woodland, 1935

Zungaro zungaro (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (Woodland 1935b; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Zehnder et al. 2000; Carfora et al. 2003; Hypša et al. 2005; de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a).

Notes: type host; it was originally reported as Pseudopimelodus zungaro, but also as Paulicea luetkeni in additional studies. Sequences of partial 18S (AY551103), complete ITS2 (AY551139), partial 28S (AJ388595) and 16S (AJ389523) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Hypša et al. 2005).

Amphoteromorphus peniculus Diesing, 1850*

Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine: adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (Diesing 1850; Woodland 1933b; Fuhrmann 1934; Carfora et al. 2003; de Chambrier et al. 2015a, b).

Notes: type host; it was originally reported as Bagrus goliath, but also as Brachyplatystoma flavicans in additional studies. Sequence of partial 28S (KP729410) (de Chambrier et al. 2015b).

Amphoteromorphus piraeeba Woodland, 1934

Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Woodland 1933a, 1934b; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1997; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Carfora et al. 2003; Hypša et al. 2005; de Chambrier et al. 2015b).

Notes: type host; tapeworm reported as Amphoteromorphus peniculus by Woodland (1933b). Sequences of partial 18S (AY551104), complete ITS2 (AY551140), partial 28S (KP729407) and 16S (AJ389510) (Zehnder and Mariaux, 1999; Hypša et al. 2005; de Chambrier et al. 2015b).

Amphoteromorphus piriformis Carfora, de Chambrier & Vaucher, 2003

Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (also immature specimens); Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (Carfora et al. 2003; de Chambrier et al. 2004b, 2006a, 2015a).

Notes: type host; it was originally reported as Brachyplatystoma flavicans; de Chambrier et al. (2006a) reported the tapeworms as Amphoteromorphus cf. piriformis. Sequence of partial 28S (AJ275231) (de Chambrier et al. 2004b).

Brooksiella praeputialis (Rego, Santos & Silva, 1974) Rego, Chubb & Pavanelli, 1999*

[Syn. Amphoteromorphus praeputialis Rego, dos Santos & Silva, 1974]

Cetopsis coecutiens (Actinopterygii: Cetopsidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Rego et al. 1974; de Chambrier et al. 2004a, b).

Notes: type host; de Chambrier et al. (2004a) redescribed this species. Sequence of partial 28S (AJ275229) (de Chambrier et al. 2004b).

Cetopsis othonops (Actinopterygii: Cetopsidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Orinoco River basin; Venezuela (Brooks and Rasmussen 1984).

Note: host reported as Pseudocetopsis othonops.

Gibsoniela mandube (Woodland, 1935) Rego, 1984*

[Syns. Anthobothrium mandube Woodland, 1935; Endorchis (Pseudendorchis) mandube (Woodland, 1935) Yamaguti, 1959; Nomimoscolex mandube (Woodland, 1935) Brooks, 1995]

Ageneiosus inermis (Actinopterygii: Auchenipteridae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (Woodland 1935b; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Notes: type host; it was reported as A. brevifilis or Pseudoageneiosus brevifilis.

Ageneiosus sp. (Actinopterygii: Auchenipteridae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2015a, b).

Note: sequence of partial 28S (KP729412) (de Chambrier et al. 2015b).

Gibsoniela meursaulti de Chambrier & Vaucher, 1999

[Syn. Endorchis mandube Woodland, 1935]

Ageneiosus inermis (Actinopterygii: Auchenipteridae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay (Woodland 1935b; Rego 1992; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Zehnder et al. 2000; Hypša et al. 2005; Gil de Pertierra 2009).

Notes: type host; it was reported as Ageneiosus brevifilis and Pseudoageneiosus brevifilis. Rego (1992) redescribed Gibsoniela mandube and considered this species as senior synonym of Endorchis mandube, which was previously corroborated by de Chambrier (1990); after re-examination of the type (both species) and newly collected material, de Chambrier and Vaucher (1999) assumed that they represent two distinct species of the genus Gibsoniela, thus they proposed G. meursaulti to avoid the homonomy with the specimens tentatively identified as E. mandube. Sequences of partial 18S (AY551109), complete ITS2 (AY551145), partial 28S (AJ388631) and 16S (AJ389497) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Hypša et al. 2005).

Ageneiosus militaris (Actinopterygii: Auchenipteridae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina (Gil de Pertierra 2009).

Harriscolex kaparari (Woodland, 1935) Rego, 1987*

[Syns. Nomimoscolex karapari Woodland, 1935; Houssayela karapari (Woodland, 1935) Brooks, 1995]

Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Orinoco River basin; Venezuela (Brooks and Rasmussen 1984).

Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná and São Francisco River basins; Brazil (Rego 1990, 2002; Machado et al. 1994, 1995, 1996; Kohn et al. 2011; Ribeiro et al. 2014)

Note: records of Harriscolex kaparari from the Paraná River basin need verification, since H. nathaliae was described from the same river basin and fish host.

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Brazil, Peru (Pavanelli and Machado 1991; Campos et al. 2008, 2009a, b; de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Woodland 1935b; Rego 1987b, 2002; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Zehnder et al. 2000; de Chambrier et al. 2004b).

Notes: type host. Sequence of partial 28S (AJ275227) and 16S (AJ275223) (de Chambrier et al. 2004b; Zehnder et al. 2000).

Harriscolex nathaliae Gil de Pertierra & de Chambrier, 2013

Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina, Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Gil de Pertierra and de Chambrier 2013).

Note: type host; de Chambrier and Vaucher (1999) reported the tapeworms as Harriscolex cf. kaparari; they observed morphological differences between the type material from the Amazon River and their specimens, which were posteriorly described as H. nathaliae.

Harriscolex piramutab (Woodland, 1933) de Chambrier, Kuchta & Scholz, 2015 [Syns. Anthobothrium piramutab Woodland, 1933; Proteocephalus piramutab (Woodland, 1933) Rego, 1984]

Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (Woodland 1933c; Rego 1984a, 1987b; de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a).

Note: type host.

Houssayela sudobim (Woodland, 1935) Rego, 1987*

[Syns. Myzophorus sudobim Woodland, 1935; Nomimoscolex woodlandi Freze, 1965 nec N. woodlandi Rego & Pavanelli, 1992]

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (Woodland 1935a; Rego 1987b, 2002; de Chambrier and Scholz 2005; de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a, b).

Notes: type host. Rego (1999) presented a scanning electron micrograph of the tapeworm scolex, but he did not mention the host and locality; in fact, it corresponds to the scolex of Choanoscolex abscisus – see de Chambrier et al. (2006a).

de Chambrier et al. (2015b) erroneously reported Sorubimichthys planiceps as the host in their Table I. Sequence of partial 28S (KP729404) (de Chambrier et al. 2015b).

Nomimoscolex admonticellia (Woodland, 1934) Rego & Pavanelli, 1992

[Syns. Myzophorus admonticellia Woodland, 1934 (pro parte); Paramonticellia admonticellia (Woodland, 1934) Brooks, 1995; Myzophorus schaefferi Pavanelli and Machado, 1991 (nomen nudum)]

Pinirampus pirinampu (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Brazil, Peru (Woodland 1934a; Pavanelli and Machado 1991; Rego and Pavanelli 1992; Zehnder et al. 2000; Hypša et al. 2005; de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Notes: see p. 40 in the section of M. ventrei for notes on the type host. Rego and Pavanelli (1992) redescribed this species based on a mixture of N. admonticellia and M. ventrei (see de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999). Sequences of partial 18S (AY551113), complete ITS2 (AY551149), partial 28S (AJ388628) and 16S (AJ389512) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Hypša et al. 2005).

Nomimoscolex alovarius Brooks & Deardorff, 1980

Pimelodus blochii (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Magdalena River basin; Colombia (Brooks and Deardorff 1980).

Note: type host; it was reported as Pimelodus clarias.

Nomimoscolex chubbi (Pavanelli & Takemoto, 1995) de Chambrier & Vaucher, 1997

[Syn. Proteocephalus chubbi Pavanelli & Takemoto, 1995]

Gymnotus carapo (Actinopterygii: Gymnotidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay (Pavanelli and Takemoto 1995; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1997, 1999; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Zehnder et al. 2000; Gil de Pertierra 2003, 2005).

Notes: type host. Sequences of partial 28S (AJ388625) and 16S (AJ389524) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999).

Gymnotus sp. (Actinopterygii: Gymnotidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Isaac et al. 2004).

Nomimoscolex dechambrieri Gil de Pertierra, 2003

Gymnotus carapo (Actinopterygii: Gymnotidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina (Gil de Pertierra 2003).

Note: type host.

Nomimoscolex dorad (Woodland, 1935) Freze, 1965

[Syn. Myzophorus dorad Woodland, 1935]

Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Woodland 1935a; Freze 1965; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Zehnder et al. 2000; Hypša et al. 2005).

Notes: type host; it was reported as Brachyplatystoma flavicans in some studies. Sequences of partial 18S (AY551114), complete ITS2 (AY551150), partial 28S (AJ388613) and 16S (AJ389498) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Hypša et al. 2005).

Nomimoscolex guillermoi Gil de Pertierra, 2003

Gymnotus carapo (Actinopterygii: Gymnotidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina (Gil de Pertierra 2003).

Note: type host.

Nomimoscolex lenha (Woodland, 1933) Woodland, 1935

[Syns. Proteocephalus lenha Woodland, 1933; Paramonticellia lenha (Woodland, 1933) Brooks, 1995]

Sorubimichthys planiceps (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (Woodland 1933a, 1935b; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1997; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Zehnder et al. 2000; Hypša et al. 2005; de Chambrier and Scholz 2008; de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Notes: type host; it was originally reported as Platystomatichthys sturio. Sequences of partial 18S (AY551115), complete ITS2 (AY551151), partial 28S (AJ388611) and 16S (AJ389499) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Hypša et al. 2005).

Nomimoscolex lopesi Rego, 1989

[Syn. Paramonticellia lopesi (Rego, 1989) Brooks, 1995]

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Peru (Rego 1989, 2002; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Zehnder et al. 2000; Gil de Pertierra 2005; Hypša et al. 2005; de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a).

Note: type host. Sequences of partial 18S (AY551116), complete ITS2 (AY551152), partial 28S (AJ388618) and 16S (AJ389521) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Hypša et al. 2005).

Nomimoscolex matogrossensis Rego & Pavanelli, 1990

Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Actinopterygii: Erythrinidae); freshwater; body

cavity, intestine, stomach; metacestode; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Alcântara and Tavares-Dias 2015; Gonçalves et al. 2016).

Note: the authors did not provide any molecular data on these larvae; therefore, this report needs verification.

Hoplias malabaricus (Actinopterygii: Erythrinidae); freshwater; intestine; adult

and metacestode; Amazon and Paraná River basin; Brazil, Paraguay (Rego and Pavanelli 1990; de Chambrier et al. 1996; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Zehnder et al. 2000; Alcântara and Tavares-Dias 2015; Gonçalves et al. 2016).

Notes: type host. Sequences of partial 18S (Z98387, Z98386, Z98388), 28S (AJ388614) and 16S (AJ389500) (Mariaux 1998; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999).

Nomimoscolex microacetabula Gil de Pertierra, 1995

Pimelodus albicans (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina (Gil de Pertierra 1995).

Pimelodus maculatus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina (Gil de Pertierra 1995).

Note: type host.

Pimelodus ornatus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Note: they reported this species as Nomimoscolex cf. microacetabula.

Nomimoscolex pertierrae de Chambrier, Takemoto & Pavanelli, 2006

Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná river basin; Brazil (Pavanelli and Rego 1992; de Chambrier et al. 2006b; Ribeiro and Takemoto 2014; Ribeiro et al. 2014).

Note: type host. Pavanelli and Rego (1992) reported this species as Nomimoscolex sudobim, according to de Chambrier et al. (2006b).

Nomimoscolex piraeeba Woodland, 1934*

Brachyplatystoma capapretum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Woodland 1934b; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1997; Rego 1991; Rego and Schaeffer 1999; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Zehnder et al. 2000; Olson et al. 2001; Hypša et al. 2005).

Notes: type host; it was identified as B. filamentosum. Nomimoscolex piraeeba, N. dorad and N. suspectus were defined as Nomimoscolex (sensu stricto) by Zehnder et al. (2000). Sequences of complete 18S (AF286988) and ITS2 (AY551153), partial (28S AJ388608, AF286936) and 16S (AJ389502) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Olson et al. 2001; Hypša et al. 2005).

Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Rego 1991; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1997; Rego and Schaeffer 1999).

Note: host reported as Brachyplatystoma flavicans.

Nomimoscolex semenasae Gil de Pertierra, 2002

Olivaichthys viedmensis (Actinopterygii: Diplomystidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Moreno and Nahuel Huapi Lakes; Argentina (Gil de Pertierra 2002a; Rauque et al. 2003).

Note: type host; it was originally reported as Diplomystes viedmensis.

Nomimoscolex sudobim Woodland, 1935

[Syn. Paramonticellia sudobim (Woodland, 1935) Brooks, 1995]

Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Pavanelli and Machado 1991; Machado et al. 1994, 1995, 1996; Rego 2002).

Note: records of this species from the Paraná River basin need verification, because N. pertierrae was described from the same river basin and host.

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Brazil, Peru (Woodland 1935a; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Zehnder et al. 2000; Rego 2002; Santos et al. 2003; Hypša et al. 2005; Ceccarrelli et al. 2006; de Chambrier et al. 2006b, 2015a; Campos et al. 2008, 2009a, b; Jerônimo et al. 2013).

Notes: type host. Host reported as P. reticulatum by Jerônimo et al. (2013) (see the note on p. 36). Sequences of partial 18S (AY551117), complete ITS2 (AY551154), partial 28S (AJ388597) and 16S (AJ389496) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Hypša et al. 2005).

Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2006a).

Note: they reported this species as Nomimoscolex cf. sudobim.

Nomimoscolex suspectus Zehnder, de Chambrier, Vaucher & Mariaux, 2000

Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Zehnder et al. 2000).

Notes: type host. Sequences of partial 28S (AJ275067) (Zehnder et al. 2000).

Brachyplatystoma cf. filamentosum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Zehnder et al. 2000).

Notes: host reported as Brachyplatystoma flavicans. Sequence of partial 28S (AJ275068) (Zehnder et al. 2000).

Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Zehnder et al. 2000).

Notes: tapeworms reported as Nomimoscolex sp. by Zehnder and Mariaux (1999). Sequences of partial 18S (AY551118), complete ITS2 (AY551155), partial 28S (AJ388602) and 16S (AJ389519) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Hypša et al. 2005).

Nomimoscolex sp.

Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin (estuary, Marajó Island); Brazil (Rocha et al. 2016).

Luciopimelodus pati (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Pimelodus maculatus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraíba do Sul, Paraná and São Francisco River basins; Brazil (Brasil-Sato 2003; Santos et al. 2007; Albuquerque et al. 2008; Azevedo et al. 2010, 2011).

Pimelodus ornatus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; São Francisco River basin; Brazil (Brasil-Sato 2003).

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River Basin; Brazil (Lopes et al. 2009).

Note: host reported as P. punctifer (see the note on p. 32).

Travassiella jandia (Woodland, 1934) de Chambrier, Scholz & Kuchta, 2014*

[Syns. Proteocephalus jandia Woodland, 1934; Travassiella avitellina Rego & Pavanellli, 1987]

Rhamdia quelen (Actinopterygii: Heptapteridae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Chis-Chis lagoon (Buenos Aires); Argentina (Gil de Pertierra and Ostrowski de Núñez 1990).

Note: host reported as Rhamdia sapo.

Zungaro jahu (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay (Rego and Pavanelli 1987; Rego and Gibson 1989; Pavanelli and Machado 1991; Takemoto and Pavanelli 1994; de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; de Chambrier and Gil de Pertierra 2002; Kohn et al. 2011; de Chambrier et al. 2014, 2015b).

Notes: host also reported as Zunguro zungaro or Paulicea luetkeni. Rego and Gibson (1989) and Rego and Pavanelli (1987) reported hyperparasitism caused by metacestodes of proteocephalids. Sequence of 28S (KP729400) (de Chambrier et al. 2015b).

Zungaro zungaro (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (Woodland 1934c; de Chambrier and Gil de Pertierra 2002; de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2014, 2015a).

Note: type host; it was originally reported as Rhamdia sp.

Unidentified fish (Actinopterygii); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Rego et al. 1974).

Zygobothrium megacephalum Diesing, 1850*

Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil, Peru (Diesing 1850, 1855; Woodland 1933b; Fuhrmann 1934; Rego 1984b; Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Olson et al. 2001; Hypša et al. 2005; de Chambrier et al. 2006a, 2015a; Ruedi and de Chambrier 2012).

Notes: type host. Sequences of complete 18S (AF286991) and ITS2 (AY551177), partial 28S (AF286939, AJ388621) and 16S (AJ389508) (Zehnder and Mariaux 1999; Olson et al. 2001; Hypša et al. 2005).

Unidentified proteocephalids

Aequidens tetramerus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; body cavity; metacestode; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Bittencourt et al. 2014).

Aphyocharax anisitsi (Actinopterygii: Characidae); freshwater; site of infection not given; metacestode; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Takemoto et al. 2009).

Astronotus ocellatus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; body cavity; metacestode; fish farms in Northeast (Ceará, Pernambuco, Piauí and Rio Grande do Norte States); Brazil (Békési et al. 1992).

Astyanax altiparanae (Actinopterygii: Characidae); freshwater; body cavity; metacestode; Rio das Pedras Farm (lakes); Brazil (Azevedo et al. 2007).

Auchenipterus nigripinnis (Actinopterygii: Auchenipteridae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Rego and Vicente 1988).

Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Woodland 1935c).

Brycon cephalus (Actinopterygii: Bryconidae); freshwater; surface of intestine and pyloric caeca; metacestode; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Andrade et al. 2001).

Cichla ocellaris (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; body cavity; metacestode; fish farms in Northeastern Brazil (Ceará, Pernambuco, Piauí and Rio Grande do Norte States); Brazil (Békési et al. 1992).

Cichlasoma amazonarum (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2015a).

Note: these tapeworms belong to a new species and genus that will be described in a forthcoming paper.

Colossoma macropomum (Actinopterygii: Serrasalmidae); freshwater; body cavity; metacestode; fish farms in Northeastern Brazil (Ceará, Pernambuco, Piauí and Rio Grande do Norte States); Brazil (Békési et al. 1992).

Corydoras atropersonatus (Actinopterygii: Callichthyidae); freshwater; mesentery; metacestode; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2006a).

Corydoras reticulatus (Actinopterygii: Callichthyidae); freshwater; mesentery; metacestode; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2006a).

Corydoras sychri (Actinopterygii: Callichthyidae); freshwater; mesentery; metacestode; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2006a).

Crenicichla lepidota (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (immature specimens); Paraná River Basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Cynoscion striatus (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Rego et al. 1974).

Note: certainly not a larva of the Proteocephalidae.

Cyprinus carpio (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae); freshwater; body cavity; metacestode; fish farms in Northeastern Brazil (Ceará, Pernambuco, Piauí and Rio Grande do Norte states); Brazil (Békési et al. 1992).

Note: introduced fish host (Froese and Pauly 2016).

Galeocharax knerii (Actinopterygii: Characidae); freshwater; intestine; metacestode; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Takemoto et al. 2009).

Geophagus brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; body cavity, gallbladder; metacestode; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Bellay et al. 2012).

Geophagus proximus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; body cavity; metacestode; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Zago et al. 2013).

Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; mesentery; metacestode; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2006a).

Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae); freshwater; body cavity; metacestode; fish farms in Northeastern Brazil (Ceará, Pernambuco, Piauí and Rio Grande do Norte States); Brazil (Békési et al. 1992).

Note: introduced fish host (Froese and Pauly 2016).

Hypostomus cf. ternetzi (Actinopterygii: Loricariidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (immature specimens); Paraná River Basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Iheringichthys labrosus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Moreira et al. 2005).

Laetacara curviceps (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; body cavity; metacestode; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Bittencourt et al. 2014).

Leporellus vittatus (Actinopterygii: Anostomidae); freshwater; site of infection not given; metacestode; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Takemoto et al. 2009).

Leporinus aff. friderici (Actinopterygii: Anostomidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River Basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Loricariichthys platymetopon (Actinopterygii: Loricariidae); freshwater; body cavity, internal organs; metacestode; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Schäeffer et al. 1992).

Megalonema platanum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (immature specimens); Paraná River Basin; Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999).

Oxydoras kneri (Actinopterygii: Doradidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Rego and Vicente 1988).

Oreochromis sp. (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; body cavity; metacestode; fish farms in Northeast (Ceará, Pernambuco, Piauí and Rio Grande do Norte States); Brazil (Békési et al. 1992).

Note: introduced fish host (Froese and Pauly 2016).

Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Rego 1984b).

Note: the author reported the presence of operculate eggs released from a contracted proglottid, but this unique report needs confirmation.

Piaractus brachypomus (Actinopterygii: Serrasalmidae); freshwater; body cavity; metacestode; fish farms in northeastern Brazil (Ceará, Pernambuco, Piauí and Rio Grande do Norte States); Brazil (Békési et al. 1992).

Note: host reported as Colossoma brachipomum.

Pimelodella gracilis (Actinopterygii: Heptapteridae); freshwater; mesentery; metacestode; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2006a).

Pimelodus maculatus (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult (immature specimens), metacestode; Paraná and São Francisco River basins; Brazil, Paraguay (de Chambrier and Vaucher 1999; Brasil-Sato 2003).

Pimelodus pohli (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; metacestode; São Francisco River basin; Brazil (Sabas and Brasil-Sato 2014).

Pimelodus sp. (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Rego and Vicente 1988).

Pinirampus pirinampu (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Rego and Vicente 1988).

Prochilodus brevis (Actinopterygii: Prochilodontidae); freshwater; body cavity; metacestode; fish farms in Northeast (Ceará, Pernambuco, Piauí and Rio Grande do Norte States); Brazil (Békési et al. 1992).

Note: host reported as Prochilodus cearensis.

Prochilodus lineatus (Actinopterygii: Prochilodontidae); freshwater; body cavity; metacestode; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Lizama et al. 2005, 2006).

Psellogrammus kennedyi (Actinopterygii: Characidae); freshwater; site of infection not given; metacestode; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Takemoto et al. 2009).

Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Rego and Vicente 1988).

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Rego and Vicente 1988).

Rhamdia quelen (Actinopterygii: Heptapteridae); freshwater; intestine; adult; Guaíba River estuary (Fortes and Hoffman 1987; Rego and Gibson 1989).

Note: host reported as Rhamdia sapo; in both studies, the authors reported hyperparasitism caused by metacestodes of proteocephalids.

Sardinella sp. (Actinopterygii: Clupeidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Feijó et al. 1979).

Note: certainly not a larva of the Proteocephalidae.

Satanoperca pappaterra (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae); freshwater; intestine; metacestode; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Yamada et al. 2007).

Trinectes maculatus (Actinopterygii: Achiridae); brackish, freshwater; mesentery; metacestode; Amazon River basin; Peru (de Chambrier et al. 2006a).

Hybrid fish host (Actinopterygii: Serrasalmidae); freshwater; intestine; metacestode; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Silva et al. 2013).

Note: the host is a hybrid of Colossoma macropomum and Piaractus mesopotamicus.

Species inquirendae

Acanthobothroides peruensis López, 1994

Dasyatis dipterura (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (López 1994).

Notes: type host; it was reported as D. brevis. Only A. thorsoni and A. pacificum Marques, Brooks & Ureña, 1996 are considered valid species in the genus (Marques et al. 1996).

Monticellia diesingii (Monticelli, 1891) La Rue, 1911

[Syns. Taenia diesingii Monticelli, 1891; Tetracotylus diesingii Monticelli, 1891; Ichthyotaenia diesingii (Monticelli, 1891) Riggenbach, 1896]

Silurus dorgado’ (unknown fish host); freshwater; intestine; adult; unknown

specific locality (Monticelli 1891; Riggenbach 1896b; La Rue 1911, 1914).

Monticellia macrocotylea (Monticelli, 1891) La Rue, 1911

[Syns. Taenia macrocotylea Monticelli, 1891; Tetracotylus macrocotylea Monticelli, 1891; Ichthyotaenia macrocotylea (Monticelli, 1891) Riggenbach, 1896]

Silurus megacephalus’ (unknown fish host); freshwater; intestine; adult; unknown locality (Monticelli 1891; Riggenbach 1896b; La Rue 1911, 1914).

Nomimoscolex arandasregoi Fortes, 1981

Genidens barbus (Actinopterygii: Ariidae); anadromous; intestine; adult; Guaíba River estuary, WTSA; Brazil (Fortes 1981; Fortes and Hoffmann 1995; Tavares and Luque 2004; Tavares and Luque 2008).

Note: host reported under four different names, Tachysurus agassizii, T. upsulonophorus, T. barbus and Netuma barba.

Genidens genidens (Actinopterygii: Ariidae); anadromous; intestine; adult; Guaíba River estuary; Brazil (Fortes 1981).

Note: Fortes (1981) did not designate the type host.

Genidens sp. (Actinopterygii: Ariidae); anadromous; intestine; adult; Guaíba River estuary; Brazil (Rego and Gibson 1989).

Note: Rego and Gibson (1989) reported hyperparasitism caused by metacestodes of proteocephalids.

Platybothrium parvum Linton, 1901

Sphyrna zygaena (Elasmobranchii: Sphyrnidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (Rivera and Sarmiento 1990).

Note: for details on the taxonomic status of this species, see Healy (2003).

Order Phyllobothriidea Caira, Jensen, Waeschenbach, Olson & Littlewood, 2014

Family Phyllobothriidae Braun, 1900

Crossobothrium antonioi Ivanov, 2009

Notorynchus cepedianus (Elasmobranchii: Hexanchidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Argentina (Ivanov 2009).

Note: type host.

Crossobothrium dohrni (Örley, 1885) Ruhnke, 1996

[Syns. Orygmatobothrium dohrni Örley, 1885; Phyllobothrium dohrni (Örley, 1885) Zschokke, 1888]

Hexanchus griseus (Elasmobranchii: Hexanchidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile (Carvajal 1974).

Note: tapeworms reported as Phyllobothrium dorhni.

Crossobothrium laciniatum Linton, 1889*

[Syn. Phyllobothrium laciniatum (Linton, 1889) Southwell, 1925]

Hexanchus griseus (Elasmobranchii: Hexanchidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; Magellanic; Chile (Caira et al. 2014).

Notes: position of the species within Phyllobothriidae, based on molecular data, is unclear. Sequences of partial 18S (KF685824) and 28S (KF685883) (Caira et al. 2014).

Crossobothrium pequeae Ivanov, 2009

Notorynchus cepedianus (Elasmobranchii: Hexanchidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Argentina (Ivanov 2009).

Note: type host.

Nandocestus guariticus (Marques, Brooks & Lasso, 2001) Reyda, 2008*

[Syn. Anindobothrium guariticus Marques, Brooks & Lasso, 2001]

Paratrygon aiereba (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; Amazon and Orinoco River basins; Peru, Venezuela (Marques et al. 2001; Reyda and Olson 2003; Reyda 2008; Caira et al. 2014).

Notes: type host. Reyda and Olson (2003) and Reyda (2008) reported hyperparasitism by larval stages of proteocephalids. Sequences of partial 28S (KF685888) and 18S (KF685817) (Caira et al. 2014).

Potamotrygon cf. falkneri (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult (immature); Amazon River basin; Peru (Reyda 2008).

Note: host reported as Potamotrygon cf. castexi and it may represent an undescribed species of Potamotrygon (see Reyda 2008).

Orygmatobothrium juani Ivanov, 2008

Mustelus fasciatus (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Argentina (Ivanov 2008).

Note: type host.

Orygmatobothrium musteli (van Beneden, 1849) Diesing, 1863*

[Syns. Anthobothrium musteli van Beneden, 1850 (pro parte); Orygmatobothrium versatile (Diesing, 1854) Diesing, 1863; Tetrabothrium versatile Diesing, 1854]

Mustelus mento (Elasmobranchii: Triakidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile (Carvajal 1974; Whittaker and Carvajal 1980).

Mustelus whitneyi (Elasmobranchii: Triakidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (Escalante and Carvajal 1981).

Orygmatobothrium schmittii Suriano & Labriola, 2001

Mustelus schmitti (Elasmobranchii: Triakidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Argentina (Ostrowski de Núñez 1973; Suriano and Labriola 2001b; Alarcos et al. 2006; Ivanov 2008).

Notes: type host. Ivanov (2008) redescribed this species and re-assigned the specimens described as O. velamentum Yoshida, 1917 by Ostrowski de Núñez (1973) to O. schmitti.

Orygmatobothrium sp.

Mustelus mento (Elasmobranchii: Triakidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (Tresierra et al. 1986).

Paraorygmatobothrium angustum (Linton, 1889) Ruhnke, 2011

[Syns. Orygmatobothrium angustum Linton, 1889; Crossobothrium angustum (Linton, 1889) Linton, 1901; Phyllobothrium angustum (Linton, 1889) Euzet, 1952; Scyphophyllidium angustum (Linton, 1889) Riser, 1955]

Alopias vulpinus (Elasmobranchii: Alopiidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile (Carvajal 1974).

Note: tapeworms reported as C. angustum.

Prionace glauca (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile, Peru (Carvajal 1974; Escalante 1986).

Note: tapeworms reported as C. angustum.

Paraorygmatobothrium filiforme (Yamaguti, 1952) Ruhnke, 1996

[Syns. Phyllobothrium filiforme Yamaguti, 1952; Crossobothrium filiforme (Yamaguti, 1952) Williams, 1968]

Carcharhinus longimanus (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TSA; Brazil (Rego 1977).

Note: tapeworms reported as Phyllobothrium filiforme.

Paraorygmatobothrium prionacis (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke, 1994*

[Syns. Phyllobothrium prionacis Yamaguti, 1934; Crossobothrium prionacis (Yamaguti, 1934) Williams, 1968; Anthobothrium minutum Guiart, 1935]

Prionace glauca (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TSA; Brazil (Rego and Mayer 1976).

Notes: type host. Tapeworms reported as P. prionacis.

Paraorygmatobothrium triacis (Yamaguti, 1952) Ruhnke, 1996

[Syns. Phyllobothrium triacis Yamaguti, 1952; Crossobothrium triacis (Yamaguti, 1952) Euzet, 1959]

Mustelus mento (Elasmobranchii: Triakidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile (Carvajal 1974).

Note: tapeworms reported as C. triacis.

Mustelus whitneyi (Elasmobranchii: Triakidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (Escalante and Carvajal 1981).

Note: tapeworms reported as C. triacis.

Phyllobothrium lactuca van Beneden, 1850*

Dipturus trachyderma (Elasmobranchii: Rajidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile (Leible et al. 1990).

Notes: tapeworms reported as Phyllobothrium cf. lactuca and the host as Raja trachyderma. The identification of this cestode is most likely erroneous, since sharks are the definitive hosts for species of the genus Phyllobothrium van Beneden, 1849 (see Ruhnke 2011).

Mustelus mento (Elasmobranchii: Triakidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile, Peru (Carvajal 1974; Escalante and Carvajal 1981; Ruhnke and Workman 2013; Caira et al. 2014).

Notes: tapeworms reported as Phyllobothrium cf. lactuca by Ruhnke and Workman (2013) and Caira et al. (2014). Sequences of partial 18S (KF685770) and 28S (KF685845, KC505628) (Ruhnke and Workman 2013; Caira et al. 2014).

Phyllobothrium sp.

Dipturus flavirostris (Elasmobranchii: Rajidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile (Leible et al. 1990).

Note: host reported as Raja flavirostris.

Mustelus mento (Elasmobranchii: Triakidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (Tresierra et al. 1986).

Myliobatis goodei (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA (La Plata River estuary); Uruguay (Brooks et al. 1981a).

Sympterygia bonapartii (Elasmobranchii: Arhynchobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Argentina (Ostrowski de Núñez 1971).

Notes: host reported as Psammobatis microps. The author found only specimens without scolex, which she supposed to belong to Phyllobothrium (see Ostrowski de Núñez 1971).

Urophycis brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Phycidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode: WTSA; Argentina (Szidat 1961).

Zapteryx brevirostris (Elasmobranchii: Rhinobatidae); marine; spiral valve; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina (Ostrowski de Núñez 1971).

Scyphophyllidium uruguayense Brooks, Marques, Perroni & Sidagis, 1999

Mustelus mento (Elasmobranchii: Triakidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Uruguay (Brooks et al. 1999).

Note: type host.

Thysanocephalum thysanocephalum (Linton, 1889) Braun, 1900

[Syns. Phyllobothrium thysanocephalum Linton, 1889 nec Thysanocephalum crispum (Linton, 1889) Linton, 1890 (nomen nudum)]

Sphyrna zygaena (Elasmobranchii: Sphyrnidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (López de McDonald and Tantaleán 1985).

Notes: tapeworms reported as Thysanocephalum crispum. According to Ruhnke (2011), the genus Thysanocephalum should be provisionally retained in the Phyllobothriidae.

Unidentified phyllobothriideans

Merluccius australis (Actinopterygii: Merlucciidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; Magellanic; Chile, Falkland Islands (MacKenzie and Longshaw 1995).

Merluccius hubbsi (Actinopterygii: Merlucciidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; Magellanic; Argentina, Falkland Islands (MacKenzie and Longshaw 1995).

Mugil liza (Actinopterygii: Mugilidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque and Poulin 2004).

Note: host reported as Mugil platanus.

Oncorhynchus mykiss (Actinopterygii: Salmonidae); anadromous; intestine; metacestode; Aisén River basin; Chile (Torres et al. 2000).

Prionotus sp. (Actinopterygii: Triglidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; TSA; Brazil (Vicente and Santos 1974).

Urophycis brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Phycidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Alves et al. 2004; Luque and Poulin 2004).

Urophycis mystaceus (Actinopterygii: Phycidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Alves et al. 2002c; Luque and Poulin 2004).

Urophycis sp. (Actinopterygii: Phycidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; TSA; Brazil (Vicente and Santos 1974).

Taxa incertae sedis

Guidus argentinense Ivanov, 2006*

Bathyraja brachyurops (Elasmobranchii: Arhynchobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Argentina (Ivanov 2006).

Notes: type host. Ruhnke (2011) considers Guidus to represent a genus incertae sedis.

Phyllobothrium sinuosiceps Williams, 1959

Hexanchus griseus (Elasmobranchii: Hexanchidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile (Carvajal 1974).

Notes: type host. This species somewhat resembles members of the genus Crossobothrium, but it is treated as incertae sedis by Ruhnke (2011).

Order Rhinebothriidea Healy, Caira, Jensen, Webster & Littlewood, 2009

Family Anthocephaliidae Ruhnke, Caira & Cox, 2015

Anthocephalum gracile Linton, 1890*

[Syns. Phyllobothrium centrurum Southwell, 1925; Anthocephalum centrurum (Southwell, 1925) Ruhnke, 1994]

Dasyatis americana (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Venezuela (Mayes and Brooks 1981).

Note: tapeworms reported as Phyllobothrium centrurum.

Anthocephalum hobergi (Zamparo, Brooks & Barriga, 1999) Marques & Caira, 2016

[Syn. Pararhinebothroides hobergi Zamparo, Brooks & Barriga, 1999]

Urobatis tumbesensis (Elasmobranchii: Urotrygonidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TEP; Ecuador (Zamparo et al. 1999; Marques and Caira 2016).

Notes: type host. Sequences of partial 18S (KU295561KU295564) and 28S (KU295565KU295568) (Marques and Caira 2016).

Anthocephalum kingae (Schmidt, 1978) Ruhnke & Seaman, 2009

[Syn. Phyllobothrium kingae Schmidt, 1978]

Dasyatis americana (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Colombia (Brooks and Mayes 1980).

Note: tapeworms reported as Anthocephalum cf. kingae by Brooks and Mayes (1980).

Urobatis jamaicensis (Elasmobranchii: Urotrygonidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Colombia (Brooks and Mayes 1980).

Note: type host; it was reported as Urolophus jamaicensis. Tapeworms reported as Anthocephalum cf. kingae by Brooks and Mayes (1980).

Family Echeneibothriidae de Beauchamp, 1905

Echeneibothrium megalosoma Carvajal & Dailey, 1975

Dipturus flavirostris (Elasmobranchii: Rajidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile (Leible et al. 1990).

Note: host reported as Raja flavirostris.

Zearaja chilensis (Elasmobranchii: Rajidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile (Carvajal and Dailey 1975).

Notes: type host; it was reported as Raja chilensis.

Echeneibothrium multiloculatum Carvajal & Dailey, 1975

Dipturus flavirostris (Elasmobranchii: Rajidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile (Leible et al. 1990).

Note: host reported as Raja flavirostris.

Zearaja chilensis (Elasmobranchii: Rajidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile (Carvajal and Dailey 1975; Carvajal et al. 1985).

Note: type host; it was reported as Raja chilensis.

Echeneibothrium williamsi Carvajal & Dailey, 1975

Dipturus flavirostris (Elasmobranchii: Rajidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile (Leible et al. 1990).

Note: host reported as Raja flavirostris.

Zearaja chilensis (Elasmobranchii: Rajidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile (Carvajal and Dailey 1975; Carvajal et al. 1985).

Note: type host; it was reported as Raja chilensis.

Notomegarhynchus navonae Ivanov & Campbell, 2002*

Atlantoraja castelnaui (Elasmobranchii: Arhynchobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Argentina (Ivanov and Campbell 2002).

Note: type host.

Family Rhinebothriidae Euzet, 1953

Rhinebothrium brooksi Reyda & Marques, 2011

Paratrygon aiereba (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Notes: type host. Sequences of partial cox1 (JF803719JF803724) under the name Rhinebothrium sp. 1 (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Potamotrygon orbignyi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Rhinebothrium chilensis Euzet & Carvajal, 1973

Sympterygia bonapartii (Elasmobranchii: Arhynchobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Argentina (Tanzola et al. 1998).

Sympterygia lima (Elasmobranchii: Arhynchobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile (Euzet and Carvajal 1973).

Note: type host; it was reported as Psammobatis lima.

Rhinebothrium copianullum Reyda, 2008

Paratrygon aiereba (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon and Tocantins-Araguaia River basins; Brazil, Peru (Reyda 2008; Healy et al. 2009; Reyda and Marques 2011).

Notes: type host. Reyda and Marques (2011) redescribed this species and considered Rhinebothrium sp. 1 of Reyda (2008) to be conspecific; the latter author reported hyperparasitism caused by metacestodes of proteocephalids. Tapeworms reported as Rhinebothrium sp. 8 by Healy et al. (2009). Sequences of partial cox1 (JF803694JF803698, JF803700, JF803701, JF803703JF803710, JF803712JF803714, JF803726JF803728), 18S (FJ177090) and 28S (FJ177130) (Healy et al. 2009; Reyda and Marques 2011).

Potamotrygon henlei (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Tocantins-Araguaia River basin; Brazil (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Potamotrygon leopoldi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Note: sequence of cox1 (JF803711) (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Potamotrygon motoro (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult (immature); Amazon River basin; Brazil (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Note: accidental host (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Potamotrygon orbignyi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Potamotrygon schroederi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult (immature); Amazon River basin; Brazil (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Note: accidental host, according to Reyda and Marques (2011).

Potamotrygon tatianae (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult (immature); Amazon River basin; Peru (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Notes: accidental host. Sequence of cox1 (JF803699) (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Potamotrygon sp. (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon and Tocantins-Araguaia River basins; Brazil (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Notes: the authors distinguished four morphotypes of the host. Sequence of cox1 (JF803702, JF803715JF803718) (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Rhinebothrium corbatai Menoret & Ivanov, 2011

Potamotrygon motoro (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina (Menoret and Ivanov 2011).

Note: type host.

Rhinebothrium corymbum Campbell, 1975

Dasyatis americana (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Venezuela (Mayes and Brooks 1981).

Note: type host.

Rhinebothrium fulbrighti Reyda & Marques, 2011

Potamotrygon orbignyi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin (estuary); Brazil (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Notes: type host. Sequences of cox1 (JF803725, JF803729JF803734) under the name Rhinebothrium sp. 2 (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Potamotrygon sp. (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin (estuary); Brazil (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Rhinebothrium jaimei Marques & Reyda, 2015

Potamotrygon orbignyi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin (estuary); Brazil (Marques and Reyda 2015).

Note: type host.

Potamotrygon scobina (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin (estuary); Brazil (Marques and Reyda 2015).

Rhinebothrium leiblei Euzet & Carvajal, 1973

Sympterygia lima (Elasmobranchii: Arhynchobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile (Euzet and Carvajal 1973).

Note: type host; it was reported as Psammobatis lima.

Rhinebothrium margaritense Mayes & Brooks, 1981

Dasyatis americana (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Venezuela (Mayes and Brooks 1981).

Dasyatis guttata (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Venezuela (Mayes and Brooks 1981).

Note: type host.

Rhinebothrium mistyae Menoret & Ivanov, 2011

Potamotrygon motoro (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina (Menoret and Ivanov 2011).

Note: type host.

Rhinebothrium paratrygoni Rego & Dias, 1976

[Syn. Rhinebothrium paranaensis Menoret & Ivanov, 2009]

Potamotrygon brachyura (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Potamotrygon falkneri (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay (Brooks et al. 1981b; Lacerda et al. 2008, 2009; Menoret and Ivanov 2009a; Reyda and Marques 2011).

Note: sequences of cox1 (JF803684, JF803685, JF803687JF803689, JF803691, JF803692) (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Potamotrygon histrix (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Paraná River basin; Brazil (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Potamotrygon motoro (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Brazil (Brooks and Amato 1992; Reyda and Marques 2011).

Note: sequences of cox1 (JF803686, JF803690, JF803693) (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Potamotrygon orbignyi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Orinoco River basin; Venezuela (Brooks et al. 1981b).

Note: host reported as P. hystrix and P. reticulatus (for details, see Brooks and Amato 1992).

Potamotrygon sp. (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Brazil (Rego and Dias 1976; Reyda and Marques 2011).

Note: type host; it was reported as Elipesurus sp.; Reyda and Marques (2011) distinguished two morphotypes of hosts that are most likely new for science.

Rhinebothrium rhinobati Dailey & Carvajal, 1976

Rhinobatos planiceps (Elasmobranchii: Rhinobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile, Peru (Dailey and Carvajal 1976; Tantaleán 1991; Iannacone et al. 2011).

Note: type host.

Rhinebothrium scobinae Euzet & Carvajal, 1973

Psammobatis scobina (Elasmobranchii: Arhynchobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile (Euzet and Carvajal 1973).

Note: type host.

Rhinebothrium tetralobatum Brooks, 1977

Himantura schmardae (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Colombia (Brooks 1977).

Note: type host.

Rhinebothrium sp.

Gobionellus oceanicus (Actinopterygii: Gobiidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; TSA; Brazil (Palm 1997).

Paratrygon aiereba (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (Reyda and Olson 2003).

Notes: they reported hyperparasitism caused by metacestodes of proteocephalids. Sequences of partial 28S (AY193880AY193883) from adult tapeworms and partial 28S (AY193877AY193879) from the encysted larval forms (Reyda and Olson 2003).

Scomber colias (Actinopterygii: Scombridae); marine; intestine, pyloric caeca; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Rego and Santos 1983).

Note: host reported as S. japonicus, but specimens from the Atlantic were re-assigned as S. colias, according to Froese and Pauly (2016).

Synodus scituliceps (Actinopterygii: Synodontidae); marine; intestine, pyloric caeca; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante et al. 1987).

Rhinebothroides campbelli Ivanov, 2004

Potamotrygon motoro (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina (Ivanov 2004).

Notes: type host. Ivanov (2004) arose doubts concerning the conspecificity between Rhinebothroides venezuelensis and R. circularisi proposed by Marques and Brooks (2003).

Rhinebothroides freitasi (Rego, 1979) Brooks, Mayes & Thorson, 1981

[Syns. Rhinebothrium freitasi Rego, 1979; Rhinebothroides circularisi Mayes, Brooks & Thorson, 1981; Rhinebothroides venezuelensis Brooks, Mayes & Thorson, 1981]

Potamotrygon constellata (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Mayes et al. 1981).

Note: host reported as P. circularis, whereas tapeworms were reported as R. circularisi.

Potamotrygon cf. falkneri (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Brazil, Peru (Marques and Brooks 2003; Healy et al. 2009; Caira et al. 2014).

Notes: Healy et al. (2009) and Caira et al. (2014) reported the tapeworms as Rhinebothroides cf. freitasi and the hosts as P. cf. castexi. Sequences of partial 18S (FJ177092) and 28S (FJ177132) (Healy et al. 2009; Caira et al. 2014).

Potamotrygon henlei (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Tocantins-Araguaia River basin; Brazil (Marques and Brooks 2003).

Potamotrygon leopoldi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Marques and Brooks 2003).

Potamotrygon motoro (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Argentina, Brazil (Brooks and Amato 1992; Marques and Brooks 2003).

Potamotrygon orbignyi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon and Orinoco River basins; Brazil, Venezuela (Rego 1979; Brooks et al. 1981b; Marques and Brooks 2003).

Notes: type host; it was reported as P. hystrix by Rego (1979) and Brooks et al. (1981b).

Potamotrygon schroederi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Marques and Brooks 2003).

Potamotrygon scobina (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Marques and Brooks 2003).

Potamotrygon yepezi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Maracaibo basin; Venezuela (Brooks et al. 1981b).

Rhinebothroides glandularis Brooks, Mayes & Thorson, 1981

Potamotrygon henlei (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Tocantins-Araguaia River basin; Brazil (Marques and Brooks 2003).

Potamotrygon motoro (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Argentina, Brazil (Marques and Brooks 2003; Reyda and Marques 2011).

Note: sequence of partial cox1 (JF803682) (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Potamotrygon orbignyi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon and Orinoco River basins; Brazil, Venezuela (Brooks et al. 1981b; Marques and Brooks 2003; Ivanov 2004).

Notes: type host; it was originally reported as P. hystrix. Ivanov (2004) studied the type specimens deposited in USNPC and HWML.

Potamotrygon scobina (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Marques and Brooks 2003).

Potamotrygon signata (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Parnaíba River basin; Brazil (Marques and Brooks 2003).

Potamotrygon sp. (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon and Orinoco River basins; Venezuela (Marques and Brooks 2003; Reyda and Marques 2011).

Notes: Marques and Brooks (2003) reported immature specimens. Sequence of partial cox1 (JF803683) (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Rhinebothroides mclennanae Brooks & Amato, 1992

Potamotrygon motoro (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Paraná River basin; Argentina, Brazil (Brooks and Amato 1992; Ivanov 2004).

Notes: type host. Marques and Brooks (2003) synonymized this species with R. glandularis, but after evaluation of newly collected material, Ivanov (2004) considered this taxon a valid species.

Rhinebothroides moralarai (Brooks & Thorson, 1976) Mayes, Brooks & Thorson, 1981*

[Syn. Rhinebothrium moralarai Brooks & Thorson, 1976]

Potamotrygon magdalenae (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Magdalena River basin; Colombia (Brooks and Thorson 1976; Brooks et al. 1981b).

Notes: type host. Brooks et al. (1981b) studied the type specimens deposited in USNM.

Potamotrygon sp. (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Marques and Brooks 2003; Reyda and Marques 2011).

Note: sequence of partial cox1 (JF803681) (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Rhinebothroides scorzai (Lopez-Neyra & Diaz-Ungria, 1958) Mayes, Brooks & Thorson, 1981

[Syn. Rhinebothrium scorzai Lopez-Neyra & Diaz-Ungria, 1958]

Paratrygon aiereba (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Marques and Brooks 2003).

Potamotrygon motoro (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Brazil (Rego and Dias 1976; Marques and Brooks 2003).

Potamotrygon orbignyi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Orinoco River basin; Venezuela (Lopez-Neyra and Diaz-Ungria 1958).

Note: type host; it was originally reported as P. hystrix.

Potamotrygon sp. (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Note: sequence of partial cox1 (JF803680) (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Rhinebothroides sp.

Paratrygon aiereba (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult (immature); Amazon River basin; Peru (Reyda 2008).

Potamotrygon cf. falkneri (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon and Paraná River basins; Brazil, Peru (Reyda and Olson 2003; Reyda 2008; Reyda and Marques 2011).

Notes: Reyda and Olson (2003) and Reyda (2008) reported the host as Potamotrygon castexi and the latter reported the cestodes as Rhinebothroides sp. 2. Reyda and Olson (2003) found metacestodes of proteocephalids parasitizing Rhinebothroides sp. Sequence of partial cox1 (JF803678) (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Potamotrygon motoro (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (Reyda and Olson 2003, Reyda 2008).

Note: the authors reported hyperparasitism caused by metacestodes of proteocephalids.

Potamotrygon tatianae (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Peru (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Note: sequence of partial cox1 (JF803679) (Reyda and Marques 2011).

Rhodobothrium mesodesmatum (Bahamonde & Lopez, 1962) Campbell & Carvajal, 1979

[Syns. Proboscidosaccus mesodesmatis Bahamonde & Lopez, 1962; Anthobothrium peruanum Rego, Vicente & Herrera, 1968]

Myliobatis chilensis (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile, Peru (Campbell and Carvajal 1979; Rodríguez and Tantaleán 1980; Oliva 1982; Tresierra et al. 1986).

Note: type host. Tapeworm originally described by Bahamonde and Lopez (1962) from a clam, Mesodesma donacium (Lamarck), parasitizing the palleal cavity of this intermediate host, which is a common prey for M. chilensis.

Myliobatis peruvianus (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (López de McDonald and Tantaleán 1985).

Sarda chiliensis (Actinopterygii: Scombridae); marine; intestine; adult (?); WTSP; Peru (Rego et al. 1968).

Rhodobothrium paucitesticulare Mayes & Brooks, 1981

Rhinoptera bonasus (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Venezuela (Mayes and Brooks 1981; Brooks et al. 1981a).

Note: type host.

Rhodobothrium pulvinatum Linton, 1889*

[Syns. Anthobothrium pulvinatum Linton, 1890 nec A. pulvinatum Linton, 1889 (nomen nudum); Inermiphyllidium pulvinatum (Linton, 1890) Riser, 1955]

Dasyatis americana (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Venezuela (Mayes and Brooks 1981).

Dasyatis guttata (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Venezuela (Mayes and Brooks 1981).

Scalithrium magniphallum (Brooks, 1977) Ball, Neifar & Euzet, 2003

[Syn. Rhinebothrium magniphallum Brooks, 1977]

Dasyatis americana (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Colombia (Brooks and Mayes 1980).

Dasyatis guttata (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Venezuela (Mayes and Brooks 1981).

Himantura schmardae (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Colombia, Venezuela (Brooks 1977; Mayes and Brooks 1981).

Note: type host.

Urobatis jamaicensis (Elasmobranchii: Urotrygonidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Colombia (Brooks and Mayes 1980).

Notes: host reported as Urolophus jamaicensis.

Urotrygon venezuelae (Elasmobranchii: Urotrygonidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Colombia (Brooks and Mayes 1980).

Taxa incertae sedis

Anindobothrium anacolum (Brooks, 1977) Marques, Brooks & Lasso, 2001*

[Syn. Caulobothrium anacollum Brooks, 1977]

Himantura schmardae (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Colombia (Brooks 1977).

Notes: type host. The genus Anindobothrium is likely a member of the Rhinebothriidea (see Ruhnke 2011) and it is already treated as such in the GCD within Anthocephalidae (Caira et al. 2012).

Anindobothrium lisae Marques, Brooks & Lasso, 2001

Potamotrygon orbignyi (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae); freshwater; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Marques et al. 2001).

Note: type host.

Phyllobothrium auricula van Beneden, 1858

Myliobatis chilensis (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (Tantaleán 1991).

Note: the species is likely a member of the Rhinebothriidea (see Ruhnke 2011) and it is already treated as such in the GCD (Caira et al. 2012).

Myliobatis peruvianus (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (Tantaleán 1991).

Phyllobothrium discopygi Campbell & Carvajal, 1987

Discopyge tschudi (Elasmobranchii: Torpedinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile (Campbell and Carvajal 1987).

Notes: type host. This species is likely a member of the Rhinebothriidea (see Ruhnke 2011) and it is already treated as such in the GCD (Caira et al. 2012).

Phyllobothrium myliobatidis Brooks, Mayes & Thorson, 1981

Myliobatis goodei (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA (La Plata River estuary); Uruguay (Brooks et al. 1981a).

Notes: type host. The tapeworm is likely a member of the Rhinebothriidea (see Ruhnke 2011) and it is already treated as such in the GCD (Caira et al. 2012).

Order ‘Tetraphyllidea’ Carus, 1863

Anthobothrium laciniatum Linton, 1890

Carcharhinus longimanus (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TSA; Brazil (Rego 1977).

Anthobothrium galeorhini Suriano, 2002

Galeorhinus galeus (Elasmobranchii: Triakidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; Magellanic; Argentina (Suriano 2002).

Note: type host.

Calliobothrium australis Ostrowski de Núñez, 1973

Mustelus schmitti (Elasmobranchii: Triakidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Argentina, Uruguay (Ostrowski de Núñez 1973; Ivanov and Brooks 2002; Alarcos et al. 2006; Bernot et al. 2015).

Notes: type host. This species was originally described as C. verticillatum australis, but Ivanov and Brooks (2002) redescribed this species and they raised this subspecies to the species level as C. australis. Sequences of partial 28S (KP128030, KP128031) (Bernot et al. 2015).

Calliobothrium verticillatum (Rudolphi, 1819) van Beneden, 1850*

[Syns. Bothriocephalus verticillatus Rudolphi, 1819; Acanthobothrium verticillatum (Rudolphi, 1819) van Beneden, 1849]

Mustelus mento (Elasmobranchii: Triakidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile, Peru (Carvajal 1974; Escalante and Carvajal 1981).

Calliobothrium sp.

Mustelus mento (Elasmobranchii: Triakidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (Tresierra et al. 1986).

Caulobothrium myliobatidis Carvajal, 1977

Myliobatis chilensis (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Chile, Peru (Carvajal 1977; Tantaleán 1991).

Note: type host.

Caulobothrium ostrowskiae Brooks, Mayes & Thorson, 1981

Myliobatis goodei (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA (La Plata River estuary); Uruguay (Brooks et al. 1981a).

Note: type host.

Caulobothrium uruguayense Brooks, Mayes & Thorson, 1981

Myliobatis goodei (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA (La Plata River estuary); Uruguay (Brooks et al. 1981a).

Note: type host; it was reported as Myliobatis uruguayensis.

Dioecotaenia campbelli Mayes & Brooks, 1981

Rhinoptera bonasus (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TNA; Venezuela (Brooks et al. 1981a; Mayes and Brooks 1981).

Note: type host.

Reesium paciferum (Sproston, 1948) Euzet, 1955*

[Syn. Dinobothrium paciferum Sproston, 1948]

Cetorhinus maximus (Elasmobranchii: Cetorhinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (Rivera and Sarmiento 1990).

Note: type host.

Serendip deborahae Brooks & Barriga, 1995*

Rhinoptera steindachneri (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; TEP; Ecuador (Brooks and Barriga 1995).

Notes: type host. Serendip Brooks & Barriga, 1995 is likely a member of the Rhinebothriidea, according to Ruhnke et al. (2015).

Symcallio barbarae (Ivanov & Brooks, 2002) Bernot, Caira & Pickering, 2015

[Syns. Calliobothrium eschrichti of Ostrowski de Núñez (1973) nec van Beneden, 1850; Calliobothrium barbarae Ivanov & Brooks, 2002]

Mustelus schmitti (Elasmobranchii: Triakidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Argentina, Uruguay (Ostrowski de Núñez 1973; Ivanov and Brooks 2002; Alarcos et al. 2006; Bernot et al. 2015).

Note: type host. Ostrowski de Núñez (1973) reported the tapeworms as Calliobothrium eschrichti van Beneden, 1850. Sequence of partial 28S (KP128023) (Bernot et al. 2015).

Symcallio lintoni (Euzet, 1954) Bernot, Caira & Pickering, 2015

[Syn. Calliobothrium lintoni Euzet, 1954]

Mustelus whitneyi (Elasmobranchii: Triakidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSP; Peru (Escalante and Carvajal 1981).

Symcallio lunae (Ivanov & Brooks, 2002) Bernot, Caira & Pickering, 2015

[Syns. of Calliobothrium lintoni of Ostrowski de Núñez (1973) nec Euzet, 1974; Calliobothrium lunae Ivanov & Brooks, 2002]

Mustelus schmitti (Elasmobranchii: Triakidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Argentina, Uruguay (Ostrowski de Núñez 1973; Ivanov and Brooks 2002; Alarcos et al. 2006).

Notes: type host. Ostrowski de Núñez (1973) reported this species as Calliobothrium lintoni (see Caira et al. 2012).

Collective group name for larval ‘tetraphyllideans’ and Unidentified taxa

Scolex pleuronectis ’ Müller, 1788; ‘ Scolex polymorphus ’ Rudolphi, 1819; ‘ Scolex sp.’; ‘Tetraphyllidea gen. sp.

Anchoa tricolor (Actinopterygii: Engraulidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Tavares et al. 2005).

Aphos porosus (Actinopterygii: Batrachoididae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (Torres et al. 1993; Cortés and Muñoz 2008, 2009).

Aspistor luniscutis (Actinopterygii: Ariidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque and Poulin 2004).

Note: host reported as Sciadeichthys luniscutis.

Balistes capriscus (Actinopterygii: Balistidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque and Poulin 2004; Alves et al. 2005).

Balistes vetula (Actinopterygii: Balistidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque and Poulin 2004).

Brachyplatystoma sp. (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae); freshwater; site of infection not given; metacestode; Amazon River basin (estuary of Amazon River); Brazil (Rego et al. 1999a).

Caranx latus (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque and Alves 2001).

Cilus gilberti (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (Garcías et al. 2001).

Conger orbignianus (Actinopterygii: Congridae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina (Tanzola and Guagliardo 2000; Timi and Lanfranchi 2013).

Note: Tanzola and Guagliardo (2000) distinguished two morphotypes.

Coryphaena hippurus (Actinopterygii: Coryphaenidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante et al. 1987).

Cynoscion guatucupa (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; pyloric caeca, intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina (Timi et al. 2005, 2010b).

Dactylopterus volitans (Actinopterygii: Dactylopteridae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque and Poulin 2004; Cordeiro and Luque 2005).

Dissostichus eleginoides (Actinopterygii: Nototheniidae); marine; stomach, intestine; metacestode; Magellanic; Falkland Islands (Brickle et al. 2006; Brown et al. 2013).

Eleginops maclovinus (Actinopterygii: Eleginopsidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; Magellanic; Falkland Islands (Brickle and MacKenzie 2007).

Engraulis anchoita (Actinopterygii: Engraulidae); marine; pyloric caeca; metacestode; Magellanic, WTSA; Argentina (Timi 2003; Timi and Poulin 2003; Timi et al. 2010b).

Engraulis ringens (Actinopterygii: Engraulidae); marine; site of infection not

given; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (George-Nascimento and Moscoso 2013).

Ethmidium maculatum (Actinopterygii: Clupeidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante et al. 1987).

Note: host reported as Brevoortia maculata.

Euthynnus alletteratus (Actinopterygii: Scombridae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque and Poulin 2004; Alves and Luque 2006).

Genidens barbus (Actinopterygii: Ariidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque and Poulin 2004; Tavares and Luque 2004, 2008).

Note: Luque and Poulin (2004) and Tavares and Luque (2004) reported the host as Netuma barba.

Genypterus blacodes (Actinopterygii: Ophidiidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina (Sardella et al. 1998).

Genypterus brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Ophidiidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Alves et al. 2002a, b; Luque and Poulin 2004).

Genypterus maculatus (Actinopterygii: Ophidiidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSP; Chile, Peru (Escalante et al. 1987; Muñoz and George-Nascimento 2008).

Gobiesox marmoratus (Actinopterygii: Gobiesocidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (Muñoz 2014).

Gymnothorax moringa (Actinopterygii: Muraenidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque and Poulin 2004).

Haemulon steindachneri (Actinopterygii: Haemulidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque et al. 1995, 1996a, b; Luque and Poulin 2004).

Helcogrammoides chilensis (Actinopterygii: Tripterygiidae); marine; site of

infection not given; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (Muñoz and Delorme 2011).

Hippoglossina macrops (Actinopterygii: Paralichthyidae); marine; intestine; metacestode WTSP; Chile (Riffo 1991; González et al. 2001, 2008; Oliva et al. 2004).

Hyporhamphus unifasciatus (Actinopterygii: Hemiramphidae); brackish, marine; body cavity; metacestode; TSA (Itamaracá Island); Brazil (Palm 1997).

Katsuwonus pelamis (Actinopterygii: Scombridae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA, WTSP; Brazil, Peru (Escalante et al. 1987; Alves and Luque 2006)

Macruronus magellanicus (Actinopterygii: Merlucciidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; Magellanic; Chile (Oliva 2001).

Menticirrhus americanus (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque and Poulin 2004).

Merluccius australis (Actinopterygii: Merlucciidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; Magellanic; Chile (Fernández 1985).

Merluccius gayi gayi (Actinopterygii: Merlucciidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (Oliva and Ballón 2002).

Merluccius hubbsi (Actinopterygii: Merlucciidae); marine; pyloric caeca, intestine; metacestode; Magellanic, WTSA; Argentina, Uruguay (Szidat 1955, 1961; Sardella and Timi 1996, 2004).

Micropogonias furnieri (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Alves and Luque 2001a; Luque and Poulin 2004; Luque et al. 2010).

Mugil cephalus (Actinopterygii: Mugilidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (Fernández 1987).

Mugil liza (Actinopterygii: Mugilidae); catadromous; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Knoff et al. 1997; Luque and Poulin 2004).

Notes: host reported as Mugil platanus. Knoff et al. (1997) distinguished two morphotypes.

Normanichthys crockeri (Actinopterygii: Normanichthyidae); marine; intestine, ovary; metacestode; Magellanic; Chile (Sepúlveda et al. 2004).

Notothenia cf. angustata (Actinopterygii: Nototheniidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (Muñoz et al. 2001).

Odontesthes argentinensis (Actinopterygii: Atherinopsidae); brackish, marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSA (Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon); Argentina (Alarcos and Etchegoin 2010).

Odontesthes regia (Actinopterygii: Atherinopsidae); brackish, marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante et al. 1987).

Note: host reported as O. regia regia.

Odontesthes smitti (Actinopterygii: Atherinopsidae); marine; body cavity, mesentery, stomach; metacestode; Magellanic; Argentina (Carballo et al. 2011, 2012).

Oligoplites palometa (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Takemoto et al. 1996a, b; Luque and Poulin 2004).

Oligoplites saliens (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Takemoto et al. 1996a, b; Luque and Poulin 2004).

Oligoplites saurus (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Takemoto et al. 1996a, b; Luque and Poulin 2004).

Oncorhynchus kisutch (Actinopterygii: Salmonidae); anadromous; intestine; metacestode; lakes in Chiloé Island; Chile (Torres et al. 1990, 2010).

Orthopristis ruber (Actinopterygii: Haemulidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque et al. 1995, 1996a, b; Luque and Poulin 2004).

Pagrus pagrus (Actinopterygii: Sparidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Paraguassú et al. 2002; Luque and Poulin 2004; Soares et al. 2014).

Paralichthys adspersus (Actinopterygii: Paralichthyidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (Riffo 1995; Oliva et al. 1996).

Paralichthys isosceles (Actinopterygii: Paralichthyidae); marine; stomach, intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina, Brazil (Felizardo et al. 2010; Alarcos and Timi 2012; Alarcos et al. 2016).

Paralichthys microps (Actinopterygii: Paralichthyidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (Riffo 1995).

Paralichthys orbignyanus (Actinopterygii: Paralichthyidae); marine; site of

infection not given; metacestode; WTSA (Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon); Argentina (Alarcos and Etchegoin 2010).

Paralichthys patagonicus (Actinopterygii: Paralichthyidae); marine; stomach, intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina (Alarcos and Timi 2012).

Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Ribeiro et al. 2002; Luque et al. 2003; Luque and Poulin 2004).

Parona signata (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina (Szidat 1969).

Percophis brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Percophidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina, Uruguay (Braicovich and Timi 2008, 2010).

Pinguipes brasilianus (Actinopterygii: Pinguipedidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina, Brazil (Timi et al. 2008, 2009, 2010a).

Pomatomus saltatrix (Actinopterygii: Pomatomidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque and Chaves 1999; Luque and Poulin 2004).

Note: host reported as P. saltator.

Porichthys porosissimus (Actinopterygii: Batrachoididae) marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA (Bahía Blanca estuary); Argentina (Tanzola et al. 1997; Guagliardo et al. 2009).

Notes: Tanzola et al. (1997) distinguished two morphotypes. Guagliardo et al. (2009) studied lesions caused by the larvae.

Priacanthus arenatus (Actinopterygii: Priacanthidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Tavares et al. 2001; Luque and Poulin 2004).

Prolatilus jugularis (Actinopterygii: Pinguipedidae); marine; intestine, ovary; metacestode; Magellanic; Chile (Sepúlveda et al. 2004).

Pseudopercis numida (Actinopterygii: Pinguipedidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque et al. 2008).

Pseudopercis semifasciata (Actinopterygii: Pinguipedidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; Magellanic, WTSA; Argentina, Brazil (Luque et al. 2008; Timi and Lanfranchi 2009a).

Raneya brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Ophidiidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina (Vales et al. 2011).

Salmo trutta (Actinopterygii: Salmonidae); anadromous; intestine; metacestode; lakes in Chiloé Island; Chile (Torres et al. 1990).

Sarda chiliensis (Actinopterygii: Scombridae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante et al. 1987).

Note: host reported as S. chiliensis chiliensis.

Sarda sarda (Actinopterygii: Scombridae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Alves and Luque 2006).

Sardinella brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Clupeidae); marine; pyloric caeca (cysts); metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Lima et al. 1997).

Sardinops sagax (Actinopterygii: Clupeidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante et al. 1987).

Note: host reported as S. sagax sagax.

Scomber colias (Actinopterygii: Scombridae); marine; body cavity, intestine, stomach; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina, Brazil (Rego and Santos 1983; Cremonte and Sardella 1997; Abdallah et al. 2002; Alves et al. 2003; Luque and Poulin 2004; Oliva et al. 2008b).

Note: host reported as S. japonicus.

Scomber japonicus (Actinopterygii: Scombridae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante et al. 1987; Cruces et al. 2014).

Scomberomorus brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Scombridae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque and Poulin 2004; Alves and Luque 2006).

Sebastes capensis (Actinopterygii: Sebastidae); marine; site of infection not

given; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (González and Poulin 2005a, b; González et al. 2006).

Sicyases sanguineus (Actinopterygii: Gobiesocidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (Muñoz and Delorme 2011).

Stellifer minor (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Luque 1991).

Strongylura scapularis (Actinopterygii: Belonidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Luque 1991).

Note: host reported as Belone scapularis.

Synodus scituliceps (Actinopterygii: Synodontidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante et al. 1987).

Trachurus lathami (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina, Brazil (Luque and Poulin 2004; Braicovich et al. 2012).

Trachurus murphyi (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSP; Chile, Peru (Oliva 1982, 1994, 1999; Luque 1991; Jara 1998).

Note: Luque (1991) and Jara (1998) reported the host as Trachurus symmetricus murphyi.

Trichiurus lepturus (Actinopterygii: Trichiuridae); marine; stomach, intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Silva et al. 2000a, b; Luque and Poulin 2004; Carvalho and Luque 2011; Bueno et al. 2014).

Tylosurus acus acus (Actinopterygii: Belonidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Tavares et al. 2004; Luque and Poulin 2004).

Note: host reported as Tylosurus acus.

Urophycis brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Phycidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina, Brazil (Szidat 1960, 1961; Alves et al. 2004; Luque and Poulin 2004; Pereira et al. 2014).

Note: Pereira et al. (2014) distinguished two morphotypes of larvae.

Urophycis mystaceus (Actinopterygii: Phycidae); marine; intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Alves et al. 2002c; Luque and Poulin 2004).

Xystreurys rasile (Actinopterygii: Paralichthyidae); marine; stomach, intestine; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina (Szidat 1961; Alarcos and Timi 2012, 2013).

Taxon incertae sedis

Anthobothrium pristis Woodland, 1934

Pristis pristis (Elasmobranchii: Pristidae); brackish, freshwater, marine; spiral valve; adult; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Woodland 1934c).

Note: host reported as P. perotteti. Ruhnke and Caira (2009) did not place this species among six species of Anthobothrium (sensu stricto); therefore, it is considered incertae sedis (see Caira et al. 2012).

Order Trypanorhyncha Diesing, 1863

Suborder Trypanoselachoida Olson, Caira, Jensen, Overstreet, Palm & Beveridge, 2010

Superfamily Gymnorhynchoidea Dollfus, 1935
Family Gilquiniidae Dollfus, 1935

Gilquinia squali (Fabricius, 1794) Dollfus, 1930*

[Syns. Taenia squali Fabricius, 1794; Bothriocephalus paleaceus Rudolphi, 1810; Rhynchobothrium tetrabothrium van Beneden, 1849; Tetrarhynchobothrium affine Diesing, 1854; Tetrarhynchus anteroporus Hart, 1936]

Etmopterus granulosus (Elasmobranchii: Etmopteridae); marine; spiral valve; adult (immature); WTSP; Chile (Carvajal 1974).

Note: host reported as Centroscyllium granulosus.

Gilquinia sp.

Micropogonias furnieri (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA (La Plata River estuary); Argentina (Suriano 1966).

Note: Pereira (1993) suggested that these specimens might have corresponded to two different species of Pterobothrium Diesing, 1850.

Family Gymnorhynchidae Dollfus, 1935

Gymnorhynchus isuri Robinson, 1959

Isurus oxyrinchus (Elasmobranchii: Lamnidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Brazil (Knoff et al. 2002, 2007).

Molicola horridus (Goodsir, 1841) Dollfus, 1935*

[For synonyms, see Palm (2004)]

Isurus oxyrinchus (Elasmobranchii: Lamnidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Brazil (Palm 2004).

Mola ramsayi (Actinopterygii: Molidae); marine; liver; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (Villalba and Fernández 1985).

Note: tapeworms reported as Gymnorhynchus (M.) horridus.

Prionace glauca (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Brazil (Knoff et al. 2002, 2004c).

Molicola sp.

Mola mola (Actinopterygii: Molidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Palm 2004).

Thyrsites atun (Actinopterygii: Gempylidae); marine; muscles; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (Torres et al. 2014).

Superfamily Lacistorhynchoidea Guiart, 1927
Family Lacistorhynchidae Guiart, 1927

Callitetrarhynchus gracilis (Rudolphi, 1819) Pintner, 1931*

[For synonyms, see Palm (2004)]

Balistes capriscus (Actinopterygii: Balistidae); marine; liver, mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Dias et al. 2009).

Balistes vetula (Actinopterygii: Balistidae); marine; body cavity, muscle; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (São Clemente et al. 1995).

Caranx crysos (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; TSA; Brazil (Palm 1997).

Caranx hippos (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque and Alves 2001; Luque and Poulin 2004).

Caranx latus (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque and Alves 2001; Luque and Poulin 2004; Ferreira et al. 2006).

Centropomus undecimalis (Actinopterygii: Centropomidae); amphidromous; peritoneum; metacestode; NBS (Marajó Island); Brazil (Dollfus 1942).

Note: the cestodes were collected by Göldi in 1896.

Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; TSA, WTSA; Brazil (Palm 1997, 2004).

Cynoscion acoupa (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; muscles; metacestode; NBS; Brazil (Dias et al. 2011b).

Cynoscion guatucupa (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; body cavity, kidney; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay (Pereira and Boeger 2005; Timi et al. 2005, 2010b).

Euthynnus alletteratus (Actinopterygii: Scombridae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque and Poulin 2004; Alves and Luque 2006).

Genidens barbus (Actinopterygii: Ariidae); marine; body cavity, viscera; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (São Clemente et al. 1991a).

Note: host reported as Netuma barba.

Genypterus brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Ophidiidae); marine; body cavity, mesentery, muscles; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (São Clemente et al. 2004; Knoff et al. 2008).

Haemulon aurolineatum (Actinopterygii: Haemulidae); marine; body cavity, muscles; metacestode; TSA; Brazil (Palm 1997).

Harengula clupeola (Actinopterygii: Clupeidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; TSA; Brazil (Palm 1997).

Hemilutjanus macrophthalmos (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; surface of

internal organs, serous membrane; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante and Carvajal 1984).

Hyporthodus niveatus (Actinopterygii: Serranidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Palm 2004).

Note: host reported as Epinephelus niveatus.

Larimus breviceps (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; TSA; Brazil (Palm 1997).

Lutjanus synagris (Actinopterygii: Lutjanidae); marine; muscles; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Silva and São Clemente 2001).

Macrodon ancylodon (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; body cavity, kidney, mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Sabas and Luque 2003; Luque and Poulin 2004; Pereira and Boeger 2005).

Merluccius gayi peruanus (Actinopterygii: Merlucciidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Durán and Oliva 1980; Chero et al. 2014a).

Micropogonias furnieri (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; body cavity, kidney, mesentery; metacestode; TNA, WTSA; Brazil, Venezuela (São Clemente 1986a, b, 1987; Vicente et al. 1989; Pereira 1993; Alves and Luque 1999, 2001a; Luque and Poulin 2004; Palm 2004; Pereira and Boeger 2005; Luque et al. 2010; Timi et al. 2010b).

Mustelus canis (Elasmobranchii: Triakidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Brazil (São Clemente and Gomes 1989b; São Clemente et al. 1991b).

Oligoplites palometa (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; TSA, WTSA; Brazil (Takemoto et al. 1996a, b; Palm 1997; Luque and Poulin 2004).

Oligoplites saurus (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Takemoto et al. 1996a, b; Luque and Poulin 2004).

Opisthonema oglinum (Actinopterygii: Clupeidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; TSA; Brazil (Palm 1997).

Pagrus pagrus (Actinopterygii: Sparidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Palm 2004).

Paralichthys isosceles (Actinopterygii: Paralichthyidae); marine; muscles; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Felizardo et al. 2010).

Paralichthys patagonicus (Actinopterygii: Paralichthyidae); marine; body cavity, kidney, mesentery, spleen; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Fonseca et al. 2012).

Paralonchurus peruanus (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; surface of internal organs, serous membrane; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante and Carvajal 1984).

Note: host reported as Polyclemus peruanus.

Percophis brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Percophidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina, Uruguay (Braicovich and Timi 2008, 2010).

Pinguipes brasilianus (Actinopterygii: Pinguipedidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Timi et al. 2010a).

Plagioscion squamosissimus (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); freshwater; muscles; metacestode; Amazon River basin; Brazil (Silva 2010).

Pomatomus saltatrix (Actinopterygii: Pomatomidae); marine; body cavity, mesentery, peritoneum; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Carvajal and Rego 1985; Carvajal et al. 1987; São Clemente et al. 1997; Palm 2004, Ferreira et al. 2006).

Note: host reported as P. saltator by some authors.

Prionace glauca (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae); marine; spiral valve; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Knoff et al. 2002; Pinto et al. 2006).

Pseudopercis numida (Actinopterygii: Pinguipedidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque et al. 2008).

Sardinella brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Clupeidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Moreira et al. 2015).

Sciaena deliciosa (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; surface of internal organs, serous membrane; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante and Carvajal 1984).

Scomberomorus brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Scombridae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; TSA; Brazil (Palm 1997).

Note: host reported as S. maculatus.

Scomberomorus cavalla (Actinopterygii: Scombridae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Dias et al. 2011a).

Selene setapinnis (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Cordeiro and Luque 2004; Luque and Poulin 2004).

Selene vomer (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; TSA; Brazil (Palm 1997).

Sphyraena guachancho (Actinopterygii: Sphyraenidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; TSA; Brazil (Palm 1997).

Trachurus lathami (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina, Brazil (Braicovich et al. 2012).

Trichiurus lepturus (Actinopterygii: Trichiuridae); marine; body cavity, mesentery, stomach; WTSA; Brazil (Silva et al. 2000a, b; Carvalho and Luque 2011; Bueno et al. 2014).

Umbrina canosai (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque and Poulin 2004).

Urophycis brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Phycidae); marine; site of infection not given; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina (Pereira et al. 2014).

Callitetrarhynchus speciosus (Linton, 1897) Carvajal & Rego, 1985

[Syns. Rhynchobothrium speciosum Linton, 1897; Tentacularia pseudodera Schuler, 1938]

Aluterus monoceros (Actinopterygii: Monacanthidae); marine; liver, mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Dias et al. 2010).

Balistes capriscus (Actinopterygii: Balistidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque and Poulin 2004; Dias et al. 2009).

Balistes vetula (Actinopterygii: Balistidae); marine; body cavity, mesentery, muscles; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (São Clemente et al. 1995; Luque and Poulin 2004).

Cynoscion guatucupa (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Pereira and Boeger 2005; Pinto et al. 2006).

Genidens barbus (Actinopterygii: Ariidae); marine; body cavity, viscera; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (São Clemente et al. 1991a).

Note: host reported as Netuma barba.

Micropogonias furnieri (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Pereira 1993; Pereira and Boeger 2005; Pinto et al. 2006).

Pomatomus saltatrix (Actinopterygii: Pomatomidae); marine; body cavity, mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Carvajal and Rego 1985; São Clemente et al. 1997; Ferreira et al. 2006).

Note: type host; it was reported as P. saltator by some authors.

Priacanthus arenatus (Actinopterygii: Priacanthidae); marine; mesentery, serosa of intestine and ovary; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Kuraiem et al. 2016).

Scomberomorus cavalla (Actinopterygii: Scombridae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Dias et al. 2011a).

Sphyrna zygaena (Elasmobranchii: Sphyrnidae); marine; spiral valve; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Knoff et al. 2002; Pinto et al. 2006).

Stephanolepis hispidus (Actinopterygii: Monacanthidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Palm 2004).

Callitetrarhynchus sp.

Balistes capriscus (Actinopterygii: Balistidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Alves et al. 2005).

Balistes vetula (Actinopterygii: Balistidae); marine; body cavity, mesentery, muscles; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Alves et al. 2005).

Conodon nobilis (Actinopterygii: Haemulidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Paschoal et al. 2015).

Dasyrhynchus giganteus (Diesing, 1850) Pintner, 1929

[Syns. Anthocephalus giganteus Diesing, 1850; Rhynchobothrium insigne Linton, 1924; Sbesterium insigne Dollfus, 1929]

Caranx hippos (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; brain; metacestode; NBS, TSA; Brazil (São Clemente et al. 1993; Palm 1997).

Oligoplites saliens (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; subcutaneous; metacestode; NBS (estuary of Tapajós River); Brazil (Diesing 1850, 1856).

Notes: type host; it was originally reported as Chorinemus saliens. Beveridge and Campbell (1993) redescribed this species.

Dasyrhynchus pacificus Robinson, 1965

Carcharhinus brachyurus (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Brazil (São Clemente and Gomes 1989a; São Clemente et al. 1991b).

Carcharhinus limbatus (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Brazil (Beveridge and Campbell 1993; Palm 2004).

Cynoscion guatucupa (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; body cavity, haemal

arches, mesentery, kidney; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay (Pereira and Boeger 2005; Timi et al. 2005, 2010b).

Cynoscion jamaicensis (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Pereira and Boeger 2005).

Macrodon ancylodon (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; body cavity, pericardium, kidney; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Pereira and Boeger 2005).

Menticirrhus americanus (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; body cavity, mesentery, kidney; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Pereira and Boeger 2005).

Sciaena deliciosa (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; peritoneum; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante and Carvajal 1984).

Scyliorhinus haeckelii (Elasmobranchii: Scyliorhinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Brazil (Beveridge and Campbell 1993; Palm 2004).

Sphyrna sp. (Elasmobranchii: Sphyrnidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Brazil (Beveridge and Campbell 1993; Palm 2004).

Floriceps saccatus Cuvier, 1817*

[Syns. Anthocephalus elongatus Rudolphi, 1819; Rhynchobothrium ingens Linton, 1921; R. carangis MacCallum, 1921; Floriceps caballeroi Ceuz-Reyes, 1977]

Aluterus monoceros (Actinopterygii: Monacanthidae); marine; liver, mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Dias et al. 2010).

Centropomus nigrescens (Actinopterygii: Centropomidae); amphidromous; peritoneum; metacestode; WTSP; Peru (Escalante and Carvajal 1984).

Coryphaena hippurus (Actinopterygii: Coryphaenidae); marine; muscles; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Silva and São Clemente 2001).

Prionace glauca (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Brazil (Knoff et al. 2002; Pinto et al. 2006).

Seriola lalandi (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; muscle; metacestode; WTSP; Chile (Soto and Carvajal 1979).

Note: host reported as S. mazatlana.

Grillotia (Christianella) carvajalregorum Menoret & Ivanov, 2009

[Syns. Progrillotia dollfusi Carvajal & Rego 1983; Grillotia (Progrillotia) dollfusi (Carvajal & Rego, 1983) Palm, 2004; G. carvajalregorum Menoret & Ivanov, 2009]

Acanthistius brasilianus (Actinopterygii: Serranidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina (Menoret and Ivanov 2009b).

Carcharhinus signatus (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae); marine; stomach; adult; WTSA; Brazil (Knoff et al. 2002, 2004c).

Conger orbignianus (Actinopterygii: Congridae); marine; intestinal surface, mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina (Timi and Lanfranchi 2013).

Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Pereira and Boeger 2005).

Cynoscion guatucupa (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; body cavity, mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina, Brazil (Sabas and Luque 2003; Luque and Poulin 2004; Pereira and Boeger 2005; Timi et al. 2005, 2010b; Menoret and Ivanov 2009b).

Cynoscion jamaicensis (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Pereira and Boeger 2005).

Cynoscion striatus (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Rego et al. 1974; Carvajal and Rego 1983).

Notes: type host. Carvaval and Rego (1983) re-identified the larvae collected by Rego et al. (1974).

Dules auriga (Actinopterygii: Serranidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina (Menoret and Ivanov 2012; Braicovich and Timi 2015).

Note: Menoret and Ivanov (2012) reported the host as Serranus auriga (Cuvier).

Genypterus brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Ophidiidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Alves et al. 2002a, b; Luque and Poulin 2004; São Clemente et al. 2004).

Note: after morphological re-evalution of specimens deposited by Alves et al. (2002b), São Clemente et al. (2004) assigned this species to P. dollfusi (syn. of G. (C.) carvajalregorum).

Heptranchias perlo (Elasmobranchii: Hexanchidae); marine; spiral valve; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Knoff et al. 2002, 2004c).

Lophius gastrophysus (Actinopterygii: Lophiidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (São Clemente et al. 2007).

Macrodon ancylodon (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; mesentery, body

cavity; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Sabas and Luque 2003; Luque and Poulin 2004; Pereira and Boeger 2005).

Menticirrhus americanus (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Pereira and Boeger 2005).

Menticirrhus littoralis (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Pereira and Boeger 2005).

Merluccius hubbsi (Actinopterygii: Merlucciidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; Magellanic; Argentina (Menoret and Ivanov 2012).

Micropogonias furnieri (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina, Brazil (Pereira and Boeger 2005; Menoret and Ivanov 2009b).

Nemadactylus bergi (Actinopterygii: Cheilodactylidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina (Menoret and Ivanov 2009b; Rossin and Timi 2010).

Paralichthys isosceles (Actinopterygii: Paralichthyidae); marine; body cavity, liver, mesentery, muscles; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina, Brazil (Felizardo et al. 2010; Alarcos and Timi 2012; Alarcos et al. 2016).

Paralichthys patagonicus (Actinopterygii: Paralichthyidae); marine; body cavity, mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina, Brazil (Alarcos and Timi 2012; Fonseca et al. 2012).

Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae); marine; body cavity; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Pereira and Boeger 2005).

Parona signata (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina (Menoret and Ivanov 2012).

Percophis brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Percophidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina (Menoret and Ivanov 2009b; Braicovich and Timi 2010).

Pomatomus saltatrix (Actinopterygii: Pomatomidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina (Menoret and Ivanov 2012).

Porichthys porosissimus (Actinopterygii: Batrachoididae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina (Menoret and Ivanov 2012).

Prionotus nudigula (Actinopterygii: Triglidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; Magellanic; Argentina (Menoret and Ivanov 2012).

Prionotus punctatus (Actinopterygii: Triglidae); marine; intestinal surface, mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina, Brazil (Bicudo et al. 2005; Menoret and Ivanov 2009b).

Pseudopercis numida (Actinopterygii: Pinguipedidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque et al. 2008).

Pseudopercis semifasciata (Actinopterygii: Pinguipedidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Brazil (Luque et al. 2008).

Raneya brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Ophidiidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; Magellanic, WTSA; Argentina (Vales et al. 2011).

Squalus sp. (Elasmobranchii: Squalidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Brazil (Knoff et al. 2002, 2004c).

Squatina guggenheim (Elasmobranchii: Squatinidae); marine; spiral valve; adult; WTSA; Argentina (Menoret and Ivanov 2009b).

Note: Menoret and Ivanov (2009b) provided a new name for P. dollfusi and a detailed description of adult forms.

Trachurus lathami (Actinopterygii: Carangidae); marine; mesentery; metacestode; WTSA; Argentina, Brazil (Menoret and Ivanov 2009b;