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Research Article
Description of the first species of Fiorianteon Olmi (Hymenoptera, Dryinidae) from the Afrotropical region
expand article infoAdalgisa Guglielmino, Massimo Olmi§, Alessandro Marletta|, Stefano Speranza
‡ University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy
§ Tropical Entomology Research Center, Viterbo, Italy
| University of Catania, Catania, Italy
Open Access

Abstract

Fiorianteon sulcatum sp. n. is described from Fianarantsoa Province (Madagascar). It is the first species of Fiorianteon found in the Afrotropical region. The genus Fiorianteon can be distinguished from the closely related genus Conganteon by the distal part of the stigmal vein, which is as long as, or shorter than the proximal part of the stigmal vein (longer than the proximal part of the vein in Conganteon).

Keywords

Taxonomy, Fiorianteon sulcatum, Madagascar, Conganteoninae, Chrysidoidea

Introduction

Dryinidae (Hymenoptera Chrysidoidea) are parasitoids of Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha (Guglielmino et al. 2008, 2013). The biology of this small group of wasps is still poorly known (Carcupino et al. 1998; Guglielmino 2000; Guglielmino and Bückle 2003, 2010; Guglielmino et al. 2006, 2015; Guglielmino and Virla 1998).

The genus Fiorianteon Olmi, 1984 (Conganteoninae) is only present in the Oriental and Eastern Palaearctic zoogeographical regions (Olmi and Xu 2015). Four species have been described from the above regions (Xu et al. 2013; Olmi and Xu 2015). The hosts are unknown.

The genus was originally revised at world level by Olmi (1984) and more recently by Xu et al. (2013) and Olmi and Xu (2015) for the Oriental and the Eastern Palaearctic regions respectively.

In 2015, we examined additional specimens of Dryinidae from Madagascar, which included the new species of Fiorianteon described in this paper.

Material and methods

The descriptions follow the terminology used by Olmi (1984), Olmi and Guglielmino (2010) and Olmi and Virla (2014). The reported measurements are relative, except for the total length (head to abdominal tip, without antennae), which is expressed in millimeters. In the descriptions, POL is the distance between the inner edges of the two lateral ocelli; OL is the distance between the inner edges of a lateral ocellus and the median ocellus; OOL is the distance from the outer edge of a lateral ocellus to the eye; OPL is the distance from the posterior edge of a lateral ocellus to the occipital carina; and TL is the distance from the posterior edge of an eye to the occipital carina. The material studied in this paper is deposited in the collections of the California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, USA (CAS).

The multifocal pictures were taken by a stereomicroscope Leica M205A and Leica DFC450 video camera, captured using Leica Application Suite v. 4.2.0.

Results

Fiorianteon Olmi, 1984

Fiorianteon Olmi, 1984: 108. Type species: Fiorianteon junonium Olmi, 1984, by original designation.

Diagnosis

Female: fully winged; occipital carina complete; mandible quadridentate, with one intermediate rudimentary tooth; antenna without rhinaria; palpal formula 6/3; pronotal tubercles present; forewing with two cells enclosed by pigmented veins (costal and median); forewing with stigmal vein and pterostigma present; distal part of stigmal vein as long as, or shorter than proximal part of stigmal vein; protarsus chelate; chela with rudimentary claw; tibial spurs 1/1/2. Male: fully winged; occipital carina complete; mandible quadridentate, with one intermediate rudimentary tooth; palpal formula 6/3; forewing with two cells enclosed by pigmented veins (costal and median; fore wing with stigmal vein and pterostigma present; distal part of stigmal vein as long as, or shorter than proximal part of stigmal vein; tibial spurs 1/1/2.

Fiorianteon sulcatum Guglielmino, Olmi, Marletta & Speranza, sp. n.

Diagnosis

Head completely sculptured by longitudinal subparallel keels, on face (Fig. 3), vertex and temple; paramere (Fig. 4) with distal part of inner margin provisioned with many sensorial processes.

Figures 1–3.

Male holotype of Fiorianteon sulcatum sp. n..: habitus (1) and mesosoma (2) in dorsal view; head in frontal view (3). Scale bar = 2.53 mm (1), 0.37 mm (2); 0.45 mm (3).

Figure 4.

Male holotype of Fiorianteon sulcatum sp. n..: male genitalia (left half removed). Scale bar = 0.10 mm.

Description

Male. Fully winged (Fig. 1). Body length 2.8 mm. Head black, except mandible testaceous; antenna brown; mesosoma and metasoma black; legs brown, except most part of coxae black. Antenna filiform; antennal segments in following proportions: 11:5:13:14:13:12:10:9:8:10. Head shiny, completely sculptured by longitudinal subparallel keels, on face (Fig. 3), vertex and temple; frontal line complete; occipital carina complete; POL = 5; OL = 3; OOL = 7; OPL = 7; TL = 10; greatest breadth of lateral ocelli about as long as OL. Scutum (Fig. 2) shiny, with anterior half slightly rugose; posterior half, punctate, unsculptured among punctures. Notauli incomplete, reaching approximately 0.5× length of scutum. Scutellum punctate, unsculptured among punctures. Metanotum dull, rugose. Propodeum reticulate rugose, without transverse or longitudinal keels. Forewing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein about as long as proximal part (Fig. 1), about as long as antennal segment 3. Paramere (Fig. 4) with distal part of inner margin provided of many sensorial processes. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

Female. Unknown.

Material examined

Holotype: male, MADAGASCAR: Fianarantsoa Province, Andringitra National Park, Plateau d’Andohariana, 35.9 km 205° Ambalavao, 22°09.08'S 46°53.57'E, 2000 m, 15.IV.2006, Malaise trap, BL Fisher et al. leg., BLF13755 (CAS).

Hosts

Unknown.

Distribution

Madagascar.

Remarks

The two main characters distinguishing the new species are detailed in the above diagnosis. These characters are not present in any of the known species of Conganteoninae (Olmi and Xu 2015; Xu et al. 2013).

Etymology

The species is named sulcatum because the head is sculptured by many longitudinal subparallel keels.

Discussion

Azevedo et al. (2010) listed 123 species, 15 genera and 7 subfamilies of Dryinidae from the Malagasy region. The recorded genera and subfamilies were as follows: Anteoninae: Anteon Jurine, 1807 (28 species), Deinodryinus Perkins, 1907 (13 species), Lonchodryinus Kieffer, 1905 (three species); Aphelopinae: Aphelopus Dalman, 1823 (three species); Apodryininae: Apogonatopus Olmi, 2007 (two species), Gondwanadryinus Olmi, 2007 (one species), Madecadryinus Olmi, 2007 (six species); Bocchinae: Bocchus Ashmead, 1893 (eight species); Conganteoninae: Conganteon Benoit, 1951 (two species); Dryininae: Dryinus Latreille, 1804 (16 species), Thaumatodryinus Perkins, 1905 (six species); Gonatopodinae: Echthrodelphax Perkins, 1903 (two species), Gonatopus Ljungh, 1810 (30 species), Haplogonatopus Perkins, 1905 (one species) and Neodryinus Perkins, 1905 (two species). With the description of the above new species the number of species in the Malagasy region is elevated to 124 and the genera to 16.

Acknowledgements

Many thanks to Bob Zuparko (California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco) for the loan of the specimen studied in the present paper. We are grateful to Dr. Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum, Cape Town, South Africa) for checking the English language of this paper. The authors are grateful to Massimo Vollaro (Department of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences (DAFNE), University of Tuscia) for his picture of the face (Fig. 3).

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