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Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera
expand article infoCaroline Sayuri Fukushima, Rogério Bertani
‡ Laboratório Especial de Ecologia e Evolução, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil
Open Access

Abstract

The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n., Caribena gen. n., and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818), Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n., A. minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, A. hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n., A. lynnae sp. n., and A. caei sp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to accommodate former Avicularia species: Caribena gen. n., composed of Caribena laeta (C. L. Koch, 1842), comb. n. and Caribena versicolor (Walckenaer, 1837), comb. n.; Antillena gen. n., with a single species, Antillena rickwesti (Bertani & Huff, 2013), comb. n., both from the Caribbean; and Ybyrapora gen. n., composed of Ybyrapora sooretama (Bertani & Fukushima, 2009), comb. n., Ybyrapora gamba (Bertani & Fukushima, 2009), comb. n. and Ybyrapora diversipes (C. L. Koch, 1842), comb. n. from Brazilian rainforest. The subspecies Avicularia avicularia variegata F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 is elevated to species status, resulting in the combination Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n.. The following new synonymies are established: Avicularia velutina Simon 1889, Avicularia exilis Strand, 1907, Avicularia ancylochyra Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia cuminami Mello-Leitão, 1930, and Avicularia nigrotaeniata Mello-Leitão, 1940 are junior synonyms of A. avicularia; Avicularia bicegoi Mello-Leitão, 1923 is a junior synonym of A. variegata stat. n., and Avicularia urticans Schmidt, 1994 is a junior synonym of Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923. Species transferred to other genera: Avicularia affinis (Nicolet, 1849) is transferred to Euathlus Ausserer, 1875, making the new combination Euathlus affinis (Nicolet, 1849), comb. n.; Avicularia subvulpina Strand, 1906 is transferred to Grammostola Simon, 1892, making the new combination Grammostola subvulpina (Strand, 1906), comb. n.; Avicularia aymara (Chamberlin, 1916) is transferred to Thrixopelma Schmidt, 1994, making the new combination Thrixopelma aymara (Chamberlin, 1916), comb. n.; Avicularia leporina (C. L. Koch, 1841) and Avicularia plantaris (C. L. Koch, 1842) are transferred to Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, making the new combinations Iridopelma leporina (C. L. Koch, 1841), comb. n. and Iridopelma plantaris (C. L. Koch, 1842), comb. n.; the two last species are considered nomina dubia. The following species are considered nomina dubia: Avicularia hirsutissima (C. L. Koch, 1842) nomen dubium; Ischnocolus hirsutum Ausserer, 1875 nomen dubium; Ischnocolus gracilis Keyserling, 1891 nomen dubium; Avicularia arabica (Strand, 1908) nomen dubium; Araneus hirtipes (Fabricius, 1787) nomen dubium; Avicularia ochracea (Perty, 1833) nomen dubium; Avicularia walckenaerii (Perty, 1833) nomen dubium; Avicularia testacea (C. L. Koch, 1841) nomen dubium; Avicularia detrita (C. L. Koch, 1842) nomen dubium; Ischnocolus doleschalli Ausserer, 1871 nomen dubium; Avicularia metallica Ausserer, 1875 nomen dubium; Avicularia rapax (Ausserer, 1875) nomen dubium; Avicularia holmbergi Thorell, 1890 nomen dubium; Avicularia aurantiaca Bauer, 1996 nomen dubium; Avicularia azuraklaasi Tesmoingt, 1996 nomen dubium; Avicularia huriana Tesmoingt, 1996 nomen dubium; Avicularia ulrichea Tesmoingt, 1996 nomen dubium; Avicularia braunshauseni Tesmoingt, 1999 nomen dubium; Avicularia geroldi Tesmoingt, 1999 nomen dubium; Avicularia soratae Strand, 1907 nomen dubium; Avicularia fasciculata Strand, 1907 nomen dubium; Avicularia fasciculata clara Strand, 1907 nomen dubium; and Avicularia surinamensis Strand, 1907 nomen dubium. Avicularia vestiaria (De Geer, 1778) is considered nomen nudum. Keys are provided for identification of all aviculariine genera, as well as to Avicularia, Caribena gen. n., Ybyrapora gen. n. and Antillena gen. n. species. Maps with records and information on species habitat are also presented. Lectotypes are newly designed for A. avicularia, A. variegata stat. n., A. juruensis, C. laeta comb. n., E. affinis comb. n. and a neotype is established for C. versicolor comb. n.

Keywords

Birdspider, Linnaeus, morphology, Mygalomorphae, systematics, tarantula

Introduction

The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 was erected for some species formerly included in Mygale Latreille, 1802. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, was the first mygalomorph species described. Thus, its taxonomic history is extensive. It is also confusing; reflecting the knowledge and history of arachnology throughout the centuries.

The original description of Avicularia is vague (Lamarck 1818), resulting in confusion about which species should be included in the genus. Lamarck (1818) described Avicularia, among other characters, as large spiders, with eight eyes in St. André’s cross format (i. e. in an “X” shape), lacking rastellum on the chelicerae and tarsi with velvet scopulae. Lamarck (1818) also stated that these spiders can be found in cavities on the ground or in trees, and are mostly wandering animals, which do not build permanent retreats unlike the “Mygale” species. He included three species in the genus, in order: Avicularia canceridea (Latreille, 1806); Avicularia blondii (Latreille, 1804); and Avicularia fasciata (Latreille, 1804). Under the name Avicularia canceridea he listed Aranea avicularia, a species described by Linnaeus (1758) in Systema Naturae.

At that time, most mygalomorph spiders were described in the genus Mygale Latreille, 1802. The name Mygale (“les Mygales”, in French) is a non-scientific name used by Walckenaer (Bonnet 1957) to distinguish the “mineuses” and “aviculaires” spiders from the others (Walckenaer 1802). This name was subsequently used by Latreille (1802) to designate a spider genus, and the first species mentioned as an example of a Mygale species was Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758. Olivier (1811) followed Walckenaer’s system, but he only considered in Mygale what he called the “mineuses” spiders. For the “aviculaire” spiders he used the name Aranea. Lamarck (1818) followed Olivier (1811), naming as Mygale only “les Araignées mineuses”; for “le Araignées aviculaires” he erected a new genus, Avicularia. Even after Lamarck (1818) erected Avicularia, many arachnologists continued to use the name Mygale when describing new Avicularia species. From 1833 to 1849, ten Avicularia species were originally described as Mygale: Mygale walckenaerii Perty, 1833; Mygale ochracea Perty, 1833; Mygale versicolor Walckenaer, 1837; Mygale leporina C. L. Koch, 1841; Mygale caesia C. L. Koch, 1842; Mygale detrita C. L. Koch, 1842; Mygale diversipes C. L. Koch, 1842; Mygale laeta C. L. Koch, 1842; Mygale plantaris C. L. Koch, 1842; and Mygale affinis Nicolet, 1849. However, the name Mygale was unavailable; it is a junior homonym of a mammal genus described by Cuvier (1800).

About 50 years later the name Avicularia was used again (Ausserer 1871). Apparently, there was a gradual acceptance of this name together with the awareness that the name Mygale should not be used for spiders. The reluctance in accepting the name Avicularia proposed by Lamarck had cultural foundations. According to Smith (2000a), the name Avicularia is derived from the earlier usage of the word by Linnaeus (1758) when he described the species Aranea avicularia—from the latin avicula, or little bird—plus aria, meaning "which refers to" (Beechhold 1997 apud Smith 2000a). Thorell (1870) explained the genus name as a derivation of avicularium, meaning bird-keeper, but in the signification adopted, bird-catcher. With the name “aviculariaLinnaeus (1758) directly referenced the famous illustration made by Maria Sibylla Merian (1705) in Metamorphosis Insectorum Surinamensium (Smith 2000a), in which she drew a tarantula feeding on a bird (Fig. 1). The German word Vogelspinne is used to refer to spiders of the infraorder Mygalomorphae and translated literally as “bird spider”, which is likely also derived from Merian’s engraving. When Lamarck (1818) erected the new genus, he also mentioned that these spiders could feed on little birds on their nests, perhaps based on Merian’s illustration and explanations. The idea of a bird-eating spider was ridiculed by Langsdorff and others at the time, who considered it a regression to a science full of mythology and legends (Smith 2000a,b). However, now we know that Merian drew a real predation event.

Figures 1–2.

Historical aviculariine drawings. 1 Maria Sybilla Merian’s plate from Metamorphosis insectorum Surinamensium (1705) depicting an Avicularia avicularia eating a bird 2 Clusius’ (1611) drawing of a possible Pachistopelma sp., the oldest known illustration of a tarantula (Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) in the New World.

Even though Avicularia was a nomenclatorally available and valid name, only in 1928 with the publication of Opinion 104 of the International Commission on Zoological Nomeclature (ICZN 1928) was the genus Avicularia included in the Official List of Generic Names. The Direction 67 of this same Commission (ICZN 1957) established that the specific name of the type species of Avicularia is avicularia Linnaeus, 1758 as published in the combination Aranea avicularia.

Some of the most renowned arachnologists have studied the genus throughout the 19th Century and beginning of the 20th Century. Ausserer (1875) described two new species, Avicularia rutilans Ausserer, 1875 from Colombia and Avicularia metallica Ausserer, 1875 from Suriname; Thorell (1890) described Avicularia holmbergi Thorell, 1890 from French Guiana; Simon (1889) described Avicularia velutina Simon, 1889 from Venezuela and few years afterwards, Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891 from Panama (Simon 1891). Some years afterwards, F. O. Pickard-Cambridge (1896) described Avicularia avicularia variegata F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 from Brazil; Pocock (1903) described Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903 from Venezuela; and Strand (1906, 1907abcd) described five more species and one subspecies of the genus—Avicularia subvulpina Strand, 1906, Avicularia exilis Strand, 1907, Avicularia fasciculata Strand, 1907, Avicularia fasciculata clara Strand, 1907 (all from “South America”); Avicularia soratae Strand, 1907 from Bolivia, and Avicularia surinamensis Strand, 1907 from Suriname.

Mello-Leitão studied the genus between 1920–1945. In the revision of Brazilian “theraphosoidea”, Mello-Leitão (1923) described three species: Avicularia ancylochyra Mello-Leitão, 1923; Avicularia bicegoi Mello-Leitão, 1923; and Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923. Some years later he described Avicularia cuminami Mello-Leitão, 1930 and Avicularia pulchra Mello-Leitão, 1933, both from Brazil; Avicularia nigrotaeniata Mello-Leitão 1940, from Guyana; and Avicularia palmicola Mello-Leitão, 1945 also from Brazil (Mello-Leitão 1930, 1933, 1940, 1945). Subsequently, Schiapelli and Gerschman (1945) described a new species from Brazil, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945. Until 1942, Roewer’s Catalog counted 29 species and two subspecies, which were distributed throughout Trinidad, Martinique and Guadeloupe Islands, USA, Puerto Rico, Panama, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia and Brazil (Roewer 1942).

Despite the many authors who have studied the Avicularia species, only a few of them proposed a diagnosis for the genus. Ausserer (1871) was the first to offer a proposal, diagnosing Avicularia as having well-developed tarsal and metatarsal scopula and males with spines on the tibia (likely referring to male tibial apophysis). F. O. Pickard-Cambridge (1896) diagnosed Avicularia as having an “anterior row of eyes strongly procurved”, “legs of first pair shorter than those forth”, and “habits arboreal”. Simon (1903) characterized the genus as having posterior lateral eye smaller than anterior, anterior row of eyes strongly procurved, and males with tibial apophysis oblicuous, obtuse, with small spines. Mello-Leitão (1923) also published a diagnosis for the genus, but it is mainly a Portuguese translation of Simon’s (1903) diagnosis. Valerio (1979) diagnosed the genus as lacking stridulatory apparatus and males presenting medial spur on tibia I.

Over the course of many years, contributions to taxonomy of Avicularia were sparse. A significant alteration occurred only when Raven (1985) considered Eurypelma C. L. Koch, 1850 as a junior synonym of Avicularia. In fact, Thorell (1870) already had considered Eurypelma C. L. Koch as a junior synonym of Avicularia, but apparently this was overlooked by subsequent authors. Eurypelma was an old specious unrevised genus having about 50 species that were transferred to Avicularia at once, significantly raising the number of species in the genus.

However, Raven (1985) did not analyze all the Eurypelma species transferred, only the type species of the genus. Thus, the identity of the species transferred to Avicularia was not checked one by one and the taxonomic confusion was merely transferred and added from Eurypelma to Avicularia. As the general concept of Eurypelma was significantly distinct from Avicularia (since Eurypelma was considered formerly a grammostoline, now theraphosine, genus), it was clear that most of the species should not be included in Avicularia, and a series of transferences took place thereafter. Several species were transferred from Avicularia to Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Schmidt 1993, Smith 1995), to Brachypelma Simon, 1891 (Smith 1993, 1986; Hancock and Hancock 1989) and to Chromatopelma Schmidt, 1995 (Schmidt 1995b). Despite this, several species formerly included in Eurypelma still remained in Avicularia: Avicularia affinis (Nicolet, 1849); Avicularia alticeps (Keyserling, 1878); Avicularia anthracina (C. L. Koch, 1842); Avicularia aymara (Chamberlin, 1916); Avicularia borelli (Simon, 1897); Avicularia diversipes (C. L. Koch, 1842); Avicularia doleschalli (Ausserer, 1871); Avicularia gracilis (Keyserling, 1891); Avicularia guyana (Simon, 1892); Avicularia hirsuta (Ausserer, 1875); Avicularia obscura (Ausserer, 1875); Avicularia ochracea (Perty, 1833); Avicularia panamensis (Simon, 1891); Avicularia parva (Keyserling, 1878); Avicularia plantaris (C. L. Koch, 1842); Avicularia rapax (Ausserer, 1875); and Avicularia tigrina (Pocock, 1903).

In this same work, Raven (1985) synonymized the genus Ancylochirus Mello-Leitão, 1920 with Avicularia and the single species Ancylochirus taunayi Mello-Leitão, 1920 was transferred, making the new combination Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920).

Only in 1990 was a new species of Avicularia described: Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, from Ecuador (Kirk 1990). Since then, many other species were described such as Avicularia urticans Schmidt, 1994, Avicularia aurantiaca Bauer, 1996, and Avicularia azuraklaasi Tesmoingt, 1996, all from Peru (Schmidt 1994; Bauer 1996; Tesmoingt 1996a); Avicularia recifiensis Struchen & Brändle, 1996 and Avicularia ulrichea Tesmoingt, 1996, both from Brazil (Struchen and Brändle 1996; Tesmoingt 1996b); Avicularia huriana Tesmoingt, 1996, from Ecuador (Tesmoingt 1996bc); Avicularia braunshauseni Tesmoingt, 1999 and Avicularia geroldi Tesmoingt, 1999, both also from Brazil (Tesmoingt 1999ab). At the same time, Lucas, Silva & Bertani (1992) transferred Ephebopus violaceus Mello-Leitão, 1930 to Avicularia, making the new combination Avicularia violacea (Mello-Leitão, 1930).

More recently, Avicularia hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006 was described from Ecuador (Bullmer et al. 2006); and two years after, Avicularia violacea (Mello-Leitão, 1930) was transferred to Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871 by West et al. (2008); A. obscura (Ausserer, 1875) was transferred to Ami Pérez-Miles, 2008 (Pérez-Miles et al. 2008) and Gallon (2008) considered the monotypic genus Avicuscodra Strand, 1908 (Strand 1908) as a junior synonym of Avicularia, making the new combination Avicularia arabica (Strand, 1908). In 2009, Avicularia borelli (Simon, 1897) was transferred to Grammostola Simon, 1892 (Theraphosinae) (Gabriel 2009a); Avicularia guyana (Simon, 1892) was transferred to Eupalaestrus Pocock, 1901 (Gabriel 2009b) and Avicularia panamensis was transferred to Sericopelma Ausserer, 1875 (Gabriel 2009b). In this same year, two new species were described from the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil (Bertani and Fukushima 2009): Avicularia sooretama Bertani & Fukushima, 2009 and Avicularia gamba Bertani & Fukushima, 2009. In 2011, after a study of all Avicularia species from Uruguay, Avicularia anthracina (C. L. Koch, 1842) was transferred to Grammostola Simon, 1892 and Avicularia parva was transferred to Catumiri Guadanucci, 2004 by Fukushima et. al (2011). The names Pterinopelma tigrinum Pocock, 1903 and Ischnocolus alticeps Keyserling, 1878, formerly belonging to Avicularia, were considered as nomina dubia (Fukushima et al. 2011).

The last taxonomic changes in the genus were proposed by Bertani (2012), after a revision of three Aviculariinae genera. The author considered Avicularia pulchra Mello-Leitão, 1933 and Avicularia recifiensis Struchen & Brändle, 1996 as junior synonyms of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901, and Avicularia palmicola Mello-Leitão, 1945 as a junior synonym of Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 (Bertani 2012).

The last Avicularia species described was Avicularia rickwesti Bertani & Huff, 2013, a very distinct species endemic of the Dominican Republic (Bertani and Huff 2013).

The most recent diagnosis for the genus was proposed by Gallon (2008). He considered Avicularia close to the genera Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 based on the presence of urticating setae type II on the abdomen. According to Gallon (2008), the males of Avicularia can be distinguished from males of Iridopelma by lacking tibial apophysis on leg II and the females by the absence of lobes on spermathecae. Besides, both sexes of Avicularia would have had leg IV longer than leg I, the opposite of Iridopelma; and both sexes of Avicularia differ from Pachistopelma by having anterior row of eyes strongly procurved, not straight. Also, according to Gallon (2008), only Avicularia, Pachistopelma and Iridopelma would belong to the subfamily Aviculariinae. This idea was contradicted by West et al. (2008) and Bertani (2012), who presented cladistics analyses containing diverse related genera and proposed that subfamily Aviculariinae is more inclusive than proposed by Gallon (2008).

Avicularia species have an arboreal habit, making their silk retreats on vegetation and human structures (Stradling 1994). Studies with A. avicularia pointed out that despite being sedentary, this species has a well-defined pattern of daily activities. During the day, the specimens remain inside their retreats while during the night they emerge to catch their prey (Stradling 1994).

An interesting defense mechanism was observed by Bertani and Marques (1996). They observed that the abdominal urticating setae type II (Cooke et al. 1972) are transferred by direct contact when the spiders are disturbed, and are not expulsed in the air as happens in theraphosines. Type II setae of Avicularia species is stouter than the slender setae of theraphosines, preventing them from being carried by the air (Bertani and Marques 1996). However, some years later, an interesting exception was seen, constituting a case of convergence between aviculariines and theraphosines. Bertani et al. (2003) observed that A. versicolor (Walckenaer, 1837) expulse the urticating setae in a similar way of theraphosines. The type II urticating setae of this particular species are very slender, therefore, they can be carried by air.

Detailed studies on habit, life cycle, and reproduction as well as biogeography and conservation are practically nonexistent. In one of the few ecological studies, Stradling (1994) analyzed the distribution and behavioral ecology of A. avicularia in Trinidad. He carried out this study in the field for 18 months, in an abandoned tonka bean plantation, resulting in the largest ecological dataset on A. avicularia and one of the most detailed studies of aviculariine ecology. Stradling (1994) presented important conclusions about distribution, dispersion, courtship and mating behavior of this species.

A more recent report on the ecology of an Avicularia species was conducted by Maréchal et al. (2009). The authors studied the behavioral ecology and population structure of A. versicolor over several years and suggested that this endemic species from Martinique should be included in the CITES’s list (The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora).

Desco-Derouet and Gros (1972) studied weight increase and linear growth of A. avicularia and concluded that changes in these variables cannot be used to determine sex in juveniles. Dresco-Derouet (1970) published a short note about the development cycle of A. avicularia in captivity. Stradling (1978) also studied the growth and maturation of A. avicularia, but he did it in both laboratory and field conditions, resulting in a more extensive and accurate work.

Regarding applied studies using the Avicularia species as a model, an antifungal peptide from the venom of the A. rufa (misidentified as A. juruensis) was discovered (Ayroza et al. 2012). This peptide, named juruin, lacks haemolytic activity on human erythrocytes at the antimicrobial concentrations and it is very similar to peptides found in Selenocosmia Ausserer, 1871, Chilobrachys Karsch, 1892, and Haplopelma Simon, 1892 species (Ayroza et al. 2012). Juruin has very potent activity against the majority of the fungal and yeast strains, which can be used for development of new drugs and antibiotics (Ayroza et al. 2012).

To date, the genus Avicularia includes 47 species and two subspecies and is recorded from Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Chile as well across the Caribbean archipelago including Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Martinique and Guadeloupe, and Trinidad and Tobago (World Spider Catalog 2016).

Even though the genus has a large number of species and has historical importance, it remains unrevised. To date, only short, taxonomic works were published, with the exception of Bertani and Fukushima (2009), who discussed some aspects of behavior, distribution, and conservation of the Avicularia species. With 31 nomina dubia and three nomina nuda (World Spider Catalog 2016), in addition to the many understudied valid species, it is an urgent task to revise the genus. Thus, the aim of this work is to revise Avicularia and propose a cladistic hypothesis for the genus and its close relatives. Taking into account the historical taxonomic difficulties, poor informative descriptions allied to old or lost type material and the extreme morphological homogeneity of the species, the present work does not intend to solve all the taxonomic problems related to the genus but rather to give a foundation for future and more detailed studies.

An additional difficulty of this work is the existence of relatively few specimens housed in scientific collections and available for taxonomic research. Avicularia is one of the most popular genera in the pet trade, with thousands of specimens spread out all over the world. However, only few specimens from the pet trade are deposited in collections and these are usually lacking locality or other data, therefore restricting their use in taxonomic studies.

Material and methods

Specimens from the following institutions were examined:

American Museum of Natural History, New York (AMNH); The Natural History Museum, London (BMNH); California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco (CAS); Museu do Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade de Brasília, Brasília (DZUB); Instituto Butantan, São Paulo (IBSP); Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (ICN–AR); Museu do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus (INPA); Museu Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Buenos Aires (MACN–AR); Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (MCP); Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge (MCZ); Instituto de Zoologia, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay (MIZA); Muséum National d’histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN–AR); Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ); Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém (MPEG); Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima (MUSM–ENT); Museum Wiesbaden (Naturwissenschaftliche Sammlung), Wiesbaden (MWNH); Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (MZUSP); Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Frankfurt (SMF); Museo de Entomologia Klaus Raven Büller, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima (UA); Museum of Evolution, University of Uppsala, Uppsala (UUZM); Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität, Berlin (ZMB); and Museu de Zoologia da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (ZUEC).

The AMNH and CAS collections do not assign numbers to specimens or sets. Thus, in order to individualize and facilitate localization of the specimens by subsequent researchers, we gave informal codes and numbers after Museum acronyms.

The general description format follows Raven (2005), with modifications, mainly of setae and thrichobothria patterns, which were not, herein, studied in detail. All the measurements are in millimeters (mm). A stereomicroscope Leica M205C and a microscope Leica DM2500, both with a DFC 450 camera attached, combined with Leica LAS Montage and LAS 3D modules, were used to obtain images and measurements of small body parts and urticating setae, respectively. Large body parts as leg articles and carapace were measured with a digital Mitutoyo callipter with an error of 0.005, rounded up to two significant decimals. The measurements of legs and palps were taken on the dorsal aspect of the left side, unless appendages were lost, damaged, or obviously regenerated. Structures of the left side of the specimens were chosen for descriptions. When using structures of the right side, the figures were mirrored to show them as of the left side and allow for easy comparison. A Scanning Electron Microscope JEOL JSM840A from Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica of Instituto de Física of Universidade de São Paulo (USP) was used to obtain microphotographs. Male palpal bulb terminology follows Bertani (2000). Urticating setae terminology follows Cooke et al. (1972). Geographical coordinates: primary sources are between round brackets, and secondary sources obtained with Google Earth™, between square brackets. The coordinates from the secondary source were obtained from the center of the municipality cited in the specimen label and are in DMS (Degrees, Minutes, and Seconds), with format rounded off to minutes. Maps were made with SimpleMappr, an online tool to produce maps (Shorthouse 2010). Abbreviations: ALE = anterior lateral eye; AME = anterior median eye; CI = consistence index; ITC = inferior tarsal claw; L = length; PLE = posterior lateral eye; PLS = posterior lateral spinneret; PME = posterior median eye; PMS = posterior median spinneret; RI = retention index; and STC = superior tarsal claws. Missing leg articles are indicated by “–” in descriptions.

Cladistic analysis

A data matrix with 46 taxa and 71 characters (Table 1) was analyzed with two programs using equal (Nona 2.0 for Windows (Goloboff 1998)) and implied character weighting (Piwe 3.0 for Windows (Goloboff 1997)). For Piwe, concavities from 1 to 6 were used. All characters were treated as unordered. Commands used to search for trees were h10000, h/1000, amb-, mult*500. Absolute and relative Bremer supports (Bremer 1994) were estimated in Piwe using the following command: h1000, find*, bsupport50, bsupport*.

Data matrix showing the distribution of character states in cladistic analysis. (?= unknown, - = non-applicable; both codification treated as missing data).

Taxon \ Character 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35
M. santuario 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
H. rondoni 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Pterinochilus sp. 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
P. muticus 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Haplopelma sp. 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 - - -
Phlogiellus sp. 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Lasiodora sp. 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 - -
P. vulpinus 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 - -
Poecilotheria sp. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 - - -
E. olivacea 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 1 - - - -
Stromatopelma sp. 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
H. maculata 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Psalmopoeus sp. 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Tapinauchenius sp. 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
E. murinus 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 - 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
E. uatuman 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 - 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
T. seladonia 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
T. amma 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 ? ? ? ? ? 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
T. costae 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
T. curumim 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 4 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
T. paschoali 0 ? 0 0 1 0 ? 0 1 2 ? 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 5 - 0 1 ? 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
P. rufonigrum 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
P. bromelicola 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
I. hirsutum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 5 - 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
I. zorodes 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 5 - 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
I. vanini 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ? ? - ? ? 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
I. katiae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 - 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
I. oliveirai 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 5 - ? ? 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
I. marcoi 0 ? 0 0 0 0 ? 0 1 2 ? 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ? ? - ? ? ? 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
C. laeta comb. n. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
C. versicolor comb. n. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Y. sooretama comb. n. 0 0 0 0 0 ? 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 6 - 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Y. gamba comb. n. 0 0 0 0 0 ? 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 6 - 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Y. diversipes comb. n. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 6 - 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
A. rickwesti comb. n. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 5 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - -
A. avicularia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ? 0 1 4 2 0 1 0 1 ? 0 0 0 0 0
A. variegata stat. n. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ? 0 1 4 2 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0
A. taunayi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 4 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
A. juruensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ? 0 1 4 2 0 1 0 ? ? 0 0 0 1 0
A. rufa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 4 2 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
A. purpurea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
A. merianae sp. n. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 4 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
A. hirschii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 7 - 0 1 ? 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
A. minatrix 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
A. lynnae sp. n. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ? ? ? ? ? 1 ? 0 ? ? ? ? ?
A. caei sp. n. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ? ? ? ? ? 0 ? 0 ? ? ? ? ?
Taxon \ Character 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
M. santuario ? 0 0 - - 0 0 0 0 - 2 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 - - 0 0 0 0 0 0 -
H. rondoni 0 0 0 - - 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 - - 0 0 0 0 0 3 -
Pterinochilus sp. 0 0 0 - - 1 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 1 - 0 0 0 - - 0 0 0 2 1 3 -
P. muticus 0 0 0 - - 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 - - 0 0 0 - - 0 0 0 0 0 3 -
Haplopelma sp. 0 - 0 - - 1 1 1 0 - 0 1 2 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 - - 0 0 0 1 1 3 -
Phlogiellus sp. 0 0 0 - - 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 1 - - 0 0 0 - - 0 0 0 1 1 3 -
Lasiodora sp. 0 - 0 - - 0 1 1 0 - 1 1 1 0 0 - 1 1 1 1 0 0 - 0 1 0 - - 1 0 0 1 1 3 -
P. vulpinus 0 - 0 - - 0 1 1 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 - 1 1 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 - - 1 1 0 2 2 3 -
Poecilotheria sp. 0 - 0 - - 1 0 0 0 - 1 1 0 0 0 - 1 1 1 0 1 - - 0 0 0 - - 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
E. olivacea - - 0 - - 1 0 0 ? ? 0 1 2 0 0 - 1 1 0 0 1 - - 0 0 0 - - 0 0 0 1 1 1 ?
Stromatopelma sp. 0 0 0 - - 1 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 1 - - 0 0 0 - - 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
H. maculata 0 0 0 - - 1 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 1 - - 0 0 0 - - 0 0 0 1 0 1 0
Psalmopoeus sp. 0 0 0 - - 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 - - 0 0 0 1 1 2 -
Tapinauchenius sp. 0 0 0 - - 1 0 0 0 - 2 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 - - 0 0 0 1 1 2 -
E. murinus 0 0 0 - - 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 - - 0 0 1 2 2 3 -
E. uatuman 0 0 0 - - 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 - - 0 0 1 1 1 3 -
T. seladonia ? 0 0 - - 1 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 - - 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2
T. amma 0 1 0 - - 1 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 - - 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 ?
T. costae 0 0 0 - - 1 1 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 - - 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 ?
T. curumim 0 0 0 - - 1 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 - - 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2
T. paschoali 0 0 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 ? 1 ? ?
P. rufonigrum 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 - 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3
P. bromelicola 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 - 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3
I. hirsutum 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1
I. zorodes 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
I. vanini 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 - 2 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 ?
I. katiae 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 - 2 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 3
I. oliveirai 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 ?
I. marcoi 0 0 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0 ? 1 - 0 0 0 ? 1 1 ?
C. laeta comb. n. 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 - 2 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
C. versicolor comb. n. 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
Y. sooretama comb. n. 2 1 0 - - 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 - - 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1
Y. gamba comb. n. 2 1 0 - - 1 0 0 0 - 2 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 - - 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
Y. diversipes comb. n. 2 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 - 3 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 - - 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
A. rickwesti comb. n. 0 - 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 - 1 0 2 0 1 2 1 1 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
A. avicularia 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
A. variegata stat. n. 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 2 2 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
A. taunayi 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
A. juruensis 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 2 2 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
A. rufa 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Taxon \ Character 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
A. purpurea 1 1 0 - - 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
A. merianae sp. n. 1 1 0 - - 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 ?
A. hirschii 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 - - 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0
A. minatrix 0 1 0 - - 1 0 0 0 - 2 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 - - 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
A. lynnae sp. n. ? ? 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 3 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 - - 0 0 1 ? 0 0 0 0 1 ? 1 ?
A. caei sp. n. ? ? 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 - - 0 0 1 ? 0 0 0 0 1 ? ? ?

In the cladistic analyses, representative species were included of seven of the eight theraphosid subfamilies recognized by Raven (1985), as well as species of all aviculariine genera and other available arboreal taxa with uncertain position, e.g., Poecilotheria Simon, 1885, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, and Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, in order to test Aviculariinae monophyly. Melloina santuario Bertani, 2013 (Paratropididae) was used to root the cladogram. The choice of this genus was done based on two considerations: paratropidids were at the beginning of this study considered as the sister-group of Theraphosidae in morphological analysis (Raven 1985), and Melloina is the paratropidid genus which retains more plesiomorphic characters shared with the Theraphosidae (Raven 1985). However, recent molecular analyses indicate Barychelidae as the sister-group of Theraphosidae (Bond et al. 2012, Hamilton et al. 2016, Garrison et al. 2016, Wheeler et al. 2016), so future studies should aim to include more taxa based on molecular analyses. The ingroup specimens used in cladistics analysis are those used in the descriptions. Specimens used as outgroups are: Paratropididae, Glabropelmatinae: Melloina santuario Bertani, 2013, holotype male (MIZA 520) and paratype female (MNRJ 12965), both from Venezuela, Lara, Cueva El Santuario [9°49'N, 70°03'W], O. Villarreal col., 19 April 2000. Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae: Ephebopus murinus (Walckenaer, 1837), male (IBSP 9650) and female (IBSP 9658), Brazil, state of Pará, Tucuruí, U.H.E. Tucuruí, [4°20'S, 49°31'W], Equipe de Resgate de Fauna col., 1984; Ephebopus uatuman Lucas, Silva & Bertani, 1992, male holotype (IBSP 4939) and paratype female (IBSP 4940), Brazil, state of Amazonas, Presidente Figueiredo [2°02'S, 60°01'W], Uatuman River, Balbina Hydroelectric Power Station, M. Costa col., 19 February 1988; Heteroscodra maculata Pocock, 1899, male, Africa, pet trade (IBSP 9642); female, Guinea-Bissau, pet trade (IBSP 9644); Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901, male, Brazil, state of Paraíba, João Pessoa [7°07'S, 34°52'W], P. F. L. Duarte col., 30 November 1979 (IBSP 8078); female, Brazil, state of Alagoas, Murici, E. E. Murici, UFAL (09°14'1.73"S, 35°50'1.61"W), R. Bertani, D. R. M. Ortega and R. H. Nagahama col., 16 August 2006 (MNRJ 06252); Iridopelma katiae Bertani, 2012, holotype female, Brazil, state of Bahia, Mucugê, Parque Nacional da Chapada Diamantina (12°45'7.00"S, 41°30'2.18"W), 1399 m a.s.l., R. Bertani, C. S. Fukushima and R. H. Nagahama col., 18 February 2008 (MZUSP 36887) and paratype male, same data, (12°45'3.77"S, 41°30'4.01"W), 1377 m a.s.l., R. Bertani, C. S. Fukushima and R. H. Nagahama col., 17 February 2008 (MZUSP 36888); Iridopelma marcoi Bertani, 2012, holotype female, Brazil, state of Bahia, São Desidério (12°28'52"S, 45°09'10"W), 724 m a.s.l, M. A. Freitas col., October 2009, under tree bark, 1 m above the ground, area of carrasco vegetation (MZUSP 36891); Iridopelma oliveirai Bertani, 2012, holotype male, Brazil, state of Bahia, Central, Toca dos Pilões [11°08'S, 42°06'W], A. D. Brescovit col., July 2000 (IBSP 10100) and paratype female, at night in “Macambira” bromeliad (Bromelia laciniosa), same data (IBSP 8714); Iridopelma vanini Bertani, 2012, holotype female, Brazil, state of Piauí, Parnaíba [2°53'S, 41°41'W], 5 m a.s.l., R. Bertani col., November 1994 (IBSP Ref. 74.595) and paratype male, Brazil, state of Maranhão, Barreirinhas, Parque Nacional dos Lençóis Maranhenses [2°41'S, 42°55'W), 32 m a.s.l., Equipe Biota col., 12–18 October 2001 (IBSP 11328); Iridopelma zorodes (Mello-Leitão, 1926), male, Brazil, state of Bahia, Mata de São João, RPPN Camurujipe, in a leaf at night, R. Bertani, C. S. Fukushima and R. H. Nagahama col., 04 October 2007 (MNRJ 6254); female, Brazil, state of Sergipe, Areia Branca, Mosqueiro, I. Matos col., 01 November 1992, ref. 79901 (IBSP 11760); Pachistopelma bromelicola Bertani, 2012, holotype male, Brazil, state of Bahia, Elísio Medrado, RPPN Jequitibá (12°52'3.20"S, 39°28'9.09"W), R. Bertani, C. S. Fukushima and R. H. Nagahama col., 07 October 2007, collected at night, found immature inside bromeliads, matured in captivity in May 2010 (MNRJ 06241) and paratype female, same data (MNRJ 06242); Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901, male and female, Brazil, state of Alagoas, Murici, Estação Ecológica de Murici (9°14'9.52"S, 35°48'0.25"W), 245 m a.s.l., R. Bertani, R. H. Nagahama and D. R. M. Ortega col., 11 August 2006 (MNRJ 6246 AL1100); Psalmopoeus cambridgei Pocock, 1895, male, Trinidad-Tobago, pet trade (IBSP 9653); Psalmopoeus sp., female, Venezuela, pet trade (IBSP 9655); Stromatopelma sp., male, Sierra Leone, pet trade (IBSP 9665); female, Africa, pet trade (IBSP 11136); Tapinauchenius violaceus (Mello-Leitão, 1930), holotype female of T. purpureus Schmidt, 1995 (SMF 38042) and paratype male of T. purpureus Schmidt, 1995, French Guiana (SMF 38046); Typhochlaena amma Bertani, 2012, holotype female, Brazil, state of Espírito Santo, Santa Teresa, Estação Ecológica de Santa Lúcia [19°58'S, 40°32'W], 672 m a.s.l, A. P. L. Giupponi col., February 2008 (MNRJ 06239) and paratype male, same locality, no further data (MNRJ 12926); Typhochlaena costae Bertani, 2012, holotype female, Brazil, state of Tocantins, Palmas, U.H.E. Luís Eduardo Magalhães [10°12'S, 48°24'W], 211 m a.s.l, during faunal rescuing, M. Costa and D. Cândido col., 12 January 2002 (IBSP unnumbered) and paratype male, Brazil, Tocantins, Lajeado (9°46'4.85"S, 48°21'6.69"W), 226 m a.s.l, G. Puorto, R. Martins and I. Knysak col. (pitfall trap), April 2002 (IBSP unnumbered); Typhochlaena curumim Bertani, 2012, holotype female, Brazil, state of Paraíba, Areia, Reserva Ecológica Estadual Mata do Pau-Ferro [6°58'S, 35°42'W], 500 m a.s.l., under tree bark, A. D. Brescovit, R. Bertani, A. B. Bonaldo and S. C. Dias col., September 1999 (IBSP 8701) and paratype female (IBSP 8354), same data; male, Brazil, state of Rio Grande do Norte, Baía Formosa, lying over a leaf in a bush at night, S. N. Migliore col., 19 April 2014, S90 (MNRJ 06915); Typhochlaena paschoali Bertani, 2012, holotype female and immature paratype, Brazil, state of Bahia, Camacan [15°24'S, 39°30'W], no further data (MNRJ 13723); paratypes 1 female, 1 subadult male, 9 immatures, Brazil, state of Bahia, Jussari [15°10'S, 39°29'W], no further data (MNRJ 12928 – R2981); Typhochlaena seladonia (C. L. Koch, 1841), 1 male, 1 female exuvium, Brazil, state of Bahia, Camaçari, Jacuipe [12°42'S, 38°07'W], T. Brazil ded., August 1980 (IBSP 4551); 1 female, Brazil, state of Bahia, Salvador, Alphaville [12°56'S, 38°21'W], G. G. Montingelli col., 11 December 2001 (IBSP 109718); Eumenophorinae: Pelinobius muticus Karsch, 1885, male (IBSP 8530), female (IBSP 9643), both from Kenya, born in captivity; Harpactirinae: Pterinochilus sp., male, Angola, Biula-Dala [11°10'S, 20°12'E] (IBSP 9647); female, Africa, pet trade (IBSP 8765); Ischnocolinae: Holothele rondoni (Lucas & Bücherl, 1972), holotype male and paratype female, Brazil, state of Amazonas, Iauaretê [0°36'N, 69°11'W] (IBSP 4090); Ornithoctoninae: Haplopelma longipes von Wirth & Striffler, 2005, male, Cambodia, Skuon [1°33'N, 104°55'E], A. Anderson col., 10 July 2003 (MZUSP 28761); Haplopelma minax (Thorell, 1897), female, Thailand, 1 mi east of Bangkok [13°43'N, 100°31'E] (IBSP 9645); Selenocosmiinae: Phlogiellus sp, male, Vietnam, R. Blauman col., April 1989 (MZUSP 28762); female (AMNH), pet trade; Poecilotheria sp., male, India, pet trade (IBSP 9660); Poecilotheria ornata Pocock, 1899, female, Sri Lanka, pet trade (IBSP 8767); Theraphosinae: Phrixotrichus vulpinus (Karsch, 1880), 3 males, Chile (IBSP 3817–A); 1 female, Chile, Osorno [40°34'S, 73°09'W] (IBSP 3817–B); Lasiodora sp., male, Brazil, state of Paraíba, João Pessoa [7°07'S, 34°52'W] (IBSP 11143); female, Brazil, state of Pernambuco, Jaboatão dos Guararapes [8°06'S, 35°00'W], Conjunto Murebeca (IBSP 10293); Subfamily Incertae sedis: Encyocratella olivacea Strand, 1907, holotype female, Tanzania, Amani (05°09'S, 38°36'E), Vosseler leg., November 1903 (ZMB 10484); male, Tanzania, mountains near Arusha (03°23'S, 36°40'E) wild caught, reared to maturity, 2004 (BMNH); female holotype and 2 females paratypes of Xenodendrophila gabrieli Gallon, 2003, northern Tanzania, mountains near Arusha (03°23'S, 36°40'E), Joe Beraducci leg., circa April 1999 (BMNH 2005.123).

In the cladistic analyses we used the characters proposed by West et al. (2008), Bertani (2012), and 15 new characters. Forty characters (0–3, 5–18, 20–22, 31–33, 41, 43, 47–48, 52–57, 60–61, 64–66, and 69–70) are the same used by West et al. (2008) or were slightly modified here. Ten characters (4, 19, 23, 26, 35, 37–38, 59, 67 and 68) are strictly the same used by Bertani (2012). Characters 24, 44–46 and 50 were adapted from that work. The newly introduced characters are 25, 27–30, 34, 36, 39–40, 42, 49, 51, 58, 62–63. In characters marked with an asterisk (*, viz 7–8, 14, 20, 31, 60 and 65) fit and steps are not given as the character is not significant to the analyses but were kept to indicate autapomorphies for terminal taxa.

Character coding is always challenging, especially regarding problems concerning “part” coding (e.g., presence of tibial apophysis) versus “character-variable” coding (e.g., development of tibial apophysis). We decided to code “part” characters separately from its “character-variable” characters to preserve transformational independence between them, assuring that primary homology statements of both characters were included in the analyses (Lee and Bryant 1999). Fusing coding results in a loss of phylogenetic information and also in the determination of taxa synapomorphies by others characters (Lee and Bryant 1999). The characters that were splited are: 8/9, 11/12, 24/25, 31/32, 44/45, 56/57/58, 61/62, and 61/63.

Theraphosids are notorious for their morphological homogeneity (Bertani 2001). Due to this, it is extremely difficult to find characters suitable for taxonomy and cladistics. In order to find new characters, we have tried many approaches. We took measurements of leg and palp articles such as tibia, metatarsi and femora, and established ratios between them and ratios between one of these articles and the carapace. We also calculated the ratio between the length of tibial apophysis and tibia. Unfortunately, all results were not significant enough to be used in the analyses. Measurements of male palpal bulb, such as the ratio between the length of embolus and carapace, showed the same problems. Besides this, the morphology of the Aviculariinae male palpal bulb is a problem per se. It is very difficult to position the specimen in order to make reliable and replicable embolus measurements.

Another feature we have tried to use is the length of type II urticating setae. Some species, such as A. hirschii, A. minatrix, A. taunayi, Y. sooretama comb. n. and Y. gamba comb. n., apparently have unusual urticating setae length. However, we could not confirm this suspicion since we have just one or two specimens of those species. Thus, it was impossible to determine the intraspecific length variation and establish a reliable length range for each species. Beside setae length, another urticating setae feature that could be used is the distribution of barbs along setae in females (Figs 16–17). Usually, females present barbs only in a short area near hair stalk (Stradling 1978). In contrast, morphotype 5 of A. avicularia presents barbs along 1/3 of the seta length (Fig. 17). However, since we have only three immature females, it is not possible to state if that is a typical feature of the morphotype population.

Thus, after trying different attempts and approaches, we consider the following characters suitable to be used:

0. Anterior row of eyes: (0) procurved (Fig. 13), (1) straight (Fig. 12).

1. Clypeus: (0) absent or narrow; (1) present, wide.

West et al. (2008) and Bertani (2012) used three states for this character: “absent”, “narrow” and “wide”. Herein, we consider that the states “absent” and “narrow” should be merged due to difficulty in establishing limits between them. The state “wide”, on the other hand, is easily distinguishable.

2. Fovea, closure: (0) slit like; (1) pit like.

3. Labial cuspules, number: (0) 30300; (1) 020; (2) 350450.

4. Sternum, shape: (0) longer than wide, not truncated behind (Fig. 9); (1) as long as wide, truncated behind (Fig. 7).

5. Sigilla, posterior pair, position: (0) marginal, less than 1.5 diameters from margin; (1) close to the center, more than 2 diameters from margin.

6. Setae on metatarsi and tibia IIV, length, males: (0) same length as other articles (Fig. 299); (1) longer setae laterally projected, forming a brush (Fig. 301).

7. Scopulae on metatarsi IV, division: (0) divided by setae or spiniform setae; (1) not divided.*

8. Tarsal scopulae, occurrence: (0) no true scopula; (1) true scopula.*

9. Tarsal scopulae, setae development: (0) scopula composed of sparse setae; (1) dense scopula that does not extend much laterally; (2) scopula very extensive laterally, giving the tarsi and metatarsi I and II a spatulate appearance (Figs 299–301).

10. Tarsi IV, division, males: (0) cracked; (1) integral.

11. Leg spines, occurrence: (0) present; (1) absent.

12. Leg spines, distribution: (0) in whole tibiae and/or metatarsi; (1) only in ventral apical tibiae and/or metatarsi.

13. Palpal femora, scopula on retrolateral face, occurrence: (0) absent, (1) present.

14. Femora IV, scopulae on retrolateral face, occurrence: (0) absent; (1) present.*

15. Chelicerae, scopulae on retrolateral face, occurrence: (0) absent, (1) present.

16. Maxillae, spiniform setae on lower prolateral face: (0) absent, (1) present.

17. Stridulatory bristles form maxillae lyra: (0) absent, (1) present (Fig. 11).

18. Stridulatory bristles on coxae I, occurrence: (0) absent, (1) present.

19. Posterior lateral spinnerets, distal article, shape: (0) digitiform (Fig. 10); (1) domed (Fig. 8).

20. Patellae and tibia, stripes, color: (0) same color of the rest of the segment, (1) white.*

21. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi, coloration: (0) same color of the rest of the segment, (1) white (Fig. 299), (2), yellow or orange (Fig. 300).

Avicularia avicularia and A. variegata stat. n. have morphotypes with different colors of leg rings. Due to this intraespecific variability, these two taxa were coded as “?” in the matrix.

22. Tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi, dorsal coloration: (0) homogeneous color, (1) with black marking (Fig. 5).

23. Color pattern, ontogenetic change: (0) pattern remains practically the same during ontogeny; (1) pattern presents drastic changes during ontogeny.

Most outgroup species have only slight variations in the general color and abdominal pattern during their ontogeny. We consider a drastic change when legs, carapace, and abdomen change their color during ontogeny. Most aviculariines have abdomen dorsum pattern with stripes in their early life stages, losing it when reaching maturity, which is, herein, considered as state 1. Other species, such as Ephebopus murinus, despite not having heterogeneous abdominal pattern during all ontogeny, have some conspicuous changes: immatures have light brown legs with black tarsi and black carapace, while adults have black legs with very conspicuous white stripes and light brown carapace. This condition is also considered as a drastic change and codified as “1”.

24. Dorsal abdominal pattern in immatures (see figures in Bertani 2012): (0) homogeneous; (1) herringbone; (2) with a zigzag central longitudinal dark stripe over a clear spot, which is marginated in black and connects to five narrow transversal black stripes; (3) two median dorso-lateral spots; (4) central longitudinal black stripe with 56 lateral stripes, connecting or not with the central stripe (Fig. 37); (5) leaf pattern: black with a large central clear area having a longitudinal dark stripe, area closer to longitudinal dark stripe usually reddish; (6) central longitudinal reddish stripe inside a dark area with zigzag borders connected to transverse dark stripes (Fig. 295); (7) longitudinal central stripe of a different color of remaining abdomen (Fig. 184).

Character modified from Bertani (2012). A new state was added (state 7), which was applied here only to A. hirschii. State 4 is present in most Avicularia species. This abdominal stripped pattern is also spread over the subfamily. It can also be found in Caribena gen. n. species, in both Pachistopelma species, in T. curumim, T. costae and T. seladonia as well as Tapinauchenius sp. and Psalmopoeus sp.

25. Abdominal pattern, immatures, central longitudinal stripe, connection with lateral stripes: (0) connected with all lateral stripes (Fig. 167); (1) connected only with first and second lateral pair of stripes (Fig. 101); (2) disconnected from lateral stripes (Fig. 44).

In species with abdominal pattern corresponding to state 4 of character 24, the central longitudinal black stripe can connect or not with the lateral stripes. State 0 is found in many Aviculariinae species such as A. purpurea and A. minatrix as well as in C. versicolor comb. n., T. costae, T. seladonia, P. bromelicola, Tapinauchenius sp. and Psalmopoeus sp. State 1 is found only in two Avicularia species from the early stages: A. merianae sp. n. and A. taunayi. Central stripe disconnected from lateral stripes (state 2) can be found in A. rufa, A. juruensis, A. variegata stat. n. and A. avicularia, as well as in C. laeta comb. n., T. curumim and in P. rufonigrum.

26. Body coloration, juveniles: (0) brownish or grayish (Fig. 44); (1) metallic green or blue (Fig. 239).

27. Tarsi, coloration, juveniles: (0) same color of other articles (Fig. 167); (1) black (Fig. 44).

Black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles in legs and palpi are present in juveniles of some Tapinauchenius and Ephebopus species. It also occurs in all Avicularia species with known immature stages (except A. purpurea) as well as in I. katiae and T. paschoali. Since Psalmopoeus sp. has black tarsi contrasting with clear metatarsi, it was codified as state 1 despite most articles having a dark color. Typhochlaena curumim has black tarsi and metatarsi; but as the other articles are lighter and there is a strong contrast between them, it is considered as having state 1.

28. Dorsal abdominal pattern, single dorsal stripe, male, occurrence: (0) absent (Fig. 43); (1) present (Fig. 297).

Males of Y. sooretama comb. n., Y. gamba comb. n., A. lynnae sp. n., and I. hirsutum have a single dorsal central stripe on abdomen dorsum. This pattern is very distinct from those found in females of these same species and also very distinct from patterns commonly found in other aviculariine males. Patterns other than dorsal central stripe were all codified as state 0. Avicularia hirschii is coded as “?” since the holotype, the single known male, has the abdomen in poor condition. The description also does not allow us to recognize its abdominal pattern.

29. Abdominal setae, distribution, females: (0) homogeneous (Fig. 304); (1) heterogeneous, with long guard-setae grouped on lateral and dorso anterior areas (Figs 302–303).

Presence of long guard-setae grouped on lateral and dorsal anterior areas of the abdomen is a characteristic found only in females of A. avicularia, A. rufa, A. juruensis and A. variegata stat. n. These longer guard-setae have different coloration from the shorter body setae found on remaining abdominal areas. In males, the distribution pattern is homogeneous, with long guard-setae spread all over the dorsal abdomen.

This character is coded “?” in A. juruensis since each morphotype has a different type of abdominal setae pattern.

30. Legs and palp, long guard-setae, coloration: (0) setae with homogeneous coloration or gradually lightening along its length (Fig. 299); (1) setae with darker base and contrasting whitish apex (grizzled setae) (Fig. 300).

Theraphosid spiders have two main covering setae types in legs and pedipalps; the short setae that densely covers most of the article area, providing a velvety aspect, is known as short body setae (Foelix 2010). The other type is the very long tactile setae, which presents insertion into a socket, allowing them to move, and is more spaced out among each other; this is known as guard-setae (Foelix 2010). These long setae are normally homogeneously dark or present a gradual lightening toward apex. But, in some species, these setae are dark and present a contrasting whitish apex.

All examined outgroup taxa have setae with homogeneous coloration along its length. In the ingroup, some species such as A. avicularia, A. rufa, A. juruensis and A. variegata stat. n. have the long setae with a contrasting whitish apex, giving a grizzled body aspect (Fig. 300). However, this character is coded “?” in A. juruensis and A. avicularia since some morphotypes (morphotypes 1 and 3 for A. juruensis and morphotypes 1, 2, 4, and 5 for A. avicularia) have homogeneous coloration along most of the guard-setae.

31. Spermathecae, occurrence: (0) present; (1) absent.*

32. Spermathecae, number: (0) two, completely separated (Fig. 14), (1), two, fused at base; (2) one, totally fused.

33. Spermathecae, walls, shape: (0) without projections or lobes (Fig. 21); (1) with projections or lobes (Fig. 91).

Of the several specimens of A. rufa, A. juruensis, A. avicularia, and A. variegata stat. n. examined, a few specimens have one or more discrete lobes in the spermathecae. We consider them an extreme morphological variation, as the typical spermathecae of those species lack any type of lobes.

Caribena laeta comb. n. spermathecae have a slight intumescence in their apex (Figs 227–229). It is not a well-defined lobe as in other taxa, such as Y. sooretama comb. n. (Fig. 257) or in A. taunayi (Figs 91–92). Due to this, we considered C. laeta comb. n. as having state 0. State 1 is widespread among theraphosid genera.

34. Spermathecae, midwidth: (0) as wide as its base, or midwidth more slender than the base width but wider than apex width (Fig. 21); (1) midwidth expanded, about 1.5 times its basal and apical portion widths, or wider (Fig. 54).

We consider the spermathecae with midwidth expanded when this region is 1.5 times or more wider than both apex and base widths. Spermathecae of A. variegata stat. n. (Fig. 54) and A. juruensis (Fig. 106) clearly have state 1. In other aviculariine species, it is also possible to recognize this pattern despite their unusual spermathecae morphology, as in spermathecae with lobes in A. taunyai (Fig. 91). Spermathecae midwidth of Y. sooretama comb. n., Y. gamba comb. n. and A. merianae sp. n. are slightly wider than their bases’ width, but not enough to consider them as state 1.

In other taxa such as Haplopelma sp., Poecilotheria sp., Lasiodora sp., P. vulpinus and A. rickwesti comb. n., spermathecae (Fig. 284) are very modified or completely fused. In these cases we consider the character inapplicable.

35. Spermathecae, shape: (0) non-spiraled or not-twisted (Fig. 21); (1) twisted or spiraled (Fig. 183).

36. Spermathecae, weakly-sclerotized area, size: (0) weakly-developed or shorter than half the length of the well-sclerotized area (Fig. 21); (1) twice the length or the same length of the well-sclerotized area (Fig. 154); (2) spermatheca virtually non-sclerotized (Figs 257–259).

In some species, the spermathecae have a weakly-sclerotized basal portion, lighter and softer than the more sclerotized distal area, and without large visible pores. As this weakly-sclerotized area is barely present in most outgroup species, we consider them as having state 0. State 1 is found only in A. purpurea (Fig. 154) and A. merianae sp. n. (Fig. 196). All three species of Ybyrapora gen. n. have spermathecae with a very small sclerotization degree, even in adult females (Figs 257–259), and they were coded as state 2. Melloina santuario and T. seladonia have spermathecae virtually non-sclerotized, very similar to Ybyrapora gen. n. spermathecae. However, we know a single female of each species, both very small in size, in which the non-sclerotized spermathecae condition may be due to a not fully mature life stage. Thus, we decided to code both species in matrix as “?”.

37. Spermathecae, curvature: (0) straight or almost so, curved inward (Fig. 14); (1) with an accentuated outwards curvature medially (Fig. 21).

38. Cymbium, process in retrolateral lobe, occurrence: (0) absent or very weakly-developed (Figs 162, 305); (1) present, well-developed (Figs 306–307).

The presence of a process on the cymbium was considered by Raven (1985) a synapomorphy of Aviculariinae. However, more recent analyses showed that the structure is lacking in many Aviculariinae genera (West et al. 2008, Bertani 2012). Despite this, the character is informative and was studied in detail, herein. The process is a projection on the apical area of cymbium retrolateral lobes (Figs 306–307) and shows a considerable level of interspecific variation in size, shape, and associated setae. If on one hand this variation provides more information for cladistic analysis, on the other hand sometimes is difficult to establish limits for the states. We consider the process well-developed only when there is a clear and well-defined projection in the cymbium lobes (Figs 306–307). If there is a small bump without clear delimitation on cymbium retrolateral area, it was considered a very weakly-developed process, or state 0 (Figs 162, 305). We consider that Pachistopelma spp., Iridopelma spp., Caribena gen. n. spp., Y. diversipes comb. n., A. rickwesti comb. n., A. avicularia, A. rufa, A. juruensis, A. variegata stat. n. and A. taunayi have well-developed process (state 1).

39. Cymbium, setae covering the retrolateral process, thickness: (0) thin (Fig. 306); (1) thick (Fig. 307).

Thin setae covering the retrolateral process are found both in some Avicularia species as A. hirschii, A. lynnae sp. n. and A. caei sp. n., as well as in species of Caribena gen. n. and in Pachistopelma species.

40. Cymbium, process in retrolateral lobe, shape: (0) rounded (Fig. 307); (1) sharp (Fig. 306).

The apex of the process on retrolateral lobe is usually rounded, except in both species of Caribena gen. n., in which the process apex is sharp.

41. Cymbium, prolateral lobe, shape: (0) rounded; (1) subtriangular.

42. Tegulum, format: (0) globous (Fig. 29); (1) piriform (Fig. 320).

We detected two distinct tegula shapes. The globous tegulum is short, narrowing abruptly and giving origin to a slender embolus since its beginning. The pyriform tegulum is longer and tapers to form the embolus.

All Aviculariinae possess globous tegulum, except T. costae.

43. Subtegulum, length: (0) small; (1) large, extending down the bulb for half of the tegulum.

44. Palpal bulb, prominence on tegulum (frontal view), occurrence: (0) absent (Fig. 312); (1) present (Figs 313–315).

The tegula of some species have a groove in its prolateral side, which forms a prominence near it (Bertani 2012). This prominence can be better seen in frontal view (Figs 313–315). Presence of a prominence is shared by all Avicularia species except A. minatrix and also in species of Holothele, Pelinobius, Phlogiellus, Ephebopus, and Psalmopoeus. In other aviculariine species this groove is lacking and the tegulum prolateral area is rounded. This state (0) is found in species of Iridopelma, Pachistopelma, Typhochlaena (except T. seladonia), Ybyrapora gen. n. (except in Y. sooretama comb. n.), C. laeta comb. n. and A. rickwesti comb. n. Encyocratela olivacea is coded as “?” since this character was included after the specimen examination and we could not re-examine it in the proper position.

45. Palpal bulb, prominence on tegulum, development: (0) weakly-developed (Fig. 313); (1) developed (Fig. 314); (2) well-developed (Fig. 315).

We found that prominence on tegulum can have different development degrees. There are species in which prominence is well-developed (state 2), with a deep groove, as seen in A. variegata stat. n. and in A. juruensis (Fig. 315). When there is a distinct groove and it is clearly possible to determine a tegulum prominence, though it is not well-developed, it was coded as state 1. This state is found in most species analyzed (Fig. 314). However, if the groove is discrete, hard to see, and consequently the prominence is weakly-developed (Fig. 313), it was coded as state 0, as in H. rondoni, P. muticus, T. seladonia and A. caei sp. n.

46. Embolus, length, retrolateral view: (0) 1.5 to 2.5 times the tegulum’s length; (1) smaller than tegulum’s length (Fig. 320); (2) 3.0 to 3.5 times the tegulum’s length (Fig. 323); (3) more than 4 times the tegulum’s length (Fig. 277).

Most Aviculariinae have emboli from 3 to 3.5 times the tegulum’s length (state 2), including all Avicularia species, except A. lynnae sp. n. and A. caei sp. n., which have emboli described as very long (state 3).

47. Embolus, distal width: (0) thin, shorter than 1/5 tegulum’s length (Fig. 323); (1) thick, more than 1/3 tegulum’s length (Fig. 320).

48 Embolus, shape: (0) not flattened (Fig. 323); (1) slightly flattened (Fig. 320); (2) very flattened (Fig. 286).

49. Embolus, tip: (0) tapers (Figs 318–319); (1) narrows abruptly (Figs 316–317).

In some Aviculariinae taxa such as A. minatrix, A. taunayi, A. rufa, A. juruensis, A. avicularia, A. variegata stat. n. and Y. sooretama comb. n., the embolus tip narrows abruptly near 1/5 distal portion (better visualized in dorsal view). The remaining taxa show a gradual embolus tapering.

50. Embolus, proximal part in frontal view, shape: (0) straight; (1) slightly curved (Fig. 233); (2) very curved (Fig. 30).

Most outgroups (except Haplopelma sp. and P. muticus) and some Aviculariinae, such as Psalmopoeus sp., Tapinauchenius sp., Ephebopus spp., Stromatopelma sp. and Heteroscodra sp., have straight proximal portion of embolus in frontal view. All the other Aviculariinae taxa have some curvature degree in proximal portion of embolus. Caribena laeta comb. n. (Fig. 233), Y. gamba comb. n., T. costae, T. curumim and A. rickwesti comb. n. have slightly curved proximal embolus. The other Aviculariinae taxa have very curved proximal embolus (state 2) (Fig. 30).

51. Embolus, curved, retrolateral view, angle between tegulum’s margin and embolus medial portion: (0) very acute angle (Fig. 321) (1) acute angle (Fig. 323) (2) right or obtuse angle (Fig. 322).

We found that the angle between tegulum’s margin and embolus medial portion in retrolateral view can be informative for cladistic analysis. In Haplopelma sp., Pachistopelma spp. and Y. diversipes comb. n., the angle formed is very acute (state 0) (Fig. 321). In other taxa, such as T. costae, T. curumim, Iridopelma spp., Ybyrapora gen. n. (except Y. diversipes comb. n.), A. rickwesti comb. n., C. laeta comb. n. and P. muticus sp., an obtuse angle is formed between embolus medial portion and tegulum’s margin (state 2) (Fig. 322). In the remaining aviculariine species, including all Avicularia, an acute angle is formed between these two structures (state 1) (Fig. 323).

52. Bulb, prolateral inferior keel on embolus: (0) absent; (1) present.

53. Bulb, prolateral superior keel on embolus: (0) absent;(1) present.

54. Bulb, apical keel on embolus: (0) absent;(1) present.

55. Bulb, retrolateral keel on embolus: (0) absent; (1) present.

56. Tibial apophysis on leg I, occurrence: (0) present (Figs 310–311); (1) absent or weakly-developed (Figs 308–309).

Specimens of Y. sooretama comb. n., Y. gamba comb. n., Typhochlaena spp., P. muticus, Phlogiellus sp., Poecilotheria sp., E. olivacea, Heteroscodra sp., and Stromatopelma sp. do not present any type of apophysis or tibial modification. Some aviculariine species have a discrete elevation on prolateral tibia that can be covered or not by a cluster of setae but clearly does not form a branch. This discrete elevation on apical prolateral tibia is found in Y. diversipes comb. n., A. hirschii, A. minatrix, A. lynnae sp. n., and in A. caei sp. n., and was coded as state 0 since it cannot be considered as a true apophysis.

57. Tibial apophysis on leg I, shape: (0) 2 branches; (1) 1 branch with a megaspine; (2) 1 branch with setae (Figs 310–311).

Males of many barychelid and theraphosid species have tibial apophysis composed of two branches on leg I (Raven 1985) (state 0). This type of apophysis should have been present on the ancestral Theraphosoidina, suffering modifications and losses in all derivate groups (Raven 1985). This condition is present in Theraphosinae (represented here in the analysis by Lasiodora sp. and P. vulpinus), in Ischnocolinae (here represented by H. rondoni) and in Paratropididae (represented by Melloina santuario). The presence of tibial apophysis composed of single branch with a megaspine (state 1) is found exclusively in Harpactirinae (Pterinochilus sp. in our analysis) (Gallon 2003).

The presence of a tibial apophysis with a single branch bearing spiniform setae (state 2, figs 310–311) is a condition widely distributed in Aviculariinae. All Pachistopelma spp., Iridopelma spp., Caribena gen. n. spp. as well as A. rickwesti comb. n. and most Avicularia species have this condition. This condition also appears in outgroup taxon Haplopelma minax (Ornithoctoninae).

58. Tibial apophysis on leg I, one branch with setae, spiniform setae on a branch, branch development; (0) weakly-developed branch (Fig. 310); (1) well-developed branch (Fig. 311).

We detected different degrees of branch development in species that have a single and well-defined branch covered with spiniform setae (state 1 for character 57). The branch can be weakly-developed, not projecting far from tibia longitudinal axis. This is the condition of Pachistopelma spp., Iridopelma spp. and Caribena gen. n. A well-developed branch projected far from tibia longitudinal axis is present in most Avicularia species (A. avicularia, A. rufa, A. juruensis, A. variegata stat. n., A. taunayi, A. purpurea and A. merianae sp. n.), in A. rickwesti comb. n., and also in Haplopelma sp.

59. Tibial apophysis in leg II, occurrence: (0) absent; (1) present.

60. Type I urticating setae, occurrence: (0) absent; (1) present.*

61. Type II urticating setae, any life stage, occurrence: (0) absent; (1) present.

Despite females of Pachistopelma spp. lacking type II urticating setae, immature stages and males of both Pachistopelma species do have the type II urticating setae. As we do not know immature stages nor males of Iridopelma marcoi, this species was coded as “?”.

62. Type II urticating setae, adult female, occurrence: (0) present; (1) absent.

Mature females of Pachistopelma spp. and of I. marcoi lack type II urticating setae.

63. Type II urticating setae, length, females: (0) up to 0.90mm (Figs 16–17); (1) more than 1 mm (Fig. 243).

According to Cooke et al. (1972), urticating setae type II are approximately 0.5–1.5 mm in length. Bertani et al. (2003) observed that C. versicolor comb. n. has type II setae that is more slender and longer than the Avicularia species—up to 1.37 mm in females. In fact, this species as well as C. laeta comb. n. has longer and slender setae when compared with Avicularia spp., what was confirmed by comparison of scanning microscopy images of setae of both genera (Figs 17–18).

When urticating setae are analyzed, the gender of specimens examined should be considered because males have setae significantly longer than females (Stradling 1978, Bertani and Guadanucci 2013).

64. Type III urticating setae, occurrence: (0) absent; (1) present.

65. Type IV urticating setae, occurrence: (0) absent; (1) present.*

66. Type V urticating setae, occurrence: (0) absent; (1) present.

67. Legs, ratio between length of leg IV and I, males: (0) leg IV more than 10% longer than leg I; (1) leg IV roughly the same length as leg I; (2) leg IV more than 10% shorter than leg I.

68. Legs, ratio between length of leg IV and I, females: (0) leg IV more than 10% longer than leg I; (1) leg IV roughly the same length as leg I; (2) leg IV more than 10% shorter than leg I.

69. Habits, females: (0) retreat within surface layers of soil; (1) arboreal; (2) opportunistic; (3) fossorial.

70. Arboreal retreat made by adults: (0) built on tree trunk or on palm tree leaf base; (1) built in leaves, normally with two or more leaves connected by silk; (2) built under loosened tree bark; (3) bromelicolous.

Taxonomy

Family Theraphosidae Thorell, 1869

Aviculariinae Simon, 1889

Aviculariae Simon, 1889: 213; 1891: 312.

Avicularieae Simon, 1892: 170; 1903: 918; Pocock 1895: 229; 1901: 547.

Aviculariieae Simon, 1903: 958.

Aviculariinae Petrunkevitch, 1928: 34, 81; 1929: 48; 1939: 152, 274; Schiapelli & Gerschman de Pikelin 1945: 209; Bonnet 1955: 833; Bücherl 1957: 380; Raven 1985: 119; West et al. 2008: 37, 53, 55, 56; Bertani 2012: 5, 73.

Avicularias Mello-Leitão, 1923: 314.

Diagnosis

Aviculariines can be distinguished by the conjunction of the following characters: legs aspinose or with few apical spines on ventral tibiae and metatarsi; metatarsi and tarsi with scopulae very extended laterally, mainly on anterior legs, giving a spatulate appearance (Figs 299–301); two completely separated spermathecae (Fig. 21); absence of spiniform setae on lower prolateral maxillae.

Included genera: Antillena gen. n., Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Caribena gen. n., Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Ybyrapora gen. n.

Figure 3.

Approximate distribution area of Aviculariinae. ? = dubious record.

Distribution (Fig. 3): from state of Vera Cruz in Mexico, throughout Central America and some Caribbean islands, northern and central South America to state of São Paulo, Brazil. They can be found from the Atlantic to Pacific coasts. Two genera (Heteroscodra and Stromatopelma) are found in West and Central Africa.

Key to Aviculariinae genera

(Females of A. lynnae sp. n. and A. caei sp. n. are unknown)

1 Presence of a paddle of urticating setae (type V) on prolateral distal palpal femora (Fig. 4) Ephebopus
Absence of a paddle of urticating setae (type V) on prolateral distal palpal femora 2
2 Presence of black marks on dorsal tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi (Africa) (Fig. 5) 3
Absence of black marks on dorsal tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi (New World) 4
3 Tibia IV incrassate (Fig. 6) Heteroscodra
Tibia IV not incrassate Stromatopelma
4 Sternum as long as wide, truncated behind (Fig. 7); posterior lateral spinnerets with domed, short distal article (Fig. 8) Typhochlaena
Sternum longer than wide (Fig. 9), posterior lateral spinnerets with digitiform distal article (Fig. 10) 5
5 Spines present on ventral apical tibiae and/or metatarsi 6
Spines absent in all legs 7
6 Stridulatory setae forming a lyra on prolateral maxilla (Fig. 11) Psalmopoeus
Stridulatory setae absent on maxilla Tapinauchenius
7 Anterior row of eyes straight or very slightly procurve (Fig. 12); dorso-ventrally flattened abdomen in females Pachistopelma
Anterior row of eyes strongly procurve (Fig. 13); abdomen not flattened 8
8 Spermathecae very short and broad, with distal half strongly sclerotized (Fig. 284); male palpal bulb with well-developed keels (Figs 285, 288) (Hispaniola Island) Antillena gen. n.
Spermatheca long, not strongly sclerotized; male palpal bulb lacking keels 9
9 Urticating setae type II very slender (Fig. 18) on a conspicuous patch on abdomen dorsum (Fig. 254) (Caribbean Islands: Martinique, Puerto Rico and U. S. Virgin Islands) (Fig. 226) Caribena gen. n.
Urticating setae type II stout (Figs 15–17) spread over most abdominal area (Figs 302–304) 10
10 Spermathecae lacking an accentuated outwards curvature medially, with distal portion far from base (Fig. 14); male with tibial apophyses on legs I and II Iridopelma
Spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially (Fig. 21); male lacking tibial apophysis on leg II 11
11 Female 12
Male 13
12 Spermathecae virtually non-sclerotized (Figs 257–259) (southeastern and part of northeastern Brazil) Ybyrapora gen. n.
Spermathecae with a well-sclerotized area (Fig. 21) Avicularia
13 Tibial apophysis on leg I absent (Fig. 308) or tibia with discrete elevation covered by a cluster of setae on apical portion (Fig. 309) 14
Tibial apophysis on leg I present, well-developed (Fig. 311) Avicularia (part)
14 Cymbium with a weakly-developed process on retrolateral lobe or process lacking (Fig. 305) 15
Cymbium with a well-developed process on retrolateral lobe (Figs 177, 280) 16
15 Abdomen dorsum with a single stripe (Fig. 297) (southeastern and part of northeastern Brazil) .Ybyrapora gen. n. (part)
Abdomen dorsum with orange spots on its sides (Figs 89) (Venezuela) Avicularia (part)
16 Male palpal bulb embolus strongly curved (Figs 276–278); tarsi and metatarsi with dorso-medial conspicuous orange stripe and leg rings on femora, tibia and metatarsi orange (Bertani and Fukushima 2009, figs A1–A2) (southeastern and part of northeastern Brazil) Ybyrapora gen. n. (part)
Male palpal bulb embolus curved (Figs 203, 212); tarsi and metatarsi without orange stripes, and leg rings on femora, tibia and metatarsi whitish or yellow (Figs 209, 218) Avicularia (part)

Avicularia Lamarck, 1818

Figs 1, 9–10, 13, 15–17, 19, 20, 21–27, 28–35, 36–43, 44–49, 50, 51, 52–53, 54–57, 58–65, 66–73, 74–75, 76, 77, 78–79, 80–87, 88–89, 90, 91–92, 93–100, 101–104, 105, 106–108, 109–116, 117–122, 123–126, 127, 128–130, 131–138, 139–141, 142–147, 148–153, 154–157, 158–165, 166–171, 172, 173–180, 181–183, 184–187, 188–195, 196–198, 199–200, 201–208, 209, 210–217, 218, 299–300, 302–304, 307, 309, 311, 312–315, 316–317

Aranea Linnaeus, 1758: 622 (in part: A. avicularia); Fabricius 1775: 438 (in part: A. avicularia); 1793: 424 (in part: A. avicularia); De Geer 1778: 313, pl. 38, fig. 8 (in part: A. avicularia); 1783: 122, pl. 38, figs 8–10 (in part: A. avicularia); Latreille 1802: 49 (in part: A. avicularia). Name abandoned as generic name to be used for the Order name (Thorell 1870: 151).

Mygale Latreille, 1802: 49, 1804: 152, pl. LXII, fig.1 (in part: M. avicularia); 1806: 85 (in part: M. avicularia); Walckenaer 1805: 4 (in part: M. avicularia); Hahn 1820: 5 (in part: M. avicularia); Simon 1864: 70, figs 26–28 (in part: M. avicularia). Name preoccupied in Mammalia by Mygale Cuvier, 1800 (Thorell 1870: 162).

Avicularia Lamarck, 1818: 107 (type species Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758 by subsequent designation in direction 67 of ICZN (1957: 116)); Thorell 1870: 168; Ausserer 1871: 128, 201; 1875: 138; Simon 1889: 213; 1892: 171; 1903: 958, 960; F. O. Pickard-Cambridge 1896: 740, 746; 1899: 42; Pocock 1901: 548; Mello-Leitão 1923: 320, 376; ICZN 1928: 395; Petrunkevitch 1928: 81; Roewer 1942: 253; Bonnet 1955: 826; Valerio 1979: 307; Raven 1985: 119; Gallon 2008: 243; World Spider Catalog 2016.

Eurypelma C. L. Koch, 1850: 73, 74 (in part); Simon 1864: 67 (in part); Roewer 1942: 238 (in part); Bonnet 1955: 1828; Raven 1985: 146, 153. Considered objective synonym of Avicularia by Raven (1985: 146).

Avicuscodra Strand, 1908: 771 (type species by original designation Avicuscodra arabica Strand, 1908, female, Egypt, El-Tor [28°14'N, 33°37'E], (Tor, Arabien [sic]) Rüppell, SMF 2660, examined); Petrunkevitch 1928: 81; Roewer 1942: 256; Gallon 2008: 243. First synonymized by Gallon (2008: 243).

Ancylochiros Mello-Leitão, 1920: 41 (type species by original designation Ancylochiros taunayi Mello-Leitão, 1920, immature male, Brazil, Minas Gerais, Mariana [20°22'S, 43°25'W], J. P. Fonseca leg., MZUSP 327, examined,); 1923: 318; 376; Roewer 1942: 225; Raven 1985: 149. First synonymized by Raven (1985).

Anchylochyrus Petrunkevitch, 1928: 83 (unjustified emendation per Bonnet 1955); Strand 1929: 12.

Type species

Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, by subsequent designation (ICZN 1957).

Species included

Avicularia avicularia, A. caei sp. n., A. glauca, A. hirschii, A. juruensis, A. lynnae sp. n., A. merianae sp. n., A. minatrix, A. purpurea, A. rufa, A. taunayi and A. variegata stat. n.

Diagnosis

Avicularia resembles Caribena gen. n., Ybyrapora gen. n., Iridopelma and Typhochlaena by the procurve anterior row of eyes (Fig. 13). It can be distinguished from Typhochlaena by the digitiform apical article of PLS (Fig. 10). It differs from Iridopelma by male lacking tibial apopysis on tibiae II and female by spermathecae long, with accentuated outwards curvature medially (Fig. 21). It differs from Caribena gen. n. by stout urticating setae on abdomen dorsum of male and female (Figs 15–17) and by rounded process on cymbium (Fig. 307). From Ybyrapora gen. n. it can be distinguished by sclerotized spermathecae in females (Fig. 21) and presence of developed tibial apophysis in males (Fig. 311), except A. minatrix, A. lynnae sp. n., A. caei sp. n., and A hirschii that lack tibial apophysis. Males of these Avicularia species can be distinguished from Y. diversipes comb. n. by the embolus less curved in frontal view (Fig. 30). From Y. sooretama comb. n. and Y. gamba comb. n. they differ in terms of the presence of a well-developed process on cymbium (Fig. 307), except A. minatrix. Avicularia minatrix can be distinguished from Y. sooretama comb. n. and Y. gamba comb. n. by the abdomen dorsum black having orange spots on its side (Fig. 89).

Figures 4–14.

Aviculariinae characters. 4 Ephebopus murinus, palp with paddle of urticating setae type V (arrow) on prolateral side 5–6 Heteroscodra sp. 5 black marks (arrow) on dorsal tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi 6 tibia IV incrassate 7 Typhochlaena curumim, sternum as long as wide 8 Typhoclaena seladonia, posterior lateral spinnerets with domed article (arrow) 9–10 Avicularia merianae sp. n. 9 sternum longer than wide 10 posterior lateral spinnerets with digitiform distal article (arrow) 11 Psalmopoeus sp., stridulatory setae forming a lyra (arrow) on prolateral maxilla 12 Tapinauchenius sp., straight anterior row of eyes 13 Avicularia avicularia, anterior row of eyes strongly procurve 14 Iridopelma hirsutum, spermathecae.

Description

Carapace slightly longer than wide, cephalic region slightly raised. Cephalic and thoracic striae inconspicuous due to setae density. Fovea deep or shallow, slightly recurve (most species) or straight. Chelicera without rastelum. Eye tubercle distinct, raised or slightly raised, wider than long. Anterior row of eyes procurve (Fig. 13), posterior recurve or slightly recurve (most species). Clypeus narrow (most species) or absent. Labium subquadrate, longer than wide, with 50–133 cuspules spaced by one or two diameters from each other on the anterior third center. Maxillary lyra absent. Maxilla subretangular, anterior lobe distinctly produced into conical process, inner angle bearing 85–215 cuspules. Sternum longer than wide, posterior angle acute, not separating coxae IV. Three pairs of sigilla, some pairs sometimes not evident. Anterior ellipsoidal or rounded, middle rounded, posterior ellipsoidal (most species) or rounded. All positioned one diameter or less from margin. Leg formula: I=IV II III (most species) or IV I II III (A. avicularia, A. rufa and A. hirschii female). Clavate trichobothria on distal 2/3 or 1/2 of tarsi I–IV. Tarsi I–IV fully scopulate, IV divided by a band of setae or divided by a bald stripe. Metatarsi I–II fully scopulate in most species, III 1/3 to 1/2 distal scopulate and IV 1/5 to 1/2 distal scopulate. Metatarsi IV divided by a row of setae. Scopulae of tarsi and metatarsi I–II very extended laterally giving them a spatulate appearance (Figs 299–300). Femora IV without retrolateral scopulae. Stridulatory setae absent. Legs aspinose. ITC absent; STC without denticles. Posterior lateral spinnerets digitiform (Fig. 10). Typical stout type II urticating setae on dorsal abdomen in females and males, 0.36 to 0.72 mm long, 0.11–0.019 mm wide in females and 0.78 to 1.11 mm long, 0.013–0.025 mm wide in males (Figs 15–17). Male tibiae I with apophysis (most species) (Fig. 311) or with discrete elevation covered by a cluster of setae on apical portion (Fig. 309), on prolateral side. Tibial apophysis with a single branch having well-developed base and grouped spiniform setae distally (Figs 33–35). Tibiae II lacking apophysis. Male metatarsus I touches retrolaterally tibial apophysis’ setae when folded. Globous bulb with small subtegulum; prominence on prolateral tegulum developed (most species) (Fig. 314), well-developed (A. variegata stat. n. and A. juruensis) (Fig. 315), weakly-developed (A. caei sp. n.) (Fig. 313) or absent (A. minatrix) (Fig. 312). Embolus not flattened, without keels, about 3.0 to 3.5 times tegulum’s length (most species) or more than 4 times tegulum’s length (A. lynnae sp. n. and A. caei sp. n.) in retrolateral view. Embolus medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view (Fig. 323). Embolus with basal part very curved in frontal view (Figs 312–315), thin distal width and tip narrowing abruptly (Figs 316–317) or tapering (Figs 318–319). Cymbium subtriangular with subequal lobes, having a well-developed rounded process on retrolateral lobe (most species) (Fig. 307) or lacking any process (Fig. 162). Cymbium process bearing thick setae (most species) (Fig. 307) or thin setae (Fig. 205). Spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, completely separated, and long (Fig. 21). Spermathecae not-twisted (except A. hirschii) with walls lacking projections or lobes (except A. taunayi) (Figs 21–27). Spermathecae midwidth as wide as its base width (most species) (Fig. 21) or midwidth expanded, about 1.5 times the apex width (A. variegata stat. n., A. juruensis and A. taunayi) (Fig. 54). Spermathecae with weakly-sclerotized area shorter than half the length of well-sclerotized area (most species) (Fig. 21) or at least same size of well-sclerotized area (A. purpurea and A. merianae sp. n.) (Fig. 154). Abdomen dorsum of females with homogeneously distributed setae (most species) (Fig. 304) or with long guard-setae grouped on lateral and dorsal anterior areas (Figs 302–303). Legs and palps with long guard-setae having homogeneous coloration along its length (A. avicularia, most morphotypes; A. juruensis morphotype 3, A. purpurea, A. taunayi and A. merianae sp. n.) (Fig. 299) or long guard-setae with darker base and contrasting whitish apex (A. avicularia morphotypes 6 and 7; A. variegata stat. n.; A. rufa; and A. juruensis morphotype 2) (Fig. 300). Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi whitish (most species) (Fig. 299) or yellowish (A. avicularia, morphotype 5; A. variegata stat. n., morphotype 2; A. juruensis morphotype 2; and A. rufa) (Fig. 300). All species except A. minatrix showing drastic ontogenetic changes on abdominal color pattern. Brownish juveniles lacking metallic green or blue sheen, with black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles (except A. purpurea) (Fig. 44). Juveniles having dorsal reddish abdomen with a single central longitudinal stripe and some transversal black stripes on each side (except A. hirschii). Central longitudinal stripe disconnected from transversal stripes (A. avicularia, A. variegata stat. n., A. juruensis and A. rufa) (Fig. 44), connected with all transversal stripes in each side of abdomen (A. purpurea and A. minatrix) (Fig. 167), connected only with the anterior pair of transversal stripes (A. merianae sp. n.), or connected with first and second anterior pair of transversal stripes (A. taunyai) (Fig. 101).

Figures 15–18.

Urticating setae type II in Aviculariinae. 15 Avicularia juruensis male (CAS 4), showing well-developed barbs along all its length 16 Avicularia variegata stat. n. female (IBSP 7900), showing weakly-developed barbs only near the stalk 17 Avicularia avicularia female morphotype 5 (MNRJ 06916) from Pando, showing developed barbs along almost entire length 18 Caribena versicolor comb. n. male (MNHN−AR 4904), very slender setae with barbs along all length. Scale bars = 0.1 mm.

Figure 19.

Map showing records of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 species in Central and South America.

Distribution and habitat

Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil. In Brazil, it occurs in the states of Roraima, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, Maranhão, Tocantins, Acre, western Bahia, Rondônia, Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and the Distrito Federal (Fig. 19). Valerio (1979) reports presence of Avicularia species in Costa Rica (see note on A. avicularia redescription and on A. glauca taxonomy). Beside this, there are reports in Lago Catemaco and other localities in the state of Veracruz, as well as in the state of Chiapas, Mexico (R. West and J. Mendoza, pers. comm.), but no Mexican specimens could be examined. Thus, despite the reliable records, it is not possible to know which species are in Mexico.

Remarks

When erecting the genus Avicularia, Lamarck (1818) included in it three species described originally in Aranea, in this order: Avicularia canceridea (Lamarck, 1818), Avicularia blondii (Latreille, 1804), and Avicularia fasciata (Latreille, 1804). The first species, A. canceridea, could be found in the Antilles in “Meridional America” (South America)(Lamarck 1818). As synonyms of A. canceridea, Lamarck (1818) cited Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758 (sensu Linnaeus 1758 and Fabricius 1793) and Mygale avicularia Latreille, 1804 (sensu Latreille 1804 and Walckenaer 1805). It is unclear why Lamarck (1818) did not use the pre-existent specific name avicularia instead of canceridea.

Thorell (1870) considered Aranea avicularia Linnaeus “as the type for Avicularia”, and Avicularia canceridea Lamarck and Aranea vestiaria De Geer as its synonyms. Apparently, this was the reason for the Lamarckian combination Avicularia canceridea being buried.

Ausserer (1871) considered Avicularia canceridea Lamarck, Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, Aranea vestiaria De Geer and Mygale avicularia Latreille as synonyms; however, he considered valid the binomy Avicularia vestiaria and stated it as the type species. F. O. Pickard-Cambridge (1899) also considered Avicularia canceridea Lamarck as a synonym of Avicularia avicularia, but stated this last one as the type species. Despite the specific epithet avicularia being the most used for the type species of Avicularia over the years, it was only officially considered as such in 1928 through Opinion 104 (ICZN 1928) and introduced in the official list of specific names in Zoology through Direction 67 of ICZN (ICZN 1957).

Herein, we tried to establish the real identity of Avicularia avicularia as the original description is uninformative and useless for species identification. The type locality, America, is also vague and the existence of types was controversial. Taking into consideration that Aranea avicularia is a very old species described by Linnaeus in the 10th Edition of Systema Naturae (Linnaeus 1758), it would be a difficult task to track a type.

Apparently, Linnaeus (1758) did not designate holotypes. According to Papavero and Llorente-Bousquets (1995), the oldest citation regarding the type concept as we use, nowadays, is dated 1817 by the German dipterologist C. R. W. Wiedmann. In his publication, Wiedmann (1817 apud Papavero and Llorente-Bousquets 1995) approved the idea about designation of types in description of new species and creation of a Normalmuseum where all types should be deposited. Therefore, Linnaeus could not determine types since this concept was elaborated many years after publication of Systema Naturae (Papavero and Llorente-Bousquets 1995).

Linnean holotypes are also a problem for other specialists. Many botanists, for example, argue it is very difficult to know when Linnaeus used a well-defined specimen to describe a plant species. Thus, The Linnean Plant Name Typification Project was created to choose types from the specimens and illustrations that Linnaeus used in arriving at his concept of a species in question (The Linnean Society of London 2016). The creation of this project strengthens the ideia that Linnaeus did not designate holotypes. Specifically in Avicularia’s case, this idea is supported by the expressed citation by F. O. Pickard-Cambridge (1896) that the type is a figure of two specimens drawn by Merian (1726), and not a specimen.

Even with a doubtful existence of the A. avicularia holotype, Gabriel et al. (2007) tried to locate it in The Linnean Society of London Collection. The authors found two specimens of Aranea avicularia considered by the curator as Linnean material (Gabriel et al. 2007) and observed they are two different species: a female of Stromatopelma calceatum Fabricius, 1793; and a male of Harpactira atra Latreille, 1832, both African species (Gabriel et al. 2007). They concluded that none of the African specimens in the Linnean collection could be considered types of A. avicularia (Gabriel et al. 2007).

The ICZN states on the article 72.1.1 of its Code that “in the absence of holotype designation, or the designation of syntypes, or the subsequent designation of a lectotype, all [specimens] are syntypes and collectively they constitute the name-bearing type” (ICZN 1999). Additionally, the article 72.4.1. (ICZN 1999) states that “the type series of a nominal species-group taxon consists of all the specimens included by the author in the new nominal taxon (whether directly or by bibliographic reference)”. Thus, as there is no designation of a specific holotype in the original description, all the specimens used in the publications mentioned by Linnaeus in the description of Aranea avicularia are part of a syntypic series.

In that description, Linnaeus (1758) cited his own previous work (Linnaeus 1749), as well as Clusius (1611), Laet (1633), Piso and Marcgrave (1648), Worm (1655), Olearius (1666) and Merian (1705).

The spider drawn by Clusius (1611) seems, in fact, to be an aviculariine, since it has a hairy body and very developed subungueal tufts (Fig. 2). The spider was illustrated with low cephalic region and could be found in Baya de todos los Sanctos [sic] (Clusius 1611). The animal depicted resembles specimens of Pachistopelma spp., which can be found in Baía de Todos-os-Santos, a bay in the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Laet (1633) and Piso and Marcgrave (1648) also reproduced this illustration and indicated that this species is very common in Saint Aleixo Island (state of Pernambuco, Brazil), area where Pachistopelma rufoniger specimens are frequent and where also there is no record of Avicularia spp. Other authors (Olearius 1666, Worm 1655) used the same Clusius’ spider illustration to refer to this Brazilian species which we found to be a Pachistopelma species.

Merian (1705), on the other hand, illustrated two spiders with very developed and conspicuously colored subungueal tufts, unmistakably Avicularia sp. specimens (Fig. 1). One of them is leaving a typical retreat and feeding on ants and the other specimen is feeding on a small bird. Smith (2000b) stated that, probably because of this illustration, Linnaeus used the specific name “avicularia”, meaning “small bird” in Latin. Merian (1705) had drawn these spiders based on specimens observed during her expedition to Suriname. In the illustration’s comments, there is no indication of locality, nor any information that could lead to an inequivocal identification of the illustrated species.

Linnaeus (1758), in his Aranea avicularia description, also cited two illustrations of Seba (1734) of a spider from Ceylon, now Sri Lanka, which is probably a Poecilotheria specimen, and an unidentified specimen from America, which clearly is not an aviculariine.

Thus, among the syntypic A. avicularia series are specimens of Pachistopelma spp. (Clusius 1611, Laet 1633, Piso and Margrave 1648, Worm 1655, Olearius 1666), Avicularia (Merian 1705) and unidentified specimens (Seba 1704). Apparently, the specimens used and/or illustrated by these authors are lost or have never been deposited in a zoological collection, but only observed in their natural habitat. Smith (2000a) believe that Linnaeus (1758) used the engraving done by Merian (1705) for describing Aranea avicularia, which was considered perfectly acceptable at that time. However, Smith (2000a) did not discard the possibility that Linnaeus had examined specimens collected by Merian, which could be deposited in particular collections, although the author states that much of Merian’s material is lost.

The ICZN Code article 72.4.1.1 states that “for a nominal species or subspecies established before 2000, any evidence, published or unpublished, may be taken into account to determine what specimens constitute the type series” (ICZN 1999). The Code also considered part of the syntypic series specimens of which there is evidence that they were known to the author and recognized by him when the nominal species was established (see example in article 72.4.1.1 of ICZN 1999). After searching some collections, we found three specimens of Aranea avicularia belonging to the Linnean collection at the Museum of Evolution of Uppsala University. Even though there is no irrefutable proof that these specimens once belonged to Linnaeus and were examined by him when describing the species (Dr. Mats Eriksson, pers. comm.), we think that two of three specimens found in the collection were used by Linnaeus in his work. The spiders’ donor was Adolf Fredrik, King of Sweden in the time Linnaeus was writing his Systema Naturae (Kullander 2001). The King had an extensive biological collection composed of plants and animals from all over the world, a common habit of wealthy and significant people of that time (Kullander 2001). During nine weeks between 1751 and 1754, Linnaeus, during that time a professor at Uppsala University, was housed in the Royal Castle to catalogue the royal collection; the result of this work was published in a book (Kullander 2001). It is probable that the King donated some material to Linnaeus, which were brought with him to Uppsala instead of going with most of the King’s material to the Swedish Museum of Natural History in Stockholm. Thus, those specimens of Aranea avicularia could have been really used by Linnaeus (1758) to describe the species and, therefore, they are part of the syntypic series.

King Adolf’s specimens are in a dry, pinned collection, thus they cannot be properly examined and handle (Fig. 20). However, even by photography, it is clear that both are Avicularia avicularia specimens, probable from the morphotype found in the state of Pará, Brazil, since morphological features such as size and coloration match with those seen in specimens found in that area. Therefore, herein, we establish the specimen UUZM 61 from the Uppsala collection as lectotype and the specimen UUZM 62 as paralectotype, solving the oldest and one of the most vexing problems in mygalomorph taxonomy.

Key to Avicularia species

Male of A. glauca and female of A. caei sp.n. and A. lynnae sp. n. are unknown.

Female

1 Spermathecae long and twisted (Fig. 183) A. hirschii
Spermathecae not-twisted 2
2 Spermathecae with lobes from median to distal portions (Fig. 91) A. taunayi
Spemathecae lacking lobes 3
3 Spermathecae midwidth expanded, 1.5 times its base and apical widths (Fig. 54) 4
Spermathecae midwidth as wide as its base width (Fig. 21) 5
4 Legs with or without grizzled setae, brownish guard-setae on dark abdomen, and whitish or pale yellow rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi (Figs 119, 122) (see morphotype characteristics and occurence areas) A. juruensis
All legs with grizzled setae, vivid reddish guard-setae on black abdomen, and whitish rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi (Fig. 70); or all legs with grizzled setae, brownish guard-setae on black abdomen and pale yellow rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi (Fig. 74) A. variegata stat. n.
5 Leg IV longer (more than 10%) than leg I 6
Leg IV as long as leg I 7
6 All legs always with grizzled setae, vivid yellow rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi, and abdomen with grey guard-setae grouped on lateral dorsal anterior areas and black short body setae (Fig. 145) A. rufa
Legs with or without grizzled setae, whitish or pale yellow rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi and guard-setae grouped on lateral dorsal anterior area (Figs 36, 38–42, 45, 48) (see morphotype characteristics and occurence areas) A. avicularia
7 Abdomen dorsum black with lateral orange spots on its sides (Fig. 88), Venezuela A. minatrix
Abdomen dorsum with homogeneous color pattern, lacking orange spots 8
8 Carapace and legs with green sheen (Fig. 52), Panama A. glauca
Carapace and legs without green sheen, western South America 9
9 Carapace and legs with intense purple sheen (Figs 168, 170), abdomen black velvety (Fig. 304), Ecuador, Colombia and Peru A. purpurea
Carapace and legs with discrete pink sheen, abdomen with red brownish setae (Fig. 199), Peru A. merianae sp. n.
Males
1 Embolus long, more than 4 times tegulum’s length (Figs 202, 211) 2
Embolus 2.5 to 3.5 times tegulum’s length (Fig. 29) 3
2 Abdomen dorsum with lateral stripes (Fig. 218) and tegulum with weakly-developed prominence (Fig. 313) A. caei sp. n.
Abdomen dorsum with a single longitudinal stripe and tegulum with developed prominence (Fig. 209) A. lynnae sp. n.
3 Tibia I with a discrete elevation covered by cluster of setae in apical portion, on prolateral side (Fig. 309) 4
Tibia I apophysis with well-developed branch bearing thick setae (Fig. 311) 5
4 Tegulum without prominence (Fig. 312), cymbium lacking process on retrolateral lobe (Fig. 84) and abdomen dorsum black with lateral orange spots on its sides (Fig. 89) A. minatrix
Tegulum with developed prominence (Fig. 175), cymbium with developed process on retrolateral lobe (Fig. 177) A. hirschii
5 Cymbium with retrolateral lobe lacking any process or with weakly-developed process (Fig. 162) 6
Cymbium with retrolateral lobe with well-developed process bearing thick setae (Fig. 307) 7
6 Carapace and legs with intense purple sheen (Figs 169, 171), abdomen black velvety, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru A. purpurea
Carapace and legs with discrete pink sheen, abdomen with red brownish guard-setae, Peru A. merianae sp. n.
7 Leg IV longer (more than 10%) than leg I 8
Leg IV as long as leg I 9
8 All legs always with grizzled setae, distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi with vivid yellow rings and grey guard-setae on black abdomen (Fig. 300) A. rufa
Legs with or without grizzled setae, distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi with whitish or pale yellow rings (Figs 43, 46, 49) (see morphotype characteristics and occurrence areas) A. avicularia
9 Tegulum with developed prominence (Fig. 95), abdomen with three pairs of light brown spots extending from the dorsum to lateral region (Fig. 103) A. taunayi
Tegulum with well-developed prominence (Fig. 315), abdomen dorsum lacking spots 10
10 Legs with or without grizzled setae, abdomen dark with brownish guard-setae, and distal femora, tibia and metatarsi with whitish or pale yellow rings (Fig. 121) (see morphotype characteristics and occurrence areas) A. juruensis
Legs with grizzled setae, abdomen black with brownish guard-setae and distal femora, tibia and metatarsi with whitish or pale yellow rings (Figs 71, 75) A. variegata stat. n.

Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758)

Figs 1, 13, 17, 19, 20, 21–27, 28–35, 36–43, 44–49, 50, 51, 299, 303, 311, 314, 316, 323

Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758: 622 (lectotype UUZM 61 and paralectotypes UUZM 62, UUZM 235 here designated, A. Fredrik leg., examined by photos); Fabricius 1775: 438; 1787: 346; 1793: 424; De Geer 1778: 313, pl. 38, fig. 8; 1783: 122, pl. 38, fig. 8; Latreille 1802: 49; ICZN 1957: 116.

Mygale avicularia: Latreille 1804: 152, pl. LXII, fig. 1; 1806: 32; Walckenaer 1805: 4; Hahn 1820: 5, t. 3; 1833: 101, tab. 25, fig. 75; C. L. Koch 1841: 73, tab. CCCXIII, fig. 737.

Mygale scoparia C. L. Koch, 1841: 54, fig. 725. First synonymized by F. O. Pickard-Cambridge 1896: 741.

Eurypelma avicularia: C. L. Koch 1850: 73; Simon 1864: 67. Considered objective synonym per Raven 1985: 146.

Avicularia velutina Simon, 1889: 213 (types not found; topotypes female and male, Venezuela, state of Carabobo, Puerto Cabello [10°27'N, 68°00'W], Collection E. Simon, MNHN–AR 4883, examined); Petrunkevitch 1911: 51; Mello-Leitão 1923: 377; Roewer 1942: 255; Schiapelli and Gerschman 1945: 191, pl. XVII; Bonnet 1955: 833. Syn. n.

Avicularia avicularia: Simon 1892: 171, fig. 120; F. O. Pickard-Cambridge 1896: 741, pl. 33, figs 10–11, pl. 34, fig. 19, pl. 35, fig. 13; Strand 1907a: 224; Strand 1907b: 89; Petrunkevitch 1911: 49; ICZN 1928: 395; Mello-Leitão 1923: 320, 324, 376; Bücherl 1957: 404, figs 91–91a; Valerio 1979: 307, figs 7–10; Roewer 1942: 253; Bonnet 1955: 827; 1957: 119; World Spider Catalog 2016.

Avicularia exilis Strand, 1907a: 220 (holotype, male, South America, perhaps Suriname, no further information, Coll. Kirschbaum, MWNH 418, examined by photo); Petrunkevitch 1911: 50; 1939: 286; Mello-Leitão 1923: 377; Roewer 1942: 254; Bonnet 1955: 830; World Spider Catalog 2016. Syn. n.

Avicularia ancylochyra Mello-Leitão, 1923: 330 (holotype, immature male, Brazil, state of Pará, Rio Tapajós [4°44"S, 56°36'W], E. Garbe col., E2977 C3141, examined); Petrunkevitch 1939: 284; Schiapelli & Gerschman de Pikelin 1945: 210, lam. XXIV; Bonnet 1955: 827. Syn. n.

Avicularia cuminami Mello-Leitão, 1930: 56, fig. 3 (holotype, immature, Brazil, Rio Cuminá [1°21'N, 56°04'W], G. Cruls col., MNRJ 21, examined); Petrunkevitch 1939: 286; Roewer 1942: 254; World Spider Catalog 2016. Syn. n.

Avicularia nigrotaeniata Mello-Leitão, 1940: 178, fig. 1 (holotype, immature male, Guyana, Kamara, Rio Cuyuni [6°24'N, 58°46'W], C. W. Richards col., Oxford University expedition, 22 November 1929, n°. 6290, BMNH 1930.12.14.168, examined); Brignoli 1983: 134; World Spider Catalog 2016. Syn. n.

Avicularia ancylochira: Roewer 1942: 253; World Spider Catalog 2016 (considered as the spelling apparently intended by Mello-Leitão, 1923).

Avicularia cuminamensis: Bonnet 1955: 830 (invalid emendation).

Remarks

Avicularia velutina syntypes are two females from the forest of San Esteban, Venezuela, and a specimen from a mountain in North Venezuela (Simon 1889). After a search on Simon’s collection at MNHN, it was found 4 specimens from Venezuela labeled as A. velutina. One is an immature from San Esteban (MNHN–AR4888), but its carapace measurement (4.6 mm) is not compatible with the female used on description (13.8 mm). Other two, one male and one female (MNHN–AR4883), are from Puerto Cabello, a town very close to San Esteban, locality mentioned on the description and where recently was created a National Park. Despite the female having the carapace measurement (13.25 mm) compatible with the female used in the description (13.8 mm), its collection data is not exactly the same of the one of the syntype series. Adding to this, its pair on the vial is a male, not other female as described by Simon (1889). The other female found in collection is from Caracas (MNHN–AR4894), on North Venezuela, and it is smaller than the Puerto Cabello’s female. Thus, herein, we consider the syntypes of A. velutina Simon, 1889 lost. However, considering we examined topotypes and that their characteristics match with those found in A. avicularia, only with slight differences on coloration, we decide to establish Avicularia velutina Simon, 1889 as a junior synonym of A. avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758).

Avicularia exilis holotype is clearly an Avicularia since it has well-developed scopula, anterior row of eyes procurved and tibial apophysis with a single branch having well-developed base and grouped spiniform setae distally. The specimen has palpal bulb with developed prominence, leg IV longer than leg I, not grizzled guard-setae on palps and legs, and overall reddish brown coloration. These characteristics match A. avicularia, which is found in Suriname, the probable type locality A. exilis. Thus, we consider A. exilis Strand, 1907 as junior synonym of A. avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758).

Avicularia ancylochyra holotype has tarsi with well-developed scopula, anterior row of eyes procurved, no spines on legs, urticating setae of type II on abdomen dorsum, and abdominal pattern similar to A. avicularia, A. rufa, A. juruensis, and A. variegata stat. n. The leg IV is longer than leg I, it bears whitish legs rings (not vivid yellow) and type locality is in the state of Pará, Brazil. All these characters match A. avicularia; therefore, we consider A. ancylochyra Mello-Leitão, 1923 a junior synonym of A. avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758).

Avicularia cuminami holotype has tarsal and metatarsal scopulae laterally expanded, anterior row of eyes procurve and type locality is state of Pará, Brazil. These characteristics match A. avicularia; thus, we consider A. cuminami Mello-Leitão, 1930 a junior synonym of A. avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758).

Avicularia nigrotaeniata holotype is an immature male lacking spines on legs and with spatulated scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi. It has characteristics of Avicularia genus such as anterior row of eyes procurve and abdomen dorsum with lateral stripes and a black central longitudinal stripe. In Guyana, the type locality, A. avicularia is the only species found. Thus, we consider A. nigrotaeniata Mello-Leitão, 1940 a junior synonym of A. avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758).

Diagnosis

Male and female of A. avicularia resemble A. rufa and female of A. hirschii by having leg IV longer than leg I. Females of A. avicularia can be distinguished from those of A. hirschii by the non-twisted spermathecae. Males and females of A. avicularia can be distinguished from those of A. rufa by having whitish rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi (most morphotypes, Figs 36, 38–40) or pale yellow rings (morphotype 5, Fig. 41) combined with legs and palps with long guard-setae with homogeneous coloration (all morphotypes except 6 and 7, but these have intense green metallic sheen on carapace and legs, absent in A. rufa).

Figure 20.

Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758), types from Uppsala Collection (UUZM). Above, lectotype female (UUZM 61), below paralectotype (UUZM 62). Photo: Mats Eriksson, published with UUZM permission.

Material examined

1 female, Brazil, Pará, Altamira, Paratipuã, Ponto 5, A. P. L. Giupponi & D. Pedroso col., 12 April 2009 (MNRJ 13995); 2 males and 1 female, Amapá, Macapá, Parque Zoobotânico (IEPA), C. Costa, P. Magno & C. A. Júlio col., 20 August 1996 (MNRJ 13659A).

Additional material

No further information: 1 juvenile female (MPEG 5140); 1 male, 1 female (IBSP 2419); 1 male, died in 27 October 1985 (IBSP IBA 414); 1 female (IBSP 8842); 1 female, IBAMA, died in January 2000, ref. 84526 (IBSP 8031); 1 immature male (IBSP 9916); 1 female (MNHN–AR Box 301); VENEZUELA: 1 juvenile female, no further information, Sullivan det. 2007 (AMNH Ve23); 1 female, no further information, Steve Brody coll. (AMNH Ve28); Bolívar: Hato La Vergareña (6°45'N, 63°30'W) 400–500 ft., 25 October 1954, J. J. Wurdack & N. G. L. Guppy col. (AMNH Ve22); Carabobo: Puerto Cabello [10°27'N, 68°00'W], 1 female, 1 male, no further information, Collection E. Simon (MNHN–AR 4883 Box 302); Distrito Capital: Caracas [10°29'N, 66°54'W], 1 female, no further information, Collection E. Simon (MNHN–AR 4894); Monagas: Caripito [10°06'N, 63°06'W], 1 female, 10 May 1942, Tropical Research Expedition, N. Y. Zoological Society, W. H. Beebe col. (AMNH Ve30); Trinidad and Tobago: no further information, 1 female (AMNH TR133); 1 female, M. Nieves col. (AMNH TR131); 1 male (AMNH TR129); probably from Port Spain sent in by T. H. G. Aigken [sic] (Aitken), 1 male, 1 immature male, Gertsch det. (AMNH TR130); 2 immatures, 3–4 instar group [sic], A. Bordes col., 1972 (AMNH TR tube); several spiderlings, A. Bordes col. (AMNH TR165); Couva-Tabaquite-Talparo: Freeport [10°26'N, 61°24'W], 1 female, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 1 May 1966 (AMNH TR181); Diego Martin: Fort George [10°41'N, 61°32'W], POS, 1 male, M. Nieves col., June 1957 (AMNH TR147); Goodwood Park [10°41'N, 61°34'W] (Goodward Park [sic]), 5 miles NW of Port of Spain, 300 m elevation, 1 female, 1 male, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 1 May 1965 (AMNH TR143); 1 immature, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 30 September 1965, (AMNH TR176); Port of Spain [10°39'N, 61°31'W]: 1 male, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 1 May 1954 (AMNH TR136); 1 female, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 18 September 1963 (AMNH TR126); 1 female, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 16 July 1965 (AMNH TR139); 1 male, 1 female, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 18 June 1968 (AMNH TR178); 1 male, R. S. Mathews col., April 1890 (AMNH 1.12); Rio Claro-Mayaro: La Horquette, Valley Road, 1 immature female, T. H. G. Aitken col., 6 April 1960, #78 (AMNH TR138); Maraval [10°41'N, 61°31'W], 3 males, 2 females, R. C. West col., 12 May 1981 (AMNH RW09, RW11, RW12, RW13, RW10, respectively); Mayaro Beach area [10°14'N, 61°00'W], 2 miles N of Plaisance, inside helicopter hangar, 2 juvenile females, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 20 December 1964 (AMNH TR182); under coconut husks, 2 males, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 22 March 1964 (AMNH TR157); 2 m elevation, 1 male, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 22 April 1964 (AMNH TR134); ex House, 2 m, 1 male, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 1 November 1964 (AMNH TR171); 1 juvenile female, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 5 September 1965 (AMNH TR167); 1 male, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 10 June 1966 (AMNH TR174); 3 m, 1 male, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 5 January 1966 (AMNH TR152); Saint George: Carenage [10°41'N, 61°35'W], 1 juvenile female, 29 April 1966, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col. (AMNH TR177); Nariva Swamp, bush bush forest [10°22'N, 61°02'W], Trinidad Regional Virus Lab., 1 juvenile female, T. H. G. Aitken col., 20 August 1962 (AMNH TR51); 1 male, T. H. G. Aitken coll., ex Boar, 12 February 1964 (AMNH TR156); 2 males, T. H. G. Aitken col., 29 September 1963 (AMNH TR132); Saddle Road (W61°, N10°), 1 juvenile T. H. G. Aitken col., May 1964 (AMNH TR166); Sangre Grande: Brigand Hill [10°29'N, 61°04'W], 1 juvenile female, L. N. Sorkin col., 21 July 1979, shed 31 July 79, 7 March 80, 10 February 81 and died 28 May 82 (AMNH TR141); Mount Harris [10°29'N, 61°06'W], 1 male, M. Nieves col., July 1959 (AMNH TR168); 1 male, M. Nieves col., June 1959 (AMNH TR151); 1 male, M. Nieves col., July 1959 (AMNH TR135); 1 female, 1 immature, M. Nieves col., July 1959 (AMNH TR145); Siparia: Fyzabad [10°10'N, 61°32'W] (Fyzbad [sic]), Bamboo stump, no. 226, 1 female, T. S. Jones col., 21 February 1945 (AMNH TR172); GUYANA: no further information, 1 female, 1914 (CAS13); 1 female, 2 immature males, 1914 (CAS12); Berbice Oriental-Corentyne: Canje (5°70'N, 57°50'W), Ikuruna River, forest savanna, 2 males, August−December 1961, G. Bentley col. (AMNH BG78, BG79); Lonsdale Village [6°11'N, 57°31'W] (Larsdale Village [sic]), 26 spiderlings, 19 juveniles, 2 females, E. B. Berbice col., 9 September 1946 (AMNH BG83); Cuyuni-Mazaruni: Bartica [6°24'N, 58°37'W], 15 milles above, Rio Moraballi and Rio Esequibo, 1 immature, R. W. G. Hingston col., labeled as A. nigrotaeniata n. 43 (BMNH 1930.4.15.53); Kartabo [6°24'N, 58°37'W], 2 males, 1 female, captured in a small bush (AMNH BG42); 1 female, 1924 (AMNH BG73); 1 male, 1924 (AMNH BG93); 2 males, 1 female, Beebe col., “A. surinamensis” det. Di Caporiacco (AMNH BG67); Demerara-Mahaica: Georgetown [6°48'N, 58°09'W], 1 small female, 7 immatures, J. Moral col., 1954 (AMNH BG82); 2 males, L. van Sertima col., 7 May 1991 (AMNH RW65, RW66); 2 immatures, A. McKee col., 19 April 1986 (AMNH RW64); Potaro-Siparuni: Tumatumari [5°15'N, 59°08'W], 1 male, 1 female, 5 August 1913, Acc 4435 (AMNH 1.9); 1 immature, August 1913, Acc: 4435 (AMNH 1.11); Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo Superior: Dadanawa [2°50'N, 59°31'W], Ishertor, 5 females, 2 immatures, in webbed holes in ground, Terry-Holden Expedition, 7–9 November 1937 (AMNH BG61); 2 females, 2 immature males, 1 immature, 1 spiderling, 7–9 November 1937, Terry–Holden Expedition, Snedigar & Hassler col. [hand note: original label and part of material in another jar] (AMNH BG76); SURINAME: no further information, 1 female, Box 306 3739 (MNHN–AR 4887); in house, 1 female, Geiskes col. (AMNH Su62); 1 male, Box 306 3739 (MNHN–AR 4887); 1 female, C. Heller col., December 1908, jar no.1632/08 (ZMB); Paramaribo: Paramaribo [5°49'N, 55°10'W], 1 male, Reed col., 29 June 1910, Acc 3792 (AMNH Su60); 2 females, H. Heyde col., 30 July 1980 (AMNH RW61, RW62); 1 female, 1 immature, 7 March 1939, Geiskes col. (AMNH Su59); 1 female, C. Heller col., 16 June 1908, jar no.1136/08 (ZMB); Agronomic Station, 1 male, V. Doesburg col., August 1962 (AMNH Su101); Marowijne: Langamankondre [5°42'N, 54°01'W], 1 female, B. Malkin col., 15–30 August 1965 (MZUSP 10861); 7 females, 1 male, 5 immature males, 8 juveniles, 1 spiderling, B. Malkin col., 15–30 August 1965 (AMNH Su97); Para: no further information, 1 female, C. Heller col., 13 March 1909, jar no. 541/09 (ZMB); 1 female and 1 immature male, C. Heller col., 10 March 1909, jar no. 541/09 (ZMB); 1 female, C. Heller col., February 1908, jar no. 684/08 (ZMB); Brokopondo: Kabelstation [4°54'N, 55°08'W] Riheroever [?, unreadable], in bromeliad, 1 juvenile female, Gerskes col., 25 September 1938 (AMNH Su63); in a house, 1 female, Gerskes col., 26 September 1938 (AMNH Su62); FRENCH GUIANA: Cayenne: Camopi [3°09'N, 52°20'W], Yanioré, high Oyapock, 100 to 150 m, en amont de Saut, 1 male, Mission E. Aubert de La Rüe col., February 1949 (MNHN–AR 4886); Cayenne [4°55'N, 52°19'W], 1 female, “Avicularia anthracina” det. E. Simon, Milinon (MNHN–AR 155h-77); 1 male, “Avicularia anthracina” det. E. Simon (MNHN–AR 1719-79); 1 male, J. Moonen col., February 1992 (AMNH RW60); Table Du Mahury [4°52'N, 52°16'W], 1 female, J. Geay col.; 1902 (MHNP 3089); Montabo [4°56'N, 52°18'W], (Bordat Montabo [sic]) 1 immature male, Expedição Instituto Butantan col., 4 July 1955 (IBSP 3458); 1 female, Expedição Instituto Butantan col. (IBSP 3379); 1 female, Dr. Hoge col., 5 July 1951, in nest (IBSP 3377); Montsinery [4°53'N, 52°30'W], Emerald Jungle Village, 1 female, 3 males, J. Moonen col., 12 August 1998 (AMNH RW57, RW56, RW58, RW59, respectively), RW59 and RW58 on lodge roof beam; 1 female, R. C. West col., April 1999 (AMNH RW55); Saint-Georges-de-l’Oyapock [3°53'N, 51°48'W] (Oyapock [sic]), 1 male, F. Geay, 1900 (MNHN–AR 1293); Sinnamary [5°22'N, 52°57'W] (Linamany [sic]), 1 female, 1 male, 1 juvenile female, Expedição Instituto Butantan col. (IBSP 3396, IBSP 3398, IBSP 3397); Saint Laurent du Maroni: Saint Laurent du Maroni [5°29'N, 54°01'W] (du Maroni [sic], ?), 1 female, Gambey col. (MNHN–AR 4901); Saint Jean [5°24'N, 54°4'W] (Saint-Jean-du-Maroni [sic]), 1 male, 1 spiderling, R. Benoit col., March–April 1914 (MNHN–AR 4896); BRAZIL: Amapá: no further information, 1 male, F. Baia col., ref. 65469 (IBSP 8846); 2 males, 2 females, Dr. Hoge col., 4 August 1966 (IBSP 3760); Macapá [0°02'N, 51°04'W], Fazendinha, 1 male, 1 immature male, Dr. Hoge col., 4 August 1965 (IBSP 3736); 1 juvenile female, P. Magno col., October 1997 (MNRJ 12923); 1 male (MNRJ 12912); 6 males, C. Costa, P. Magno & C. A. Júlio col., 20 August 1996 (MNRJ 13659); Parque Zoobotânico (IEPA), 2 immatures, P. Magno, C. E. Alvarenga & C. Costa col., October 1995 (MNRJ 13653); Pacoval [0°33'N, 51°03'W], 1 male, Dr. Hoge col., 21 January 1966 (IBSP 3755); 1 female, 2 juvenile females, Dr. Hoge col., 26 September 1966 (IBSP 3795, IBSP 3797); Serra do Navio [1°38'S, 52°16'W], 1 male (IBSP 3685); 3 males, K. Lenko col., 8 November 1957 (IBSP 3490); Paredão Pacoval, 1 male, Dr. Hoge col., 4 March 1965 (IBSP 3704); 1 female, March 1985 (MNRJ 13526); 1 juvenile female, 7 immatures, 1 spiderling, March 1985 (MNRJ 13597); Laranjal do Jari [1°05'N, 53°13'W], Cachoeira do Santo Antônio, Rio Jari, 2 juvenile females, J. A. P. Barreiros col., 18–24 February 2003 (MPEG 0174); Amazonas: Fazenda São Francisco, 300 km subindo o Rio Negro, 1 male, G. Ilutseh col., 27 May 1982 (IBSP 4814); Pará: no further information, 1 female, J. C. Branner col., 1881 (CAS); Altamira [3°11'S, 52°12'W], trilha caverna clinas, Ponto 2, 1 female, A. P. L. Giupponi & D. Pedroso col., 10 April 2009 (MNRJ 13993); Ponto 2 , Cararaô, 2 females, A. P. L. Giupponi & D. Pedroso col., 10 April 2009 (MNRJ 13994, MNRJ 1400); Ponto 5, Paratipuã, 1 female, A. P. L. Giupponi & D. Pedroso col., 12 April 2009 (MNRJ 13995); Acampamento do Juruá, 2 females, 2 immatures, A. J. Cardoso, C. F. B. Haddad & M. Gordo col., 03–18 December 1986 (ZUEC); Ananindeua [1°21'S, 48°22'W], 1 female, R. F. da Silva col., 30 January 1975 (MPEG 5399); BR 316, Km 06, R. F. da Silva col., 1 male, 10 November 1996 (MPEG 5127); Socêgo [sic], Bacia do Sol, 1 female, 1 immature, March 1956 (IBSP 3781); Barcarena [1°34'S, 48°35'W], Ilha das Onças, Rio Piramanha, 2 males, E. Santos col., 19–20 April 2003 (MPEG 0172); Belém [1°27'S, 48°30'W], 3 females, 1 juvenile female, P. Cerveira col., refs 63979, 63999 (IBSP 8849, IBSP 8854, IBSP 8853, IBSP 8855, respectively); 1 juvenile female, Eq. Resgate de Fauna col., ref. 55334-3 (IBSP 8571); 1 female, 2 males (IBSP 3578); 1 immature male, 4 females (IBSP 3772); 1 male, 2 females and 1 immature (IBSP 3780); 1 male, 1 female, 15 June 1966 (IBSP 3770); 3 females, 1 immature, 15 June 1966 (IBSP 3771); 2 females, 15 June 1966 (IBSP 3779); 1 male, R. Cerqueira col., 1972 (ZUEC); 1 male, F. Lima col., 18 April 1989 (MCP 2702); 1 immature female, W. França col., 30 March 1987 (MCP 2697); 1 male, 2 January 2003 (MPEG 1108); C. Galeno col., 1 immature, June 1998 (AMNH RW14); Bairro de Souza, 1 male, L. M. Cunha col., 07 March 2005 (MPEG 5147); Base Aérea, 1 male, 1 female (IBSP 3687); Bragança, 1 immature, 15 June 1966 (IBSP 3777); campus de Pesquisa, 1 juvenile, J. Dias col., 30 March 1992 (MCP 2695); CPATU (em dendê), 2 males, Izaías col., 15 February 1984 (MPEG 135); Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA), 1 female, R. F. da Silva col., 03 November 1977 (MPEG 5089); EMBRAPA in dendê area, 1 female, 3 juveniles, 1 spiderling, October–November 1981, H. N. da Cunha col. (MNRJ 13012); Instituto Agronômico do Norte (IAN), 1 immature male, 1 female, 4 immatures, A. R. Hoge col., 29 October to 5 December 1958 (IBSP 3672); IPEAN, 1 male, J. Bushell col., 23 May 1967, Exline–Peck collection (CAS); Mocambo, 1 female, R. F. da Silva col., 14 November 1977 (MEPG 3074); Mocambo, Parque Regional de Manutenção, Parque Ambiental de Belém, CPPTU, 1 male, M. A. S. de Azevedo & J. N. Ferreira col., 31 March 2005 (MPEG 5155); Serraria, IPAN, 1 male, P. Waldir col., 06 December 1966 (MPEG 5107); Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA), 1 female, W. C. Carrasco col., 08 July 2004, F18 A43 B3 (MPEG 5295); 1 juvenile female, Mara col., 15 June 2005, F4 A18 B3 (MPEG 14221); 1 female, 14 June 2004 (MPEG 5188); Vila Ajutei, 1 male, Augusto Côrrea col., 14 July 2002 (MPEG 0170); Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, campus de pesquisa [01°27'S, 48°26'W], 1 male, W. França col., 04 June 1984 (MPEG 5120); 1 male, Jarilson col., June 2009 (MPEG 5299); 1 male, J. Dias col., 16 June 1986 (MPEG 5126); 1 female, D. F. Candiani col., April 2006 (MPEG 5300); 1 female, M. C. Santos-Costa col., 02 March 2005 (MPEG 5221); 1 male, L. S. Carvalho col., 18 Abril 2006 (MPEG 5098); 1 male, A. B. Bonaldo col., 24 July 2002 (MPEG 227); 1 male, D. F. Candiani col., 22 Abril 2004 (MPEG 5094); 1 male, 08 April 2002 (MEPG 5117); 1 male, 31 March 2009 (MPEG 5632); 1 male, 11 April 2005 (MPEG 5141); 2 males, D. F. Candiani col., 12 July 2004 (MPEG 5281); 1 male, A. B. Bonaldo col., 12 July 2002 (MPEG 160); 2 immatures, 25 May 1912, Bluntschli-Peyer coll. (AMNH 1.27, AMNH 1.3); 1 immature, Bluntschli-Peyer col., 25 June 1912, (AMNH 1.18); Icoaraci [1°18'S, 48°28'W], 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 10 March 1977 (MEPG 3082); 1 juvenile female, R. F. da Silva col., 05 July 1984, (MPEG 5131); 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 8 July 1977 (AMNH RW15); 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 18 May 1977 (AMNH RW18); 1 female, R. F. da Silva, 8 April 1977 (AMNH RW16); 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 8 July 1977 (AMNH RW17); Outeiro [1°16'S, 48°28'W], 1 juvenile female, R. F. da Silva col., 13 July 1978 (MEPG 5096); Universidade Federal do Pará (01°28'S, 48°27'W), 1 female, C. Castro col., 24 June 2005 (MPEG 4820); 1 male, L. T. Miglio col., 15 September 2002 (MPEG 1109); Utinga [1°25'S, 48°24'W], 1 immature, Oliveira & Wygodzinsky col., 10–21 November 1963 (AMNH 1.2); Belém, Ilha de Cotijuba (01°14'S, 48°35'W), 1 female, 27 August 2003 (MPEG 4701); 1 female, Cotijuba 0011 (MPEG 5291); 1 female, R. F. da Silva col., 17 March 1977 (MPEG 3073); 1 female, R. F. da Silva col., 26 December 1977 (MEPG 3030); 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 11 September 1977 (MPEG 3056); 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 11 September 1977 (MPEG 3057); Icoaraci,1 female, 01 July 2002 (MPEG 1111); Belém, Ilha de Jutuba [1°14'S, 48°31'W], 2 males, 3 females, R. F. da Silva col., 30 June 1977 (MPEG 3047, MPEG 3046, MPEG 3045, MPEG 3034, MPEG 3033, respectively); Belém, Ilha do Mosqueiro [1°06'S, 48°23'W], 1 female, 1 immature male, P. Cerveira col., December 1990, ref. 63979 (IBSP 7884, IBSP 7883); 1 male, M. L. Mocambira col., 15 December 1989 (MCP 2699); 2 juvenile females, B. Mascarenhas & team col., 19–25 April 1998 (MPEG 5392, MPEG 5395); Belém, Ilha Nova [2°12'S, 49°27'W], 2 males, 2 females, R. F. da Silva col., 20 June 1977 (MPEG 3040, MPEG 3043, MPEG 3071, MPEG 5090); 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 24 June 1977 (MPEG 3041); Belém, Ilha de Paquetá [1°16'S, 48°32'W], 2 females, R. F. da Silva col., 15 November 1977 (MPEG 3025, MPEG 3023); 1 juvenile female, R. F. da Silva col., 28 May 1977 (MPEG 5088); 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 15 September 1977 (MPEG 3052); 1 male, 1 female, R. F. da Silva col., 19 June 1977 (MPEG 3078, MPEG 3062); 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 15 May 1977 (AMNH RW21); 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 20 May 1977 (AMNH RW22); 1 immature male, R. F. da Silva col., 15 November 1977 (AMNH RW20); 1 juvenile female, R. F. da Silva col., 26 November 1977 (AMNH RW19); Belém, Ilha de Tatuoca [1°12'S, 48°30'W], 1 female, 23 March 1978 (MPEG 5105); 2 males, EPA col., August 1969 (MZUSP 10849); Belém, Ilha de Urubuoca [1°19'S, 48°27'W], 1 female, 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 28 July 1977 (MEPG 3036, MPEG 3313, respectively); Belterra [3°08'S, 55°03'W], 1 male, 18 December 2003 (MPEG 4703); Rio Assuá [?, unreadable], 1 female, H. Sioli col., May 1952 (IBSP 3130); Benevides [1°21'S, 48°14'W], Pratinha, Estrada do Açucareiro, 1 female, O. Cunha col., 19 February 1975 (MPEG 141); Breves [1°40'S, 50°28'W], Corcovado, 1 male, Expedição CDZ col., 18–19 October 1965 (IBSP 5688); Castanhal [1°17'S, 47°55'W], 1 female, O. Feassi col., Ref. 52599 (IBSP 8863); Ilha de Marajó [0°58'S, 49°35'W], 1 male, 1 female, 16 immatures, Instituto Agronômico col., 15 June 1966 (IBSP 3787, IBSP 3786, respectively); Santo André, 1 male, June–September 1912, Bluntschli-Peyer (AMNH 1.23); Cachoeira do Arari [1°0'S, 48°57'W], Jabuti, 1 female, L. Macambira col., 12 December 1990 (MPEG 0138); Itaituba [04°16'S, 55°59'W], 1 female (MZUSP 27659); Itupiranga [5°08'S, 49°19'W], campus avançado da UFPA, 3 females, 2 immatures, A. R. Hoge & P. Villela col., December 1971 (IBSP 4097); Jacareacanga [07°15'S, 57°26'W], 1 immature male (IBSP 3538); (Jacare-acanga [sic]), 1 spiderling, M. Alvarenga col., December 1968 (AMNH 1.20); Aproeste, km 350 da Transamazônica, 1 female, B. V. Rodrigues & N. Abrahim col., 27 October 2009 (MPEG 15640); Jatobal [5°08'S, 56°51'W], 3 males, January 1975 (IBSP 7896); Juruti [2°09'S, 56°05'W], Ferrovia Km 07, 1 immature female, A. C. Lima & F. E. Pimenta col., 17 Maio 2007, JURU 006 0286 (MPEG 15635); Ferrovia km 36, 1 female, A. Lima & F. Pimenta col., 24 May 2007, JURU 0060268 (MPEG 15636); Platô Capiranga, Linha 168E (02°28'22.1"S, 56°12'29.4"W), 1 male (MPEG 15639); Juruti, Acampamento Barroso (02°28'10.5"S, 56°00'3.5"W), 1 male, D. F. Candiani col., 07 August 2004, ref. JURU002 0044 (MPEG 2000); 2 males, 1 female, D. R. Santos-Souza col., 12 July 2002, ref. JURU 002 0084 (MPEG 2003, MPEG 2006, respectively); 1 female, D. F. Candiani col., 12 July 2002, ref. JURU 002 0083 (MPEG 2009); Juruti, Acampamento Mutum (01°36'44.77"S, 56°11'39.2"W), 1 juvenile female, 1 immature male, D. F. Candiani and D. R. Santos-Souza col., 03 August 2004, ref. Juruti 2004 (MPEG 15634); Marabá [5°22'S, 49°07'W], Transamazônica, 3 males, J. Navas col., 15 March 1975 (IBSP 4190); 1 female, M. F. Torres col., 14 September 1985 (MPEG 4231); 1 male, P. Tumma col., 8 October 1973 (IBSP 2495); Melgaço, Estação Científica Ferreira Penna, FLONA Caxiuanã [2°01'S, 51°39'W], 1 female, A. B. Bonaldo col., 21–30 November 2000 (MPEG 1923); Mocajuba [2°34'S, 49°30'W], Praia do Imbaubal, 1 male, 17 June 1984 (MPEG 5104); Monte Alegre [1°59'S, 54°04'W], Lagoa Grande, 1 immature, P. de Biasi col., 10 March 1979, ref. 24.434 (IBSP 4408); Óbidos [1°54'S, 55°31'W], 1 female, E. Garbe col., 1920 (MZUSP 10856, old collection number 556); Oriximiná [1°45'S, 55°51'W], 1 immature male, 1 March 1968, EPA col. (MZUSP 10850); 1 immature, in pineapple, EPA col., 13 January 1968 (MZUSP 10854); Porto Trombetas [1°28'S, 56°22'W], 1 male (IBSP 8847); Ourém [1°29'S, 47°10'W], Patauateua, 1 juvenile female, D. D. Guimarães col., 06 December 2002 (MPEG 213); Paragominas [3°00'S, 47°21'W], Fazenda Brejeiro, 1 male, C. Junqueira Netto col., 5 October 1970, ref. 5741 (IBSP 84); Canindé [2°33'S, 46°30'W] (Canindé, Maranhão [sic]), 1 immature female, May to August 1965, J. Carvalho col. (AMNH 1.16); Rio Cuminá Mirim [1°14'N, 55°52'W], As Pedras, 1 female, 1 immature, EPA col., 29 September to 4 October 1969 (MZUSP 1085); Rio Tocantins [02°04'S, 49°18'W], Ilhas das Cobras, Castanheira, 1 female, A. J. da Silva col. (MPEG 5100); Rio Trombetas [1°28'S, 56°22'W], 3 males, 2 females, 1 immature male, F. Palinger col., (IBSP 8762, IBSP 8761, IBSP 8759, respectively); Jacaré, 3 males, female, Expedição CDZ col., 20 September to 13 October 1965 (IBSP 5687); Santarém [2°26'S, 54°41'W], 1 female, E. Garbe col. (MZUSP 10864, old collection number 557); 1 male, G. Puorto col., December 1996 (IBSP 8578); Fazenda Taperinha, 1 female, EPA col., 1–11 February 1968 (MZUSP 10859); 1 female, 1–11 February 1968, E.P.A. col. [handwritten label], or Manaus, Lenko col., 12 September 1962, forest [museum label] (MZUSP 10858); Santo Antônio do Tauá [1°09'S, 48°07'W], Uxitena, 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 07 April 1977 (MPEG 3076); Tomé-Açu [2°25'S, 48°09'W], Roda D’Água (capoeira), 1 female, J. Dias col., 19 June 1994 (MEPG 143); UHE Tucuruí [3°46'S, 49°40'W], Equipe de Resgate de Fauna col.: 2 males, 1 female, ERF col., 1984, IBA 243 (IBSP 7898); 1 female, ERF col., ref. 48286 (IBSP 8845); 1 female, ERF col., 1984, ref. IBA 383 (IBSP 7880); 1 male, ERF col.,1984, ref. IBA 1002 (IBSP 7879); 1 female, ERF col., 1984, ref. 47607 (IBSP 7882); 2 females, ERF col., 1984, ref. IBA 283 (IBSP 7887); 1 female, ERF col., ref. IBA 600 (IBSP 8851); 1 female, ERF col., ref. CB-1 (IBSP 8568); 1 female, ERF col., (IBSP IBA 380); 1 female, born in capitivity, died in 06 July 1993 (IBSP IBA 083-43); 1 female, ERF col., IBA 599 (IBSP 8850); 1 female, ERF col., 12 December 1984 (IBSP 4832); 1 female, ERF col., ref. 34C XXXV (IBSP 8857); 1 male, ERF col., ref. 48286 (IBSP 8848); 1 male, ERF col., ref. 47607 (IBSP 8573); 1 male, ERF col., 18 November 1986, IBA 860 (IBSP 4925-B); 2 males, ERF col., ref. CB-1 (IBSP 8579); 1 male, ERF col.(IBSP 8575); 2 females, ERF col. (IBSP 8843); 1 male, ERF col., ref. B5677 (IBSP 8580); 1 male, ERF col., 4 June 1987, IBA 277 (IBSP 8566); 1 female, ERF col., 1984, ref. IBA 283 (IBSP 7888); 1 female, ERF col., August 1984, ref. IBA 734 (IBSP 7877); 1 female, ERF col., ref. IBA 283 (IBSP 8862); 1 male, in bromeliad in a tree (21 m from the soil), C. Pantoja col., 28 June 1984 (IBSP 7916); 1 male, Equipe de Resgate de Fauna col., 1984, IBA 292 (IBSP 7885); 1 male, Equipe de Resgate de Fauna col., 1984, ref. 47607 (IBSP 7881); picada do Inajá, A3, lote 8, 1 female, B. Mascarenhas col., 20 June 1980 (MZUSP 9480); Base 4, Bravo, 1 female, Operação Resgate Faunístico col., 12 December 1984 (IBSP 4832); Vila Bravo, 1 female, Equipe de Resgate de Fauna col., ref. XXXVII-87 base 4 (IBSP 8844); Vila Cisipé, 1 male, Equipe Resgate de Fauna col., ref. 47607 (IBSP 8572); Ilha de Tocantins, Equipe de Resgate de Fauna col.: 1 female, ref. IBA 389 (IBSP 8861); 1 female, ERF col., ref. IBA 599 (IBSP 8569); 1 female, 2 June 1986, ERF col., ref. IBA 1013 (IBSP 8852); 1 female (IBSP ref. IBA 283); Breu Branco [3°45'S, 49°33'W], 1 male, died 20 February 1986 (IBSP CB1 - XV); 1 male, Equipe de Resgate de Fauna col., ref CBI V (IBSP 8565); Vigia [0°51'S, 48°08'W] (Vigia de Nazaré [sic]), Hospital UBSO IV, 1 male, 03 July 2005 (MPEG 5189); UBS V, 1 male, J. F. Maia col., 30 August 2005 (MPEG 5144); Maranhão: São Luís [2°31'S, 44°18'W], 1 female, G. R. Ristan Filho col., 29 February 1996, ref. 78226 (IBSP 8244); 1 female, ref. 78226 (IBSP unnumbered); Bacabal [4°13'S, 44°47'W], Lago Verde, 1 female, R. Neto col., 03 February 1983 (MPEG 5106); Palmeirândia [2°40'S, 44°54'W], 1 female, Dr. Hoge, Pedro and Joaquim col., 7–30 May 1962 (IBSP 3622); Fazenda São Luís, 1 female, 1 immature male, Dr. Hoge, Pedro & Joaquim col., 7–30 May 1962 (IBSP 3621); São Bento [2°41'S, 44°49'W], 1 immature male, 1 female, Dr. Hoge, Pedro & Joaquim col., 7–30 May 1962 (IBSP 3623, IBPS 3618); Mato Grosso: Alta Floresta [9°52'S, 56°05'W], 1 male, F. Palinger col. (IBSP 8768); PERU: Madre de Dios: Cuenca Rio Los Amigos [12°34'S, 70°06'W], 1 male (UA 003/2005); 1 female (UA 042/2006); 1 female (UA 007/2005); Aguajal [12°15'S, 69°16'S], CICRA, 1 female, 21 March 2006 (UA 041/2006); 1 male (UA 005/2005); 1 male (UA 002/2005); Puerto Maldonado [12°36'S, 69°41'W], 15 km East, Rio Madre de Dios, Albergue Lodge Cuzco Amazônico, 200 m, 1 female, G. C. Hunter col, 8 June 1983 (CAS10); La Cachuela (12°33'S, 69°11'W), 1 male and 2 females, H.–W. Auer col., September–October 2013 (MUSM–ENT 0506819); Tambopata [12°34'S, 69°11'W], 1 female, R. Bennett col., August 1994, in silk retreat on palm trees (AMNH RW47); Reserva Tambopata–Candamo [12°59'S, 69°36'W], Albergue Explorer’s Inn, 1 male and 1 female, K. J. N. Villa leg., 2005 (MZUSP 70948); BOLIVIA: Beni: Yucumo [15°08'S, 67°02'W], Aserradero Chaparina, 7 km from Yucumo, path to San Borja, prov. J. Ballivian, 1 male, J. Peñaranda col., 9 July 1991 (MNRJ 06918); 1 female, same data (MNRJ 06919); Pando: Manuripi, Camalho 15 km northwest Puesto Castañero, Chivé [12°23'S, 68°34'W], bosque alto, 1 female, F. Guerra col., 30 September 1991 (MNRJ 06916); La Paz: Iturralde [12°54'S, 67°45'W], Estância El Dorado, UMSA, Instituto de Ecologia, 1 immature male, S. Beck col., 28 February 1984 (MNRJ 06917); Santa Cruz: San Antonio del Parapeti [20°01'S, 63°13'W], 1 male, B. Malkin col., 24–25 May 1985 (AMNH Bo01).

Female

Redescription. MNRJ 13995. Carapace: 19.39 long, 17.68 wide, 5.5 high. Chelicera: 8.40 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 14.66, 8.55, 11.65, 10.56, 8.25, 53.67. II: 14.04, 8.15, 10.56, 10.22, 3.55, 46.55. III: 13.55, 8.20, 10.55, 10.66, 3.11, 46.01. IV: 17.56, 8.65, 14.65, 13.66, 8.12, 62.64. Palp: 10.42, 8.65, 8.76, -, 8.62, 36.45. Midwidth: femora I–IV= 3.45, 3.21, 4.05, 3.50, palp= 2.56; patellae I–IV= 3.66, 3.55, 3.15, 3.50, palp= 3.05; tibiae I–IV= 3.37, 2.56, 3.26, 3.17, palp= 2.62; metatarsi I–IV= 2.45, 2.35, 2.40, 2.35; tarsi I–IV= 2.61, 2.65, 2.53, 2.30, palp= 2.55. Abdomen: 26.37 long, 17.56 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 2.99 long, 1.62 wide, 0.1 apart; PLS, 2.04 basal, 1.71 middle, 4.07 distal; width 2.73, 2.3, 1.72, respectively.

Carapace: 1.10 times longer than wide; cephalic region slightly raised, thoracic striae inconspicuous.

Fovea: deep, straight, 2.27 wide.

Eyes: eye tubercle 1.30 high, 2.62 long, 3.52 wide. Clipeus: 0.53. Anterior eye row procurve, posterior slightly recurve. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.73, ALE 0.85, PME 0.26, PLE 0.74, AMEAME 0.57, AMEALE 0.48, AMEPME 0.27, ALEALE 2.35, ALEPME 0.58, PMEPME 2.15, PMEPLE 0.14, PLEPLE 2.86, ALEPLE 0.38; AMEPLE 0.60.

Maxilla: length to width 1.86. Cuspules: 164 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: 2.07 long, 3.46 wide, with 82 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other on anterior third. Labio-sternal groove swallow, flat, with two slightly separate, large sigilla.

Chelicera: basal segment with 11 teeth in row and some small teeth on promargin. Sternum: 9.07 long, 8.08 wide. Sigilla: three pairs, posterior and middle rounded, anterior small, all less than one diameter from margin.

Legs: Formula: IV I II III. Length leg IV to leg I: 1.16. Clavate trichobothria: 2/3 distal tarsi I–IV. Scopulae: Tarsi I–IV fully scopulate; IV with a few sparse setae. Metatarsi I–II fully scopulate; III 2/3 distal; IV 1/3 distal. IV divided by rows of setae.

Type II urticating hairs: 0.62–0.69 long, 0.017–0.019 wide.

Spermathecae (Fig. 21): two completely separated, not-twisted and long spermathecae, with walls lacking projections or lobes and accentuated outwards curvature medially. Midwidth as wide as its base width and weakly-sclerotized area shorter than half the length of well-sclerotized area.

Color pattern (Fig. 36): carapace brown with brown short body setae with green sheen. Carapace border with long reddish brown setae with pink sheen. Coxae, labium, sternum and maxillae brown, slightly darker than ventral femora. Legs and palps with brown short body setae with green sheen and reddish brown guard-setae with homogeneous dark coloration on anterior legs and guard-setae with darker base and contrasting whitish apex on posterior legs. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi whitish. Abdomen dorsum with long reddish brown guard-setae with pink sheen grouped on lateral dorsal anterior areas and dark short body setae. Ventral abdomen brown.

Figures 21–27.

Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758), spermathecae variation. 21 morphotype 1, Altamira, state of Pará, Brazil (MNRJ 13995) 22 morphotype 2, UHE Tucuruí, state of Pará, Brazil (IBSP 4885) 23 morphotype 3, Puerto Cabello, state of Carabobo, Venezuela (MNHN–AR 4883) 24 morphotype 4, Cuenca Rio Los Amigos, department of Madre de Dios, Peru (UA 0042/2006) 25 morphotype 5, Yucumo, department of Beni, Bolivia (MNRJ 06919) 26 morphotype 6, Paramaribo, district of Paramaribo, Suriname (AMNH Su59) 27 morphotype 7, Juruti, state of Pará, Brazil (MPEG 15640). Scale bars = 1 mm.

Male

Redescription. MNRJ 13659A. Carapace: 17.23 long, 16.81 wide, 4.9 high. Chelicera: 7.2 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 15.4, 8.6, 11.8, 11.7, 6.9, 54.4. II: 14.8, 7.7, 11.7, 11.5, 6.7, 52.4. III: 13.2, 6.7, 10.2, 11.5, 6.6, 48.2. IV: 16.2, 7.9, 14.7, 15.6, 6.9, 61.3. Palp: 9.4, 5.3, 7.0, –, 2.9, 24.6. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 3.0, 2.8, 3.4, 3.1, palp= 2.2; patellae I–IV= 3.1, 3.1, 2.8, 3.2, palp= 2.3; tibiae I–IV= 2.3, 2.2, 2.2, 2.6, palp= 2.2; metatarsi I–IV=1.7, 1.6, 1.5, 1.8; tarsi I–IV= 2.0, 1.9, 1.8, 1.6, palp= 2.2. Abdomen: 19.83 long, 13.39 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.75 long, 0.80 wide, 0.1 apart; PLS, 2.82 basal, 2.04 middle, 3.56 distal; width: 1.88, 1.55, 1.15, respectively.

As in female, except:

Carapace: 1.03 times longer than wide; cephalic region slightly raised, thoracic striae inconspicuous.

Fovea: deep, straight, 1.70 wide.

Eyes: eye tubercle 1.60 high, 2.23 long, 3.33 wide. Clypeus 0.22 wide. Eyes size and interdistances: AME 0.71, ALE 0.77, PME 0.27, PLE 0.700, AMEAME 0.62, AMEALE 0.48, AMEPME 0.22, ALEALE 2.24, ALEPME 0.78, PMEPME 1.99, PMEPLE 0.12, PLEPLE 2.58, ALEPLE 0.46, AMEPLE 0.51.

Maxilla: length to width: 2.13. Cuspules: 157 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: 1.73 long, 2.40 wide, with 94 cuspules.

Chelicerae: basal segment with 10 teeth in row and some small teeth on promargin. Sternum: 8.58 long, 7.35 wide. Sigilla: three pairs, all rounded and large, less than one diameter from margin.

Legs: Length leg IV to leg I: 1.13. Metatarsi I–II fully scopulate, III scopulate in distal 2/3; IV, in distal 1/3. IV divided by wide row of setae.

Type II urticating hairs: 0.94–1.09 long, 0.020–0.025 wide.

Palp (Figs 28–31): globous bulb with small subtegulum and developed prominence on tegulum. Embolus: not flattened, lacking keels, 4.99 long in retrolateral view, about 3.0 times tegulum’s length. Medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view (Fig. 323). Proximal part very curved in frontal view; thin distal width, abruptly narrowing distally; basal, middle, and distal width 0.49, 0.21, 0.07, respectively. Tegulum: 2.66 long, 1.72 high in retrolateral view. Cymbium subtriangular with subequal lobes, with well-developed rounded process on retrolateral lobe, bearing thick setae (Fig. 32).

Tibial apophysis (Figs 33–35): single branch on prolateral leg I, with well-developed base and grouped spiniform setae distally. Male metatarsus I touches retrolaterally tibial apophysis’ setae when folded.

Color pattern: carapace brown with brown short body setae with green and golden sheen. Carapace border with long setae the same color as dorsal carapace short body setae. Coxae, labium, sternum and maxillae brown, slightly darker than ventral femora. Legs and palps with brown short body setae with green sheen and reddish brown guard-setae with homogeneous dark coloration on anterior legs and guard-setae with darker base and contrasting whitish apex on posterior legs. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi whitish. Abdomen dorsum with long reddish brown guard-setae with pink sheen and dark short body setae. Ventral abdomen brown.

Figures 28–35.

Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758), male (MNRJ 13659A). 28–31 right palpal bulb (mirrored) 28 prolateral 29 retrolateral 30 frontal 31 dorsal 32 right cymbium, dorsal view (mirrored) 33–35 right tibial apophysis of leg I (mirrored) 33 prolateral 34 ventral 35 retrolateral. Scale bars = 1 mm.

Figures 36–43.

Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758) morphotypes. 36–37 morphotype 1 36 female from Castanhal, state of Pará, Brazil 37 immature from Santarém, state of Pará, Brazil 38 morphotype 2, female from Tucuruí, state of Pará, Brazil 39 morphotype 3, female from Caracas, Distrito Capital, Venezuela 40 morphotype 4, female from Tambopata, department of Madre de Dios, Peru 41 morphotype 5, preserved female from Manuripi, department of Pando, Bolivia 42–43 morphotype 6 42 female from Montsinery, department of Cayenne, French Guiana 43 male from Georgetown, department of Demerara-Mahaica, Guyana. Photos: 36 R. Bertani; 37 M. Gamache, 38 W. Bokermann; 39–40, 42–43 R. C. West; 41 C. S. Fukushima.

Color pattern ontogeny

Brownish juveniles lacking metallic sheen, black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles and abdomen dorsum reddish, with dorsal central longitudinal black stripe disconnected from transversal black stripes (Figs 37, 44, 47). When mature, both males and females lose this pattern.

Distribution

Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil (states of Amapá, Pará, Maranhão, Amazonas, Mato Grosso), and populations in Peru and Bolivia (Fig. 50). Possibly, on an opposite pattern to A. rufa, A. avicularia is rarer in western Brazil, the area connected to the region where occur A. avicularia in Peru and Bolivia. This disjunct distribution pattern of A. avicularia can be better understand only after sampling or having access to material from poorly sampled areas such as western Amazon (near Brazil-Peru-Colombia border), and Bolivia and Peru as a whole.

Figures 44–49.

Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758) morphotypes. 44–46 morphotype 6, from Trinidad and Tobago 44 immature 45 female 46 male 47–49 morphotype 7, from Juruti, state of Pará, Brazil 47 immature 48 female 49 male. Photos: 44–46 R. C. West; 47–49 F. E. Pimenta.

Figure 50.

Map showing records of Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758) and Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945.

Natural history

Stradling (1994) studied distribution and behavioral ecology of a population of A. avicularia in Trinidad. The author reported that retreats were found in different situations on vegetation and in human constructions. He found first eight instars specimens predominantly between leaves of low-growing plants (especially in Heliconia Linnaeus), holding edges of leaves together with silk to create retreat. After this life stage, Stradling (1994) noted spiders tended to build their retreats in more elevated structures, not incorporating leaves in retreat. Stradling (1994) recorded capture of katydids, cockroaches, scarabs and lizards by A. avicularia and also observed courtship behavior with males maturing in beginning of rainy season, in May and June. Females lay the eggsac in May, and after an incubation period ranging from 29 to 62 days, about 125 spiderlings hatch (Stradling 1994).

Bates (1863) observed a scene similar to the one depicted by Merian (1705) in Cametá, state of Pará, Brazil. He observed A. avicularia specimen actively feeding on a small bird inside its webbed retreat on a tree, and also the existence of another small bird inside the spider’s retreat.

F. O. Pickard-Cambridge (1896) observed that adults constructed their retreat in “almost any locality which offered a more or less vacant cylindrical space”, including hollow stumps of Açai palm, folded leaves of bananas, in the hollow center of a pineapple plant and among the palm-leaf thatch of native houses.

Villa (2004) observed in areas at Tambopata district in Peru retreats of A. avicularia built on trunks and in axils of palm tree Attalea butyracea (Mutis ex L.f.) Wess. Boer and also in Heliconia psittacorum L. plant. The reproduction period in that area is in September and October (Villa 2004).

Figure 51.

Map showing records of Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758) morphotypes.

Variation

Specimens of A. avicularia show different patterns of coloration which seems to be correlated with their geographical distribution. However, genitalic and somatic characters are very homogeneous along the distribution of the species. Variations among different populations concerning color patterns are, herein, discussed. We do not consider the detected differences sufficient to elevate each morphotype to species status. Nonetheless, we do not discard the possibility of they corresponding to criptic species. In order to establish more accurate limits in A. avicularia, it is necessary to employ multiple approaches, considering molecular, ecological, behavioral and geographic data.

Besides body coloration, there is urticating setae variation. Females of morphotype 5 have urticating setae with developed barbs along almost all lengths (Fig. 17), different from the other morphotypes (Fig. 16). However, as we had only access to three specimens it is not possible to make more considerations about it.

Avicularia avicularia morphotypes: characteristics and geographical distribution.

Morpho
1 (Fig. 36)
Morpho
2 (Fig. 38)
Morpho
3 (Fig. 39)
Morpho
4 (Fig. 40)
Morpho
5 (Fig. 41)
Morpho
6 (Figs 4246)
Morpho
7 (Figs 47–49)
Occurrence area
(Fig. 51)
Brazil, Guyana, French Guiana, Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago Brazil: states of Pará, Maranhão and Mato Grosso Venezuela Peru: department of Madre de Dios. Bolivia: departments of Santa Cruz, La Paz and Beni. Brazil, Guyana, French Guiana, Suriname, Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago Brazil: states of Pará and Amapá.
Overall aspect brownish brownish brownish brown reddish greyish greyish light brownish
Legs and palps guard-setae discrete grizzled or not grizzled discrete grizzled or not grizzled discrete grizzled or not grizzled not grizzled discrete grizzled or not grizzled very grizzled very grizzled
Legs and palps short body setae brown with very intense green sheen brown with discrete golden sheen brown with golden sheen brown with green and pink sheen brown with very intense green sheen brown with very intense green sheen brown with discrete golden sheen
Leg rings whitish whitish whitish whitish pale yellowish whitish whitish
Females: abdomen, guard-setae, color reddish with pink sheen reddish brown reddish brown reddish brown reddish brown, gradually lightening from base to tip orange brownish, with whitish tip
Females: posterior legs, guard-setae color vivid red vivid red reddish vivid red greyish greyish vivid orange
Males: abdomen, guard-setae, color dark brownish dark brownish dark brownish dark brownish dark brownish dark brownish, some with whitish tip dark brownish, some with whitish tip

Remark

Valerio (1979) reported the presence of A. avicularia in Costa Rica (Fig. 19). In fact, the male palpal bulb and spermathecae illustrated by the author are compatible with Avicularia species. However, the specimens from Costa Rica reported by Valerio (1979) were examined and are more similar to A. purpurea than to the larger species of Avicularia. See discussion in Avicularia glauca taxonomy.

Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891

Figs 19, 52–53

Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891: 312 (holotype female, Panama, MNHN–AR 4897, examined); F. O. Pickard-Cambridge 1896: 744, 1899: 42; Petrunkevitch 1911: 50; Mello-Leitão 1923: 377; Roewer 1942: 254; Bonnet 1955: 831; World Spider Catalog 2016.

Remark

The examined specimen is not labeled as holotype. However, it is the only specimen in Simon’s collection in which locality and size are compatible with the description (Simon 1891). Therefore, we consider it as the holoype.

The small specimen (carapace length 9.7 mm) has tarsal and metatarsal scopulae expanded, giving a spatulated aspect, characteristic of Aviculariinae (Fig. 52). A single spermatheca is present: the other is supposed lost. It has an accentuated outwards curvature medially and lacks lobes, as most species of Avicularia (Fig. 53). Thus, it undoubtedly belongs to Avicularia. Its spermatheca has a short, well-sclerotized area that resembles the spermathecae of A. purpurea, with which it seems to be very closely related. Furthermore, it has the overall metallic green color exhibited by young and small specimens of A. purpurea. The specimens found in Costa Rica and reported by Valerio (1979) as A. avicularia were examined by the second author (RB). They are, in fact, definitely not A. avicularia. Despite many searches, we did not find any other specimen from Panama or Costa Rica in other arachnological collections, indicating Avicularia is a rare genus in southern Central America. Therefore, we conclude that A. glauca can be a valid species from Panama and Costa Rica. The identity of Costa Rica’s Avicularia will be better discussed in another paper, in preparation with a Costa Rican colleague.

Figures 52–53.

Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, holotype female (MNHN–AR 4897). 52 habitus 53 spermathecae.

Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896), stat. n.

Figs 16, 19, 54–57, 58–65, 66–73, 74–75, 76, 77, 315, 317

Avicularia avicularia variegata F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896: 743, pl. 33, fig. 12 (lectotype female, here designated, Brazil, Amazonas, Itacoatiara [3°07'S, 58°26'W], Lower Amazon, January 1896, BMNH 1896.12.13.16; and paralectotype female, here designated, Brazil, Amazonas, Itacoatiara [3°07'S, 58°26'W], in banana tree, 7 February 1896, BMNH 1896.12.13.17; examined); Strand 1907b: 90; Petrunkevitch 1911: 49; Mello-Leitão 1923: 326, 376; Roewer 1942: 254; Bücherl 1957: 404; World Spider Catalog 2016.

Avicularia bicegoi Mello-Leitão, 1923: 329, figs 187, 189 (holotype subadult female, Brazil, Amazonas, Manaus [03°06'S, 60°01'W], Bicego col., MZUSP 133, examined); Roewer 1942: 254; Bonnet 1955: 830; Bücherl 1957: 404, figs 92–92a; World Spider Catalog 2016. Syn. n.

Remarks

Avicularia bicegoi holotype has spermatheca midwidth expanded, about 1.5 times its basal and apical portion widths (Fig. 57); leg IV as long as leg I; whitish leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi, and the type locality is Manaus, Amazonas. These characteristics match A. variegata stat. n.; thus, we consider A. bicegoi Mello-Leitão, 1923 junior synonym of A. variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n.

Diagnosis

Females of A. variegata stat. n. resemble A. juruensis and A. taunayi by the spermatheca midwidth expanded, about 1.5 times its basal and apical portion widths (Figs 54–57). They differ from females of A. taunayi by lacking lobes on spermathecae. Females can be distinguished from those of A. juruensis by the abdomen with vivid reddish brown guard-setae with pink sheen grouped on lateral and dorsal anterior areas, contrasting with the black short body setae and black venter (morphotype 1) (Fig. 70) or by legs and carapace with golden short body setae with green sheen, and pale yellow rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi (morphotype 2) (Fig. 74). Males of A. variegata stat. n. resemble those of A. avicularia, A. rufa, A. juruensis, A. taunayi, A. purpurea and A. merianae sp. n. by having tibial apophysis on leg I with well-developed base and grouped spiniform setae distally (Fig. 63). They differ from males of all these species except A. juruensis by the well-developed prominence on tegulum (Fig. 60). Males and females of A. variegata stat. n. can be distinguished from A. juruensis by lacking intense purple sheen on carapace and legs (Figs 70, 71, 74, 75) or by occurrence area: Brazil, state of Amazonas (especially Manaus region) to state of Roraima, and Venezuela (Fig. 76).

Figures 54–57.

Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n., spermathecae variation. 54 morphotype 1, Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil (INPA 4894) 55 holotype, Itacoatiara, state of Amazonas, Brazil (BMNH 1896.12.13.16) 56 morphotype 2, Alto Alegre, state of Roraima, Brazil (MZUSP 70946) 57 holotype of Avicularia bicegoi Mello-Leitão, 1923, Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil (MZUSP 133). Scale bars = 1 mm.

Material examined

1 female, Brazil, Amazonas, Manaus [03°06'S, 60°01'W], Parquejo, R. Oliveira-Filho col., 27 May 2008 (INPA 4894); 1 male, Brazil, Amazonas, Manaus [03°06'S, 60°01'W], Praça 14, M. P. Sena col., 27 March 1980 (INPA 4897).

Figures 58–65.

Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n., male (INPA 4897). 58–61 left palpal bulb 58 prolateral 59 retrolateral 60 frontal 61 dorsal 62 left cymbium, dorsal 63–65 left tibial apophysis of leg I 63 prolateral 64 ventral 65 retrolateral. Scale bars = 1 mm.

Additional material

VENEZUELA: 1 juvenile female, D. Grimaldi col., March 1989 (AMNH Ve21); Distrito Capital: Caracas [10°29'N, 66°54'W], Avila Mountains, 1 juvenile female and 1 immature, on trees, C. Siederman col., August 1991, (AMNH Ve18); Monagas: Caripito [10°06'N, 63°06'W], 1 male, 15–31 March 1942, Venezuela Expedition, Dept. Tropical Research, N. Y. Zool. Society, W. Beebe col., high and low jungle trails (AMNH Ve31); Amazonas: Puerto Ayacucho [5°39'N, 67°38'W], reg. 22, 2 males, in trees, C. Siederman col., May 1993 (AMNH Ve29); BRAZIL: Roraima: Alto Alegre [2°53'N, 61°29'W], 1 female, C. M. Moraes ded., April 2013, (MZUSP 70946); Amajari, Vila Tepequém (03°47'54"N, 61°44'57"W), 1 male, 17 November 2008, Yamaguti & Pinto da Rocha col. (MZUSP 70945); Boa Vista [2°49'N, 60°40'W], Balneário Água Boa, 1 male, 6h00, S. M. B. Lima col., 02 January 2002 (MNRJ 12968); Caracaraí, Estação Ecológica Niquiá [1°49'N, 61°07'W], Hotel Ecotur, 1 immature male, 07 October 2001 (IBSP 11270); Ilha de Maracá [3°25'N, 61°39'W], 2 males, A. B. Bonaldo col., 31 January to 14 February 1992 (MCP 1969); 2 males, A. Lise leg., 13 January to 14 February 1992 (MCP 1968); Amapá: Macapá, 4 km from Pacoval [0°02'N, 51°04'W], 1 female, Dr. Hoge col., 4 August 1965 (IBSP 3837); [0°03'S, 49°33'W], 1 female, 4 August 1965, Dr. Hoge col., died 26 June 1968 (IBSP 3873); Amazonas: Coari, Porto Urucu, Base de Operações Geólogo Pedro de Moura, (4°45'47"S, 65°02'41"W), 1 male, Dias et al. col., 2006 (MPEG 15633); (4°48'45"S, 65°02'01"W), 1 male, L. T. Miglio col., 09 July 2006 (MPEG 15641); Itacoatiara [3°07'S, 58°26'W], 1 female, Dirings col., March 1961 (IBSP 4265); Itapiranga [2°44'S, 58°01W], 1 immature male, EPA col., 11 September 1968 (MZUSP 10.860); Manaus [03°06'S, 60°01'W], 2 males, T. Gasnier col. (INPA 4952, INPA 4948); 1 male, H. Höfer leg., 28 March 1988 (INPA 4891); 1 female, 2 February 1948 (AMNH 1.13); 1 juvenile female, February 1943 (AMNH 1.26); Balneário do SESC, 1 female, R. Freitas col., 07 December 1975 (INPA 4896); conjunto Suframa, 1 juvenile female, Larissa col., 13 November 1997 (INPA 4893); conjunto Acariquara, 1 male, D. M. M. Mendes col., 18 March 2005 (INPA 4895); campus INPA, 1 male, Albuquerque col., May 1995 (INPA 4887); Estação Ecológica Experimental de Silvicultura Tropical, INPA, 1 female, A. L. R. Barreto col., 29 July 1980 (ZUEC 015); Estrada Manaus–Caracaraí, km 45, 2 immature males, J. Vasconcellos Neto col., July 1978 (ZUEC 019); INPA, Mata do Laguinho, 1 male and 1 female, 25 April 1959 (IBSP 3503); INPA, campus Peralta, 1 female, F. J. A. col., 13 January 1988 (INPA 4881); Manaus Airport, 1 male, A. Barros col., 27 April 1980 (INPA 4892); Peralta, 1 male, F. J. A. col., 05 June 1993 (INPA 4889); 1 female, F. J. A. col., 03 December 1990 (INPA 4883); Prédio do INPA, V8, 3°andar, Silvicultura, 1 male, P. A. Celeste col., 19 May 1986 (INPA 4888); Rio Tarumá, off Rio Negro, Manaus [03°06'S, 60°01'W], 1 juvenile female, N. Gordon col., June 1995, in house (AMNH RW32); Terra Nova [Manaus neighborhood or Amazonas’s town?], 1 male, Mancelu col., 07 September 1975 (INPA 4890); Vivenda Verde [Manaus neighborhood?], 1 male, H. Brandão col., 29 March 2002 (INPA 4885); Maraã [2°17'S, 65°00'W], Rio Japurá, Maguari, 1 male, R. Constantino col., 02 December 1998 (MPEG 5182); 1 juvenile female (MPEG 5504); Presidente Figueiredo [02°01'S, 60°01'W], UHE Balbina, 1 female, 2 juvenile females, faunal rescue team col., February 1988, ref. 56112 (IBSP 7872, IBSP 7871, IBSP 7875, respectively); 2 immatures, November 1987, collection Bokermann no. 886 (MZUSP 32173); 1 female, 1987, ref. 55569-12 (IBSP 7900); 2 juvenile females, 1 immature male, 1987, ref. 56681 (IBSP 7901); 1 juvenile female, November 1987, ref. IB34 (IBSP 7876); 1 male, 20 November 1987, ref. 55569-20 (IBSP 7873); 1 male, ref. 55854-2 (IBSP 7878); 3 females, 1 male, 2 immatures, 1987, ref. 56681 (IBSP 7902, IBSP 7903); 1 male, 1988, ref. 56572-7 (IBSP 7874); 3 juvenile females, 2 immature males, Eletronorte col., April 1988 (MNRJ 13818); Cachoeira do Tucumã, Rio Uatumã [2°36'S, 58°05'W], 1 immature (IBSP 7934); Margens do Rio Uatumã [2°36'S, 58°05'W], 1 female, 1 juvenile female, C. F. Alvarenga col., October 1987 (MNRJ 13652); Pará: Belém [1°26'S, 48°28'W] 1 female, Dr. Hoge & João col., September 1952 (IBSP 3119).

Female

Redescription. INPA 4894. Carapace: 19.27 long, 19.06 wide, 4.20 high. Chelicera: 7.25 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 16.22, 10.06, 12.58, 10.94, 7.27, 57.07. II: 15.21, 9.21, 11.43, 10.37, 6.93, 53.15. III: 13.91, 8.39, 11.34, 10.72, 6.95, 51.31. IV: 16.89, 9.04, 14.17, 14.00, 6.94, 61.04. Palp: 11.19, 7.10, 7.84, –, 8.88, 35.01. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 3.40, 3.67, 3.63, 3.78, palp= 3.08; patellae I–IV= 3.68, 3.86, 4.03, 3.89, palp= 3.18; tibiae I–IV= 3.41, 3.21, 3.24, 3.38, palp= 2.98; metatarsi I–IV= 2.28, 2.52, 2.29, 2.58; tarsi I–IV= 3.20, 3.00, 2.97, 2.97, palp= 3.03. Abdomen: 24.77 long, 16.94 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 2.34 long, 0.93 wide, 0.31 apart; PLS, 2.70 basal, 1.59 middle, 3.50 distal; midwidths 2.22, 1.83, 1.43, respectively.

Carapace: 1.01 times longer than wide; cephalic region not raised, thoracic striae inconspicuous.

Fovea: deep, slightly recurve, 2.35 wide.

Eyes: eye tubercle 0.95 high, 2.70 long, 3.71 wide. Clypeus 0.67. Anterior row of eyes procurve. Posterior row of eyes recurve. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.86, ALE 0.89, PME 0.39, PLE 0.58, AMEAME 0.71, AMEALE 0.64, AMEPME 0.22, ALEALE 2.35, ALEPME 0.91, PMEPME 2.45, PMEPLE 0.08, PLEPLE 3.10, ALEPLE 0.55, AMEPLE 0.68.

Maxilla: length to width: 1.84. Cuspules: 100–200 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: 2.68 long, 3.26 wide, with 103 cuspules spaced by one diameter in third distal area. Labium-sternal groove shallow, flattened, with two sigilla.

Chelicera: basal segment with 15 teeth and some small teeth on promargin. Sternum: 9.99 long, 8.39 wide. Sigilla: only posterior pair evident, rounded, less than one diameter from margin.

Legs: Formula: IV=I II III. Length leg IV to leg I: 1.07. Clavate trichobothria: distal 2/3 tarsi I–IV. Scopulae: Tarsi I–IV fully scopulate. Metatarsi I–II fully scopulate; III 2/3; IV 1/3 distal scopulate. IV divided by a wide row of setae.

Type II urticating setae (Fig. 16): 0.64–0.72 long, 0.016–0.019 wide.

Spermathecae (Fig. 54): two completely separated, not-twisted long spermathecae, with walls lacking projections or lobes and accentuated outwards curvature medially. Midwidth expanded, about 1.5 times its basal and apical portion widths, and weakly-sclerotized area shorter than half the length of well-sclerotized area.

Color pattern (Fig. 70): carapace brown with greyish short body setae with green sheen. Carapace border with long setae the same color as dorsal carapace short body setae. Coxae, labium, sternum and maxillae dark brown, darker than ventral femora. Legs and palps with greyish short body setae with green and pink sheen and brown guard-setae with darker base and contrasting whitish apex. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi whitish. Abdomen dorsum with vivid reddish brown guard-setae with vivid pink sheen grouped on lateral and dorsal anterior areas and black short body setae. Abdomen venter velvety black.

Figures 66–73.

Avicularia variegata stat. n., morphotype 1, habitus 66 immature on leaf retreat 67 immature 68 juvenile 69 juvenile female 70 female 71 male 72 adult inside retreat on tree bark 73 female in coconut tree. Photos: 66–69, 71–73 Marlus Almeida; 70 R. C. West.

Male

Description. INPA 4897. Carapace: 19.38 long, 19.08 wide, 5.27 high. Chelicera: 6.69 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus and total): I: 19.21, 10.36, 14.03, 14.46, 7.62, 65.68. II: 18.52, 9.55, 14.57, 14.15, 7.94, 64.73. III: 16.41, 8.40, 13.17, 13.82, 7.60, 59.40. IV: 19.64, 8.88, 16.32, 18.13, 7.72, 70.69. Palp: 11.53, 6.64, 9.10, –, 3.78, 31.05. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 3.92, 3.90, 4.09, 3.60, palp= 2.85; patellae I–IV= 3.87, 4.03, 3.86, 3.83, palp= 3.03; tibiae I–IV= 3.06, 3.31, 2.85, 3.18, palp= 2.71; metatarsi I–IV= 2.28, 2.12, 2.00, 1.95; tarsi I–IV= 2.49, 2.45, 2.25 2.31, palp= 2.61. Abdomen: 22.45 long, 14.42 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 2.31 long, 0.79 wide, 0.16 apart; PLS, 2.35 basal, 1.20 middle, 3.56 distal; midwidths 1.95, 1.63, 1.25, respectively.

As in female, except:

Carapace: 1.02 times longer than wide.

Fovea: 2.59 wide.

Eyes: eye tubercle 1.59 high, 2.67 long, 3.48 wide. Clypeus 0.44. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.84, ALE 0.79, PME 0.29, PLE 0.68, AMEAME 0.45, AMEALE 0.52, AMEPME 0.27, ALEALE 2.53, ALEPME 0.70, PMEPME 2.23, PMEPLE 0.20, PLEPLE 2.68, ALEPLE 0.52, AMEPLE 0.72.

Maxilla: length to width: 2.05. Labium: 2.19 long, 3.19 wide, with 100 cuspules spaced by one diameter in third area. Labio-sternal groove with no evident sigilla.

Chelicera: basal segment with 9 teeth and some small teeth on promargin. Sternum: 9.93 long, 7.45 wide. Sigilla: only posterior evident, rounded, less than one diameter from margin.

Legs: Length leg IV to leg I: 1.08. Scopula: Metatarsi III 1/2 distal scopulate.

Type II urticating setae: 0.91–1.00 long, 0.019–0.020 wide.

Palp (Figs 58–61): globous bulb with small subtegulum and well-developed prominence on tegulum. Embolus: not flattened, lacking keels, 5.65 long in retrolateral view, about 3.5 times tegulum’s length. Medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Proximal part very curved in frontal view; thin distal width, abruptly narrowing distally; basal, middle, and distal width 0.91, 0.31, 0.05, respectively. Tegulum: 3.04 long, 1.65 high in retrolateral view. Cymbium subtriangular with subequal lobes, having a well-developed rounded process on retrolateral lobe, bearing thick setae (Fig. 62).

Tibial apophysis (Figs 63–65): single branch on prolateral leg I, with well-developed base and grouped spiniform setae distally. Male metatarsus I touches retrolaterally tibial apophysis’ setae when folded.

Color pattern ontogeny

Brownish juveniles lacking metallic sheen, black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles and abdomen dorsum reddish, with dorsal central longitudinal black stripe disconnected from transversal black stripes (Fig. 66). When mature, both males and females lose this pattern.

Figures 74–75.

Avicularia variegata stat. n., morphotype 2, habitus 74 female 75 male. Photos: 74 C. S. Fukushima; 75 R. Bertani.

Distribution

Venezuela and Brazil (states of Roraima, Amapá, Amazonas and Pará) (Fig. 76).

Natural history

Silva and Meirelles (2016) reported a predation on Troglodytes musculus (Naumann, 1823) bird by an specimen of A. variegata stat. n. in a urban park at Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil.

Variation

All examined specimens of A. variegata stat. n. have grizzled setae on palps and legs (except those found in Venezuela), but with slight differences in body coloration. We detected three morphotypes. Morphotype 1 is found especially near Manaus (Fig. 77) and females have carapace, legs, and palps with greyish short body setae with very intense green sheen and whitish leg rings (Fig. 70). Abdomen has vivid reddish guard-setae grouped on lateral and dorsal anterior areas, black short body setae and venter velvety black. Males have black abdomen with some whitish tipped setae homogeneously distributed (Fig. 71). Morphotype 2 is found in same area (Fig. 77), but has overall greyish coloration, with short body setae with discrete green sheen and yellowish leg rings. Females have abdomen with light brown guard-setae grouped on lateral and dorsal anterior areas, black short body setae, and venter dark brown (Fig. 74). Males are very similar to morphotype 1 but with yellowish rings (Fig. 75). Males from Puerto Ayacucho (AMNH Ve29) and from Caripito (AMNH Ve31), Venezuela, have genitalia and legs with proportions compatible with those from Brazil, as well as whitish leg rings. However, they do not have white tipped hairs on legs and abdomen as specimens of A. variegata stat. n. from Manaus, Brazil (Fig. 77), and the prominence on palpal bulb is not well-developed as in specimens from Manaus (morphotype 1). The juvenile female AMNH Ve21, also from Venezuela, has short body setae with golden sheen and very discrete white tipped setae in legs and palps as well as whitish rings. We prefer not to consider these forms as separate species because these slight differences can be due to populational variation since the specimens were collected in the northern limit of the species distribution. It is here called morphotype 3. Despite being collected in Caracas, also in the northern limit of the species, the specimen AMNH Ve18 seems to be a typical morphotype 1. It is necessary to examine more material to understand morphological variation and species boundaries of Venezuelan Avicularia.

In his expedition on Lower Amazonas, F. O. Pickard-Cambridge (1896) made interesting observations about color variations along the river. According to him, there was a tendency in Avicularia spp. to have grizzled setae as he went further west (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge 1896). When F. O. Pickard-Cambridge (1896) described A. variegata stat. n., he considered it as a subspecies of A. avicularia and pointed out that some could consider A. variegata stat. n. a species in the differentiation process—as further westwards it extended, the more evident the differential characters might be. He also observed the presence of intermediate forms at Santarém, state of Pará, which had the setae of the first two pairs of legs decidedly grizzled (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge 1896). We failed to find specimens with this pattern in our studied sample. Some specimens we examined had posterior legs with more grizzled setae than anterior, but none without any grizzled setae. Despite these two morphotypes being very distinct, F. O. Pickard-Cambridge (1896) stated a careful comparasion was needed of both forms to prove that there are more differences than just coloration. In fact, we found other differences. Leg IV of Avicularia avicularia is more than 10% longer than leg I and spermathecae midwidth is as wide as its base width; whereas leg IV of A. variegata stat. n. has roughly the same length of leg I and spermathecae midwidth is expanded. Accordingly, we can consider them as separate taxa. Thus, we elevate the former subspecies Avicularia avicularia variegata F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 to species status, resulting in Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n.

Figure 76.

Map showing records of Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n. and Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923.

Figures 77.

Map showing records of Avicularia variegata F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 stat. n. morphotypes.

Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903

Figs 19, 78–79, 80–87, 88–89, 90, 312

Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903: 81 (holotype female, Venezuela, Lara, Duaca [10°17'N, 69°09'W], BMNH 1903.7.1.120, examined); Petrunkevitch 1911: 50; Mello-Leitão 1923: 377; Roewer 1942: 255; Bonnet 1955: 832; Smith 1992: 22, figs 1–11; Tinter 1993: 10, figs 1–3, World Spider Catalog 2016.

Diagnosis

Females and males of A. minatrix can be distinguished from all other Avicularia species by the abdominal pattern, vivid orange lateral spots over black background (Figs 88–89). Additionally, females of A. minatrix resemble females of A. avicularia, A. rufa, A. purpurea, A. hirschii and A. merianae sp. n. by the spermathecae midwidth as wide as its base (Fig. 78). They can be distinguished from A. avicularia and A. rufa by leg IV as long as leg I; from A. purpurea and A. merianae sp. n. by the spermathecae weakly-sclerotized area shorter than half the length of well-sclerotized area, and from A. hirschii by the non-twisted spermathecae (Fig. 78). Males of A. minatrix resemble those of A. hirschii, A. lynnae sp. n. and A. caei sp. n. by the tibia I with a discrete elevation covered by a cluster of setae in apical portion, on prolateral side (Fig. 86), and can be distinguished from all of them by lacking process on retrolateral lobe of the cymbium.

Material examined

VENEZUELA: 1 female, M. Baumgarten leg. 1994, ref. 73485 (IBSP 12886); 1 male, pet trade (MZUSP 70949); 1 male, L. Koschorreck col., 1991 (IBSP 11596).

Female

Redescription. IBSP 12886. Carapace 12.85 long, 12.30 wide, 4.50 high. Chelicera: 4.09 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 9.38, 6.10, 6.91, 6.39, 4.24, 33.02. II: 8.84, 5.85, 6.56, 6.27, 4.26, 31.78. III: 7.82, 5.15, 5.23, 6.05, 3.49, 27.74. IV: 9.99, 5.07, 7.79, 7.42, 3.93, 34.20. Palp: 6.87, 4.31, 4.08, –, 5.00, 20.26. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 1.99, 2.00, 1.62, 2.13, palp= 2.11; patellae I–IV= 2.39, 2.24, 2.48, 2.59, palp= 2.26; tibiae I–IV= 2.01, 2.25, 2.01, 2.32, palp= 2.05; metatarsi I–IV= 1.95, 1.58, 1.59, 1.92; tarsi I–IV= 2.05, 2.02, 1.76, 2.02, palp= 2.12. Abdomen 14.10 long, 8.91 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.72 long, 0.95 wide, 0.15 apart; PLS 2.57 basal, 1.68 middle, 2.34 distal; midwidths 1.57, 1.18, 0.93, respectively.

Carapace: 1.05 times longer than wide; cephalic region not raised, thoracic striae inconspicuous. Carapace covered by long setae.

Fovea: deep, slightly recurve, 2.46 wide.

Eyes: eye tubercle: 0.90 high, 1.97 long, 2.77 wide. Clypeus 0.46. Anterior row of eyes procurve, posterior row of eyes slightly recurve. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.64, ALE 0.59, PME 0.24, PLE 0.58, AMEAME 0.27, AMEALE 0.36, AMEPME 0.14, ALEALE 1.70, ALEPME 0.55, PMEPME 1.58, PMEPLE 0.15, PLEPLE 2.02, ALEPLE 0.40, AMEPLE 0.47.

Maxilla: length to width: 1.48. Cuspules: 190 spread over inner heel. Labium: 1.87 long, 2.31 wide, with about 50 cuspules spaced by one diamenter of each other on anterior half (malformed). Labium sternal groove shallow, flat, with two separate, large sigilla.

Chelicera: basal segment with 8 teeth and some small teeth on promargin.

Sternum: 7.27 long, 4.32 wide. Sigilla: only posterior evident, rounded, very close to margin.

Legs: Formula: IV=I II III. Length leg IV to leg I: 1.04. Clavate trichobothria: distal 2/3 of tarsi I–II; distal 1/2 of tarsi II–IV. Scopula: Tarsi I–IV fully scopulate. Metatarsi I–II fully scopulate, III 2/3, IV 1/3 distal scopulate. IV divided by row of setae.

Type II urticating setae: 0.38–0.51 long and 0.011–0.013 wide (measured in holotype BMNH 1903.7.1.120).

Spermathecae (Fig. 78): two completely separated, not-twisted long spermathecae, with walls lacking projections or lobes and accentuated outwards curvature medially. Midwidth as wide as its base width and weakly-sclerotized area shorter than half the length of well-sclerotized area.

Color pattern (Fig. 88): carapace orange brown with golden short body setae with pink sheen. Carapace border with long setae the same color as dorsal carapace short body setae. Coxae, labium, sternum and maxillae orange brown, same color of ventral femora. Legs and palps with brown short body setae with pink sheen and long orange guard-setae. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi whitish. Abdomen dorsum with orange guard-setae homogeneously distributed, vivid orange short body setae forming lateral spots and black short body setae forming dark background. Ventral abdomen brown.

Figures 78–79.

Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903, spermathecae variation. 78 Venezuela (IBSP 12886) 79 holotype, Duaca, state of Lara, Venezuela (BMNH 1903.7.1.120). Scale bars = 1 mm.

Figures 80–87.

Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903, male (MZUSP 70949). 80–83 right palpal bulb (mirrored) 80 prolateral 81 retrolateral 82 frontal 83 dorsal 84 right cymbium, dorsal (mirrored) 85–87 left tibia I 85 prolateral 86 ventral 87 retrolateral. Scale bars = 1 mm.

Figures 88–89.

Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903, habitus. 88 female, state of Falcón, Venezuela 89 male. Photos: 88 J. Huff; 89 J. Newland.

Male

Redescription. IBSP 11596. Carapace 10.08 long, 9.49 wide, 2.32 high. Chelicera 2.84 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 9.40, 5.29, 7.46, 6.76, 3.97, 32.88. II: 8.97, 4.76, 5.73, 5.92, 3.55, 28.93. III: 7.30, 3.89, 5.08, 5.92, 3.58, 25.77. IV: 9.76, 4.66, 7.98, 8.61, 4.00, 35.01. Palp: 5.83, 3.43, 4.17, –, 2.47, 15.9. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 2.02, 1.77, 2.04, 1.60, palp= 1.61; patellae I–IV= 1.85, 1.76, 1.82, 1.87, palp= 1.48; tibiae I–IV= 1.73, 1.65, 1.72, 1.70, palp= 1.48; metatarsi I–IV= 1.25, 1.19, 1.19, 1.18; tarsi I–IV= 1.54, 1.33, 1.42, 1.21, palp= 1.75. Abdomen 9.78 long, 5.73 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.06 long, 0.59 wide, 0.18 apart; PLS, 1.66 basal, 0.69 middle, 1.58 distal; midwidths 0.73, 0.59, 0.49, respectively.

As in female, except:

Carapace: 1.06 times longer than wide.

Fovea: 1.56 wide.

Eye: eye tubercle: 1.51 long, 2.24 wide, 0.71 high. Clypeus: 0.20 wide. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.58, ALE 0.60, PME 0.26, PLE 0.54, AMEAME 0.25, AMEALE 0.18, AMEPME 0.16, ALEALE 1.25, ALEPME 0.45, PMEPME 1.33, PMEPLE 0.13, PLEPLE 1.69, ALEPLE 0.10, AMEPLE 0.42.

Maxilla: length to width: 1.98. Cuspules: 100–115 spread over inner heel. Labium: 1.04 long, 1.58 wide, with about 80 cuspules spaced by two diameters from each other on anterior half.

Chelicera: basal segment with 10 teeth decreasing in size from distal area. Sternum: 4.95 long, 3.72 wide. Sigilla: three pairs, posterior oval.

Legs: Length leg IV to leg I: 1.07. Scopula: tarsi IV with some sparse setae.

Type II urticating setae: not seen due to abdomen in poor conditions.

Palp (Figs 80–83, 312): globous bulb with a small subtegulum, lacking prominence on tegulum. Embolus: not flattened, lacking keels, 2.66 long in retrolateral view, about 3.5 times tegulum’s length. Medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Proximal part very curved in frontal view; thin distal width, abruptly narrowing distally; basal, middle, and distal width of 0.48, 0.15, 0.04, respectively. Tegulum: 1.25 long, 0.88 high in retrolateral view. Cymbium subtriangular with subequal lobes, lacking process on retrolateral lobe (Fig. 84).

Tibia I with discrete elevation covered by a cluster of setae in apical portion, on prolateral side (Figs 85–87).

Color pattern (Fig. 89): same as female, but the dorsal central black area is wider than in female.

Figure 90.

Map showing records of A. minatrix Pocock, 1903, A. hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, A. lynnae sp. n. and A. caei sp. n.

Color pattern ontogeny

Adults maintain the same coloration pattern of immatures. There is no drastic ontogenetic changes in this species.

Distribution

Known only from Venezuela (Fig. 90).

Natural history

Silken tubes are built by specimens inside tree bark and hollow branches and in the center of large bromeliads, which are in xenophyte bush grassland clearings of tropical forest (Smith 1992).

Figures 91–92.

Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), spermathecae variation. 91 Sobradinho, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil (DZUB 352) 92 Brasíla, Distrito Federal, Brazil (DZUB 1979). Scale bars = 1 mm.

Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920)

Figs 19, 91–92, 93–100, 101–104, 105

Ancylochiros taunayi Mello-Leitão, 1920: 142 (holotype immature male, Brazil, Minas Gerais, Mariana [20°22'S, 43°25'W], J. P. Fonseca leg., MZUSP 327, examined); 1923: 319, 376, figs 41–44, 160; Roewer 1942: 225; Bonnet 1955: 316.

Anchylochiros taunayi: Petrunkevitch 1939: 291.

Avicularia taunayi: Raven 1985: 149; Bertani 2012: 78, fig. 176; Bertani and Motta 2013: 108, figs 1–13; World Spider Catalog 2016.

Diagnosis

Females of A. taunayi resemble those of A. juruensis and A. variegata stat. n. by the spermathecae with midwidth expanded; about 1.5 times its basal and apical portions widths (Fig. 91). They differ from all these species by the spermathecae with lobes from median to distal portions (Fig. 91). Males of A. taunayi resemble A. avicularia, A. variegata stat. n., A. juruensis, A. rufa, A. purpurea, and A. merianae sp. n. by tibial apophysis on leg I with well-developed base and grouped spiniform setae distally (Fig. 98). They differ from A. purpurea and A. merianae sp. n. by well-developed process on cymbium retrolateral lobe (Fig. 97); from A. avicularia and A. rufa by leg IV as long as leg I and from A. variegata stat. n. and A. juruensis by developed prominence on tegulum (Fig. 95). Additionally, they can be distinguished from all these species by light brown spots extending from the dorsum to lateral region of abdomen (Fig. 103).

Figures 93–100.

Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), male (DZUB 1675; except cymbium, DZUB 4542). 93–96 left palpal bulb 93 prolateral 94 retrolateral 95 frontal 96 dorsal 97 left cymbium, dorsal 98–100 right tibial apophysis of leg I (mirrored) 98 prolateral 99 ventral 100 retrolateral. Scale bars = 1 mm.

Material examined

Female, Brazil, Minas Gerais, Barão de Cocais [19°56'S, 43°28'W], J. P. Couto col., 5 February 1971, ref. 4336 (IBSP 199); male, Brazil, Brasília D.F. [15°46'S, 47°55'W], Gláucia & Reuber col., 14 May 2002 (DZUB 1675).

Figures 101–104.

Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), habitus and retreat. 101 immature 102 female 103 male 104 retreat inside trunk of Myrcia tormentosa (Aubl.). Arrow indicating retreat opening. Photos: 101–103 R. Bertani; 104 C. S. Fukushima.

Additional material

BRAZIL: Pará: Tucuruí [3°46'S, 49°40'W], 1 male, Equipe de Resgate de Fauna col., IBA 285 (IBSP 8570); 1 male, 3 immatures, 27 January 1986 (IBSP ref. 48014); Mato Grosso: Barra do Bugres [15°03'S, 57°10'W], Serra das Araras, 1 juvenile female, C. Strusman col., September 1992 (MCP 2293); Chapada dos Guimarães [15°27'S, 55°45'W], 1 female, M. Acuarensa col., November 1963 (AMNH 1.7); Barra do Tapirapé [10°38'S, 50°36'W] (Barro do Tapirapé [sic]), 2 females, B. Malkin col., 1962 (AMNH 1.5); Goiás: Ipameri [17°43'S, 48°09'W], 1 male, 1 female, F. R. Alves col., February 1996, ref. 78206 (IBSP 14397); Distrito Federal: Brasília [15°47'S, 47°53'W], 1 female, 15 November 2002, F. Brasil leg. (DZUB 1979); Paranoá [15°43'S, 47°44'W], 1 female, 1 immature, R. Bertani, C. S. Fukushima, R. H. Nagahama, P. C. Motta, P. Jotta, 12 July 2007 (DZUB 4707); Sobradinho [Colorado, Córrego do Urubu, 15°42'S, 47°51'W], 1 female, 1 January 1999, J. Marinho-Filho leg. (DZUB 352); Minas Gerais: Santa Vitória [18°51'S, 50°07'W], 1 female, M. Rosa col., 28 July 1981 (ZUEC 018); Monte Alegre de Minas [18°52'S, 48°52'W] (Monte Alegre [sic]), 1 male, A. Lourenço col., June 2005, ref. 95480 (IBSP 12780).

Figure 105.

Map showing records of Avicularia taunayi (Melo-Leitão, 1920), Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990 and Avicularia merianae sp. n.

Description, color pattern ontogeny and distribution

See Bertani and Motta (2013).

Complementary description

Spermathecae (Figs 91–92): two completely separated not-twisted long spermathecae, with walls having lobes from median to distal portions and accentuaded outwards curvature medially. Midwidth expanded, about 1.5 times its basal and apical portion widths and weakly-sclerotized area shorter than half the length of well-sclerotized area.

Palp (Fig. 93–96): globous bulb with small subtegulum and developed prominence on tegulum. Embolus: not flattened, lacking keels, 2.62 long in retrolateral view, about 3.0 times tegulum’s length. Medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Proximal part very curved in frontal view; thin distal width, abruptly narrowing distally; basal, middle, and distal widths 0.42, 0.24, 0.03, respectively. Tegulum: 1.76 long, 0.96 high in retrolateral view. Cymbium subtriangular with subequal lobes, having well-developed rounded process on retrolateral lobe, bearing thick setae (Fig. 97).

Tibial apophysis (Figs 98–100): single branch on prolateral leg I, with well-developed base and grouped spiniform setae distally. Male metatarsus I touches retrolaterally tibial apophysis’ setae when folded.

Type II urticating setae: 0.362–0.407 long, 0.009–0.013 wide in females; 0.840–0.968 long, 0.014–0.020 wide in males.

Color pattern (Figs 102–103): both male and female have long guard-setae on legs and palps not grizzled.

Color pattern ontogeny

Brownish juveniles lacking metallic sheen, black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles, and abdomen dorsum reddish, with dorsal central longitudinal black stripe connected with first two pairs of transversal black stripes (Fig. 101). When mature, part of the pattern remains (Figs 102–103). Adult females have abdomen with reddish brown guard-setae homogeneously distributed and black short body setae with spots of reddish brown short body setae (Fig. 102). Males have same abdominal pattern as females but reddish brown spots of short body setae are ill-defined (Fig. 103).

Distribution

Brazil, states of Tocantins, Goiás, Pará, São Paulo, Mato Grosso, west of Bahia, Minas Gerais and in Brasília (Distrito Federal), in savannah areas (Fig. 105).

Natural history

A small population of A. taunayi was found at Distrito Federal, in a mountain area that had savannah areas mixed with anthropized areas with houses and farms (Bertani and Motta 2013). Specimens were found in tree holes within retreats similar to the ones made by other species of Avicularia (Fig. 104). This is a unique species of this genus in the bioma Cerrado (savannah) (Bertani and Motta 2013).

Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923

Figs 15, 19, 76, 106–108, 109–116, 117–122, 123–126, 127, 307

Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923: 321, 377, figs 156, 188 (syntypes 4 females and 1 male, Brazil, Amazonas, Juruá [4°47'S, 68°38'W], Garbe col., 1902, MZUSP 125A–D, examined; lectotype male (MZUSP 125C) and paralectotype female (MZUSP 125B), here designated); Roewer 1942: 255; Bücherl 1953: 128, figs 9–11 (misidentification, probably a Tapinauchenius); Bonnet 1955: 831; World Spider Catalog 2016.

Avicularia urticans Schmidt, 1994: 5, figs 1–2 (holotype female, from Peru, Krasa leg., 1989, SMF 38035 and spermathecae in microslides, SMF 58243-84 21/11, SMF 58243-84, examined), 1995c: 2, figs 1–2; World Spider Catalog 2016. Syn. n.

Remarks

Avicularia urticans holotype is in poor conditions since the specimen died during moulting process. Its spermatheca is preserved in slides, but unfortunately it lost most of its natural shape. Despite this, it was possible to observe that spermatheca have midwidth expanded, about 1.5 times its basal and apical portion widths. Spermatheca morphology and overall body coloration match with large specimens found in Peru and Ecuador. Well-preserved material were examined and despite some differences in color features, A. urticans is indistinguishable from A. juruensis. Thus, we consider A. urticans Schmidt, 1994 as junior synonym of A. juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923.

Figures 106–108.

Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, spermathecae variation. 106 paralectotype, Rio Juruá, state of Amazonas, Brazil (MZUSP 125C) 107 paralectotype, Rio Juruá, state of Amazonas, Brazil (MZUSP 125A) 108 morphotype 3, Pebas, department of Loreto, Peru (MNHN–AR 4902). Scale bars = 1 mm.

Diagnosis

Females of A. juruensis resemble those of A. variegata stat. n. and A. taunayi by the spermathecae having midwidth expanded, about 1.5 times its basal and apical portion widths (Fig. 106). They can be distinguished from A. taunayi by the spermathecae lacking lobes (Fig. 106). Males of A. juruensis resemble those of A. avicularia, A. rufa, A. variegata stat. n., A. taunayi, A. purpurea, and A. merianae sp. n. by the tibial apophysis on leg I with well-developed base and grouped spiniform setae distally (Fig. 114). They differ from males of all these species except A. variegata stat. n. by its well-developed prominence on tegulum (Fig. 111). Males and females of A. juruensis can be distinguished from A. variegata stat. n. by intense purple sheen on carapace and legs (morphotype 2, Figs 120–121) or intense golden sheen on carapace and legs (morphotype 1, Fig. 122). They can also be distinguished from A. variegata stat. n. by the occurrence area: western part of South America, in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru (Fig. 76).

Additional material

COLOMBIA: Vaupés: Vaupés [0°5'N, 70°48'W], low Río Apaporis, Lago Toraima, Estación Biológica Caparu, 200 m asl, 1 male, Col. Jaime Pinzól (AP3-5) (ICN–Ar-2006); Putumayo: Puerto Leguízamo, Parque Nacional Natural La Paya [0°28'N, 75°49'W], Mamansoyá (Mamangaya [sic]), 1 male, 21 September 2001, D. Campos col. (ICN–Ar-1972); Amazonas: Letícia, km 2 Via Taparaca (trapaca [sic]), (4°12'19.25'S, 69°55'58.07"W), 100 m asl, 1 male, Col. Est. Sist. Anim. I-2002, 25 April 2002 (13001) (ICN–Ar-1970); [4°12'S, 69°56'W], km 11, Carretera a Tarapaca, bosque en interior de hija enrollada con casulo de seda a 50 m del suelo, coleta manual, 100 m asl, 1 immature, E. Flórez col., 27 October 1997 (ICN–Ar-1978); km 10, via Terapacos, Finca La Arerosa, 95 m asl, 1 immature, Col. Est. Sist. Animal II.03, 06 November 2003 (ICN–Ar-2369); La Pedrera, Resguardo Indígena Curaril–Los Ingleses, colectada em el interior de una vivenda, em horas nocturnas, 1 male, Z. Cordero col., 24 April 2004 (ICN–Ar-6819); cerca de Letícia [4°12'S, 69°56'W], 100 m asl, D. Campos col., August 1997 (ICN–Ar-5002); BRAZIL: Amazonas: between Benjamin Constant [4°22'S, 70°01'W] and São Paulo de Olivença [3°22'S, 68°52'W], 1 male, P. L. Conti col., 3 August 1972, ref. 9971 (IBSP 2829); Alto Solimões, 2 males, 31 August 1972 (IBSP 3389); Igarapé Belém, near confluence with Rio Solimões [3°05'S, 60°08'W], 1 male, B. Malkin col., 5–30 April 1966 (AMNH 1.29); Rio Negro [3°09'S, 59°57'W], 1 female, J. Coffey col., September 1994 (AMNH RW31); Carauari, left margin of Rio Juruá, Comunidade Esperança, RESEX Médio Juruá (05°05'31"S, 67°10'03"W), 1 male, F. F. Xavier Filho & A. L. Henriques col., 27 June to 16 July 2005 (INPA 4886); Pará: Breves [1°40'S, 50°28'W], margem W, Área 2, 1 male, J. Dias col., 2 February 1988 (MPEG 5398); Acre: Cruzeiro do Sul [7°37'S, 72°40'W], 1 female, S. Albuquerque (by photo); ECUADOR: 1 female, M. Baumgarten leg., 1994 (IBSP 12887); Napo: Parque Nacional Yasuní, Catholica Field Station (0°40'54"S, 76°23'9.33"W), 2 males, A. I. Ognato col., 15 July 1996 (CAS 6, CAS 4); Puerto Napo, 20 km east, Aliñahuí (1°0'S, 77°25'W), 450 m, 1 immature male, V. D. & B. Roth col., January 1994 (CAS 11A); 1 immature male, A. urticans det. R. West in August 94, V. D. & B. Roth col. (CAS 8); 1 male, A. urticans det. R. West in August 94, V. D. & B. Roth col., June 1994 (CAS 5); Puerto Napo, 25 km East, Selva Aliñahuí [1°0'S, 77°25'W], 450 m, 2 immature males, E. Ross col., January–February 1991; Avicularia sp. near juruensis det. J. Ledford 1997 (CAS); Pastaza: Tiguino [1°12'S, 7°51'W], 1 female, W. Lamar col., September 1990 (AMNH RW53); Morona-Santiago: Los Tayos, (3°05'S, 78°02'W), 1 female, in grass area near mil. camp, in afternoon, 5 July 1976 (IBSP 12884); same locality, in hole in tree trunk live but part rotten c.1 m from base, 1 male (IBSP 12888); PERU: spermathecae in microslides, no further information (SMF 58257-84); Rio Bombo, alto Tapiche, 1 female, 2 immatures, H. Bassler col, January 1928 (AMNH Pe55); R. Marañon [6°24'S, 76°05'W], 1 female, Bristol [col.?], October 1927 (AMNH Pe5); Marañón (Marauon [sic]),1 female,1 immature male, Bristol [col.?], October 1927 (AMNH Pe96); no data, probably Loreto, INRENA confiscation, 1 female (UA 088/2004); Peruvian jungle, confiscation, 1 male (UA 098/2004); Loreto: no further information, 1 female, Collection Bluntschili-Peyes, 1912 (AMNH Pe115); Cashiboya [7°39'S, 74°55'W], 1 female, February 1927 (AMNH Pe111); Estirón [4°07'S, 70°43'W], Rio Ampiacu, 3 females, 1 male, 2 juveniles, B. Malkin col., 15–22 May 1966 (AMNH Pe58); Iquitos [3°44'S, 73°15'W], 1 female, J. Huff col., November 1995 (AMNH RW51); Iquitos, Rio Momon, Amazon Camp (3°41'13.00"S, 73°16'48'00"W), 2 females, 1 male, R. C. West col., 9 November 1993 (AMNH RW35, AMNH RW36, AMNH RW37, respectively); 1 male, T. Mason col., March 1993 (AMNH RW39); 2 females, R. C. West col., 6 November 1993 (AMNH RW40, AMNH RW41); 1 male, E. Cooper col., May 1993 (AMNH RW43); Pebas [3°19'S, 71°51'W], 1 female, De Mathan col. (MNHN–AR 4902); Rio Tahuayo [4°53'S, 73°08'W], 1 male, W. Lamar col., September 1990, found parasite on forest floor (AMNH RW46); San Martín: Tarapoto [06°07'S, 75°57'W], 1 female, (UA 668/2005); Valley of Cainarachi, 40 miles east of Tarapoto, 1 female, 700–1500 m a.s.l., December 1925 (AMNH Pe54); Ucayali: Pampa Hermosa, Rio Ucayali [7°34'S, 74°19'W], 1 male, 1 female, January or June 1927 (AMNH Pe34); (Pompa Hermosa [sic]; Ucayoli [sic]), 8 females, February 1927 (AMNH Pe116); Rio Utiquinea [8°131'S, 74°32'W] (Upper Utoguinia [sic]), La frontera, 1 juvenile female, H. Bassler col., 1928 (AMNH Pe113); (Rio Utuguinea [sic]), Peru–Brazil frontier, 1 immature, August 1927 (AMNH Pe109); Crenze Zwischen Peru und Brazil, sud Crenze, Beim Uberer Utoquinia, 1 immature male, “Scolopenda”, 10 February 1928 (AMNH 1.10); Río Ucayali [7°34'S, 74°19'W], Suhuaya + Rean Rean [?], 2 juvenile females, 1 immature male, 12–16 December 1926 (AMNH Pe122).

Figures 109–116.

Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, male lectotype (MZUSP 125B). 109–112 left palpal bulb 109 prolateral 110 retrolateral 111 frontal 112 dorsal 113 left cymbium, dorsal 114–116 right tibial apophysis of leg I (mirrored) 114 prolateral 115 ventral 116 retrolateral. Scale bars = 1 mm.

Figures 117–122.

Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, habitus. 117–118 morphotype 2 117 immature 118 juvenile 119 female with yellowish leg ring, department of Napo, Ecuador 120 female with whitish leg ring, department of Loreto, Peru 121 male, department of Loreto, Peru 122 morphotype 1, female, Peru. Photos: 117 Tanya Stewart; 118 W. Lamar; 119–122 R. C. West.

Male

Description. MZUSP 125C. Carapace: 15.23 long, 15.31 wide, 4.67 high. Chelicera: 5.60 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 15.92, 8.47, 12.61, 11.81, 7.31, 56.12. II: lost. III: lost. IV: 16.63, 6.87, 14.78, 15.72, 6.16, 60.16. Palp: 9.11, 6.03, 8.09, –, 3.51, 26.74. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 3.21, –, –, 3.08, palp= 2.23; patellae I–IV= 2.74, –, –, 2.60, palp= 1.91; tibiae I–IV= 2.34, –, –, 2.43, palp= 2.18; metatarsi I–IV= 1.54, –, –, 1.70; tarsi I–IV= 1.67, –, –, 1.93, palp= 2.06. Abdomen: 16.66 long, 12.25 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.20 long, 0.54 wide, 0.23 apart; PLS, 1.83 basal, 1.79 middle, 2.96 distal; midwidths 1.41, 1.41, 0.93, respectively.

Carapace: as long as wide; cephalic region slightly raised, thoracic striae conspicuous.

Fovea: deep, slightly recurve, 2.27 wide.

Eyes: ocular tubercle 1.05 high, 2.19 long, 3.22 wide. Clypeus 0.56. Anterior eye row procurve. Posterior slightly recurve. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.69, ALE 0.77, PME 0.25, PLE 0.65, AMEAME 0.59, AMEALE 0.51, AMEPME 0.22, ALEALE 2.14, ALEPME 0.95, PMEPME 1.97, PMEPLE 0.21, PLEPLE 2.47, ALEPLE 0.54, AMEPLE 0.56.

Maxilla: length to width: 2.31. Cuspules: 100–200 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: 2.51 long, 2.75 wide, with 87 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other on anterior third. Labio-sternal groove shallow, flat, with no visible sigilla.

Sternum: 7.18 long, 6.71 wide. Sigilla: not evident.

Legs: Formula: IV=I – –. Length leg IV to leg I: 1.07. Clavate trichobothria: 2/3 distal on tarsi I, IV. Scopulae: Tarsi I and IV fully scopulate. IV lacking sparse setae. Metatarsi I fully scopulate, II–III ?; IV on distal 1/3. IV divided by a row of setae.

Type II urticating setae: 0.94–1.01 long, 0.017–0.021 wide.

Palp (Figs 109–112): globous bulb with small subtegulum and well-developed prominence on tegulum. Embolus: not flattened, without keels, 5.02 long in retrolateral view, about 3.0 times tegulum’s length. Medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Proximal part very curved in frontal view; thin distal width, abruptly narrowing distally; basal, middle, and distal width of 0.89, 0.17, 0.03, respectively. Tegulum: 1.62 long, 2.72 high in retrolateral view. Cymbium subtriangular with subequal lobes, and well-developed rounded process on retrolateral lobe, bearing thick setae (Figs 113, 307).

Tibial apophysis (Figs 114–116): single branch on prolateral leg I, with well-developed base and grouped spiniform setae distally. Male metatarsus I touches retrolaterally tibial apophysis’ setae when folded.

Color pattern: carapace brown with golden short body setae. Carapace border with long setae the same color as dorsal carapace short body setae. Coxae, labium, sternum and maxillae brown, slightly darker than ventral femora. Legs and palps with golden brown short body setae and brown long dark guard-setae. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi whitish. Abdomen dorsum with reddish brown guard-setae and black short body setae. Ventral abdomen brown.

Female

Redescription. MZUSP 125B. Carapace: 19.26 long, 16.94 wide, 5.22 high. Chelicera: 8.77 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 15.30, 9.13, 11.53, 9.92, 6.66, 52.54. II: 14.21, 8.26, 10.39, 10.37, 6.25, 49.48. III: 12.99, 7.49, 9.86, 9.68, 6.43, 46.45. IV: 15.75, 8.48, 13.59, 13.19, 6.62, 57.63. Palp: 10.61, 6.74, 7.07, –, 8.34, 32.76. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 3.64, 3.71, 3.84, 3.45, palp= 2.84; patellae I–IV= 3.55, 3.68, 3.69, 3.62, palp= 2.90; tibiae I–IV= 2.97, 3.13, 3.00, 2.72, palp= 2.88; metatarsi I–IV= 2.34, 2.67, 2.21, 2.20; tarsi I–IV= 2.89, 2.44, 2.80, 2.62, palp= 2.78. Abdomen: 24.29 long, 16.59 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 2.32 long, 1.54 wide, 0.1 apart; PLS, 3.43 basal, 2.14 middle, 2.86 distal; widths 1.82, 1.45, 1.28, respectively.

As in male, except:

Carapace: 1.14 times longer than wide.

Fovea: 2.19 wide.

Eyes: eye tubercle 1.15 high, 2.76 long, 3.56 wide. Clypeus 0.48. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.78, ALE 0.80, PME 0.34, PLE 0.75, AMEAME 0.64, AMEALE 0.56, AMEPME 0.29, ALEALE 2.53, ALEPME 0.91, PMEPME 2.13, PMEPLE 0.14, PLEPLE 2.95 ALEPLE 0.66, AMEPLE 0.66.

Maxilla: length to width: 1.70. Cuspules: 100–200 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: 2.00 long, 2.71 wide, with 88 cuspules spaced by one diameter on anterior third.

Chelicera: basal segment with 10 teeth. Sternum: 8.69 long, 7.79 wide.

Legs: Formula: IV=I II III. Length leg IV to leg I: 1.10. Clavate trichobothria: 2/3 distal on tarsi I–IV. Scopulae: Tarsi I and IV fully scopulate. IV lacking sparse setae. Metatarsi I–II fully scopulate, III on distal 2/3; IV on distal 1/3. III divided by a bald area, IV divided by a row of setae.

Type II urticating setae: 0.54–0.66 long, 0.014–0.018 wide (measured MZUSP 125A).

Spermathecae (Fig. 106): two completely separated, not-twisted very long spermathecae, with walls lacking projections or lobes and accentuated outwards curvature medially. Midwidth expanded, about 1.5 times its basal and apical portion widths and weakly-sclerotized area shorter than half the length of well-sclerotized area.

Color pattern: dorsal abdomen with long brown guard-setae grouped on lateral and dorsal anterior areas, and dark short body setae.

Variation

We found two different morphotypes. Morphotype 1 is found near Rio Juruá, state of Amazonas and Acre, Brazil, and in some areas of Peru (Fig. 127). Females have discrete grizzled setae in palp and legs, whitish leg rings and carapace, legs and palps with short body setae with golden and pink sheen, and abdomen with long light brown guard-setae homogeneously distributed over dark brown body short setae (Fig. 124). Males examined are not in good conditions but they do not seem to have white tipped setae on dorsal abdomen. Despite having yellowish leg rings, a female from Iquitos, Peru (Fig. 122) is considered as morphotype 1 since it has discrete grizzled guard-setae and short body setae with intense golden sheen on legs and carapace. Morphotype 2 is the most common morphotype found in the material examined and it was formerly known as Avicularia urticans. Both sexes have very grizzled setae on palps and legs, and carapace, legs and palps with dark short body setae with intense purple sheen, and yellowish leg rings (Figs 119–121). Females have dorsal abdomen with long reddish brown guard-setae grouped on lateral and dorsal anterior areas, and dark short body setae (Fig. 120). Males have white tipped setae homogenously distributed on dorsal abdomen (Fig. 121). They can be found mostly in Ecuador and Peru, but a specimen with the same characteristic pattern was found in Breves, state of Pará, Brazil.

Figures 123–126.

Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, retreat, habitus and behavior. 123 morphotype 2, retreat 124 morphotype 1, female from Cruzeiro do Sul, state of Acre, Brazil, habitus 125 female swimming on Rio Momon, Peru 126 female swimming on Rio Marañon, Peru. Photos: 123, 125–126 R. C. West; 124 S. Albuquerque.

Remarks

For many years the name A. juruensis has been applied to specimens that have vivid yellow leg rings and grizzled setae on legs and palps, that are commonly found in the states of Mato Grosso and Rondônia, Brazil. They have spermathecae with midwidth not expanded, developed prominence on palpal bulb and leg IV longer than leg I. However, A. juruenesis syntypes have whitish leg rings and lack setae with conspicuous whitish apex on legs, spermathecae with midwidth expanded, palpal bulb with well-developed prominence, and leg IV as long as leg I. The characters found in these specimens formerly known as A. juruensis match, in fact, with those of A. rufa. Thus, we conclude the name A. juruensis is being mistakenly applied to specimens of A. rufa.

Figure 127.

Map showing records of Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923 morphotypes.

Color pattern ontogeny

Brownish juveniles lacking metallic sheen, black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles and abdomen dorsum reddish, with dorsal central longitudinal black stripe disconnected from transversal black stripes (Fig. 117). When mature, both males and females lose this pattern.

Distribution

Brazil (states of Amazonas, Acre and Pará), Colombia, Ecuador and Peru (Fig. 76).

Natural history

Silken retreats of A. juruensis are similar to other Avicularia species (Fig. 123). An adult female A. juruensis was reported feeding on a greater sac-winged bat (Saccopteryx bilineata (Temminck, 1838)) on the side of a palm tree near Rio Yarapa, Peru (Nyffeler and Knörnschild 2013). Another interesting behavior was the ability to swim through large rivers such as Marañon and Momon rivers in Peru (Figs 125–126) (R. C. West, pers. comm.), which can explain why rivers do not seem to act as natural barriers to Avicularia.

Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945

Figs 19, 50, 128–130, 131–138, 139–141, 142–147, 148–153, 300, 302

Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945: 190, pls. XV–XVI, XXV (holotype female, Brazil, Mato Grosso, Alto Ji Paraná [10°52'N, 61°55'W] (Gy Paraná [sic]), Dr. Vellard col., December 1938, MACN–Ar 845, examined,); Brignoli 1983: 134; World Spider Catalog 2016.

Avicularia juruensis (misidentification): West et al. 2008: 37, 52–54; Ayroza et al. 2012: 2; Bertani 2012: 5, 79–80.

Diagnosis

males and females of A. rufa resemble A. avicularia and female of A. hirschii by the leg IV longer than leg I. Females of A. rufa can be distinguished from those of A. hirschii by the non-twisted spermathecae. Females and males of A. rufa differ from those of A. avicularia by having vivid yellow rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi combined with legs and palps with very grizzled guard-setae (Fig. 145) (from all morphotypes of A. avicularia except 6 and 7, but these have intense green metallic sheen on carapace and legs, absent in A. rufa).

Material examined

1 female, Brazil, Mato Grosso, between Vale de São Domingos [15°17'S, 59°03'W] (Vale de São Lourenço [sic]) and Pontes & Lacerda [15°12'S, 59°19'W], Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col., 14 December 2002, RGI 1963 (IBSP 10264) and 2 males and 1 immature female, Brazil, Mato Grosso, Operação Coatá col., 1–20 July 2002 (MCP 13592).

Figures 128–130.

Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, spermathecae variation. 128 between vale de São Domingos and Pontes & Lacerda, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (IBSP 10264) 129 Rio Negro, state of Amazonas, Brazil (AMNH RW29) 130 Tomé-Assu, state of Pará, Brazil (IBSP 3105). Scale bars = 1 mm.

Additional material

BRAZIL: no further data: 1 female, 1 immature (IBSP 2157); 1 female (IBSP 3170); 7 immatures, G. Raidar col., 14 May 1951 (IBSP 2620); 1 female (IBSP 4368); 2 males (MZUSP 22501); 2 females (IBSP 1393); Amapá: Serra do Navio [1°38'N, 52°12'W], 2 immature males (IBSP 3703); Amazonas: Rodovia Transamazônica, km 530, 1 male, 23 October 1975 (IBSP 7895); Transamazônica Humaitá–Porto Velho, 1 immature, Dr. A. H. Hoge col., ref. 4102, July 1972 (IBSP 4102); Barcelos [0°57'S, 62°55'W], Parque Nacional do Jaú, Lago do Miratuca, 1 female, R. Andriazze, W. L. S. Costa & L. Aquino col., 14 July 1993 (INPA 4884); Boca do Jacaré [5°45'S, 63°41'W], Rio Solimões, 1 female (IBSP 3110); Boca do Tefé [3°19'S, 64°43'W], Rio Solimões, 1 female (IBSP 3104); 2 females, 1 immature male (IBSP 3099); 1 female, 3 immatures (IBSP ref.189); 1 male (IBSP 3101); 1 female (IBSP 3103); 1 immature male (IBSP 3102); 2 immatures (IBSP 3100); Boca do Tefé [3°19'S, 64°43'W], Rio Solimões, 5 females, 1 male, 2 immatures males, 5 immatures (IBSP 3104, IBSP 3099, IBSP ref. 189, IBSP 3103, IBSP 3101, IBSP 3102, IBSP 3100); Cucuí [1°11'N, 66°49'W], 1 juvenile female, P. Serveira col., November 1975, ref.17.595 (IBSP 2569); Humaitá [7°30'S, 63°01'W], 1 female, in silk retreat in a palm tree (IBSP 7932); 1 male, 4 females, L. R. Latorre col., November 1981, ref. 40348 (IBSP 4686, IBSP 4687); pottery and pineapple crop, 1 male, 1 juvenile female, 1 immature male, 2 immatures, Dr. A. R. Hoge col., July 1972, IB 24.8.72 (IBSP 4099); Transamazônica, km 86, 1 male, 23 July 1972 (IBSP 4100); Puruzinho, Rio Madeira [6°52'S, 62°05'W], 1 female, EPA col., 4 December 1975 (MZUSP 27610); Rio Negro [3°09'S, 59°57'W], 2 males, 1 female, A. McKee col., 19 April 1989 (AMNH RW67, AMNH RW25, AMNH RW27); 2 females, A. McKee col., 29 June 1988 (AMNH RW29, AMNH RW28); 1 immature male, R. Mascarino col., 18 September 1996 (AMNH RW30); Tapera [0°55'N, 67°26'W], Rio Negro, 1 immature male, EPA col., 4 November 1972, P. E. Vanzolini col., 722574 (MZUSP unnumbered); Tefé [3°20'S, 64°43'W], 1 male, 1 female, De Mathan col. (MNHN–AR 4903); 3 females, 1 immature (IBSP 193); 2 immature females, 2 immatures (IBSP 184); Pará: Belém [1°27'S, 48°30'W], IAN, 1 immature male (IBSP 3123); Belterra [3°07'S, 55°03'W], 1 female, 15 March 2003 (MPEG 4800); Itaituba [4°16'S, 55°59'W], Rio Maropa, 1 male, W. G. Ravem col., ref. 41844 (IBSP 8576); 1 female, dead 25 April 1990 (IBSP ref. 41.844); Óbidos [1°54'S, 55°31'W], Igarapé Jaramacaru, Campos do Ariramba, 1 immature male, EPA col., 24 January 1960 (MZUSP 14873); São Félix do Xingu [6°37'S, 51°58'W], 1 male, 1 female, G. Whitaker col., July 1980, ref. 28300 (IBSP 4562); Tomé-Assu [2°25'S, 48°09'W] (Thomé Assu [sic]), Rio Acará Mirim, 1 female (IBSP 3105); Tucuruí [3°46'S, 49°40'W], 1 female, Equipe de Resgate de Fauna col., Ref. IBA 218 (IBSP 8574); Vila Bravo, 1 female, Equipe de Resgate de Fauna col., ref. B410-12C (IBSP 8577); Acre: Rio Branco [9°58'S, 67°48'W], Catuaba, 1 immature male, A03, April 1996 (IBSP unnumbered); Marechal Thaumaturgo, Terra Indígena Jaminawa-Arara, Rio Bagé, Aldeia Buritizal, [8°56'S, 72°47'W], 1 immature, 02 September 2000, 9AM, Coleção de Simone Ladeia Andrade (MZUSP 70947); Rondônia: Candeias do Jamari, UHE Samuel [8°45'S, 63°27'W], 1 female, W. Bokerman col., June 1989 (AMNH RW24); Jaru [10°26'S, 62°28'W], Santa Cruz da Serra, 2 females, Expedição Polo Noroeste col., 23–27 December 1964 (MZUSP 11065); Monte Negro [10°14'S, 63°17'W], 1 immature male, 1 female, 1 juvenile female, R. Bertani & P. I. da Silva Junior col., 22 July to 03 August 2002 (IBSP 10042, IBSP 10218, IBSP 10945, respectively); Núcleo Avançado de Pesquisa de Monte Negro, 1 male, L. M. A. Camargo col., June 2002, ref. 89431 (IBSP 1028); 1 juvenile female, L. M. A. Camargo col., 06 April 2002, ref. 89430 (IBSP 10205); Porto Velho [8°43'S, 63°53'W], 1 male, G. Insley col., 31 August 1973, ref. 12732 (IBSP 2454); 1 male, G. Insley col., 9 October 1973, ref. 12922 (IBSP 2483); Santa Luzia d’Oeste [11°54'S, 61°46'W], 1 immature female, R. Moterani col., July 1999 (IBSP 9538); Mato Grosso: Alto Xingu [7°16'S, 52°36'W], 1 male, H. Schulze col., 21 October 1964 (IBSP 3693); Barra do Bugres [15°03'S, 57°10'W], Cia Paulista de Ferro Ligas, 1 immature, 26 July 1971, ref. 7624 (IBSP 4103); 1 immature, A. Cerrutti col., November 1984 (MNRJ 12942); Chapada dos Guimarães [15°26'S, 55°44'W], UHE Rio Manso, 1 female, Faunal Rescue Team of Furnas col., 2000 (IBSP 9087); 1 female, H. N. da Cunha col., December 1976 (IBSP 13805); Rio Kuluene (Koluene [sic]) [13°22'S, 52°59'W], 1 immature male, J. M. C. Carvalho col., 1947 (MNRJ 13.773); Lagoa Ipavu [12°7'S, 53°26'W] (Lagoa Ipavi [sic]), 1 immature male, 1 juvenile female, P. Vanzolini col., 1965 (MZUSP E3474 C3918); Nova Mutum [13°49'S, 56°05'W], 1 female, R. K. Ribeiro col., 06–15 July 2001 (IBSP 10929); Parque Nacional Xingu [11°59'S, 54°00'W], 1 male, C. Andreatta col., March 1968 (IBSP 39A); 2 immatures, Alvarenga & Werner col., November 1961 (AMNH 1.19); São José do Rio Claro [13°25'S, 56°42'W], 2 males, M. Caleffo col., June 1997 (IBSP 10309); Sinop [11°52'S, 55°29'W], 1 immature, 4 March 1977, ref. 20109 (IBSP 4455); Vila Bela da Santissima Trindade [15°00'S, 59°57'W] (Villebela [sic]), Rio Serra Azul, 1 male, Dr. Hoge col., 27 June 1962 (IBSP 3614); Maloca Feia, 1 female, Dr. Hoge, Pedro & Joaquim col., 27 June 1962 (IBSP 3615); Between Vale de São Domingos [15°17'S, 59°03'W] ([sic] Vale de São Lourenço) and Pontes & Lacerda [15°14'S, 59°19'W], UHE Guaporé, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col.: 1 juvenile female, 17 May 2002, RGI 074 (IBSP 10274); 1 juvenile female, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col., 18 May 2002, RGI 086 (IBSP 10253); 1 juvenile female, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col., 14 September 2002, RGI 1871 (IBSP 10262); 2 females, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col.,1 October 2002, RGI 2527, RGI 2528 (IBSP 10241, IBSP10242, respectively); 2 females, 5 juvenile females, 3 immature males, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col., 03 October 2002, RGI 2299, RGI 2516, RGI 2313, RGI 2518, RGI 2300, RGI 2314, RGI 2517, RGI 2315, RGI 2316, RGI 2302 (IBSP 10232, IBSP 10224, IBSP 10246, IBSP 10226, IBSP 10233, IBSP 10247, IBSP 10225, IBSP 10248, IBSP 10249, IBSP 10235, respectively); 1 female, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col., 05 October 2002, RGI 1871 (IBSP 10220); 1 immature female, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col., 7 October 2002, RGI 1871 (IBSP 10230); 1 female, 2 juvenile females, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col., 08 October 2002, RGI 1773, RGI 1774, RGI 1775 (IBSP 10275, IBSP 10279, IBSP 10278, respectively); 1 immature, S2, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col., 8 October 2002 (IBSP unnumbered); 2 females, 1 juvenile female, 1 immature male, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col., 14 October 2002, RGI-, RGI 1962, RGI 1964, RGI 1966 (IBSP 10256, IBSP 10263, IBSP 10255, IBSP 10257, respectively); 1 female, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col., 01 December 2002, RGI 2526 (IBSP 10240); 1 immature male, 03 December 2002, RGI 2301 (IBSP 10234); U.H.E. Guaporé [15°16'S, 59°04'W], Operação Coatá, 2 females, 1 juvenile female, 4–14 October 2002 (MCP 13595); 1 immature male, 2 immatures, Operação Coatá, 14 October 2002 (MCP 13598); 4 immatures, Operação Coatá, 10 June 2002 (MCP 13593); 3 females,1 immature female, Operação Coatá, 14 February 2002 (MCP 13596, MCP 13599); 1 immature, Operação Coatá, 01–07 September 2002 (MCP 13555); 2 immature males, 1 female, Operação Coatá, 4–14 December 2002 (MCP 13594); 1 female, 1 immature, Operação Coatá, 14 December 2002 (MCP 13597); Xingu, Suia-Missu [11°39'S, 51°25'W] (Tuiã Missu [sic]), 5 immatures, Whytaker col., 05 February 1980, ref. 27055 (IBSP 4523); ECUADOR: Napo: Puerto Napo [1°01'S, 77°43'W], 25 km east, Selva Aliñahuí, 450 m, 1 juvenile female, E. S. Ross col., March 1992 (CAS 9); PERU: Madre de Dios: Iñapari [10°57'S, 69°34'W], Esperanza, 2 females, 4 immature males, 245 m a.s.l., average temperature 32.4°C, J. Morant Araque col., 22 September 1992 (MUSM); Junin: Rio Tambo [11°10'S, 74°14'W], Shevaja, in short palm trees, 3 females, P. Hocking col., 12 October 2011 (MUSM); 300 m a.s.l., in palm trees, 1 female, P. Hocking col., 23 October 2010 (MUSM); 1 female, P. Hocking col., October 2010 (MUSM–ENTO 504260); 1 female, H. Bassler col., February 1928 (AMNH Pe121); Cusco: Cashiriari (11°52'S, 72°39'W), 1 female, S. Córdova col., 25 November 1997 (MUSM–ENTO); Cusco [department or city?], Timpia Rio Urubamba [12°28'S, 72°29'W], 1 female, P. Hocking & L. Campos col., March 2009 (MUSM–ENTO 500676); BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz: San Ignácio de Velasco [16°22'S, 60°55'W], 1 female (IBSP 3552).

Figures 131–138.

Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, male (MCP 13592). 131–134 right palpal bulb (mirrored) 131 prolateral 132 retrolateral 133 frontal 134 dorsal 135 right cymbium, dorsal (mirrored) 136–138 right tibial apophysis of leg I (mirrored) 136 prolateral 137 ventral 138 retrolateral. Scale bars = 1 mm.

Figures 139–141.

SEM microphotographs of cymbium process in male of Avicularia rufa. 139 dorsal view 140 process, detail, dorsal 141 well-developed setae of process.

Female

Redescription. IBSP 10264. Carapace: 17.53 long, 17.69 wide, 4.26 high. Chelicera: 7.70 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 15.59, 8.80, 11.42, 9.78, 6.41, 51.63. II: 14.52, 8.76, 10.23, 9.58, 6.86, 49.95. III: 13.61, 7.99, 10.21, 10.37, 6.14, 48.32. IV: 17.59, 8.68, 15.93, 14.81, 6.67, 63.68. Palp: 10.20, 6.51, 7.18, –, 7.48. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 3.69, 3.18, 3.42, 3.68, palp= 2.85; patellae I–IV= 3.44, 3.41, 3.36, 3.78, palp= 2.96; tibiae I–IV= 2.89, 3.18, 3.02, 3.24, palp= 2.80; metatarsi I–IV= 2.61, 2.51, 2.82, 2.73; tarsi I–IV= 2.89, 2.93, 2.95, 3.05, palp= 2.95. Abdomen: 24.70 long, 17.11 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 2.73 long, 1.44 wide, 0.4 apart; PLS, 3.31 basal, 1.56 middle, 3.78 distal; midwidths 2.44, 2.06, 1.61, respectively.

Carapace: 0.99 times longer than wide; cephalic region not raised, thoracic striae inconspicuous.

Fovea: deep, slightly recurved, 3.52 wide.

Eyes: eye tubercle 1.61 high, 2.71 long, 3.39 wide. Clypeus 0.18. Anteriore eye row procurve. Posterior eye row slightly recurve. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.78, ALE 0.87, PME 0.32, PLE 0.76, AMEAME 0.56, AMEALE 0.42, AMEPME 0.22, ALEALE 2.13, ALEPME 0.56, PMEPME 2.15, PMEPLE 0.18, PLEPLE 2.90, ALEPLE 0.28, AMEPLE 0.64.

Maxilla: length to width: 1.69 longer than wide. Cuspules: 100–200 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: 2.02 long, 3.41 wide, with 133 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other on anterior third. Labio-sternal groove shallow, flattened, without evident sigilla.

Chelicera: basal segment with 10 teeth in a row and some small teeth on promargin. Sternum: 7.75 long, 7.45 wide. Sigilla: rounded posterior, less than one diameter from margin; other sigilla not evident.

Leg: Formula: IV I II III. Length leg IV to leg I: 1.23. Clavate trichobothria: distal 2/3 tarsi I–IV. Scopula: Tarsi I–IV fully scopulate. Metatarsi I fully scopulate; II 4/5; III 1/3 and IV 1/2 distal scopulate. IV divided by a row of setae.

Type II urticating setae: 0.50–0.58 long, 0.013–0.019 wide (measured from IBSP 10233).

Spermathecae (Fig. 128): two completely separated, not-twisted long spermathecae, with walls lacking projections or lobes and accentuated outwards curvature medially. Midwidth as wide as its base width and weakly-sclerotized area shorter than half the length of well-sclerotized area.

Color pattern (Fig. 145): carapace brown with golden short body setae with sligthtly purple sheen. Carapace border with long setae the same color as dorsal carapace short body setae. Coxae, labium, sternum and maxillae darker than ventral femora. Legs and palps with brown short body setae having pink sheen and brown long guard-setae with darker base and contrasting whitish apex. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and and metatarsi vivid yellow (Fig. 300). Abdomen with long greyish brown guard-setae grouped on lateral and dorsal anterior areas and dark short body setae (Fig. 302). Abdomen venter brown.

Male

Description.

MCP 13592 (larger specimen). Carapace: 14.15 long, 14.45 wide, 3.3 high. Chelicera: 6.6 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 13.56, 7.50, 11.67, 11.46, 7.55, 51.74. II: 13.02, 7.16, 11.14, 11.15, 6.45, 48.92. III: 13.44, 6.45, 10.55, 11.46, 6.66, 48.59. IV: 18.14, 7.35, 14.16, 13.55, 8.15, 61.65. Palp: 3.62, 3.45, 8.51, –, 3.54, 19.12. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 2.62, 3.07, 2.65, 5.56; palp= 2.16; patellae I–IV= 3.50, 3.15, 2.56, 2.66, palp= 2.42; tibiae I–IV= 2.66, 2.25, 2.26, 2.46, palp= 2.15; metatarsi I–IV= 1.67, 1.75, 1.70, 1.13; tarsi I–IV= 2.12, 2.15, 2.26, 2.33. palp= 2.16. Abdomen: 19.07 long, 13.05 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.90 long, 0.98 wide, 0.2 apart; PLS, 2.70 basal, 1.40 middle, 2.95 distal; midwidths 1.50, 1.40, 1.16 respectively.

As in female, except:

Carapace: 0.98 times longer than wide.

Fovea: 2.55 wide.

Eyes: eye tubercle 1.3 high, 2.56 long, 3.00 wide. Clypeus 0.34. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.75, ALE 0.80, PME 0.28, PLE 0.50, AMEAME 0.58, AMEALE 0.37, AMEPME 0.19, ALEALE 1.92, ALEPME 0.63, PMEPME 1.92, PMEPLE 0.11, PLEPLE 2.39, ALEPLE 0.31, AMEPLE 0.52. Ratio of the eye group width to length 1.84.

Maxilla: length to width: 1.94. Labium: 1.79 long, 2.45 wide, with 109 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other on anterior third.

Chelicera: basal segment with 12 teeth in a row and some small teeth on promargin. Sternum: 7.72 long, 6.44 wide. Sigilla: anterior rounded, middle fusiform, both less than one diameter from margin.

Legs: Length leg IV to leg I: 1.19. Scopula: Tarsi I–IV fully scopulate. Metatarsi I–II 3/4; III 1/2, IV 1/3 distal scopulate. IV divided by a bald area.

Type II urticating setae: 1.01–1.11 long, 0.021–0.023 wide.

Palp (Figs 131–134): globous bulb with small subtegulum and developed prominence on tegulum. Embolus: not flattened, lacking keels, 4.38 long in retrolateral view, about 3 times tegulum’s length. Medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Proximal part very curved in frontal view; thin distal width, abruptly narrowing distally; basal, middle, and distal width, 0.45, 0.24, 0.12, respectively. Tegulum: 2.68 long, 1.57 high in retrolateral view. Cymbium subtriangular with subequal lobes, having a well-developed rounded process on retrolateral lobe, bearing thick setae (Fig. 135, 139–141).

Tibial apophysis (Figs 136–138): single branch on prolateral leg I, with well-developed base and grouped spiniform setae distally. Male metatarsus I touches retrolaterally tibial apophysis’ setae when folded.

Coloration (Fig. 146): abdomen with long greyish brown guard-setae homogeneously distributed and dark short body setae. Abdomen venter brown.

Figures 142–147.

Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, habitus and retreat. 142 immature 143 juvenile 144 old juvenile 145 female 146 male 147 retreat on bromelid. Photos: 142–145, 147 R. Bertani; 146 W. Bokermann.

Color pattern ontogeny

Brownish juveniles lacking metallic sheen, black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles (Fig. 142) and abdomen dorsum reddish, with dorsal central longitudinal black stripe disconnected from transversal black stripes (Fig. 143). When mature, both males and females lose this pattern (Figs 145–146).

Distribution

Brazil (states of Amazonas, Amapá, Pará, Acre, Rondônia and Mato Grosso), Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia (Fig. 50).

Natural history

In northern region of Brazil, such as in state of Rondônia, specimens are commonly found in babaçu palms (Fig. 148). They build their retreats in palm axis or using underside of the palms leaves (Figs 149–150, 152). They can also build retreats over larger tree bark (Fig. 151) or inside bromeliads (Fig. 147). Specimens are usually found on human-made structures, such as on houses and other buildings (Fig. 153).

Figures 148–153.

Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, habitat and retreats. 148 Babaçu palms, a common habitat of A. rufa in state of Rondônia, Brazil 149 retreat of immature on a palm tree 150 detail of retreat 151 retreat over a tree bark 152 use of intern side of babaçu palm to build retreat 153 in human buildings. Photos: 148–152 R. Bertani; 153 C. S. Fukushima.

Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990

Figs 19, 105, 154–157, 158–165, 166–171, 172, 304

Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990: 15, figs 1–5 (holotype female, Ecuador, Tena [0°58'S, 77°48'W], approximately 500 m a.s.l., H. Hirschi col., 1989, BMNH 1990.5.22.1 and paratype female, Peru, H. Hirschi col., 1990, BMNH 1990.5.22.2; examined); Bullmer et al. 2006: 7, figs 16–19, 21; World Spider Catalog 2016.

Diagnosis

Females of A. purpurea resemble those of A. merianae sp. n. by the spermathecae with weakly-sclerotized area at least same length of well-sclerotized area (Figs 154–157). They differ from A. merianae sp. n. by the velvety black abdomen as well as legs and palps with dark short body setae with very intense purple sheen (Figs 168, 170). Males of A. purpurea resemble those of A. avicularia, A. rufa. A. juruensis, A. variegata stat. n., A. taunayi, and A. merianae sp. n. by tibial apophysis on leg I with well-developed base and grouped spiniform setae distally (Fig. 163). They can be distinguished from all these species except A. merianae sp. n. by cymbium lacking well-developed process on retrolateral lobe (Fig. 162). It differs from A. merianae sp. n. by velvety black abdomen, and legs and palps with dark short body setae with very intense purple sheen (Figs 169, 171).

Material examinad

1 female, Ecuador, Napo, 20 km East of Puerto Napo, Aliñahuí (1°0'S, 77°25'O), 450 m, V. D. & B. Roth col., January 1994 (CAS 11); 1 male, Ecuador, Napo, 25 km East of Puerto Napo [1°01'S, 77°43'W], jungle Aliñahuí, 450 m, E. S. Ross col, January–February 1991 (CAS 3).

Additional material

COLOMBIA: Putumayo: Mocoa [1°09'N, 76°39'W], Vda. Pepino, 500 m asl, 1 female, T. Sanjuan col., 30 April 1997 (ICN–Ar-1990); ECUADOR: Napo: Puerto Napo, 20 km East, Aliñahuí (1°0'S, 77°25'W), 450 m, 1 male, V. D. & B. Roth col., June 1994 (CAS 7); [1°01'S, 77°43'W], 1 male, V. Roth col., June 1994 (AMNH RW52); Río Napo [2°00'S, 74°20'W], 1 female, Gerhard col., 1994 (IBSP 11597); Tena, Cabañas Aliñahui (1°02'54.00"S, 77°36'05.00"W), 1 female, R. Baxter col., August 1994, in silk retreat on side of tree (AMNH RW54); PERU: Loreto: Iquitos, Rio Momon, Amazon Camp (3°41'16.00"S, 73°16'48"W), T. Mason col., May 1994 (AMNH RW33); 1 male, W. Lamar col., 20 August 1997 (MNRJ 06913); Río Yarapa [4°31'S, 73°22'W], 1 female, R. C. West col., 16 November 1993, in a palm tree at night (AMNH RW44); Río Nanay [3°48'S, 73°23'W], 1 female, R. C. West col., 5 November 1993 (AMNH RW45); Ucayali Río Ucayali [7°34'S, 74°20'W], 1 female, R. C. West col., 14 November 1993, in silk retreat on a citrus tree (AMNH RW48).

Female

Redescription. CAS. Carapace: 15.4 long, 14.02 wide, 3.98 high. Chelicera: 5.38 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 11.69, 7.20, 8.54, 7.25, 5.15, 39.83. II: 10.74, 6.84, 7.99, 7.13, 4.89, 37.59. III: 9.75, 5.93, 7.33, 7.15, 4.42, 34.58. IV: 12.08, 6.47, 10.14, 9.51, 4.31, 42.51. Palp: 8.10, 5.10, 4.72, –, 5.41, 23.33. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 2.81, 3.08, 3.07, 2.90, palp= 2.38; patellae I–IV= 2.95, 2.70, 2.87, 2.98, palp= 2.57; tibiae I–IV= 2.39, 2.30, 2.56, 2.82, palp= 2.49; metatarsi I–IV= 1.92, 1.72, 1.86, 1.71; tarsi I–IV= 2.18, 2.19, 2.01, 2.13, palp= 2.36. Abdomen: 19.26 long, 13.62 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.81 long, 1.19 wide, 1.07 apart; PLS, 2.28 basal, 1.09 middle, 2.74 distal; midwidths 2.38, 1.78, 1.41, respectively.

Carapace: 1.10 times longer than wide; cephalic region moderately raised, thoracic striae conspicuous.

Fovea: deep, recurve, 2.03 wide.

Eyes: eye tubercle 1.17 high, 2.21 long, 3.43 wide. Clypeus 0.12. Anterior row of eye procurve. Posterior row of eyes slightly recurve. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.75, ALE 0.72, PME 0.27, PLE 0.62, AMEAME 0.6, AMEALE 0.47, AMEPME 0.25, ALEALE 2.19, ALEPME 0.63, PMEPME 2.06, PMEPLE 0.23, PLEPLE 2.67, ALEPLE 0.48, AMEPLE 0.67.

Maxilla length to width: 1.89. Cuspules: 100–200 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: 2.03 long, 2.46 wide, with 108 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other on anterior half. Labio-sternal groove shallow and flattened, sigilla not evident.

Chelicera: basal segment with 14 teeth and some small teeth on promargin. Sternum: 7.56 long, 6.27 wide. Sigilla: three pairs, elipsoidal posterior, in 45°angle, less than one diameter from margin; fusiform median, less than one diameter from margin; anterior not evident.

Legs: Formula: IV=I II III. Length leg IV to leg I: 1.07. Clavate trichobothria: distal 1/2 of tarsi I–IV. Scopula: Tarsi I–IV fully scopulate, IV divided by a wide band of setae. Metatarsi I–II fully scopulate; III on distal 2/3; IV, on distal 1/3. IV divided by wide band of setae.

Type II urticating setae: 0.53–0.58 long, 0.011–0.014 wide.

Spermathecae (Fig. 154): two completely separated, not-twisted long spermathecae, with walls lacking projections or lobes and accentuated outwards curvature medially. Midwidth as wide as its base width and weakly-sclerotized area at least same length of well-sclerotized area.

Color pattern (Figs 168): carapace brown with golden short body setae with very intense purple sheen. Carapace border with long setae the same color as dorsal carapace short body setae. Coxae, labium, sternum and maxillae brown, with the same color of ventral femora. All ventral parts, specially sternum, covered by longer setae. Legs and palps with brown short body setae with very intense purple sheen and brown long guard-setae. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi whitish. Abdomen dorsum with long brown guard-setae homogeneously distributed and black short body setae, with velvety aspect (Fig. 304). Abdomen venter brown.

Figures 154–157.

Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, spermathecae variation. 154 Puerto Napo, department of Napo, Ecuador (CAS 11) 155 Tena, department of Napo, Ecuador (AMNH RW54) 156 holotype, Tena, department of Napo, Ecuador (BMNH 1990.5.22.1) 157 Iquitos, department of Loreto, Peru (AMNH RW33). Scale bars = 1 mm.

Figures 158–165.

Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, male (CAS 3; except palpal bulb in prolateral view, CAS 7). 158–161 left palpal bulb 158 prolateral 159 retrolateral 160 frontal 161 dorsal 162 left cymbium, dorsal 163–165 left tibial apophysis of leg I 163 prolateral 164 ventral 165 retrolateral. Scale bars = 1 mm.

Male

Description.

CAS. Carapace: 11.98 long, 10.74 wide, 2.85 high. Chelicera: 3.79 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 12.59, 6.43, 9.70, 9.13, 5.68, 43.53. II: 11.82, 5.86, 9.35, 8.78, 5.18, 40.99. III: 10.47, 5.26, 8.36, 8.54, 4.77, 37.40. IV: 13.16, 5.27, 11.04, 11.25, 4.68, 45.40. Palp: 6.97, 4.35, 5.55, –, 2.32, 19.15. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 2.08, 2.49, 2.18, 2.20, palp= 1.71; patellae I–IV= 2.22, 2.21, 2.15, 2.28, palp= 1.68; tibiae I–IV= 1.64, 1.73, 1.86, 1.89, palp= 1.65; metatarsi I–IV= 1.35, 1.31, 1.25, 1.23; tarsi I–IV= 1.63, 1.58, 1.65, 1.53, palp= 1.69. Abdomen: 13.09 long, 7.88 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.57 long, 0.79 wide, 0.29 apart; PLS, 2.00 basal, 1.12 middle, 2.78 distal; midwidths 1.42, 1.29, 0.92, respectively.

As in female, except:

Carapace: 1.12 times longer than wide; cephalic region not raised, thoracic striae inconspicuous.

Fovea: straight, 1.14 wide.

Eyes: eye tubercle 0.60 high, 1.73 long, 2.54 wide. Clypeus 0.30. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.58, ALE 0.67, PME 0.22, PLE 0.42, AMEAME 0.48, AMEALE 0.36, AMEPME 0.20, ALEALE 1.66, ALEPME 0.74, PMEPME 1.52, PMEPLE 0.07, PLEPLE 1.95, ALEPLE 0.40, AMEPLE 0.43.

Maxilla: length to width: 2.07. Labium: 1.33 long, 1.92 wide, with 120 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other on the anterior half.

Chelicera: basal segment with 11 teeth and some small teeth on promargin. Sternum: 5.78 long, 4.81 wide. Sigilla: three pairs, posterior and median rounded, large, less than one diameter from margin; anterior not evident.

Legs: Length leg IV to leg I: 1.04. Scopula: Metatarsi IV scopulate in distal 1/4. IV divided by band of setae.

Type II urticating setae: 0.78–0.83 long, 0.015–0.017 wide.

Palp (Figs 158–161): globous bulb with small subtegulum and developed prominence on tegulum. Embolus: not flattened, lacking keels, 3.5 long in retrolateral view, about 3.0 times tegulum’s length. Medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Proximal part very curved in frontal view; thin distal width, tapering distally; basal, middle, and distal width 0.68, 0.18, 0.05, respectively. Tegulum: 1.96 long, 1.66 high in retrolateral view. Cymbium subtriangular with subequal lobes, lacking well-developed process on retrolateral lobe (Fig. 162).

Tibial apophysis (Figs 163–165): single branch on prolateral leg I, with well-developed base and grouped spiniform setae distally. Male metatarsus I touches retrolaterally tibial apophysis’ setae when folded.

Figures 166–171.

Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, habitus and retreat. 166 silken retreat over tree bark 167 immature 168–169 northern form, from Tena, Ecuador 168 female 169 male 170–171 southern form, from Rio Momon, Peru 170 female 171 male. Photos: 166, 168, 170 R. C. West; 167 R. Bertani; 169 R. Baxter; 171 W. Lamar.

Color pattern ontogeny

Juveniles present green metallic sheen, all articles with blackish color and abdomen dorsum with central longitudinal black stripe connected with all transversal black stripes of each side (Fig. 167). When mature, both males and females lose this pattern (Figs 168–171).

Variation

We found two different morphotypes among the examined material (Fig. 172). The northern form is the same holotype’s morphotype (Figs 168–169). The southern form has very discrete grizzled setae in palps and legs, and less intense purple sheen in short body setae of carapace, legs, and palps (Figs 170–171). Females of the southern form have abdomen with light brown guard-setae homogeneously distributed, with a couple of reddish brown lateral stripes until penultimate or ultimate molt, distinct from the velvety black dorsal abdomen of the northern morphotype. Males from southern and northern form showed no morphological difference among them (Figs 169, 171).

Distribution

Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru (Fig. 105).

Figure 172.

Map showing records of Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990 morphotypes.

Natural history

Specimens were found in anthrophized areas, such as cultivated areas and cattle pastures with dispersed trees, near Tena, Ecuador (Kirk 1990). They are arboreals, making their retreats in tree holes, epiphytes, and inside houses and other human constructions (Kirk 1990). Specimens of the southern form were found in natural cavities of living palms or citrus-like trees in open forested fringes or in gallery forest areas (Rick West, pers. comm.). They use bark and organic debris to camouflage the partially exposed webbed retreat, which lies about 25 cm from soil (Rick West, pers. comm.).

Avicularia hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006

Figs 19, 90, 173–180, 181–183, 184–187, 309

Avicularia hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006: 3, figs 1–10, 20, 22 (holotype male, Ecuador, Oriente, nahe Misahualli [1°02'S, 77°41'W], Bullmer leg., August 1997, SMF 57125 and paratype female, Ecuador, Oriente, nahe Misahualli [1°02'S, 77°41'W], Bullmer leg., August 1997, SMF 57126, examined); World Spider Catalog 2016.

Diagnosis

Females of A. hirschii resemble those of A. avicularia and A. rufa by the leg IV longer than leg I. They can be distinguished from them by twisted spermatheca (Fig. 181). Males of A. hirschii resemble those of A. minatrix, A. lynnae sp. n. and A. caei sp. n. by tibia I with discrete elevation covered by a cluster of setae in apical portion, on prolateral side (Fig. 179). They can be distinguished from males of A. lynnae sp. n. and A. caei sp. n. by shorter embolus, about 3.0 to 3.5 times tegulum’s width in retrolateral view (Fig. 174) and from A. minatrix by having prominece on tegulum (Fig. 175) and cymbium with process on retrolateral lobe (Fig. 177).

Figures 173–180.

Avicularia hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, male holotype (SMF 57125). 173–176 right palpal bulb (mirrored) 173 prolateral 174 retrolateral 175 frontal 176 dorsal 177 right cymbium, dorsal (mirrored) 178–180 left tibia I 178 prolateral 179 ventral 180 retrolateral. Scale bars = 1 mm.

Additional material

BRAZIL: Acre: Senador Guiomard [10°08'S, 67°44'W], 1 female, C. Alexandre col., 12–17 July 2013 (MNRJ 06912); Estação Ecológica Rio Acre [10°59'S, 70°13'W], M. A. de Freitas col., 4–18 February 2016 (MNRJ 06911); ECUADOR: Pastaza: 25 km east of Puerto Napo [1°01'S, 77°43'W], selva Aliñahuí, 450 m, I–II, 1 female, 1 immature, E. S. Ross col., 1991 (CAS 1, CAS 2); PERU: Loreto: confluence of Rio Zumun and Rio Yaguasyacu [3°21'S, 71°58'W] (Rio Yahnasyacu [sic]), 2 juvenile females, J. Becker col. (MNRJ 13759); Iquitos, Rio Nanay [3°48'S, 73°23'W], 1 juvenile female, R. C. West col., 5 November 1993 (AMNH RW50); 1 juvenile female, Rio Tigre, Cristo Rey village [3°58'S, 74°16'W], W. Lamar col., 19 July 1998, in light silken retreat between broad leaves 1.5 m above ground in forest behind village (MNRJ 06910).

Male

Redescription. SMF 57125. Carapace: 10.83 long, 9.32 wide, 2.50 high. Chelicera: 2.65 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 10.02, 5.63, 7.80, 7.72, 4.51, 35.68. II: 9.66, 4.99, 7.44, 6.88, 4.48, 33.45. III: 8.44, 4.27, 6.17, 6.94, 3.66, 29.48. IV: 10.20, 4.64, 8.79, 9.30, 3.68, 36.61. Palp: 6.08, 3.63, 4.57, –, 1.78, 16.06. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 1.94, 1.77, 2.14, 2.15, palp= 1.45; patellae I–IV= 2.9, 1.87, 1.97, 1.76, palp= 1.56; tibiae I–IV= 1.53, 1.66, 1.53, 1.60, palp= 1.67; metatarsi I–IV= 1.02, 1.22, 1.04, 1.17; tarsi I–IV= 1.24, 1.47, 1.38, 1.50, palp= 1.57. Abdomen: 10.95 long, 6.04 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.02 long, 0.46 wide, 0.1 apart; PLS, 1.82 basal, 0.93 middle, 2.21 distal; midwidths 1.04, 0.82, 0.60, respectively.

Carapace: 1.16 times longer than wide; cephalic region not raised.

Fovea: deep, straight, 1.29 wide.

Eyes: eye tubercle 0.66 high, 1.59 long, 2.30 wide. Clypeus absent. Anterior row of eyes procurve, posterior slightly recurve. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.69, ALE 0.72, PME 0.30, PLE 0.44, AMEAME 0.34, AMEALE 0.16, AMEPME 0.10, ALEALE 1.45, ALEPME 0.55, PMEPME 1.50, PMEPLE 0.03, PLEPLE 1.75, ALEPLE 0.23, AMEPLE 0.43.

Maxilla: length to width: 2.53. Cuspules: 112 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: 1.00 long, 1.64 wide, with 54 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other on anterior third. Labium sternal groove shallow, flat, sigilla not evident.

Chelicera: basal segment with 9 teeth and some small teeth on promargin. Sternum: 5.01 long, 3.93 wide. Sigilla: only posterior pair evident, rounded, less than one diameter from margin.

Legs: Formula: IV=I II III. Length leg IV to leg I: 1.03. Clavate trichobothria: 2/3 distal tarsi I–IV. Scopula: Tarsi I–IV fully scopulate. IV with some sparse setae. Metatarsi I–II fully scopulate; III 2/3; IV 1/2 distal scopulate. IV divided by a wide row of setae.

Type II urticating setae: 0.10–0.11 long (according to original description, since holotype abdomen is bald).

Palp (Figs 173–176): globous bulb with small subtegulum and developed prominence on tegulum. Embolus: not flattened, lacking keels, 2.7 long in retrolateral view, about 3.5 times tegulum’s length. Medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Proximal part very curved in frontal view; thin distal width, tapering distally; basal, middle, and distal width of 0.35, 0.11, 0.03, respectively. Tegulum: 1.51 long, 0.93 wide in retrolateral view. Cymbium subtriangular with subequal lobes. Cymbium with well-developed rounded process on retrolateral lobe, bearing thin setae (Fig. 177).

Tibia I with discrete elevation covered by cluster of setae in apical portion, on prolateral side (Figs 178–180, 309).

Color pattern: carapace brown with golden short body setae with pink sheen. Carapace border with long setae the same color as dorsal carapace short body setae. Coxae, labium, sternum and maxillae light brown, same color of ventral femora. Legs and palps with brown short body setae with golden sheen and reddish brown long guard-setae. Posterior legs darker, blackish. Tarsi III and IV with reddish central well-developed tufts (not detected, but informed on original description). Tarsi with “U” shaped orange stripe. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi whitish. Abdomen dorsum with long reddish guard-setae and dark short body setae. Ventral abdomen light brown.

Figures 181–183.

Avicularia hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, spermathecae variation. 181 paratype, Oriente, department of Napo, Ecuador (SMF 57126) 182 Estação Ecológica Rio Acre, Assis Brasil, state of Acre, Brazil (MNRJ 06911) 183 Senador Guiomard, state of Acre, Brazil (MNRJ 06912). Scale bars = 1 mm.

Figures 184–187.

Avicularia hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, habitus. 184 immature, Tiguino, department of Pastaza, Ecuador 185 juvenile, Senador Guiomard, state of Acre, Brazil 186 female, Estação Ecológica Rio Acre, Assis Brasil, state of Acre, Brazil 187 female feeding on an insect, Rio Momón, department of Loreto, Peru. Photos: 184 W. Lamar; 185 S. Albuquerque, 186 M. A. de Freitas; 187 R. C. West.

Female

Redescription. SMF 57126. Carapace: 11.92 long, 11.37 wide, 3.46 high. Chelicera: 3.84 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus and total): I: 9.69, 5.45, 6.78, 6.43, 4.81, 33.16. II: 9.11, 5.39, 6.69, 6.05, 4.38, 31.62. III: 8.23, 4.90, 5.49, 6.53, 3.94, 29.09. IV: 10.19, 5.64, 8.73, 9.22, 4.57, 38.35. Palp: 6.99, 4.14, 4.40, –, 5.08, 20.61. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 2.00, 1.97, 2.49, 2.21, palp= 1.93; patellae I–IV= 2.10, 1.92, 2.27, 2.47, palp= 1.74; tibiae I–IV= 1.90, 1.83, 2.09, 2.27, palp= 1.73; metatarsi I–IV= 1.60, 1.39, 1.58, 1.82; tarsi I–IV= 1.91, 1.71, 1.81, 1.96, palp= 1.79. Abdomen: 12.61 long, 10.24 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.38 long, 1.07 wide, 0.07 apart; PLS damaged.

As in male, except:

Carapace: 1.05 times longer than wide; thoracic striae conspicuous.

Fovae: recurve, 1.46 wide.

Eyes: eye tubercle 0.94 high, 2.02 long, 2.88 wide. Clypeus 0.08. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.65, ALE 0.67, PME 0.22, PLE 0 .68, AMEAME 0.41, AMEALE 0.40, AMEPME 0.14, ALEALE 1.74, ALEPME 0.75, PMEPME 1.57, PMEPLE 0.03, PLEPLE 1.99, ALEPLE 0.24, AMEPLE 0.50.

Maxilla: length to width: 2.03. Cuspules: 146. Labium: 1.50 long, 2.40 wide, with 64 cuspules spaced by one diameter. Labio-sternal groove with two separate, large sigilla.

Chelicera: basal segmente with 12 teeth and some small teeth on promargin. Sternum: 6.66 long, 4.30 wide. Sigilla: only posterior pair evident, elipsoidal, less than one diameter from margin.

Legs: Formula: IV I II III. Length leg IV to leg I: 1.16. Scopula: Tarsi IV divided by some setae on base; metatarsi IV scopulate on distal 1/4.

Type II urticating setae: 0.38–0.50 long, 0.011–0.014 wide

Spermathecae (Fig. 181): two completely separated, twisted long spermatheca, with walls lacking projections or lobes and accentuated outwards curvature medially. Midwidth as wide as its base width and weakly-sclerotized area shorter than half the length of well-sclerotized area.

Color pattern: dorsal abdomen with vivid reddish guard-setae grouped on lateral area and black short body setae (Fig. 186).

Color pattern ontogeny

Brownish juveniles lacking metallic sheen, black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles and black central longitudinal stripe on abdomen dorsum (Fig. 184).

Distribution

Brazil (state of Acre), Ecuador and Peru (Fig. 90).

Natural history

Types were collected in trees in an old pasture, in different trees about 5 m from each other, surrounding by grass (Bullmer et al. 2006). Immature male was in a tree in a retreat about 1.6 m above the ground and female was also in a tree; both retreats were made by web, soil and moss, 60 cm from ground (Bullmer et al. 2006). A found eggsac hatched in captivity and contained 38 specimens (Bullmer et al. 2006). In the state of Acre, Brazil, specimens were found in silken retreats constructed inside tree trunks (C. Alexandre, pers. comm.; M. A. Freitas and A. Zanotti, pers. comm.).

Avicularia merianae sp. n.

Figs 9–10, 19, 105, 188–195, 196–198, 199–200

Diagnosis

Females of A. merianae sp. n. resemble those of A. purpurea by the spermathecae with weakly-sclerotized area at least same length of well-sclerotized area (Fig. 196). They differ from A. purpurea by dark brown dorsal abdomen, and by lacking dark short body setae with very intense purple sheen on legs and palps. Males of A. merianae sp. n. resemble those of A. avicularia, A. rufa. A. juruensis, A. variegata stat. n., A. taunayi and A. purpurea by tibial apophysis on leg I with well-developed base and grouped spiniform setae distally (Fig. 194). They can be distinguished from all these species except A. purpurea by cymbium lacking well-developed process on retrolateral lobe (Fig. 192). It differs from A. purpurea by lacking velvety black abdomen and dark short body setae with very intense purple sheen on legs and palps.

Etymology

It was named after Maria Sybilla Merian, the German-born naturalist who drew the famous engraving of a specimen of Avicularia eating a bird, in recognition to her importance for Natural Sciences. This extraordinary woman was one of the pioneering female scientists and a remarkable artist. This name is considered feminine in gender.

Figures 188–195.

Avicularia merianae sp. n., male holotype (AMNH Pe102). 188–191 left palpal bulb 188 prolateral 189 retrolateral 190 frontal 191 dorsal 192 left cymbium, dorsal 193–195 left tibial apophysis of leg I 193 prolateral 194 ventral 195 retrolateral. Scale bars = 1 mm.

Material examined

Holotype male, 1 female and 3 immatures paratypes, Peru, department of San Martín, Hara, 20 miles SE from Moyobamba [6°01'S, 76°58'W], F. Woytkowski col., 1–30 June 1947 (AMNH Pe102).

Additional material

PERU: San Martín: Tarapoto [6°07'S, 75°57'W], 830 m a.s.l., 7 females, 1 juvenile female, 2 immature males, 15 immatures, 1 spiderling, F. Woytkowski col., 10–18 February 1947 (AMNH Pe106, Pe105, Pe108); Ekin, west of Tarapoto, 1 young female, under fallen tree, 890 m a.s.l., F. Woytkowski col., 9–21 March 1947 (AMNH Pe104); 1 immature male, under fallen bark, same collector and date (AMNH Pe107); Moyobamba [6°01'S, 76°58'W], Hara, 20 miles southeast of Moyobamba, 4 males, 12 females, 3 juvenile females, 22 immatures, 1 spiderling, F. Woytkowski, 1–30 June 1947 (AMNH Pe98, Pe103, Pe100, Pe53, Pe99, Pe101, AMNH tube, AMNH tube); Rio Huallaga [7°47'S, 76°11'W], 1 immature male, J. C. Pallister col., 15 December 1946 (AMNH Pe112).

Figures 196–198.

Avicularia merianae sp. n., spermathecae variation. 196 paratype, Moyobamba, department of San Martín, Peru (AMNH Pe102) 197 Tarapoto, department of San Martín, Peru (AMNH Pe106) 198 Moyobamba, department of San Martín, Peru (AMNH Pe100). Scale bars = 1 mm.

Male

Description.

AMNH Pe102. Carapace: 13.49 long, 12.80 wide, 3.48 high. Chelicera: 3.46 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus and total): I: 13.41, 7.59, 10.39, 9.96, 6.21, 47.56. II: 12.75, 7.14, 9.89, 9.44, 5.48, 44.70. III: 11.01, 5.86, 8.57, 9.13, 5.46, 40.03. IV: 14.15, 7.03, 12.05, 11.85, 5.54, 50.62. Palp: 7.98, 4.78, 5.87, –, 2.45, 21.08. Midwidths: femora I–IV=2.45, 2.51, 2.39, 2.55, palp= 1.85; patellae I–IV= 2.58, 2.90, 2.51, 2.89, palp= 1.99; tibiae I–IV= 2.09, 2.05, 2.06, 2.16, palp= 1.69; metatarsi I–IV= 1.68, 1.57, 1.53, 1.33; tarsi I–IV= 1.56, 1.70, 1.67, 1.51, palp= 1.88. Abdomen: 16.35 long, 10.45 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 2.15 long, 0.94 wide, 0.44 apart; PLS, 2.38 basal, 1.88 middle, 3.00 distal; midwidths 1.30, 1.26, 1.17, respectively.

Carapace: 1.06 times longer than wide; cephalic region not raised, thoracic striae inconspicuous.

Fovea: deep, recurve, 1.78 wide.

Eyes: eye tubercle 1.16 high, 1.97 long, 2.61 wide. Clypeus absent. Anterior eye row procurve. Posterior eye row slightly recurve. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.72, ALE 0.72, PME 0.21, PLE 0.54, AMEAME 0.32, AMEALE 0.37, AMEPME 0.12, ALEALE 1.78, ALEPME 0.90, PMEPME 1.71, PMEPLE 0.07, PLEPLE 2.07, ALEPLE 0.39, AMEPLE 0.40.

Maxilla: length to width: 1.96. Cuspules: 236 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: 1.62 long, 1.89 wide, with 101 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other, on anterior half. Labio-sternal groove shallow, flat, with no evident sigilla.

Chelicera: basal segment with 12 teeth and some small teeth on promargin. Sternum: 7.04 long, 6.04 wide. Sigilla: anterior pair not evident, middle fusiform, posterior ellipsoidal, in a 45°angle, both less than one diameter from margin.

Legs: Formula: IV=I II III. Length leg IV to leg I: 1.06. Clavate trichobothria: distal 2/3 of tarsi I–IV. Scopula: Tarsi I–IV fully scopulate. Metatarsi I fully scopulate, II–III 2/3; IV 1/4 distal scopulate. IV divided by a row of setae.

Type II urticating setae: 0.82–0.92 long, 0.016–0.019 wide.

Palp (Figs 188–191): globous bulb with small subtegulum and developed prominence on tegulum. Embolus: not flattened, lacking keels, 3.83 long in retrolateral view, about 3.0 times tegulum’s length. Medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Proximal part very curved in frontal view; thin distal width, tapering distally; basal, middle, and distal width 0.81, 0.21, 0.03, respectively. Tegulum: 2.07 long, 1.20 high in retrolateral view. Cymbium subtriangular with subequal lobes, lacking process on retrolateral lobe (Fig. 192).

Tibial apophysis (Figs 193–195): a single branch on prolateral leg I, with well-developed base and grouped spiniform setae distally. Male metatarsus I touches retrolaterally tibial apophysis’ setae when folded.

Color pattern: carapace brown with golden short body setae with pink sheen. Carapace border with long setae the same color as dorsal carapace short body setae. Coxae, labium, sternum and maxillae light brown, same color of ventral femora. Legs and palps with golden brown short body setae with pink sheen and brown long guard-setae. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi whitish. Abdomen with orange brown guard-setae homogeneously distributed and dark brown body setae. Abdomen venter brown.

Figures 199–200.

Avicularia merianae sp. n., habitus and retreat. 199 female 200 silken retreat over tree bark. Photos: H.-W. Auer.

Female

Description.

AMNH Pe102. Carapace: 14.57 long, 13.15 wide, 3.83 high. Chelicera: 6.14 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 10.75, 6.90, 7.99, 6.72, 5.15, 37.51. II: 9.99, 6.52, 7.31, 6.41, 4.67, 34.90. III: 9.04, 5.59, 6.88, 6.54, 4.88, 32.93. IV: 11.37, 6.50, 9.66, 8.82, 4.38, 40.73. Palp: 7.95, 4.77, 4.70, –, 5.35, 22.77. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 2.68, 3.02, 3.05, 2.88, palp= 2.09; patellae I–IV= 2.82, 2.79, 2.77, 2.90, palp= 2.34; tibiae I–IV= 2.29, 2.35, 2.59, 3.11, palp= 2.29; metatarsi I–IV= 2.07, 2.05, 1.90, 2.05; tarsi I–IV= 2.24, 2.27, 2.09, 2.12, palp= 2.37. Abdomen: 17.49 long, 11.96 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 2.08 long, 1.01 wide, 0.16 apart; PLS, 2.37 basal, 1.11 middle, 2.65 distal; midwidths 1.78, 1.49, 1.21, respectively.

As in male, except:

Carapace: 1.11 times longer than wide.

Fovea: slightly recurve, 1.77 wide.

Eyes: eye tubercle 0.70 high, 2.07 long, 2.91 wide. Clypeus 0.30. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.72, ALE 0.70, PME 0.28, PLE 0.55, AMEAME 0.50, AMEALE 0.47, AMEPME 0.19, ALEALE 2.03, ALEPME 0.71, PMEPME 1.64, PMEPLE 0.16, PLEPLE 2.11, ALEPLE 0.49, AMEPLE 0.52.

Maxilla: length to width: 2.02. Labium: 1.77 long, 2.41 wide, with 96 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other, on anterior half.

Chelicera: basal segment with 9 teeth and some small teeth on promargin. Sternum: 7.17 long, 5.92 wide.

Legs: Length leg IV to leg I: 1.09 Clavate trichobothria: on distal 1/2 tarsi I–IV. Scopula: Tarsus IV with sparse setae. Metatarsi II fully scopulate; III 1/2, IV 1/3 distal scopulate.

Type II urticating setae: 0.49–0.60 long, 0.014–0.017 wide.

Spermathecae (Fig. 196): two completely separated, not-twisted long spermathecae, with walls lacking projections or lobes and accentuaded outwards curvature medially. Midwidth expanded, about 1.5 times its basal and apical portion widths and weakly-sclerotized area at least same length of well-sclerotized area.

Color pattern (Fig. 199): as in male.

Color pattern ontogeny

Brownish juveniles lacking metallic sheen, black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles and abdomen dorsum reddish, with dorsal central longitudinal black stripe connected only with anterior pair of transversal black stripes. When mature, both males and females lose this pattern.

Distribution

Peru, department of San Martín (Fig. 105).

Natural history

Unknown.

Avicularia lynnae sp. n.

Figs 19, 90, 201–208, 209

Diagnosis

Males of A. lynnae sp. n. resemble those of A. minatrix, A. hirschii and A. caei sp. n. by tibia I with discrete elevation covered by a cluster of setae in apical portion, on prolateral side (Fig. 207). They can be distinguished from all species except A. caei sp. n. by very long embolus, more than 4 times tegulum’s width in retrolateral view (Fig. 202). Males of A. lynnae sp. n. differ from male A. caei sp. n. by having developed prominence on tegulum (Fig. 203) and by abdomen dorsum with single central longitudinal dark stripe (Fig. 209). Female unknown.

Figures 201–208.

Avicularia lynnae sp. n., male holotype (AMNH RW49). 201–204 left palpal bulb 201 prolateral 202 retrolateral 203 frontal 204 dorsal 205 left cymbium, dorsal 206–208 left tibia I 206 prolateral 207 ventral 208 retrolateral. Scale bars = 1 mm.

Etymology

It was named after Lynn West, wife of mygalomorph expert Rick West. This name is considered feminine in gender.

Material examined

Holotype male, Peru, Loreto, Rio Tigre, Cristo Rey village [3°58'S, 74°16'W] near Iquitos, R. C. West col., 21 November 1993, crossing trail by day (AMNH RW49); paratype male, Peru, Loreto, Brillo Nuevo [3°09'S, 71°46'W] (Brillo Neuvo [sic]), Rio Yaguasyacu, B. Lamar col. (AMNH–RCW).

Additional material

ECUADOR: Pastaza: Tigüino [1°10'S, 76°57'W], 1 male, B. Lamar col., September 1990, found in a bird capture net (AMNH–RCW); PERU: Marañón (Marauon [sic] [river or province?]), 1 male, Bristol, October 1927 (AMNH Pe96); Madre de Dios: Zona Reservada Pakitza [11°56'S, 71°17'W], 356 m asl, 1 male, Igidio & D. Silva col., 13 August 1992 (MUSM-ENTO 500685).

Figure 209.

Avicularia lynnae sp. n., habitus, male from department of Loreto, Peru. Photo: R. C. West.

Male

Description. AMNH RW49. Carapace: 10.87 long, 10.25 wide, 2.40 high. Chelicera: 3.07 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 11.9, 5.4, 9.2, 9.3, 5.0, 40.8. II: 11.1, 5.2, 8.9, 8.6, 4.7, 38.5. III: 10.0, 4.6, 8.0, 8.6, 4.6, 35.8. IV: 12.2, 4.9, 10.6, 12.6, 4.0, 44.3; Palp: 6.8, 3.7, 5.5, –, 2.1, 18.1; Midwidths: femora I–IV= 1.18, 1.7, 2.14, 1.9, palp= 1.6; patellae I–IV= 1.9, 2.2, 2.0, 2.1, palp= 1.8; tibiae I–IV= 1.7, 1.6, 1.4, 1.5, palp= 1.4; metatarsi I–IV= 1.1, 1.2, 1.1, 1.2; tarsi I–IV= 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.2, palp= 1.3. Abdomen: 10.77 long, 8.49 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.05 long, 0.46 wide, 0.13 apart; PLS, 1.50 basal, 0.85 middle, 2.17 distal; midwidths 0.96, 0.76, 0.68, respectively.

Carapace: 1.06 times longer than wide; cephalic region not raised, thoracic striae inconspicuous.

Fovea: shallow, straight, 0.64 wide.

Eyes: eye tubercle 0.91 high, 1.80 long, 2.41 wide. Clypeus absent. Anterior row of eyes slightly procurve, posterior slightly recurve. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.62, ALE 0.61, PME 0.19, PLE 0.55, AMEAME 0.41, AMEALE 0.27, AMEPME 0.14, ALEALE 1.54, ALEPME 0.39, PMEPME 1.50, PMEPLE 0.04, PLEPLE 1.96, ALEPLE 0.19, AMEPLE 0.34.

Maxilla: length to width: 2.57. Cuspules: about 85 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: 1.08 long, 1.72 wide, with 54 cuspules spaced by more than one diameter from each other, on anterior half. Labio-sternal groove shallow, flat, two slightly separate, large sigilla.

Chelicera: basal segment with 12 teeth and some small teeth on promargin. Sternum: 6.0 long, 3.91 wide. Sigilla: three pairs, anterior rounded, middle fusiform, posterior rounded, set at 45°angle, all close to margin.

Legs: Formula: IV=I II III. Length leg IV to leg I: 1.09. Clavate trichobothria: distal 2/3 tarsi I–IV. Scopula: Tarsi I–IV fully scopulate. Metatarsi I–II fully scopulate; III 1/2, IV 1/5 distal scopulate. IV divided by a bald area.

Type II urticating setae: 0.73–0.87 long, 0.013–0.019 wide.

Palp (Figs 201–204): globous bulb with small subtegulum and developed prominence on tegulum. Embolus: not flattened, lacking keels, 3.91 long in retrolateral view, about 4.5 times tegulum’s length. Medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Proximal part very curved in frontal view; thin distal width, tapering distally; basal, middle and distal width of 0.26, 0.18, 0.03, respectively. Tegulum: 1.51 long, 0.89 high in retrolateral view. Cymbium subtriangular with subequal lobes, with well-developed process bearing thin setae on retrolateral lobe (Fig. 205).

Tibial I with a discrete elevation covered by a cluster of setae in apical portion, on prolateral side (Figs 206–208).

Color pattern (Fig. 209): carapace brown with golden short body setae and thick dark longer setae spread over the carapace. Carapace border long setae the same color as dorsal carapace short body setae. Coxae, labium, sternum and maxillae light brown, same color as ventral femora. Legs and palps with brown short body setae and orange brown long guard-setae. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi whitish. Abdomen dorsum with long guard-setae homogeneously distributed, lateral orange short body setae and black short body setae forming a central longitudinal stripe. Ventral abdomen light brown.

Color pattern ontogeny

Immatures are unknown.

Distribution

Ecuador and Peru (Fig. 90).

Natural history

Specimens were found in a silken retreat in a curled living leaf (W. Lamar, pers. comm. to R. C. West).

Female unknown.

Remarks

Aviculariinae diversity in Ecuador, Peru and Colombia is poorly known, and certainly underestimated; specimens are rare in arachnological collections. Thus, the identity of some specimens collected in these countries should be analyzed carefully. Avicularia lynnae sp. n. specimens were collected in Peru and Ecuador, and its female is unknown. The species is sympatric with A. hirschii and resembles it by having tibia I with discrete elevation covered by a cluster of setae in apical portion on prolateral side, and by having cymbium with thin setae covering the process on retrolateral lobe. The difference lies in embolus length, much greater in A. lynnae sp. n. (Fig. 204) than in A. hirschii (Fig. 176). Pairing female and immature to males of each one of these sympatric species is a problem. Paratype female of A. hirschii has very long twisted spermatheca, which is morphologically more compatible with the very long embolus of males of A. lynnae sp. n. Immatures of A. hirschii were described as having single dorsal black stripe on abdomen (Fig. 184). However, this immature pattern could fit to adults of either A. hirschii and A. lynnae sp. n. Thus, it is necessary to further collect specimens to solve this query.

Avicularia caei sp. n.

Figs 19, 90, 210–217, 218, 313

Diagnosis

Males of A. caei sp. n. resemble those of A. minatrix, A. hirschii and A. lynnae sp. n. by tibia I with discrete elevation covered by a cluster of setae in apical portion, on prolateral side (Fig. 216). They can be distinguished from all species except A. lynnae sp. n. by very long embolus, more than 4 times tegulum’s width in retrolateral view (Fig. 211). Males of A. caei sp. n. can be distinguished from males of A. lynnae sp. n. by weakly-developed prominence on tegulum (Fig. 212) and abdomen with lateral dark stripes (Fig. 218). Female is unknown.

Figures 210–217.

Avicularia caei sp. n., male holotype (MPEG 015637). 210–213 right palpal bulb (mirrored) 210 prolateral 211 retrolateral 212 frontal 213 dorsal 214 right cymbium, dorsal (mirrored) 215–217 right tibia I (mirrored) 215 prolateral 216 ventral 217 retrolateral. Scale bars = 1 mm.

Etymology

This species is named after Carlos Eduardo Gurgel Paiola, aka Caê, in honor to his continuous support to one of the authors (CSF). This name is masculine in gender.

Material examined

Holotype male, Brazil, Pará, Juruti, Acampamento Mutum (01°36'44.7"S, 56°11'39.2"W), L. T. Miglio col., 08 August 2008, ref. JURU 009 0043 (MPEG 15637).

Figure 218.

Avicularia caei sp. n, holotype, habitus, preserved male (MPEG 015637). Detail: lateral abdomen. Arrow indicating stripes. Photo: C. S. Fukushima.

Male

Description.

MPEG 15637. Carapace: 10.44 long, 9.96 wide, 3.08 high. Chelicera: 3.45 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 11.01, 5.79, 8.44, 8.21, 4.47, 37.92. II: 10.37, 5.18, 8.05, 8.30, 4.35, 36.25. III: 9.19, 4.34, 7.17, 7.92, 4.02, 32.64. IV: 10.85, 5.26, 10.26, 10.66, 4.59, 41.62. Palp: 6.39, 3.96, 5.29, –, 2.62, 18.26. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 2.08, 2.08, 2.44, 1.89, palp= 1.44; patellae I–IV= 1.98, 2.10, 2.17, 1.90, palp= 1.48; tibiae I–IV= 1.25, 1.50, 1.47, 1.45, palp= 1.57; metatarsi I–IV= 1.10, 1.46, 1.02, 1.01; tarsi I–IV= 1.15, 1.37, 1.33, 1.15, palp= 1.64. Abdomen: 12.51 long, 7.59 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.32 long, 0.63 wide, 0.19 apart; PLS, 2.31 basal, 1.16 middle, 2.04 distal; midwidths 1.17, 0.93, 0.76, respectively.

Carapace: 1.05 times longer than wide; cephalic region not raised, thoracic striae inconspicuous.

Fovea: shallow, recurve, 1.14 wide.

Eyes: eye tubercle 0.76 high, 1.72 long, 2.16 wide. Clypeus absent. Anterior row of eyes procurve, posterior slightly recurve. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.50, ALE 0.57, PME 0.20, PLE 0.49, AMEAME 0.37, AMEALE 0.20, AMEPME 0.07, ALEALE 1.41, ALEPME 0.34, PMEPME 1.35, PMEPLE 0.02, PLEPLE 1.70, ALEPLE 0.29, AMEPLE 0.28.

Maxilla: length to width: 2.14. Cuspules: about 101 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: 1.23 long, 1.65 wide, with 64 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other on anterior half. Labium sternal groove shallow, flat, with two slightly separate, slim sigilla.

Chelicera: basal segment with 9 teeth and some small teeth on promargin. Sternum: 5.57 long, 4.49 wide. Sigilla: only posterior pair evident, oval, set at 45°angle, one diameter from margin.

Legs: Formula: IV=I II III. Length leg IV to leg I: 1.10. Clavate trichobothria: distal 1/2 tarsi I–II; 2/3 tarsus III, 1/2 tarsus IV. Scopula: Tarsi I–IV fully scopulate, IV with few sparse setae. Metatarsi I–II scopulate in distal 3/4; III 1/2; IV 1/4 distal scopulate. IV divided by row of setae.

Type II urticating setae: 0.99–1.05 long, 0.018–0.024 wide.

Palp (Figs 210–213, 313): globous bulb with small subtegulum and weakly-developed prominence on tegulum. Embolus: not flattened, lacking keels, 3.78 long in retrolateral view, about 4 times tegulum’s length. Medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Proximal part very curved in frontal view; thin distal width, tapering distally; basal, middle, and distal width of 0.28, 0.15, 0.03, respectively. Tegulum: 1.62 long, 0.96 high in retrolateral view. Cymbium subtriangular with subequal lobes having well-developed rounded process bearing thin setae on retrolateral lobe (Fig. 214).

Tibia I with discrete elevation covered by cluster of setae in apical portion, on prolateral side (Figs 215–217).

Color pattern (Fig. 218): carapace orange with golden brown short body setae, thick longer setae spread over the carapace. Carapace border with long setae the same color as dorsal carapace short body setae. Coxae, labium, sternum and maxillae light brown, same color as ventral femora. Legs and palps with dark brown long guard-setae. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi whitish. Abdomen dorsum with light brown guard-setae, light brown short body setae forming lateral stripes, and black short body setae forming a dark background. Ventral abdomen dark brown.

Female is unknown.

Color pattern ontogeny

Immatures are unknown.

Distribution

Brazil, known only from type locality (Fig. 90).

Natural history

Unknown. A single specimen was found walking on forest ground (L. Miglio, pers. comm.).

Taxonomic remarks

Avicularia vestiaria (De Geer, 1778), nomen nudum

Aranea vestiaria De Geer, 1778: 313; F. O. Pickard-Cambridge 1896: 741 (under Avicularia avicularia); Petrunkevitch 1911: 49 (under Avicularia avicularia); Roewer 1942: 253 (under Avicularia avicularia); Bonnet 1955: 828 (under Avicularia avicularia); World Spider Catalog 2016 (under Avicularia avicularia).

Avicularia vestiaria: Ausserer 1871: 201 (as senior synonym of Aranea avicularia), 1875: 184; Hasselt 1888: 166 (as senior synonym of Mygale aviculariasensu Latreille).

Remarks

As stated by F. O. Pickard-Cambridge (1896), the name “vestiaria” is solely a word used for De Geer (1778) in his redescription of Aranea avicularia Linnaeus (1758) (Simon 1892: 172; F. O. Pickard-Cambridge 1896: 741), in litt.Aranea vestiaria hirsutissima nigro-fusca S. rufescens, plantis amplis tomentosis” (De Geer 1778: 313). It is not a specific name as considered by Ausserer (1871). Even though other authors such as Ausserer (1875) considered it a valid name, we understand a formal description was not presented or intended and, therefore, Avicularia vestiaria (De Geer, 1778) is, herein, considered a nomen nudum.

Iridopelma leporina (C. L. Koch, 1841), comb. n., nomen dubium

Fig. 219

Mygale leporina C. L. Koch, 1841: 55 tab. CCCVI, fig. 726 (syntypes 4 dry, pinned immatures, Bahia, Brazil, Freir leg., ZMB 2028, examined,); Ausserer 1871: 217; F. O. Pickard-Cambridge 1896: 744. Syn. n.

Eurypelma leporina: C. L. Koch 1850: 74.

Avicularia leporina: Simon 1892: 172; Roewer 1942: 255; Bonnet 1955: 832; World Spider Catalog 2016.

Remarks

The syntypes are specimens of subfamily Aviculariinae because they have tarsi with well-developed scopulae, with a spatulated aspect (Fig. 219). They have anterior row of eyes procurved, spinnerets with the last article digitiform and no spines on legs. The color pattern of the immatures and the type locality, Bahia (Brazil), match with Iridopelma species. Thus, we decided to transfer Mygale leporina to Iridopelma, making the new combination Iridopelma leporina (C. L. Koch, 1841) comb. n. However, as the specimens are immatures and in poor conditions we consider Iridopelma leporina (C. L. Koch, 1841) comb. n. nomen dubium.

Figures 219–224.

Species formerly included in Avicularia. 219 syntype of Mygale leporina C. L. Koch, 1841, immature, from state of Bahia, Brazil, (ZMB 2028), habitus 220 syntype of Mygale plantaris C. L. Koch, 1842, immature, from Brazil (ZMB 2026), habitus 221 Euathlus affinis (Nicolet, 1849) comb. n., lectotype female, from Santiago, Chile (MNHN–AR 4871B), habitus 222 Avicularia arabica (Strand, 1908) nomen dubium, holotype juvenile female, from El-Tor, Egypt (SMF 2660), spermathecae 223–224 Thrixopelma aymara (Chamberlin, 1916) comb. n., holotype female, from Aymara, Peru (MCZ 145) 223 spermatheca 224 habitus.

Iridopelma plantaris (C. L. Koch, 1842), comb. n., nomen dubium

Fig. 220

Mygale plantaris C. L. Koch, 1842; 71 tab. CCCXII, fig. 736 (syntypes 2 immatures, Brazil, ZMB 2026, examined). Syn. n.

Eurypelma plantaris: C. L. Koch 1850: 74.

Avicularia plantaris: Simon 1892: 172; World Spider Catalog 2016.

Remarks

C. L. Koch (1842) published the description of Mygale plantaris in the same year of Mygale leporina. As M. leporina, the procurve anterior row of eyes, the digitiform posterior article of spinnerets, the color pattern and type locality (Brazil) of the syntypes match with Iridopelma (Fig. 220). Therefore, we transfer Mygale plantaris to Iridopelma, making the new combination Iridopelma plantaris (C. L. Koch, 1842) comb. n. Like M. leporina, the syntypes of M. plantaris are immature specimens. Iridopelma species present very intense ontogenetic changes in color pattern, thus different life stages present very distinct abdominal color pattern. This could be the reason why C. L. Koch (1842) described both forms as two different species when they could be the same. As we can’t assuredly affirm they are the same species, since the types are not adults or even in good condition, we decided to keep them as separate species and to consider Iridopelma plantaris (C. L. Koch, 1842) comb. n. nomen dubium.

Euathlus affinis (Nicolet, 1849), comb. n.

Figs 221, 225

Mygale affinis Nicolet, 1849: 333, pl. 1, fig. 6 (female lectotype and immature paralectotype designated, herein, from Chile, Santiago [33°28'S, 70°38'W]), MNHN–AR 4871B, examined).

Brachypelma affinis: Mello-Leitão 1936d: 118; Bonnet 1955: 2989.

Eurypelma affine: Roewer 1942: 238.

Avicularia affinis: World Spider Catalog 2016.

Remarks

The lectotype female designated, herein, is a small specimen, with carapace 5.3 mm long (Fig. 221). It does not belong to any Aviculariinae species since it has spines on the legs and lacks the characteristic developed scopula on tarsi. Its spermathecae (Fig. 225) are compatible with Euathlus Ausserer, 1875 species (Perafán and Pérez-Miles 2014), which have species recorded for the area where the specimen was collected (Santiago, Chile). Furthermore, the original illustration published by Nicolet (1849, plate 1) shows a spider with reddish coloration and lacking two urticating setae patches, which is also compatible with Euathlus species, such as E. parvulus (Pocock, 1903) and Euathlus condorito Perafán & Pérez-Miles, 2014. Therefore, we transfer Avicularia affinis (Nicolet, 1849) to Euathlus, resulting in Euathlus affinis (Nicolet, 1849) comb. n.

Figure 225.

Euathlus affinis (Nicolet, 1849) comb. n., lectotype (MNHN–AR 4871B), spermathecae.

Ischnocolus hirsutum Ausserer, 1875, nomen dubium

Ischnocolus hirsutus Ausserer, 1875: 170 (syntypes 11 small specimens from Cuba, BMNH 1890.7.1.347, and 2 small specimens from Bogota, Colombia [4°35'N, 74°04'W], in another vial, BMNH 1890.7.1.339+347, examined).

Eurypelma hirsutum: Roewer 1942: 240.

Avicularia hirsuta: World Spider Catalog 2016.

Remarks

Ausserer (1875) mentioned several females from Cuba and two specimens from “Santa Fé de Bogotá” (known, nowadays, as Bogota, capital of Colombia) in Keyserling collection (housed at the BMNH). All examined specimens from Cuba have urticating setae type III on abdomen dorsum, and all specimens from Bogota have setae type I. Therefore, they belong to subfamily Theraphosinae and it is, herein, removed from the genus Avicularia. All syntypes are immatures lacking diagnostic characters and, therefore, we consider Ischnocolus hirsutum Ausserer, 1875 a nomen dubium.

Avicularia metallica Ausserer, 1875, nomen dubium

Avicularia metallica Ausserer, 1875: 185; Simon 1892: 171; Strand 1907b: 92; Mello-Leitão 1923: 377; Roewer 1942: 255; Bonnet 1955: 832; Petrunkevitch 1911: 50; 1939: 287; World Spider Catalog 2016.

Remarks

The type was not found in Vienna collection where it should be deposited according to description. Thus, we consider Avicularia metallica Ausserer, 1875 as nomen dubium.

Ischnocolus gracilis Keyserling, 1891, nomen dubium

Ischnocolus gracilis Keyserling, 1891: 11 (holotype immature male, Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Monte Verde [21°27'S, 41°55'W], BMNH 90.7.1.346, examined).

Eurypelma gracile: Roewer 1942: 239.

Avicularia gracilis: World Spider Catalog 2016.

Remarks

The specimen is very small, the epigastric area is dissected, but there are no spermathecae. Abdomen dorsum is bald. Since the description mentions spines on posterior articles, we, herein, remove the species from the genus Avicularia. As the specimen is immature, damaged, and lacking diagnostic characters, therefore we consider, herein, Ischnocolus gracilis Keyserling, 1891 a nomen dubium.

Grammostola subvulpina (Strand, 1906), comb. n.

Avicularia subvulpina Strand, 1906a: 22 (holotype male, no further information, MWNH 362, examined by photo); 1907j: 233; Mello-Leitão 1923: 377; Petrunkevitch 1939: 288; Roewer 1942: 254; Bonnet 1955: 833; World Spider Catalog 2016.

Remarks

A specimen that fits Strand’s (1906a) description was found in Wiesbaden collection and is, herein, considered as the holotype. The male resembles a characteristic Grammostola Simon, 1892 species from Brazil. Thus, we transfer Avicularia subvulpina to Grammostola, making the new combination Grammostola subvulpina (Strand, 1906) comb. n.

Avicularia arabica (Strand, 1908), nomen dubium

Fig. 222

Avicuscodra arabica Strand, 1908: 771 (holotype female, Egypt, El-Tor [28°14'N, 33°37'E] (Tor, Arabien [sic]), Rüppell, SMF 2660, examined); 1916: 20; Roewer 1942: 256.

Chaetopelma arabica: Raven 1985: 149.

Avicularia arabica: Gallon 2008: 243, figs 39–41; World Spider Catalog 2016.

Remarks

The holotype of Avicuscodra arabica was recently rediscovered by Gallon (2008) in SMF. The specimen, supposedly from Tor, Egypt, is clearly an Avicularia as proposed by Gallon (2008). It has two spermathecae lacking lobes and with accentuated outwards curvature medially. Urticating setae of type II are present on abdomen dorsum. These characters are present in Avicularia species, which are restricted to Central and South America. As Gallon (2008) stated, the presence of a tropical American specimen together with Arabian material is most likely a mistake made by a nonspecialist before Strand’s examination.

Even though it is possible to identify the specimen as belonging to the genus Avicularia, it is a small female in poor condition, without evident color pattern and no other diagnostic characteristic. It is not possible to assure the specimen identity since spermathecae morphology is similar in most Avicularia species (Fig. 222). Furthermore, there is no indication of where the specimen came from. Thus, Avicularia arabica (Strand, 1908) is, herein, considered nomen dubium.

Thrixopelma aymara (Chamberlin, 1916), comb. n.

Figs 223–224

Eurypelma aymara Chamberlin, 1916: 201 (holotype female, Peru, Aymara, Dr. W. H. Jones col., MCZ 145, examined); Bonnet 1955: 1831.

Eurypelma aymarum: Roewer 1942: 238.

Avicularia aymara: World Spider Catalog 2016.

Remarks

The specimen is not an aviculariine since it has no spatulate scopulae, bears two rounded spermathecae, and has no type II urticating setae (Fig. 224). The type locality, spermathecae morphology (Fig. 223) and presence of urticating setae type III match with the diagnostic characteristics of Thrixopelma species. Thus, we transfer Eurypelma aymara to Thrixopelma, making the new combination Thrixopelma aymara (Chamberlin, 1916) comb. n.

Avicularia aurantiaca Bauer, 1996, nomen dubium

Avicularia aurantiaca Bauer, 1996: 2, figs 1–4; World Spider Catalog 2016.

Material examined

Female spermathecae exuvia in microscope slide, Peru, G. Schmidt ded. (SMF 58271-84).

Remarks

The original description (Bauer 1996) stated he intended to deposit a female specimen at SMF as holotype, a slide prepared with spemathecae from an exuvia and a paratype male. The holotype and paratype specimen were never deposited in SMF collection. The description states female has leg IV longer than leg I, spermathecae with midwidth not expanded and orange leg rings (explaining why it was called “aurantiaca”). Thus, A. aurantiaca is likely to be a junior synonym of A. rufa. However, as there is no holotype and the description does not allow for a precise identification and characterization of the species, the name Avicularia aurantiaca Bauer, 1996 is considered, herein, as nomen dubium.

Types not found

The following types have been unsuccessfully searched for within many arachnological collections and their descriptions do not allow for reliable identification. Thus, we consider the following species all nomina dubia: Araneus hirtipes Fabricius, 1793 nomen dubium; Avicularia testacea (C. L. Koch, 1841) nomen dubium; Avicularia detrita (C. L. Koch, 1842) nomen dubium; Avicularia hirsutissima (C. L. Koch, 1842) nomen dubium; Avicularia holmbergi Thorell, 1890 nomen dubium; Ischnocolus doleschalli Ausserer, 1871 nomen dubium; Avicularia rapax (Ausserer 1875) nomen dubium; Avicularia ochracea (Perty, 1833) nomen dubium; and Avicularia walckenaerii (Perty, 1833) nomen dubium.

Araneus hirtipes (Fabricius, 1787), nomen dubium

Aranea hirtipes Fabricius, 1787: 346, 1793: 428; Latreille 1806: 83 (under Mygale avicularia); Hahn 1833: 10 (under Mygale avicularia); Walckenaer 1837: 212 (under Mygale versicolor); World Spider Catalog 2016 (under Avicularia versicolor).

Mygale hirtipes: C. L. Koch 1836