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Review Article
Marine biodiversity baseline for Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica: published records
expand article infoJorge Cortés
‡ Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica
Open Access

Abstract

The diversity of tropical marine organisms has not been studied as intensively as the terrestrial biota worldwide. Additionally, marine biodiversity research in the tropics lags behind other regions. The 43,000 ha Sector Marino of Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG, Marine Sector of Guanacaste Conservation Area), on the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica is no exception. For more than four decades, the terrestrial flora and fauna has been studied continuously. The ACG marine biodiversity was studied in the 1930’s by expeditions that passed through the area, but not much until the 1990’s, except for the marine turtles. In the mid 1990’s the Center for Research in Marine Science and Limnology (CIMAR) of the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR) initiated the exploration of the marine environments and organisms of ACG. In 2015, ACG, in collaboration with CIMAR, started the BioMar project whose goal is to inventory the species of the marine sector of ACG (BioMar ACG project). As a baseline, here I have compiled the published records of marine ACG species, and found that 594 marine species have been reported, representing 15.5% of the known species of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The most diverse groups were the crustaceans, mollusks and cnidarians comprising 71.7% of the ACG species. Some taxa, such as mangroves and fish parasites are well represented in ACG when compared to the rest of the Costa Rican coast but others appear to be greatly underrepresented, for example, red algae, polychaetes, copepods, equinoderms, and marine fishes and birds, which could be due to sampling bias. Thirty species have been originally described with specimens from ACG, and 89 species are not known from other localities on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica except ACG. Most of the sampling has been concentrated in a few localities in Sector Marino, Playa Blanca and Islas Murciélago, and in the nearby waters of Bahía Santa Elena. In an effort to fill this gap, CIMAR is collaborating with ACG and a private foundation to start an inventory of the marine organisms of the conservation area. The project will be assisted by two marine parataxonomists, and all samples will be catalogued, photographed, bar coded and voucher specimens deposited at the Museo de Zoología, UCR. All the information will be available through Internet. It is anticipated that the BioMar project will fill many of the knowledge gaps and significantly more marine species will be encountered. This project could become a viable model for marine biodiversity inventories in other Costa Rican Conservation Areas (Áreas de Conservación) and in other countries.

Keywords

Marine organisms, marine ecosystems, marine biodiversity, conservation areas, Central America, compilation

Introduction

Marine biodiversity studies have lagged behind terrestrial research, especially in the tropics, with a few exceptions such as Australia (Chapman 2009). Some studies in the Neotropics regarding marine biodiversity have been published, most focused on coral reef areas (Cortés et al. 2017). Several taxonomic groups are fairly well known, such as mollusks and fishes, with monographs, many papers and guides, while others are poorly known, to mention a few, microorganisms and smaller phyla. The same occurs geographically: some countries in the tropics have been relative well studied, for example, Costa Rica (Wehrtmann and Cortés 2009), while in other countries (such as Nicaragua) research and publications on marine biodiversity are scarce.

Costa Rica comprises 11 Conservation Areas (Áreas de Conservación), one of which is Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) on the northwest Pacific coast of Costa Rica (Fig. 1). The ACG contains much of the last remnants of Costa Rican tropical dry forest and its terrestrial biodiversity has been and still is the subject of intensive research and restoration (Janzen and Hallwachs 2016). The ACG covers an area of 163000 hectares, 43000 of them marine, and 150 km of protected coastline (http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr/acg/que-es-el-acg). It was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Natural Site in 1999. Compared to the terrestrial area, the marine sector (officially Sector Marino) has not been studied intensively. A new initiative, BioMar ACG (Marine Biodiversity of ACG), was started in 2015 to inventory the marine organisms of the area, and then make all the information publicly available, mainly through the Internet, but also with scientific and popular publications. This project is a 5-year collaboration between the conservation area, a private foundation and academia; all samples are being catalogued, photographed, bar coded, and vouchers deposited at the Museo de Zoología (Museum of Zoology) at the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR).

Figure 1. 

Map of the Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) in the northern Pacific coast of Costa Rica with indication of the sites mentioned in the text. See Table 2 for the codes of the sites. Stars = beaches, triangle = mangrove forests, circle = bays; green = protected area; blue circles = shoals.

The marine sector of ACG has a high diversity of habitats, with high species richness worthy of more study (Beebe 1942, Cortés 1996–1997b). There is a well-represented suite of coastal and marine ecosystems, such as mangrove forest of variable sizes, beaches of different composition and size, bays and coves, rocky intertidal zones with several wave regimens, mud flats, rocky subtidal sites, coral reefs, rhodolith beds and deep areas – more than 50 m, plus an archipelago (Islas Murciélago), shoals, and several more isolated islands (Cortés and Wehrtmann 2009, Cortés 2016). The main nesting site in the country of the frigate bird, Fregata magnificens, is on one of the nearby islands, Isla Bolaños, in Bahía Salinas (Alvarado-Quesada 2006). An outstanding oceanographic feature of the region is the seasonal upwelling (the Papagayo Upwelling) that brings deep cold, nutrient-rich and CO2-rich waters to the surface during the trade winds season (December to April-May) (McCreary et al. 1989, Alfaro and Cortés 2012, Rixen et al. 2012). Micro- and macroalgal growth increases significantly as a consequence of the upwelling (Cortés et al. 2014).

What is now ACG’s Sector Marino (Fig. 1) was first explored, samples collected, and papers published by several marine expeditions from the United States starting in the 1930’s (Cortés 2009a, Table 1). The first expedition was the Templeton Crocker Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences in 1932 aboard the SY Zaca, when they visited Bahía Murciélago and Bahía de Santa Elena (previously known as Port Parker) (Crocker 1933). In 1935, as part of the Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions aboard the MY Velero III, biologists visited Bahía Santa Elena and Bahía Salinas (Fraser 1943a, b). The SY Zaca was again in the region in 1937–1938, but this time in an expedition of the New York Zoological Society; they collected in Bahía Santa Elena, around Islas Murciélago and around Playa Potrero Grande (Beebe 1938, 1942). These three expeditions generated a significant number of publications on ACG marine organisms (Table 1). There were no additional expeditions until 1959, when the MY Stella Polaris visited the country (Dawson and Beaudette 1959). In 1972, the RV Searcher collected samples in the region and new species of fish were described (Bussing and Lavenberg 2003). The next expedition that visited the area was the Eastern Pacific RV Alpha Helix Expedition, in 1978 organized by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO). They collected samples that are deposited at SIO, but few papers were published (Luke 1995). Chan et al. (2016) recently published on some of the barnacles collected during that expedition. The most recent expedition was the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute RV Urracá to the northern and central Pacific coast of Costa Rica in 2005 (Vargas-Castillo 2008).

Table 1.

Historical account of marine studies at the Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

Years Expedition/Project/Institutions/Individual Taxon/System References
1932 The Templeton Crocker Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences, aboard the SY Zaca Algae and mollusks 93, 104, 184
1935 The Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions, aboard the MY Velero III Foraminifera, corals, hydroids, mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms 5, 28, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 62, 63, 68, 76, 77, 78, 79, 90, 94, 95, 96, 119, 127, 148, 152, 156, 157, 158, 180, 186, 188, 203
1937–1938 Eastern Pacific Expeditions of the New York Zoological Society, aboard the SY Zaca Mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms 44, 45, 46, 47, 61, 80, 81, 82, 91, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 136, 189
1959 Eastern Pacific cruise, aboard the MY Stella Polaris Algae 56, 57, 58
1970 -present Many individuals, for example, SE Cornelius, LG Fonseca, DA Hughes, JD Richard, DC Robinson, JR Spotila and RA Valverde Turtle studies 1, 10, 25, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 48, 49, 65, 66, 67, 70, 71, 74, 84, 89, 115, 120, 121, 122, 123, 147, 150, 153, 155, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 175, 183, 190, 192, 193, 202
1972 Central American Expedition/Janss Foundation, aboard the RV Searcher Crustacean and fish 21
1973 -present Several individuals and groups, e.g. DJ Pool, FE Putz and CIMAR, UCR Mangroves 128, 170, 172, 208
1978 Caribbean-Pacific Expedition Phase VI/
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, aboard the RV Alpha Helix
Mollusks and crustaceans 27, 129, 130
1984 -present CIMAR, UCR Coral reefs 7, 39, 42, 124
1984 -present CIMAR, UCR Octocorals, corals, anemones, crustaceans, fishes, marine mammals, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 38, 41, 59, 60, 64, 72, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 151, 160, 187
1991, 2013, present Museo de Zoología, UCR Crustaceans 102, 194, 195, 196, 197, 199, 201
1996, 1998 Fish parasite studies Platyhelmiths and acathocephalans 24, 138, 149, 159
1996, 2002 Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad Mollusks 22, 23, 133, 191
2005 Benthic survey of northern and central Costa Rica/Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, aboard the RV Urracá Crustaceans 198
2005 Museo Nacional de Costa Rica Birds 2
2006, 2011 Universidad Nacional, Heredia Ascidians and cetaceans 139, 154
2014 -present CIMAR, UCR Beaches and rocky shores 185

Many individuals, groups of researchers or institutions have contributed to the knowledge of ACG marine biodiversity (Table 1). Elmer Y. Dawson published several papers on macroalgae of Costa Rica, including the ACG (Dawson 1960, 1961). Richard and Hughes (1972) and Cornelius (1975) published on marine turtles of the ACG, with the first observations in 1970–1971. In 1996, Marques et al. (1997) and Monks et al. (1997) collected and later described several fish parasites. Between 1996 and 2002, the Instituo Nacional de Biodiversidad collected mollusks in the ACG, and generated several papers on the opistobranchs (Valdés and Camacho-García 2004, Camacho-García et al. 2005, Camacho-García and Gosliner 2008). The CIMAR of the UCR has published papers on marine organisms and environments of Costa Rica that include the ACG: e.g., Cutler et al. (1992) on sipunculids, Moran and Dittel (1993) - crustaceans, Cortés and Guzmán (1998) - corals, Dean (2001, 2004) - polychaetes, Suárez-Morales and Morales-Ramírez (2001) - copepods, and Heard et al. (2009) - tanaidaceans. Also, new species have been described from the ACG: a crustacean (Vargas 2000), two octocorals (Breedy and Guzman 2003) and a fish (Del Moral-Flores et al. 2015). Cortés and Jiménez (2003) provided a description of the coral reefs of the ACG, while Loría-Naranjo et al. (2014) evaluated the main mangrove forests and Sibaja-Cordero et al. (2014) the beach fauna. Even so, our knowledge about the species diversity of the ACG is far from complete.

The objective of this contribution is to generate a baseline of the marine biodiversity of ACG’s Sector Marino and adjacent unprotected areas, some of which are in the process of being officially protected. This will serve as a starting point for the recently initiated BioMar ACG project (Marine Biodiversity of the Guanacaste Conservation Area). This five-year project (2015–2019), funded by the Guanacaste Dry Forest Conservation Fund, and with support from the Ministry of the Environment and Energy of the Costa Rican government and the UCR, will collect, identify and provide publicly accessible information about most of ACG’s species of marine macroorganisms and as many of the microorganisms as feasible.

Materials and methods

The study area is Sector Marino of the ACG and adjacent areas, located on the North Pacific of Costa Rica (Fig. 1, Table 2). Publications about ACG marine organisms were compiled and analyzed. A list of recorded species was created based on those publications. Later all scientific names were updated using WoRMS (World Register of Marine Species, http://www.marinespecies.org/), AlgaeBase, http://www.algaebase.org (Guiry and Guiry 2016), Encyclopedia of Life (http://eol.org/), Bryozone (http://bryozone.myspecies.info/), Integrated Digitized Biocollections (https://www.idigbio.org/), Worldwide Mollusc Species Data Base (http://www.bagniliggia.it/WMSD/Lindex_aaa.htm), SeaLifeBase (http://www.sealifebase.org/) and ZipcodeZoo (http://zipcodezoo.com/index.php/Main_Page).

Table 2.

Localities of the samples reported in the Appendix 1. # spp. = number of species reported from that site. a = Protected area, b = area in the process of being officially protected, c = marine area not protected, and d = private reserve (protected area).

Code Locality / area Notes # spp.
ACG a Área de Conservación Guanacaste Entire Conservation Area 13
BEHc Bahía El Hachal Bay 6
BJuc Bahía Junquillal Bay 5
BPGa Bahía Potrero Grande Bay 18
BRoc Bajo Rojo Shoal 2
BSEb Bahía Santa Elena Bay 371
BVic Bajo Viejón Shoal 5
CSEa Cabo Santa Elena Tip of PSE 23
Cuac Cuajiniquil Off Cuajiniquil 6
IBoc Isla Bolaños Island 1
IDac Isla David Island 7
ILCb Isla Los Cabros Island 1
IMua Islas Murciélago Archipelago 103
Juna Junquillal Off Junquillal 21
LDac La Danta Shoal 1
MCaa Manglar de Cuajiniquil Mangrove forest 14
MJua Manglar de Junquillal Mangrove forest 6
MPGa Manglar de Potrero Grande Mangrove forest 14
MPNa Manglar de Playa Naranjo Mangrove forest 19
MSaa Manglar Salinita Mangrove forest 14
PBla Playa Blanca Beach 104
PBra Peña Bruja Islet off PNa 2
PPGa Playa de Potrero Grande Beach 4
PJua Playa Junquillal Beach 2
PMod Playa Mostrencal Beach 3
PNaa Playa Naranjo Beach 10
PNca Playa Nancite Beach 16
PSEa Península de Santa Elena Peninsula 12
SMaa Sector Marino ACG Marine Sector of ACG 4

The resulting list of species was compared to the remainder of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and to available species lists from other countries in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Knowledge gaps were identified and potential areas of future research suggested.

Results

Five hundred ninety four marine species have been reported so far for the ACG (Table 3, Appendix 1), which represents 15.5% of the known species of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The most diverse groups were crustaceans (193 spp.), mollusks (187 spp.) and cnidarians (46 spp.), comprising together 71.7% of the ACG’s marine species. These three groups represent 23.9%, 18.2% and 26.7%, respectively of the known species of the Pacific coast of the country (Table 3). Some groups are well represented in the ACG when compared to the rest of the coast (e.g., species of mangroves and fish parasites), while others are greatly underrepresented. For example, red algae, polychaetes, copepods, equinoderms, and marine fishes and birds are poorly represented in the published reports (Table 3). Other groups of organisms have been observed and identified (e.g., various species of sponges, flat worms, ophiuroids, and ascidian) but there are no published records of these species (Table 4). Other taxa (such as diatoms, nemerteans and appendicularians) undoubtedly inhabit the study area but have not been observed or collected yet (Table 4).

Table 3.

Number of marine species reported from Área de Conservación Guanacaste (complete list of species in the Appendix 1), Pacific coast of Costa Rica (see Cortés 2012, plus references indicated as superindex) (species reported only for Isla del Coco were excluded); percentage of the species of the Pacific reported form ACG, and species only found in ACG. n.k. = not known.

TAXA Species from ACG Species from Pacific Costa Rica % of species of the Pacific Species only at ACG
Bacteria 15 >17 103, 183 88.2 15
Cyanobacteria 4 28 14.3 2
Chlorophyta 4 44 73 9.1 2
Phaeophyceae 6 26 73 23.1 1
Rhodophyta 15 146 73 10.3 9
Mangroves 7 8 87.5 0
Foraminifera 24 76 31.6 12
Cnidaria 46 172 26.7 2
Anthozoa 35 59 59.3 2
Hydrozoa 11 108 10.2 0
Platyhelminthes 7 38 40, 178 18.4 7
Trematoda 4 20 40178, 182 20.0 4
Cestoda 3 12 40, 178 25.0 3
Acanthocephala 1 1 149 100 0
Mollusca 187 1025 18.2 0
Gastropoda 85 631 13.5 0
Bivalvia 102 362 28.2 0
Sipuncula 3 15 20.0 0
Annelida 24 313 7.7 11
Nemertea 1 Several species n.k. n.k.
Crustacea 193 807 23.9 13
Amphipoda 13 106 12.3 8
Cumacea 1 19 161 5.3 1
Decapoda 162 409 39.6 1
Mysida 1 5 20.0 0
Stomatopoda 10 27 37.0 0
Tanaidacea 1 5 20.0 1
Copepoda 1 163 0.61 1
Cirripedia 4 36 11.1 1
Bryozoa 9 39 23.1 8
Echinodermata 15 105 14.3 7
Asteroidea 1 12 8.3 0
Echinoidea 1 28 3.6 0
Holothuroidea 13 28 46.4 7
Chordata 33 961 3.4 0
Ascidiacea 5 14 35.7 0
Cephalochordata 1 2 50 0
Elasmobranchii 3 68 4.4 0
Actinopterygii 11 774 1.4 0
Reptilia 4 5 80.0 0
Aves 2 76 2.6 0
Mammalia 7 22 31.8 0
TOTAL 594 3821+ 15.5 89
Table 4.

Taxa reported from other sites of Pacific Costa Rica (see Cortés 2012, plus references indicated as superindex), but not from Área de Conservación Guanacaste. n.k. = not known; Present = have been observed or collected but there are no publications; Probably = there is a high probability that they are present but have not been observed yet.

Taxonomic group Number of species reported ACG
Diatoms 174 131,132,200 Present
Dinoflagellates 102 Present
Marine fungi 5 genera n.k.
Seagrasses 2 n.k.
Porifera 62 Present
Pennatulaceans 4 Present
Scyphozoans 10 Present
Polyplacophorans 24 Present
Cephalopods 20 Present
Echiurians 1 Present
Monogeneans 10 40 Probably
Nemerteans Several species Probably
Kinorhynchans 2 n.k.
Euphausiids 20 Present
Isopods 37 Present
Branchiopods 1 n.k.
Ostracods 2 Probably
Pycnogonids 10 Probably
Marine insects 9 Probably
Chaetognaths 27 Present
Brachiopods 8 n.k.
Phoronids 1 n.k.
Crinoids 2 n.k.
Ophiuroids 54 Present
Appendicularians 10 Probably
Thaliaceans 4 Probably
Turtle parasites 34 Present

Over 85% of the species reported are also found in other areas of the coast of Costa Rica and in the Eastern Tropical Pacific; however, most areas, including the ACG, have not been intensively collected, and the same common species are found repeatedly by collecting expeditions. Thirty new species have been described from specimens collected in the ACG: one foraminiferan, one echinoderm, two octocorals, three parasitic flatworms, four fishes, eight crustaceans and 11 mollusks (Appendix 1). Eighty-nine species are currently known only from the ACG along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica (Table 3, Appendix 1).

Most of the sampling has been concentrated in a few localities of the marine area of the ACG and those sites therefore have the highest number of reported species. For example, Bahía Santa Elena (371 spp.), Playa Blanca (104 spp.) and in some of the Islas Murciélago (103 spp.) seem very species-rich (Table 2, Appendix 1). Other areas within ACG have not been sampled at all, for example the northern shore of the Santa Elena Peninsula or some of the Islas Murciélago. The soft bottom substrate has not been sampled thoroughly nor most of the rocky intertidal zones.

Discussion

Compared to other areas on the Pacific of Costa Rica, the ACG has fewer known marine species (594 spp.) than does Golfo Dulce (1028 spp.: Morales-Ramírez 2011) or Isla del Coco (1688 spp.: Cortés 2012), but about the same as what is currently known for Bahía Culebra (577 spp: Cortés et al. 2012). But that number will definitely increase as more taxa, other sites and environments within the ACG are inventoried.

Cortés et al. (2017) synthesized the knowledge of marine biodiversity of the Eastern Tropical Pacific, mainly from coral reefs, where most studies have been done. For example, 857 marine species have been reported for Clipperton Atoll, France, (Charpy 2009, Payri et al. 2009, Fourriére et al. 2014), 968 spp. for El Salvador (Barraza 2000, 2014a, b), 2157 spp. for the coast of Oaxaca, México (Bastida-Zavala et al. 2013), 3536 spp. for the Galápagos Islands (Bustamante et al. 2002, Hickman 2009), 3838 spp. for the Pacific coast of Costa Rica (Table 3, this paper), and 5740 spp. for the entire Gulf of California, México (Aburto-Oropeza and Balart 2001, Reyes-Bonilla et al. 2012). In other countries, for example, Panamá and Colombia, there are detailed inventories of some higher taxa, but not a compilation of all macrotaxa (Cortés et al. 2017). None of these inventories attempted to include the microorganisms.

There are large differences in the numbers of species among different sites in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and these differences could be due to several causes. First, the number, diversity and depth of research efforts influence the extent of the knowledge of the marine biodiversity of a region. Second, the extent of each region will also have an effect on species diversity, because larger areas will probably include more habitats and environments, and thus species. The ACG marine area comprises 430 km2, while the Gulf of California has about 160000 km2. Third, some sites may differ in species richness and diversity because of differences in geomorphology, oceanography, geological history and biogeography. Fourth, natural disturbances such as warming or cooling events can have a long-term impact on local biodiversity.

Knowing and documenting which species occurs where is a critical first step in understanding and conserving the biodiversity of a particular area. As outlined in Tables 3 and 4, there are important gaps in our knowledge in taxonomy and geographic distribution of marine organisms in the ACG. Much more work is needed to have an even approximately complete inventory, understand the ecological role of the species, their habitats, population structure, and distribution. Researchers of the BioMar-ACG project will fill many of these gaps, and together with other researchers from Costa Rica and elsewhere, the understanding of the marine biodiversity of the ACG will increase greatly. The BioMar project incorporates several innovative aspects, including marine parataxonomists, DNA barcoding of all organims and fast accessibility of the information. This project could serve as a viable model for marine biodiversity inventory in other Costa Rican conservation areas and in other countries.

Acknowledgements

I thank Dan Janzen, Frank Joyce, María Marta Chavarría, Winnie Hallwachs, and Roger Blanco for setting up the BioMar ACG project that inspired this paper. The CIMAR, the Escuela de Biología and the Vicerrectoría de Investigación of the UCR let me dedicate most of my time to research. I deeply appreciate the review of sections or the entire manuscript by Arturo Angulo, Rocío Córdoba, Cindy Fernández-García, Kimberly García-Méndez, Dan Janzen, Frank Joyce, Carolina Sheridan-Rodríguez, Jeffrey Sibaja-Cordero, Rita Vargas-Castillo, and the journal’s editor and reviewers. Finally, I thank the government of Costa Rica, the Wege Foundation of Grand Rapids, Michigan, and the Guanacaste Dry Forest Conservation Fund (GDFCF; http://www.gdfcf.org) for proving the funds for the BioMar ACG project and for the publication of this paper.

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Appendix 1

Marine species reported from Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG). Species in bold type reported only for the ACG in Costa Rica (in the case of bacteria some have been reported in people but not in marine organisms). Localities as in Figure 1 and Table 1. Localities in bold type = a) Type locality, b) Paratype locality and c) Neotype specimen. References numbered as in the reference list.

Species Locality References
Phylum ACTINOBACTERIA,
Class Actinobacteria, Order Actinomycetales, Family Corynebacteriaceae
Corynebacterium spp. PNc 183
Phylum FIRMICUTES, Class Bacilli,
Order Bacillales, Family Bacillaceae
Bacillus spp. PNc 183
Order Lactobacillales, Family Enterococcaceae Enterococcus faecalis (Orla-Jensen, 1919) Schleifer & Kilpper-Bälz, 1984 PNc 183
Order Lactobacillales, Family Lactobacillaceae Lactobacillus spp. PNc 183
Order Bacillales, Family Staphylococcaceae Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach, 1884 PNc 183
Phylum PROTEOBACTERIA,
Class Betaproteobacyeria, Order Burkholderiales, Familia Alcaligenaceae
Alcaligenes faecalis Castellani & Chalmers, 1919 PNc 183
Class Gammaproteobacteria,
Order Aeromonadales, Family Aeromonadaceae
Aeromonas spp. PNc 183
Order Enterobacteriales, Family Enterobacteriaceae Citrobacter freundi (Braak 1928) Werkman & Gillen, 1932 PNc 183
Pantoea agglomerans (Ewing & Fife, 1972) as Enterobacter agglomerans PNc 183
Escherichia coli Castellani & Chalmers, 1919 PNc 183
Proteus mirabilis Hauser, 1885 PNc 183
Salmonella spp. PNc 183
Order Pseudomonadales, Family Moraxellaceae Acinetobacter spp. PNc 183
Order Pseudomonadales, Family Pseudomondaceae Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter, 1872) Migula, 1900 PNc 183
Pseudomonas spp. PNc 183
Phylum CYANOBACTERIA,
Class Cyanophyceae, Order Chroococcales,
Family Dermocarpellaceae
Cyanocystis violacea (P.L. Crouan & H.M. Crouan) Komárek & Anagnostidis, 1986 as Dermocarpa violacea BSE 188
Order Chroococcales, Family Entophysalidaceae Entophysalis granulosa Kützing, 1843 BSE 188
Order Oscillatoriales, Family Oscillatoriaceae Lyngbya semiplena J. Agardh ex Gomont, 1892 BSE 188
Class Cyanophyceae One species BEH 185
Phylum CHLOROPHYTA, Class Ulvophyceae,
Order Cladophorales, Family Cladophoraceae
Cladophora lehmanniana (Lindenberg) Kützing, 1843 as Cladophora utriculosa BPG 56, 57
Cladophora sp. BSE 128
Order Ulvales, Family Ulvaceae Ulva flexuosa Wulfen, 1803 as Enteromorpha flexuosa and as Enteromorpha lingulata BSE 57, 188
Ulva lactuca Linnaeus, 1753 BSE 188
Ulva prolifera O.F. Müller 1778 as Enteromorpha prolifera var. flexuosa BSE 57, 128
Ulva sp. Jun 185
Phylum OCHROPHYTA, Class Phaeophyceae
Order Dictyotales, Family Dictyotaceae
Padina sp. BPG 58
Order Ectocarpales, Family Scytosiphonaceae Colpomenia durvillei (Bory de Saint-Vincent) M.E. Ramírez, 1991 as Colpomenia phaeodactyla BSE 207
Colpomenia ramosa W.R. Taylor, 1945 BSE 57, 188
Colpomenia sinuosa (Mertens ex Roth) Derbès & Solier, 1851 BSE 57
Rosenvingea orientalis (J. Agardh) Børgesen, 1914 BPG 56, 57
Order Fucales, Family Sargassaceae Sargassum liebmannii J. Agardh 1847 BSE 184
Sargassum sp. BPG 58
Phylum RHODOPHYTA, Class Bangiophyceae,
Order Bangiales, Family Bangiaceae
Bangia fuscopurpurea (Dillwyn) Lyngbye, 1819 BSE 188
Pyropia thuretii (Setchell & E.Y.Dawson) J.E. Sutherland, L.E. Aguilar Rosas & R. Aguilar Rosas, 2011 BSE 57
Class Compsopogonophyceae,
Order Erythropeltidales, Family Erythrotrichiaceaea
Smithora naiadum (C.L. Anderson) Hollenberg, 1959 as Porphyra naiadum BSE 188
Class Florideophyceae, Order Acrochaetiaceae, Family Acrochaetiaceae Acrochaetium arcuatum (K.M. Drew) C.K. Tseng, 1945 as Acrochaetium penetrale BSE 57, 188
Order Ceramiales, Family Rhodomelaceae Bostrychia sp. Jun 185
Chondria dangeardii E.Y. Dawson, 1954 as Chondria platyclada BPG 58
Order Ceramiales, Family Ceramiaceae Ceramium avalonae E.Y. Dawson, 1949 BPG 57
Ceramium personatum Setchell & N.L. Gardner, 1930 BSE 57, 188
Order Ceramiales, Family Rhodomelaceae Neosiphonia beaudettei (Hollenberg) M.-S. Kim & I.A. Abbott, 2006 as Polysiphonia beaudettei BPG 57
Polysiphonia bifurcata Hollenberg in W.R. Taylor, 1945 PBl 57
Order Gigartinales, Family Dicranemataceae Dicranema rosaliae Setchell & Gardner, 1924 BSE 57
Order Gracilariales, Family Gracilariaceae Gracilaria symmetrica Dawson, 1949 BPG 58
Gracilaria sp. BSE 57
Gracilariopsis sp. BPG 58
Order Hildebrandiales, Family Hildebrandiaceae Hildenbrandia rubra (Sommerfelt) Meneghini, 1841 as Hildenbrandia prototypus BSE 188
Order Rhodymeniales, Family Rhodymeniaceae Botryocladia beaudettei E.Y. Dawson, 1960 BPG 57
Division MAGNOLIOPHYTA,
Class Magnoliopsida, Order Ericales,
Family Tetrameristaceae
Pelliciera rhizophoreae Triana & Planchon, 1862 BSE 128
Pelliciera rhizophoreae Triana & Planchon, 1862 MPG 32, 128, 208
Pelliciera rhizophoreae Triana & Planchon, 1862 MPN 176
Order Lamiales, Family Acanthaceae Avicennia bicolor Standley, 1923 MJu 32
Avicennia bicolor Standley, 1923 MCa 32
Avicennia bicolor Standley, 1923 MSa 32
Avicennia bicolor Standley, 1923 BSE 128
Avicennia bicolor Standley, 1923 MPG 32, 208
Avicennia bicolor Standley, 1923 MPN 32, 208
Avicennia germinans Linnaeus, 1764 MJu 32
Avicennia germinans Linnaeus, 1764 MCa 32
Avicennia germinans Linnaeus, 1764 MSa 32
Avicennia germinans Linnaeus, 1764 BSE 128
Avicennia germinans Linnaeus, 1764 MPG 32, 128, 208
Avicennia germinans Linnaeus, 1764 as Avicennia tonduzii in reference 172 MPN 32, 116, 172, 206
Avicennia spp. MPN 176
Order Myrtales, Family Combretaceae Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus, 1753 MJu 32
Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus, 1753 MCa 32
Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus, 1753 MSa 32
Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus, 1753 as Conocarpus erecta in reference 176 MPN 172, 176, 206
Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gärtner, 1807 MJu 32
Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gärtner, 1807 MSa 32
Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gärtner, 1807 BSE 128
Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gärtner, 1807 MPG 128, 208
Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gärtner, 1807 MPN 172, 176, 206
Order Rhizophorales, Family Rhizophoraceae Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, 1753 MJu 32
Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, 1753 MCa 32
Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, 1753 MSa 32
Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, 1753 BSE 128
Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, 1753 MPG 32, 128
Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, 1753 MPN 32, 170, 208
Rhizophora racemosa Meyer, 1818 MJu 32
Rhizophora racemosa Meyer, 1818 MCa 32
Rhizophora racemosa Meyer, 1818 MSa 32
Rhizophora racemosa Meyer, 1818 BSE 128
Rhizophora racemosa Meyer, 1818 MPG 32, 128, 208
Rhizophora racemosa Meyer, 1818 MPN 32, 206, 208
Rhizophora spp. MPN 176
Phylum FORAMINIFERA,
Class Globothalamea, Order Lituolida,
Family Discamminidae
Ammoscalaria compressa (Cushman & McCulloch, 1939) as Ammofrondicularia compressa PBl 50
Order Lituolida, Family Haplophragmoididae Haplophragmoides planissima Cushman, 1927 as Haplophragmoides planissimum BSE 50
Labrospira columbiensis (Cushman, 1925) as Haplophragmoides columbiense PBl 50
Labrospira columbiensis (Cushman, 1925) as Haplophragmoides columbiense BSE 50
Order Lituolida, Family Lituolidae Eratidus foliaceus (Brady, 1881) as Ammobaculites foliaceus PBl 50
Order Lituolida, Family Reophacidae Reophax curtus Cushman, 1920 PBl 50
Reophax scorpiurus de Montfort, 1808 BSE 50
Order Lituolida, Family Nouriidae Nouria polymorphinoides Heron-Allen & Earland, 1914 BSE 50
Nouria polymorphinoides Heron-Allen & Earland, 1914 PBl 50
Order Lituolida, Family Remaneicidae Remaneica kellettae (Thalmann, 1932) as Trochammina kellettae BSE 50
Order Lituolida, Family Trochamminidae Portatrochammina pacifica (Cushman, 1925) as Trochammina pacifica BSE 50
Portatrochammina pacifica (Cushman, 1925) as Trochammina pacifica PBl 50
Order Rotaliida, Family Bolivinitidae Bolivina pygmaea (Brady, 1881) PBl 52
Loxostomina limbata (Brady, 1881) as Loxostoma limbatum BSE 52
Order Rotaliida, Family Buliminellidae Buliminella elegantissima (d’Orbigny, 1839) PBl 53
Order Rotaliida, Family Elphidiidae Elphidium seymourense McCulloch, 1977 as Elphidium crispum var. subcrispum PBL 51
Order Rotaliida, Family Heterohelicidae Bifarina pacifica Cushman & McCulloch, 1942 BSEa 52
Order Textulariida, Family Textulariidae Sahulia conica (d’Orbigny, 1839) as Textularia conica BSE 127
Textularia calva Lalicker, 1940 BSE 127
Textularia candeiana d’Orbigny, 1839 BSE 127
Textularia candeiana d’Orbigny, 1839 PBl 127
Textularia corrugata Herron-Allen & Earland, 1915 PBl 127
Textularia foliacea Heron-Allen & Earland, 1915 PBl 127
Textularia panamensis Cushman, 1918 PBl 127
Textularia secasensis Lalicker & McCulloch, 1940 BSE 127
Textularia secasensis Lalicker & McCulloch, 1940 PBl 127
Class Tubothalamea, Order Spirillinida,
Family Ammodiscidae
Glomospira gordialis (Jones & Parker, 1860) BSE 50
Class incerta sedis, Order Lagenida,
Family Lagenidae
Lagena amphora Reuss, 1863 PBl 54
Lagena striata (d’Orbigny, 1839) PBl 54
Phylum CNIDARIA, Class Anthozoa,
Orden Antipatharia, Family Antipathidae
Antipathes sp. IMu 7
Order Alcyonacea, Family Gorgoniidae Eugorgia aurantiaca (Horn, 1860) IMu 38
Eugorgia daniana Verrill, 1868 BSE 11
Eugorgia rubens Verrill, 1868 IMu 11, 18
Leptogorgia alba (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864) IBo 11, 15, 38
Leptogorgia alba (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864) BSE 11, 15, 38
Leptogorgia alba (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864) PBl 7
Leptogorgia alba (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864) IMu 7, 11, 15, 38
Leptogorgia cofrini Breedy & Guzman, 2005 IMub 14
Order Alcyonacea, Family Gorgoniidae Leptogorgia cuspidata Verrill, 1865 IMu 15
Leptogorgia regis Hickson, 1928 BSE 11, 15
Leptogorgia regis Hickson, 1928 IMu 11, 15
Pacifigorgia firma Breedy & Guzman, 2003 BSE 11
Pacifigorgia irene Bayer, 1951 IMu 7, 11, 12, 13
Pacifigorgia rubicunda Breedy & Guzman, 2003 IMub 11, 13
Pacifigorgia senta Breedy & Guzman, 2003 Cuaa 11, 13
Pacifigorgia senta Breedy & Guzman, 2003 PBl 7
Pacifigorgia senta Breedy & Guzman, 2003 IMub 7, 11, 13
Pacifigorgia stenobrochis (Valenciennes, 1846) IMu 11, 13
Pacifigorgia tupperi Breedy & Guzman, 2003 IMua 11, 13
Order Alcyonacea, Family Plexauridae Muricea austera Verrill, 1869 PBr 17
Muricea plantaginea (Valenciennes, 1846) BSE 17
Muricea squarrosa Verrill, 1869 LDa 16
Muricea sp. ACG 38
Order Actiniaria, Family Nemanthidae Nemanthus californicus Carlgren, 1940 IMu 72
Order Scleractinia, Family Agariciidae Gardineroseris planulata (Dana, 1846) IMu 7, 42, 124
Pavona clavus (Dana, 1846) PSE 38, 39
Pavona clavus (Dana, 1846) PBl 7
Pavona clavus (Dana, 1846) IMu 7, 41, 42, 124
Pavona clavus (Dana, 1846) ACG 39, 42
Pavona gigantea Verrill, 1869 PSE 38, 39, 43
Pavona gigantea Verrill, 1869 PBl 7
Pavona gigantea Verrill, 1869 IMu 7, 42, 124
Pavona gigantea Verrill, 1869 ACG 39, 41, 42
Pavona maldivensis (Gardiner, 1905) ACG 41
Pavona varians Verrill, 1864 IMu 7, 41
Pavona varians Verrill, 1864 ACG 41
Order Scleractinia, Family Dendrophylliidae Cladopsammia eguchii (Wells, 1982) IMu 38
Tubastraea coccinea Lesson, 1829 as Tubastrea tenuilamellosa PBl 68
Tubastraea coccinea Lesson, 1829 IDa 154
Tubastraea coccinea Lesson, 1829 BVi 154
Tubastraea coccinea Lesson, 1829 as Tubastrea coccinea PSE 38
Tubastraea coccinea Lesson, 1829 as Tubastrea coccinea IMu 7, 42, 124
Tubastraea coccinea Lesson, 1829 as Tubastrea coccinea ACG 39, 42
Order Scleractinia, Family Pocilloporidae Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) PSE 43
Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) IMu 7, 41, 42, 124
Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) ACG 39, 41
Pocillopora elegans Dana, 1846 BSE 7
Pocillopora elegans Dana, 1846 PBl 7
Pocillopora elegans Dana, 1846 IMu 41, 42, 124
Pocillopora elegans Dana, 1846 ACG 39
Order Scleractinia, Family Pocilloporidae Pocillopora eydouxi Milne Edwards & Haime, 1860 ILC 7, 39
Pocillopora eydouxi Milne Edwards & Haime, 1860 PSE 41, 43
Pocillopora eydouxi Milne Edwards & Haime, 1860 IMu 7, 41, 42, 124
Pocillopora eydouxi Milne Edwards & Haime, 1860 ACG 39
Pocillopora inflata Glynn, 1999, but see Paz-García et al. 2015 BSE 7
Pocillopora inflata Glynn, 1999 IMu 42, 86
Pocillopora meandrina Dana, 1846 BSE 38
Pocillopora meandrina Dana, 1846 PSE 41
Pocillopora meandrina Dana, 1846 IMu 7, 41
Pocillopora meandrina Dana, 1846 ACG 39
Order Scleractinia, Family Poritidae Porites lobata Dana, 1846 PBl 7
Porites lobata Dana, 1846 IMu 7, 42, 124
Porites lobata Dana, 1846 ACG 39
Porites panamensis Verrill, 1866 IMu 42, 124
Porites panamensis Verrill, 1866 ACG 39, 41, 42
Order Scleractinia, Family Rhizangiidae Oulangia bradleyi Verrill, 1866 ACG 39
Order Scleractinia, Family Siderastreidae Psammocora stellata (Verrill, 1866) BSE 7
Psammocora stellata (Verrill, 1866) PSE 43
Psammocora stellata (Verrill, 1866) IMu 7, 41, 42
Psammocora profundacella Gardiner, 1898 as Psammocora superficialis BSE 7
Class Hydrozoa, Order Anthoathecata
Family Bougainvilliidae
Garveia gracilis (Clark, 1876) as Bimeria gracilis BSE 38, 76, 77
Order Leptothecata, Family Aglaopheniidae Aglaophenia trifida Agassiz, 1862 as Aglaophenia rigida PBl 38, 76
Order Leptothecata, Family Campanulariidae Clytia fascicularis Fraser, 1938 PBl 38, 77
Clytia gracilis (Sars, 1850) as Clytia cylindrica and as Gonothyraea gracilis BSE 38, 77
Clytia universitatis Torrey, 1904 BSE 38, 77
Order Leptothecata, Family Haleciidae Halecium washingtoni Nutting, 1901 BSE 38, 77
Order Leptothecata, Family Plumularidae Plumularia micronema Fraser, 1938 as Plummularia micronema BSE 38, 76
Plumularia micronema Fraser, 1938 as Plummularia micronema PBl 38, 76
Order Leptothecata, Family Sertulariidae Amphisbetia furcata (Trask, 1857) as Sertularia furcata CSE 76
Dynamena crisioides Lamouroux, 1824 as Thuiaria tubuliformis BSE 38, 76, 77
Dynamena crisioides Lamouroux, 1824 as Thuiaria tubuliformis PBl 38, 77
Sertularia distans (Lamouroux, 1816) as Sertularia stookeyi CSE 76
Orden Siphonophorae, Familia Physaliidae Physalia physalis (Linnaeus, 1758) as Physalia physalia IMu 38
Phylum PLATYHELMINTHES, Class Trematoda
Order Plagiorchiida, Family Acanthocolpidae
Stephanostomum casum (Linton, 1910) Jun 40, 159
Order Plagiorchiida, Family Lecithasteridae Trifoliovarium sp. Yamaguti, 1940 as Pseudolecithaster Cua 159, 178
Order Plagiorchiida, Family Hemiuridae Theletrum lamothei Pérez-Ponce de León, León-Règagnon & Monks, 1998 Cuaa 159, 178
Order Plagiorchiida, Family Lepocreadiidae Hypocreadium myohelicatum Bravo-Hollis & Manter, 1957 Jun 159
Class Cestoda, Order Onchoproteocephalidea,
Family Onchobothriidae
Acanthobothrium franus Marques, Centritto & Stewart, 1997 Cuaa 138, 178
Acanthobothrium inbiorium Marques, Centritto & Stewart, 1997 Juna 138, 178
Order Trypanorhyncha, Family Pterobothriidae Pterobothrioides carvajali Campbell & Beveridge, 1997 Cuab 24, 178
Phylum ACANTHOCEPHALA,
Class Palaeacanthocephala, Order Echinorhynchida
Family Illiosentidae
Koronacatha pectinaria (Van Cleave, 1940) Jun 149, 178
Phylum MOLLUSCA, Class Gastropoda,
Subclass Heterobranchia, Order Unassigned, Family Acteonidae
Acteon traskii Stearns, 1897 BSE 191
Infraclass Opisthobranchia, Order Cephalaspidea, Family Acteocinidae Acteocina carinata (Carpenter, 1857) IDa 191
Acteocina carinata (Carpenter, 1857) IDa 191
Acteocina carinata (Carpenter, 1857) BSE 191
Acteocina carinata (Carpenter, 1857) PBl 191
Acteocina carinata (Carpenter, 1857) BPG 191
Acteocina infrequens (C. B. Adams, 1852) BJu 191
Acteocina infrequens (C. B. Adams, 1852) IDa 191
Acteocina infrequens (C. B. Adams, 1852) BSE 191
Acteocina infrequens (C. B. Adams, 1852) BPG 191
Acteocina sp. BEH 191
Order Cephalaspidea, Family Aglajidae Navanax aenigmaticus (Bergh, 1894) BJu 191
Order Cephalaspidea, Family Bullidae Bulla punctulata A. Adams in Sowerby, 1850 Jun 134
Order Cephalaspidea, Family Cylichnidae Cylichna atahualpa (Dall, 1908) BSE 191
Cylichnella tabogaensis (Strong & Hertlein, 1939) BJu 191
Cylichnella tabogaensis (Strong & Hertlein, 1939) IDa 191
Cylichnella tabogaensis (Strong & Hertlein, 1939) BSE 191
Cylichnella tabogaensis (Strong & Hertlein, 1939) PBl 191
Order Cephalaspidea, Family Haminoeidae Atys defuncta (Baker & Hanna, 1927) IDa 191
Atys defuncta (Baker & Hanna, 1927) BSE 191
Atys defuncta (Baker & Hanna, 1927) IMu 191
Atys defuncta (Baker & Hanna, 1927) CSE 191
Atys defuncta (Baker & Hanna, 1927) BPG 191
Atys exaratus (Carpenter, 1857) as Atys exarata BJu 191
Atys exaratus (Carpenter, 1857) as Atys exarata IDA 191
Atys exaratus (Carpenter, 1857) as Atys exarata PBl 191
Atys exaratus (Carpenter, 1857) as Atys exarata IMu 191
Order Cephalaspidea, Family Retusidae Retusa paziana Dall, 1919 IDa 191
Retusa paziana Dall, 1919 BSE 191
Retusa sp. PNa 191
Order Cephalaspidea, Family Rhizoridae Volvulella cylindrica (Carpenter, 1864) PJu 191
Volvulella cylindrica (Carpenter, 1864) BSE 191
Volvulella cylindrica (Carpenter, 1864) PBl 191
Volvulella cylindrica (Carpenter, 1864) IMu 191
Volvulella cylindrica (Carpenter, 1864) BPG 191
Volvulella cylindrica (Carpenter, 1864) PNa 191
Order Nudibranchia, Family Discodorididae Atagema notacristata Camacho-García & Gosliner 2008 IMu 22
Orden Nudibranchia, Family Fionidae Fiona pinnata (Eschscholtz, 1831) BSE 130
Orden Nudibranchia, Family Polyceridae Limacia janssi (Bertsch & Ferreira, 1974) as Laila janssi BSEa, b 8
Order Sacoglossa, Family Plakobranchiadae Elysia sp. IMu 23
Infraclass Pulmonata, Order Unassigned,
Family Siphonariidae
Siphonaria gigas Sowerby, 1825 CSE 130
Siphonaria gigas Sowerby, 1825 Jun 185
Infraclass Unassigned, Family Pyramidellidae Eulimastoma dotella (Dall & Bartsch, 1909) as Odostomia (Telloda) subdotella BSE 114
Odostomia costaricensis Hertlein & Strong, 1951 as Odostomia (Chrysallida) costaricensis BSE 114
Odostomia nicoyana Hertlein & Strong, 1951 as Odostomia (Menestho) nicoyana BSE 114
Odostomia woodhridgei Hertlein & Strong, 1951 as Odostomia (Chrysallida) woodbridgei BSE 114
Odostomia (Besla) caneloensis Hertlein & Strong, 1951 BSEa 114
Turbonilla amiriana Hertlein & Strong, 1951 as Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) amiriana BSE 114
Turbonilla ayamana Hertlein & Strong, 1951 as Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) ayamana BSE 114
Turbonilla biolleyi Hertlein & Strong, 1951 as Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) biolleyi BSE 114
Turbonilla ekidana Hertlein & Strong, 1951 as Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) ekidana BSE 114
Turbonilla guanacastensis Hertlein & Strong, 1951 as Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) guanacastensis BSE 114
Turbonilla nicoyana Hertlein & Strong, 1951 as Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) nicoyana BSE 114
Turbonilla portoparkerensis Hertlein & Strong, 1951 as Turbonilla (Ptycheulimella) portoparkensis BSE 114
Turbonilla sulacana Hertlein & Strong, 1951 as Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) sulacana BSE 114
Turbonilla templetonis Hertlein & Strong, 1951 as Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) templetonis BSE 114
Turbonilla utuana Hertlein & Strong, 1951 as Turbonilla (Pyrgisculus) utuana BSE 114
Turbonilla zacae Hertlein & Strong, 1951 as Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) zacae BSE 114
Subclass Caenogastropoda, Order Littorinimorpha, Family Cypraeidae Pseudozonaria arabicula (Lamarck, 1810) as Zonaria (Zonaria) arabicula IMu 26
Order Littorinimorpha, Family Ficidae Ficus ventricosa (G. B. Sowerby I, 1825) IMu 130
Order Littorinimorpha, Family Littorinidae Echinolittorina atrata (C. B. Adams, 1852) as Nodilittorina atrata PSE 174
Echinolittorina fuscolineata (Reid, 2002) as Nodilittorina fuscolineata IMu 174
Echinolittorina modesta (Philippi, 1846) as Littorina modesta IMu 130
Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822) as Littoraria zebra MCa 32
Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822) as Littoraria zebra MSa 32
Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822) as Littoraria (Littoraria) zebra BSE 173
Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822) as Littoraria zebra PPG 32, 208
Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822) as Littoraria zebra MPN 32, 208
Order Littorinimorpha, Family Personidae Distorsio decussata (Valenciennes, 1832) IMu 130
Order Littorinimorpha, Family Rissoinidae Zebinella alarconi (Hertlein & Strong, 1951) as Rissoina alarconi BSE 114
Order Littorinimorpha, Family Strombidae Persististrombus granulatus (Swainson, 1822) as Strombus granulatus Swainson, 1822 IMu 130
Order Littorinimorpha, Family Tornidae Anticlimax willetti Hertlein & Strong, 1951 as Anticlimax (Subclimax) willetti BSEa 114
Aorotrema humboldti (Hertlein & Strong, 1951) as Cyclostremiscus humboldti BSE 114
Teinostoma herbertianum Hertlein & Strong, 1951 as Teinostoma herbertiana BSE 114
Teinostoma zacae Hertlein & Strong, 1951 BSE 114
Order Neogastropoda, Family Columbellidae Anachis fluctuata (G. B. Sowerby I, 1832) as Anachis (Parvanachis) fluctuata IMu 130
Anachis pardalis (Hinds, 1843) as Anachis (Parvanachis) carmen IMu 130
Clavistrombina clavulus (G. B. Sowerby I, 1834) BSE 125
Cosmioconcha rehderi (Hertlein & Strong, 1951) as Anachis rehderi BSEa 114
Cotonopsis hirundo (Gaskoin, 1852) as Cotonopsis (Turrina) hirundo BSE 125
Mazatlania fulgurata (Philippi, 1846) as Terebra moolenbeeki PNaa 4, 9
Sincola dorsata (G. B. Sowerby I, 1832) as Sincola (Dorsina) dorsata BSE 125
Strombina elegans (G. B. Sowerby I, 1832) as Strombina (Spiralta) elegans BSE 125
Sincola gibberula (G. B. Sowerby I, 1832) as Sincola (Dorsina) gibberula BSE 125
Strombina elegans (G. B. Sowerby I, 1832) as Strombina (Spiralta) elegans PBl 125
Strombina elegans (G. B. Sowerby I, 1832) as Strombina (Spiralta) elegans IMu 125
Strombina maculosa (G. B. Sowerby I, 1832) as Strombina (Spiralta) maculosa BSE 125
Strombina maculosa (G. B. Sowerby I, 1832) as Strombina (Spiralta) maculosa IMu 125
Order Neogastropoda, Family Columbellidae Strombina pulcherrima (G. B. Sowerby I, 1832) as Strombina (Lirastrombina) pulcherrima BSE 125
Strombina pulcherrima (G. B. Sowerby I, 1832) as Strombina (Lirastrombina) pulcherrima IMu 125
Strombina recurva (G. B. Sowerby I, 1832) as Strombina (Recurvina) recurva BSE 125
Strombina recurva (G. B. Sowerby I, 1832) as Strombina (Recurvina) recurva PBl 125
Strombina recurva (G. B. Sowerby I, 1832) as Strombina (Recurvina) recurva BPG 125
Strombina solidula (Reeve, 1859) as Strombina (Lirastrombina) solidula – doubtful record BSE 125
Order Neogastropoda, Family Conidae Conasprella lucida (W. Wood, 1828) as Conus lucidus Wood, 1828 BSE 93
Conasprella perplexa (G. B. Sowerby II, 1857) as Conus perplexus BSE 93
Conasprella tornata (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Conus tornatus BSE 93
Conus brunneus Wood, 1828 BSE 93
Conus brunneus Wood, 1828 IMu 93
Conus dalli Stearns, 1873 BSE 93
Conus fergusoni G. B. Sowerby II, 1873 BSE 93
Conus gladiator Broderip, 1833 BSE 93
Conus recurvus Broderip, 1833 BSE 93
Conus vittatus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 BSE 93
Order Neogastropoda, Family Fasciolariidae Fusinus dupetitthouarsi (Kiener, 1840) IMu 130
Opeatostoma pseudodon (Burrow, 1815) IMu 130
Pustulatirus hemphilli (Hertlein & Strong, 1951) as Latirus hemphilli BSEa 114
Pustulatirus mediamericanus (Hertlein & Strong, 1951) as Latirus mediamericanus BSE 114
Order Neogastropoda, Family Marginellidae Dentimargo zetetes Roth, 1978 BSEa 181
Prunum aletes Roth, 1978 as Prunum (microspira) aletes BSE 181
Prunum aletes Roth, 1978 as Prunum (microspira) aletes CSE 181
Prunum aletes Roth, 1978 as Prunum (microspira) aletes IMua 181
Prunum lizanoi Magaña, Espinosa & Ortea, 2003 BJua 133, 199
Order Neogastropoda, Family Muricidae Acanthina sp. CSE 130
Murexsul zeteki (Hertlein & Strong, 1951) as Muricopsis zeteki BSE 114
Plicopurpura columellaris (Lamarck, 1816) as Purpura pansa CSE 130
Vasula melones (Duclos, 1832) BEH 185
Order Neogastropoda, Family Pseudomelatomidae Crassispira xanti Hertlein & Strong, 1951 BSE 114
Order Unassigned, Family Cerithiopsidae Cerithiopsis guanacastensis Hertlein & Strong, 1951 BSEa 114
Seila kanoni (de Folin, 1867) BSE 69
Seila montereyensis Bartsch, 1907 CSE 69
Order Unassigned, Family Potamididae Cerithideopsis californica (Haldeman, 1840) as Cerithidea valida MCa 32
Order Unassigned, Family Potamididae Cerithideopsis californica (Haldeman, 1840) as Cerithidea valida MSa 32
Cerithideopsis californica (Haldeman, 1840) as Cerithidea valida PPG 32, 203
Cerithideopsis californica (Haldeman, 1840) as Cerithidea valida MPN 30, 208
Subclass Neritimorpha, Order Cycloneritimorpha, Family Neritidae Nerita costata Gmelin, 1791 as Nerita scabricosta BSE 128
Nerita costata Gmelin, 1791 as Nerita scabricosta IMu 130
Subclass Vetigastropoda, Order Unassigned, Family Scissurellidae Scissurella kaiserae Geiger, 2006 CSE 85
Class Bivalvia, Subclass Heterodonta,
Order Cardiida, Family Cardiidae
Americardia biangulata (Broderip & G. B. Sowerby I, 1829) as Cardium biangulatum BSE 109
Laevicardium substriatum (Conrad, 1837) as Cardium alenense BSE 109
Lophocardium annettae (Dall, 1889) as Cardium annettae BSE 109
Microcardium pazianum (Dall, 1916) as Cardium pazianum BSE 109
Trachycardium consors (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Cardium consors BSE 109
Trachycardium procerum (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Cardium procerum BSE 109
Trigoniocardia granifera (Broderip & G. B. Sowerby I, 1829) as Cardium graniferum BSE 109
Order Cardiida, Family Psammobilidae Heterodonax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758) as Heterodonax bimaculata BSE 113
Order Cardiida, Family Semelidae Cumingia lamellosa G. B. Sowerby I, 1833 BSE 112
Semele jovis (Reeve, 1853) BSE 112
Semele pallida (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Semele simplicissima BSE 112
Semele verrucosa Mörch, 1860 as Semele pacifica BSE 112
Order Cardiida, Family Solecurtidae Tagelus affinis (C. B. Adams, 1852) as Tagelus (Tagelus) affinis BSE 113
Tagelus politus (Carpenter, 1857) as Tagelus (Mesopleura) politus BSE 113
Order Cardiida, Family Tellinidae Cymatoica undulata (Hanley, 1844) as Macoma (Cymatoica) undulata BSE 111
Macoma panamensis Dall, 1900 as Macoma (Psammacoma) panamensis BSE 111
Tellina amianta Dall, 1900 as Tellina (Moerella) amianta BSE 111
Tellina inaequistriata Donovan, 1802 as Tellina (Eurytellina) inaequistriata BSE 111
Tellina martinicensis d’Orbigny, 1853 as Tellina (Merisca) proclivis BSE 111
Tellina pristiphora Dall, 1900 as Tellina (Phyllodina) pristiphora BSE 111
Tellina prora Hanley, 1844 as Tellina (Eurytellina) prora BSE 111
Tellina rubescens Hanley, 1844 as Tellina (Eurytellina) rubescens BSE 111
Tellina tabogensis Salisbury, 1934 as Tellina (Moerella) recurvata BSE 111
Order Carditida, Family Carditidae Carditamera affinis (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Cardita (Carditamera) affinis BSE 108
Carditamera radiata (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Cardita (Carditamera) radiate BSE 108
Cardites laticostatus (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Cardita tricolor BSE 108
Strophocardia megastropha (J.E. Gray, 1825) as Cardita megastropha BSE 108
Order Carditida, Family Condylocardiidae Condylocardia sparsa Coan, 2003 CSE 29
Order Carditida, Family Crassatellidae Crassinella pacifica (C. B. Adams, 1852) BSE 108
Eucrassatella antillarum (Reeve, 1842) as Crassatellites (Hybolophus) digueti BSE 108
Eucrassatella gibbosa (G. B. Sowerby I, 1832) as Crassatellites (Hybolophus) gibbosus BSE 108
Order Lucinida, Family Lucinidae Codakia distinguenda (Tryon, 1872) BSE 108
Ctena mexicana (Dall, 1901) BSE 108
Liralucina approximata (Dall, 1901) as Lucina (Parvillucina) approximata BSE 108
Radiolucina cancellaris (Philippi, 1846) as Lucina (Bellucina) cancellaris BSE 108
Order Myida, Family Corbulidae Caryocorbula biradiata (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Aloidis (Caryocorbula) biradiata BSE 113
Caryocorbula marmorata (Hinds, 1843) as Aloidis (Caryocorbula) marmorata BSE 113
Caryocorbula nasuta (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Aloidis (Caryocorbula) nasuta BSE 113
Order Myida, Family Pholadidae Jouannetia pectinata (Conrad, 1849) as Jouannetia (Triomphalia) pectinata BSE 113
Order Venerida, Family Veneridae Agriopoma catharium (Dall, 1902) as Pitar (Pitarella) mexicanus BSE 110
Anomalocardia subimbricata (Sowerby, 1835) BSE 110
Chione compta (Broderip, 1835) as Chione (Chione) compta BSE 110
Cyclinella subquadrata (Hanley, 1844) BSE 110
Dosinia dunkeri (Philippi, 1844) as Dosinia (Dosinidia) dunkeri BSE 110
Dosinia ponderosa (Gray, 1838) as Dosinia (Dosinidia) ponderosa BSE 110
Gouldia californica Dall, 1917 BSE 110
Iliochione subrugosa (W. Wood, 1828) as Anomalocardia subrugosa BSE 110
Leukoma asperrima (G. B. Sowerby I, 1835) as Chione (Nioche) asperrima BSE 110
Lirophora mariae (d’Orbigny, 1846) as Chione (Lirophora) mariae BSE 110
Megapitaria aurantiaca (G. B. Sowerby I, 1831) BSE 110
Megapitaria squalida (G. B. Sowerby I, 1835) BSE 110
Periglypta multicostata (G. B. Sowerby I, 1835) as Antigona (Periglypta) multicostata BSE 110
Pitar consanguineus (C. B. Adams, 1852) as Pitar (Pitar) consanguineous BSE 110
Pitar unicolor (Sowerby, 1835) IMu 130
Protothaca grata (Say, 1830) MCa 32
Order Venerida, Family Veneridae Protothaca grata (Say, 1830) MSa 32
Protothaca grata (Say, 1830) as Protothaca (Callithaca) grata BSE 110
Protothaca grata (Say, 1830) MPG 32
Protothaca grata (Say, 1830) MPN 32
Order Unassigned, Family Chamidae Arcinella californica (Dall, 1903) as Echinochama californica BSE 108
Chama echinata Broderip, 1835 Jun 185
Order Unassigned, Family Galeommatidae Bellascintilla parmaleeana Coney, 1990 PNa 31
Order Unassigned, Family Ungulinidae Diplodonta semirugosa Dall, 1899 as Taras semirugosus BSE 109
Diplodonta subquadrata Carpenter, 1856 as Taras subquadratus BSE 109
Subclass Protobranchia, Order Nuculanida,
Family Nuculanidae
Saccella elenensis (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Nuculana (Saccella) elenensis BSE 105
Saccella impar (Pilsbry & Lowe, 1932) as Nuculana (Saccella) impar BSE 105
Saccella laeviradius (Pilsbry & Lowe, 1932) as Nuculana (Saccella) laeviradius BSE 105
Subclass Pteriomorphia, Order Arcida,
Family Arcidae
Acar gradata (Broderip & Sowerby, 1829) as Acar (Arca) gradata BSE 105
Acar gradata (Broderip & Sowerby, 1829) PBl 180
Anadara biangulata (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Acar (Anadara) biangulata BSE 106
Anadara nux (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Arca (Cunearca) nux BSE 106, 180
Anadara perlabiata (Grant & Gale, 1931) as Arca (Cunearca) perlabiata BSE 106
Anadara reinharti (Lowe, 1935) as Arca (Anadara) reinharti BSE 106
Anadara reinharti (Lowe, 1935) as Arca (Scapharca) reinharti BSE 180
Anadara tuberculosa (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) MCa 32
Anadara tuberculosa (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) MSa 32
Anadara tuberculosa (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) PPG 32, 208
Anadara tuberculosa (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) MPN 32
Arca mutabilis (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Arca (Arca) mutabilis BSE 106, 180
Arca mutabilis (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Arca (Arca) mutabilis PBl 180
Barbatia illota (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) Barbatia (Fugleria) illota PBl 180
Barbatia reeveana (d’Orbigny, 1846) as Barbatia (Cucullaearca) reeveana PBl 180
Calloarca alternata (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Arca (Calloarca) alternata BSE 106
Larkinia grandis (Broderip & G. B. Sowerby I, 1829) as Grandiarca grandis MCa 32
Larkinia grandis (Broderip & G. B. Sowerby I, 1829) as Arca (Lakinia) grandis BSE 106
Larkinia grandis (Broderip & G. B. Sowerby I, 1829) as Grandiarca grandis MPG 32, 208
Larkinia grandis (Broderip & G. B. Sowerby I, 1829) as Grandiarca grandis MPN 32
Subclass Pteriomorphia, Order Arcida,
Family Arcidae
Larkinia multicostata (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Anadara multicostata MCa 32
Larkinia multicostata (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Anadara multicostata MSa 32
Larkinia multicostata (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Arca (Larkinia) multicostata BSE 106
Larkinia multicostata (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Anadara multicostata MPG 32, 204
Larkinia multicostata (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Anadara multicostata MPN 32
Order Arcida, Family Glycymerididae Tucetona strigilata (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Glycymeris (Tuceta) tessellata strigilata and as Glycymeris (Tuceta) tessellata BSE 106
Order Arcida, Family Noetiidae Arcopsis solida (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) as Arca (Arcopsis) solida BSE 106
Arcopsis solida (G. B. Sowerby I, 1833) PBl 180
Order Arcida, Family Philobryidae Philobrya setosa (Carpenter, 1864) CSE 30
Order Limida, Family Limidae Limaria orbignyi (Lamy, 1930) as Lima (Limaria) orbignyi BSE 107
Order Mytilida, Family Mytilidae Amygdalum americanum Soot-Ryen, 1955 PBl 186
Brachidontes adamsianus (Dunker, 1856) as Hormomya adamsiana BSE 186
Brachidontes puntarenensis (Pilsbry & Lowe, 1932) BSE 186
Brachidontes sp. Jun 185
Crenella divaricata (Orbigny, 1853) BSE 107, 186
Leiosolenus aristatus (Dillwyn, 1817) as Lithophaga (Myoforceps) aristata BSE 107, 186
Leiosolenus aristatus (Dillwyn, 1817) as Lithophaga (Myoforceps) aristata PBl 186
Leiosolenus attenuatus (Deshayes, 1836) as Lithophaga (Labis) attenuata BSE 107, 186
Leiosolenus attenuatus (Deshayes, 1836) as Lithophaga (Labis) attenuata PBl 186
Leiosolenus plumula (Hanley, 1843) as Lithophaga (Diberus) plumula BSE 107, 186
Leiosolenus plumula (Hanley, 1843) as Lithophaga (Diberus) plumula PBl 186
Modiolus capax (Conrad, 1837) as Volsella (Volsella) capax in reference 107 BSE 107, 186
Modiolus capax (Conrad, 1837) PBl 186
Mytilus sp. MCa 32
Mytilus sp. MSa 32
Mytilus sp. MPG 32
Mytilus sp. MPN 32
Septifer zeteki Hertlein & Strong, 1946 BSE 186
Order Ostreida, Family Ostreidae Crassostrea corteziensis (Hertlein, 1951) MPG 208
Saccostrea palmula (Carpenter, 1857) Jun 185
Saccostrea palmula (Carpenter, 1857) BSE 107
Order Ostreida, Family Pinnidae Pinna rugosa G. B. Sowerby I, 1835 BSE 106
Order Ostreida, Family Pteriidae Pinctada mazatlanica (Hanley, 1856) BSE 106
Pinctada mazatlanica (Hanley, 1856) IMu 7
Pteria sterna (Gould, 1851) IMu 7
Order Pectinida, Family Anomiidae Placunanomia cumingii Broderip, 1832 BSE 107
Order Pectinida, Family Pectinidae Argopecten irradians concentricus (Say, 1822) as Pecten (Plagioctenium) circularis BSE 107
Euvola vogdesi (Arnold, 1906) as Pecten (Pecten) vogdesi BSE 107
Leopecten sericeus (Hinds, 1845) as Pecten (Pecten) sericeus BSE 107
Leptopecten biolleyi (Hertlein & Strong, 1946) as Pecten (Leptopecten) velero biolleyi BSEa 107
Nodipecten subnodosus (G. B. Sowerby I, 1835) as Pecten (Lyropecten) subnodosus BSE 104, 107
Order Pectinida, Family Propeamussiidae Cyclopecten pernomus (Hertlein, 1935) BSE 107
Order Pectinida, Family Spondylidae Spondylus sp. IMu 7
Phylum SIPUNCULA, Class Phascolosomatidea, Order Phascolosomatida, Family Phascolosomatidae Antillesoma antillarum (Grube & Oersted 1858) Jun 185
Antillesoma antillarum (Grube & Oersted 1858) IMu 55, 59
Phascolosoma (Phascolosoma) perlucens Baird, 1868 IMu 59
Phascolosoma sp. Jun 185
Sipunculus (Sipunculus) nudus Linnaeus, 1766 Jun 185
Phylum ANNELIDA, Class Polychaeta,
Subclass Errantia, Order Amphinomida,
Family Amphinomidae
Eurythoe complanata (Pallas, 1776) as Eurythoë complanata in reference 95 BSE 60, 95, 189
Eurythoe complanata (Pallas, 1776) as Eurythoë complanata in reference 95 PBl 60, 95
Hermodice carunculata (Pallas, 1766) doubtful record BSE 60, 189
Notopygos ornata Grube, 1856 BSE 189
Notopygos ornata Grube, 1856 PBl 60, 95
Order Eunicida, Family Eunicidae Nicidion mutilata (Webster, 1884) as Eunice mutilata BSE 60, 96
Palola siciliensis (Grube, 1840) BSE 60, 96
Order Eunicida, Family Lumbrineridae One species PJu 185
Scoletoma tetraura (Schmarda, 1861) as Lumbrineris tetraura BSE 60, 96
Order Eunicida, Family Oenonidae Oenone fulgida (Savigny in Lamarck, 1818) as Aglaurides fulgida in reference 96 BSE 60, 96
Oenone fulgida (Savigny in Lamarck, 1818) as Aglaurides fulgida in reference 96 PBl 60, 96
Order Eunicida, Family Onuphidae Diopatra tridentata Hartman, 1944 BSE 60, 96
Hyalinoecia juvenalis Moore, 1911 BSE 60, 96,189
Hyalinoecia juvenalis Moore, 1911 PBl 60
Order Phyllodocida, Family Glyceridae One species PJu 185
Glycera tesselata Grube, 1840 PBl 95
Order Phyllodocida, Family Iphionidae Iphione ovata Kinberg, 1855 BSE 60, 94
Order Phyllodocida, Family Nereididae One species PJu 185
Order Phyllodocida, Family Polynoidae Lepidasthenia varius Treadwell, 1917 as Lepidasthenia picta in reference 189 BSE 60, 189
Order Phyllodocida, Family Sigalionidae Pelogenia antipoda Schmarda, 1861 as Psammolyce antipoda (Schmarda) anoculata PBl 60, 94
Sigalion lewisii Berkeley & Berkeley, 1939 as Thalenessa lewisii BSE 94
Sthenelais fusca Johnson 1897 as Stenelais variabilis colorata BSE 94
Subclass Sedentaria, Order Spionida,
Family Magelonidae
Magelona sp. PJu 185
Order Terebellida, Family Terebellidae One species PJu 185
Lanicola guillermoi Capa & Hutchings, 2006 BEH 185
Terebella gorgonae Monro, 1933 BSE 60, 189
Order Unassigned, Family Chaetopteridae One species PJu 185
Order Unassigned, Family Opheliidae Armandia maculata (Webster, 1884) as Ammotrypane bermudiensis BSE 60, 189
Phylum NEMERTEA One species PJu 185
Phylum ARTHROPODA, Subphylum Crustacea
Class Malacostraca, Order Amphipoda, Family Ampeliscidae
Ampelisca brevisimulata Barnard, 1954 BSE 5
Ampelisca cristata Holmes, 1908 BSE 5
Ampelisca hancocki Barnard, 1954 BSEa 5
Ampelisca lobata Holmes, 1908 BSE 5
Ampelisca milleri Barnard, 1954 BSE 5
Ampelisca milleri Barnard, 1954 PBl 5
Ampelisca pugetica Stimpson, 1864 as Ampelisca pugetica forma macrodentata BSE 5
Ampelisca romigi Barnard, 1954 as Ampelisca isocornea BSE 5
Ampelisca schellenbergi Shoemaker, 1933 PBl 5
Ampelisca venetiensis Shoemaker, 1916 BSE 5
Order Amphipoda, Family Aoridae Paramicrodeutopus schmitti (Shoemaker, 1942) as Microdeutopus schmitti PBl 152
Order Amphipoda, Family Neomegamphopidae Neomegamphopus roosevelti Shoemaker, 1942 PBl 152
Order Amphipoda, Family Phoxocephalidae Microphoxus minimus Barnard, 1954 PBla 5, 6
Order Amphipoda, Family Unciolidae Acuminodeutopus periculosus Barnard, 1969 as Acuminodetopus heteruropus PBl 152
Order Amphipoda Several unidentified species IMu 75
Order Cumacea, Family Bodotriidae Cyclaspis vargasae Petrescu & Heard, 2004 IMua 161, 162
Order Decapoda, Family Albuneidae Lepidopa mearnsi Benedict, 1904 PNa 197
Order Decapoda, Family Alpheidae Alpheus aequus Kim & Abele, 1988 PBla 126, 204
Alpheus cylindricus Kingsley, 1878 BSE 126
Alpheus galapagensis Sivertsen, 1933 as Alpheus canalis Kim & Abele, 1988 BSE 126
Alpheus galapagensis Sivertsen, 1933 as Alpheus canalis Kim & Abele, 1988 PBl 126
Alpheus hebes Kim & Abele, 1988 BSE 126
Alpheus hebes Kim & Abele, 1988 PBl 126
Alpheus longinquus Kim & Abele, 1988 BSE 126
Alpheus longinquus Kim & Abele, 1988 PBl 126
Alpheus normanni Kingsley, 1878 BSE 126
Alpheus panamensis Kingsley, 1878 CSE 196
Alpheus paracrinitus Miers, 1881 PBl 126
Alpheus rostratus Kim & Abele, 1988 BSE 126, 204
Alpheus sulcatus Kingsley, 1870 CSE 196
Alpheus umbo Kim & Abele, 1988 BSE 126
Alpheus sp. BEH 185
Pomagnathus corallinus Chace, 1962 BSE 196
Pomagnathus corallinus Chace, 1962 PBl 202
Synalpheus digueti Coutière, 1909 BSE 202
Order Decapoda, Family Axiidae Axiopsis serratifrons (H. Milne-Edwrads, 1873) IMu 196
Order Decapoda, Family Calappidae Calappa convexa Saussure, 1853 BSE 81
Calappula saussurei (Rathbun, 1898) as Calappa saussurei BSE 198
Cryptosoma bairdii (Stimpson, 1860) as Cycloes bairdii BSE 82
Cryptosoma bairdii (Stimpson, 1860) as Cycloes bairdii IMu 82
Platymera gaudichaudii H. Milne-Edwards, 1837 as Mursia gaudichaudii CSE 129
Platymera gaudichaudii H. Milne Edwards, 1837 IMu 198
Order Decapoda, Family Callianideidae Callianidea mariamartae Hernáez & Vargas, 2013 IMua 102
Paracallianidea laevicauda (Gill, 1859) as Callianidea laevicauda PBl 196
Order Decapoda, Family Coenobitidae Coenobita compressus H. Milne Edwards, 1837 IMu 197
Order Decapoda, Family Dairidae Daira americana Stimpson, 1860 BSE 47
Order Decapoda, Family Daldorfiidae Daldorfia trigona (A. Milne-Edwards, 1869) as Daldorfia garthi BSE 47
Daldorfia trigona (A. Milne-Edwards, 1869) as Daldorfia garthi PBl 78
Order Decapoda, Family Diogenidae Aniculus elegans Stimpson, 1858 IMu 197
Trizopagurus magnificus (Bouvier, 1898) IMu 197
Order Decapoda, Family Domeciidae Cherusius triunguiculatus (Borradaile, 1902) as Maldivia galapagensis BSE 83
Order Decapoda, Family Dromiidae Hypoconcha panamensis Smith, 1869 BSE 82
Moreiradromia sarraburei (Rathbun, 1910) BSE 198
Order Decapoda, Family Dynomenidae Hirsutodynomene ursula (Stimpson, 1860) as Dynomene ursula Stimpson, 1860 IMu 151
Order Decapoda, Family Epialtidae Herbstia pubescens Stimpson, 1871 BSE 80
Herbstia pubescens Stimpson, 1871 PBl 79
Macrocoeloma maccullochae Garth, 1940 BSE 79, 80
Macrocoeloma maccullochae Garth, 1940 PBl 78
Microlissa aurivilliusi (Rathbun, 1898) as Lissa aurivilliusi BSE 80
Microlissa aurivilliusi (Rathbun, 1898) as Lissa aurivilliusi PBl 79
Pelia tumida (Lockington, 1877) PBl 79
Stenocionops ovatus (Bell, 1835) as Stenocionops ovata IMu 198
Order Decapoda, Family Eriphiidae Eriphia squamata Stimpson, 1859 BSE 47
Eriphides hispida (Stimpson, 1860) BSE 47
Order Decapoda, Family Ethusidae Ethusa lata Rathbun, 1893 BSE 81
Ethusa lata Rathbun, 1893 IMu 198
Ethusa panamensis Finnegan, 1931 as Ethusa mascarpone panamensis IMu 82
Order Decapoda, Family Gecarcinidae Johngarthia planata (Stimpson, 1860) IMu 160
Order Decapoda, Family Grapsidae Geograpsus lividus (Milne Edwards, 1837) BSE 47
Grapsus grapsus (Linnaeus, 1758) BSE 47
Grapsus grapsus (Linnaeus, 1758) PPG 47
Pachygrapsus transversus (Gibbes, 1850) BSE 47
Order Decapoda, Family Hippidae Emerita rathbunae Schmitt, 1935 Jun 197
Order Decapoda, Family Hippolytidae Hippolyte williamsi Schmitt, 1924 IMu 201
Lysmata argentopunctata Wicksten, 2000 IMu 201, 204
Trachycaris restricta (Milne-Edwards, 1878) BSE 196
Order Decapoda, Family Inachidae Ericerodes angulatus (Finnegan, 1931) as Podochela angulata BSE 79
Ericerodes angulatus (Finnegan, 1931) as Podochela angulata BSE 80
Ericerodes veleronis (Garth, 1948) as Podochela veleronis PBl 79
Eucinetops panamensis Rathbun, 1923 BSE 47
Eucinetops panamensis Rathbun, 1923 PBl 79
Podochela ziesenhennei Garth, 1940 PBl 79
Order Decapoda, Family Inachoididae Collodes tenuirostris Rathbun, 1894 IMu 198
Euprognatha bifida Rathbun, 1893 BSE 80
Inachoides laevis Stimpson, 1860 BSE 79
Inachoides laevis Stimpson, 1860 BSE 80
Paradasygyius depressus (Bell, 1835) BSE 79
Pyromaia tuberculata (Lockington, 1877) IMu 198
Stenorhynchus debilis (Smith, 1871) BSE 79
Stenorhynchus debilis (Smith, 1871) PBl 79
Stenorhynchus debilis (Smith, 1871) BSE 80
Order Decapoda, Family Leucosiidae Ebalia magdalenensis Rathbun, 1933 BSE 82
Leucosilia jurinii (Saussure, 1853) BSE 82
Lithadia cumingii Bell, 1855 BSE 82
Persephona subovata (Rathbun, 1894) as Iliacantha hancocki BSE 82
Randallia agaricias Rathbun, 1898 BSE 82
Order Decapoda, Family Majidae Maiopsis panamensis Faxon, 1893 IMu 198
Order Decapoda, Family Mithracidae Ala cornuta (Stimpson, 1860) as Anaptychus cornutus BSE 47
Ala cornuta (Stimpson, 1860) BSE 79, 80
Ala cornuta (Stimpson, 1860) PBl 79
Hemus finneganae Garth, 1958 BSE 80
Microphrys branchialis Rathbun, 1898 BSE 79
Microphrys platysoma (Stimpson, 1860) BSE 47
Mithraculus denticulatus (Bell, 1835) as Mithrax denticulatus BSE 47
Mithraculus denticulatus (Bell, 1835) as Mithrax denticulatus PBl 79
Mithrax tuberculatus Stimpson, 1860 PBl 79
Petramithrax pygmaeus Bell, (1836) as Mithrax pygmaeus BSE 47, 80
Pitho picteti (Saussure, 1853) PBl 79
Pitho picteti (Saussure, 1853) BSE 80
Pitho quinquedentata Bell, 1835 BSE 80
Pitho sexdentata Bell, 1835 BSE 47
Teleophrys cristulipes Stimpson, 1860 BSE 47, 79
Teleophrys cristulipes Stimpson, 1860 PBl 79
Thoe erosa Bell, 1835 as Thoe sulcata panamensis BSE 47, 79
Thoe erosa Bell, 1835 as Thoe sulcata panamensis PBl 79
Order Decapoda, Family Munididae Pleuroncodes planipes Stimpson, 1860 CSE 129
Orden Decapoda, Family Ocypodidae Ocypode gaudichaudii Milne Edwards & Lucas, 1843 BPG 44, 46
Uca (Leptuca) deichmanni Rathbun, 1935 as Uca deichmanni BSE 45
Uca (Leptuca) latimanus (Rathbun, 1894) as Uca latimanus BSE 45
Uca (Leptuca) panamensis (Stimpson, 1859) as Uca panamensis BSE 45
Uca (Leptuca) stenodactylus (H. Milne Edwards & Lucas, 1843) as Uca stenodactyla BSE 45
Uca (Leptuca) terpsichores Crane, 1941 as Uca terpsichores BSE 45
Uca (Minuca) brevifrons (Stimpson, 1860) as Uca brevifrons BSE 45
Uca sp. MCa 32
Uca sp. MSa 32
Uca sp. MPG 32, 208
Uca sp. MPN 32
Order Decapoda, Family Oziidae Epixanthus tenuidactylos (Lockington, 1877) as Ozius tenuidactylus BSE 47
Ozius verreauxii Saussure, 1853 BSE 47
Order Decapoda, Family Paguridae Pagurus vetaultae Harvey & McLaughlin, 1991 BSEb 97
Pagurus virgulatus Haig & Harvey, 1991 BSEa 92, 197
Order Decapoda, Family Palaemonidae Ancylomenes lucasi (Chace, 1937) as Periclimenes lucasi PBl 118
Brachycarpus biunguiculatus (Lucas, 1846) BSE 119
Brachycarpus biunguiculatus (Lucas, 1846) PBl 119
Brachycarpus biunguiculatus (Lucas, 1846) IMu 196
Fennera chacei Holthuis, 1951 BSE 118
Periclimenes infraspinis (Rathbun, 1902) as Periclimenaeus infraspinis BSE 118, 202, 204
Periclimenes murcielagensis Vargas, 2000 IMua 194, 204
Pontonia margarita Smith, 1869 BSE 118
Pontonia margarita Smith, 1869 PBl 118
Pontonia margarita Smith, 1869 IMu 196
Pontonia simplex Holthuis, 1951 BSE 196
Waldola schmitti Holthuis, 1951 IMu 196
Order Decapoda, Family Panopeidae Eurypanopeus planus (Smith, 1869) BSE 47
Eurypanopeus transversus (Stimpson, 1860) BSE 47
Hexapanopeus costaricensis Garth, 1940 BSEa 78, 81
Hexapanopeus orcutti Rathbun, 1930 BSE 81
Hexapanopeus sinaloensis Rathbun, 1930 BSE 81
Malacoplax californiensis (Lockington, 1877) as Speocarcinus californiensis BSE 81
Order Decapoda, Family parthenopidae Celatopesia hassleri (Rathbun, 1925) as Cryptopodia hassleri BSE 79, 80
Celatopesia hassleri (Rathbun, 1925) as Cryptopodia hassleri PBl 79
Heterocrypta macrobrachia Stimpson, 1871 BSE 79
Hypolambrus hyponcus (Stimpson, 1871) as Pathenope (Pathenope) hyponca PBl 79
Mesorhoea bellii (A. Milne-Edwards, 1878) BSE 198
Solenolambrus arcuatus Stimpson, 1871 BSE 79, 80
Solenolambrus arcuatus Stimpson, 1871 PBl 79
Spinolambrus exilipes (Rathbun, 1893) as Parthenope exilipes IMu 198
Order Decapoda, Family Pasiphaeidae Leptochela (Leptochela) serratorbita Spence Bate, 1888 as Leptochela serratorbita BSE 202, 204
Order Decapoda, Family Penaeidae Metapenaeopsis beebei (Burkenroad, 1938) BSE 198
Penaeus sp. as Pennaeus MCa 32
Penaeus sp. as Pennaeus MSa 32
Penaeus sp. as Pennaeus MPG 32, 208
Penaeus sp. as Pennaeus MPN 32
Order Decapoda, Family Pilumnidae Pilumnus pygmaeus Boone, 1927 BSE 47, 81
Order Decapoda, Family Pinnotheridae Glassella costaricana (Wicksten, 1982) BEH 185
Order Decapoda, Family Porcellanidae Euceramus transversilineatus (Lockington, 1878) PMo 197
Euceramus transversilineatus (Lockington, 1878) BSE 90
Megalobrachium pacificum Gore & Abele, 1973 BEH 197
Megalobrachium pacificum Gore & Abele, 1973 PBl 87
Pachycheles biocellatus (Lockington, 1878) BSE 90
Pachycheles vicarius Nobili, 1901 BSE 90
Petrolisthes agassizii Faxon, 1893 PJu 197
Petrolisthes agassizii Faxon, 1893 BSE 91
Petrolisthes armatus (Gibbes, 1850) Jun 197
Petrolisthes armatus (Gibbes, 1850) BSE 91
Petrolisthes artifrons Haig, 1960 BSE 90
Petrolisthes edwardsii (de Saussure, 1853) Jun 197
Petrolisthes edwardsii (de Saussure, 1853) BSE 90
Petrolisthes edwardsii (de Saussure, 1853) PBl 90
Petrolisthes glasselli Haig, 1957 BSE 90, 91
Petrolisthes haigae Chace, 1962 Jun 197
Petrolisthes haigae Chace, 1962 BSE 91
Petrolisthes haigae Chace, 1962 PSE 197
Petrolisthes hians Nobili, 1902 BSE 90, 91
Petrolisthes holotrichus Nobili, 1901 BSE 90
Petrolisthes lewisi Glassell, 1936 as Petrolisthes lewisi austrinus BSE 90, 100
Petrolisthes lewisi Glassell, 1936 PBl 197
Petrolisthes nobilii Haig, 1960 BSE 90
Petrolisthes nobilii Haig, 1960 PBl 197
Petrolisthes ortmanni Nobili, 1901 BSE 90, 91
Petrolisthes ortmanni Nobili, 1901 PBl 90
Petrolisthes platymerus Haig, 1960 BSE 90, 101
Order Decapoda, Family Porcellanidae Petrolisthes platymerus Haig, 1960 PBl 197
Petrolisthes polymitus Glassell, 1937 PBl 90
Petrolisthes tonsorius Haig, 1960 BSE 90
Petrolisthes tridentatus Stimpson, 1859 BSE 90, 91
Pisidia magdalenensis (Glassell, 1936) Jun 197
Pisidia magdalenensis (Glassell, 1936) BSE 90, 91
Pisidia magdalenensis (Glassell, 1936) PBl 90
Polyonyx nitidus Lockington, 1878 BJu 197
Porcellana cancrisocialis Glassell, 1936 BSE 90, 91
Porcellana paguriconviva Glassell, 1936 BSE 90, 91
Order Decapoda, Family Portunidae Achelous asper (A. Milne-Edwards, 1861) as Portunus (Portunus) panamensis BSE 81
Achelous tuberculatus Stimpson, 1860 as Portunus (Acheolus) tuberculatus BSE 81
Arenaeus mexicanus (Gerstaecker, 1856) IMu 81
Arenaeus mexicanus (Gerstaecker, 1856) BPG 81
Callinectes arcuatus Ordway, 1863 BSE 81
Cronius ruber (Lamarck, 1818) BSE 81
Portunus (Portunus) acuminatus (Stimpson, 1871) BSEc 78, 81, 198
Portunus (Portunus) asper (A. Milne-Edwards, 1861) BSE 81
Portunus (Portunus) asper (A. Milne-Edwards, 1861) IMu 81
Order Decapoda, Family Pseudorhombilidae Lophoxanthus lamellipes (Stimpson, 1860) BSE 47
Order Decapoda, Family Sesarmidae Aratus pisonii (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) BSE 47
Order Decapoda, Family Sicyoniidae Sicyonia disdorsalis (Burkenroad, 1934) PNa 196
Sicyonia disedwardsi (Burkenroad, 1934) PMo 196
Sicyonia laevigata Stimpson, 1871 BSE 196
Sicyonia laevigata Stimpson, 1871 IMu 196
Sicyonia martini Pérez-Farfante & Boothe, 1981 IDa 196
Sicyonia martini Pérez-Farfante & Boothe, 1981 IMu 198
Sicyonia martini Pérez-Farfante & Boothe, 1981 PNa 196
Sicyonia picta Faxon, 1893 PNa 196
Order Decapoda, Family Solenoceridae Solenocera florea Burkenroad, 1938 PBr 196
Order Decapoda, Family Trapeziidae Trapezia bidentata (Forskål, 1775) as Trapezia cymodoce ferruginea BSE 47
Order Decapoda, Family Upogebiidae Upogebia dawsoni Williams, 1986 BPG 205
Order Decapoda, Family Xanthidae Cataleptodius taboganus (Rathbun, 1912) as Leptodius taboganus BSE 47
Cycloxanthops vittatus (Stimpson, 1860) BSE 47
Edwardsium lobipes (Rathbun, 1898) as Medaeus lobipes in reference 81 BSE 81, 198
Heteractaea lunata (Lucas, in H. Milne Edwards & Lucas, 1844) BSE 47
Liomera cinctimanus (White, 1847) as Carpilodes cinctimanus BSE 47
Microcassiope xantusii (Stimpson, 1871) as Micropanope xantusii BSE 47
Paractaea sulcata (Stimpson, 1860) as Actaea sulcata BSE 47
Order Decapoda, Family Xanthidae Platyactaea dovii (Stimpson, 1871) as Actaea dovii BSE 47, 81
Williamstimpsonia stimpsoni (Milne Edwards, 1879) as Xanthodius stimpsoni BSE 47
Xanthodius sternberghii Stimpson, 1859 BSE 47
Order Mysida, Family Mysidae Chlamydopleon banneri (Bacescu, 1968) as Bowmaniella banneri IMu 98
Several species IMu 171
Order Stomatopoda, Family Gonodactylidae Neogonodactylus bahiahondensis (Schmitt, 1940) PSE 195
Neogonodactylus bahiahondensis (Schmitt, 1940) IMu 195
Neogonodactylus costaricensis (Manning & Reaka, 1979) BSE 136
Neogonodactylus festae (Nobili, 1901) BSE 136
Neogonodactylus zacae (Manning, 1972) PMo 195
Neogonodactylus zacae (Manning, 1972) BSE 195
Order Stomatopoda, Family Nannosquillidae Nannosquilla canica Manning & Reaka, 1979 PBl 137
Nannosquilla decemspinosa (Rathbun, 1910) as Lysiosquilla decemspinosa PBl 135
Order Stomatopoda, Family Pseudosquillidae Pseudosquillisma adiastalta Manning, 1964 CSE 195
Order Stomatopoda, Family Squillidae Crenatosquilla oculinova (Glassell, 1942) CSE 195
Squilla biformis Bigelow, 1891 CSE 129, 195
Squilla panamensis Bigelow, 1891 CSE 195
Order Tanaidacea, Family Leptocheliidae Several species IMu 99
Order Tanaidacea, Family Parapseudidae Parapseudes latifrons (Grube, 1864) as Parapseudes pedispinis BSE 148
Parapseudes latifrons (Grube, 1864) as Parapseudes pedispinis PBl 148
Parapseudes latifrons (Grube, 1864) as Parapseudes pedispinous IMu 99
Order Tanaidacea, Family Tanaididae as Family Tanaidae Several species IMu 99
Class Maxillopoda, Subclass Copepoda,
Family Acartiidae
Acartia (Acartia) negligens Dana, 1849 as Acartia (Planktacartia) negligens IMu 187
Class Maxillopoda, Infraclass Cirripedia,
Order Sessilia, Family Balanidae
Amphibalanus inexpectatus (Pilsbry, 1916) as Balanus inexpectatus Jun 185
Order Sessilia, Family Chthamalidae Chthamalus panamensis Pilsbry, 1916 Jun 185
Chthamalus panamensis Pilsbry, 1916 CSE 27, 163
Microeuraphia imperatrix (Pilsbry, 1916) CSE 27
Order Sessilia, Family Tetraclitidae Tetraclita stalactifera (Lamarck, 1818) Jun 185
Phylum BRYOZOA, Class Gymnolaemata, Order Cheilostomatida, Family Bugulidae Sessibugula translucens Osburn, 1950 BSE 156
Order Cheilostomatida, Family Exechonellidae Anexechona ancorata Osburn, 1950 BSE 156
Order Cheilostomatida, Family Phidoloporidae Rhynchozoon rostratum (Busk, 1855) PBl 157
Order Cheilostomatida, Family Schizoporellidae Schizoporella inarmata Hincks, 1884 as Schizoporella linearis var. inarmata BSE 157
Class Stenolaemata, Order Cyclostomatida, Family Crisiidae Crisia occidentalis Trask, 1857 BSE 158
Order Cyclostomatida, Family Lichenoporidae Disporella californica (d’Orbigny, 1853) BSE 158
Order Cyclostomatida, Family Tubuliporidae Tubulipora pulchra MacGillivray, 1885 BSE 158
Order Cyclostomatida, Family Unassigned Diaperoforma californica (d’Orbigny, 1853) as Diaperoecia californica PBl 158
Petralia japonica (Busk, 1884) BSE 157
Phylum ECHINODERMATA, Class Asteroidea, Order Valvatida, Family Oreasteridae Pentaceraster cumingi (Gray, 1840) as Oreaster occidentalis BSE 28
Class Echinoidea, Order Camarodonta, Family Echinometridae Echinometra vanbrunti A. Agassiz, 1863 Jun 185
Class Holothuroidea, Order Aspidochirotida, Family Holothuriidae Holothuria (Cystipus) rigida (Selenka, 1867) as Fossothuria rigida PBl 63
Holothuria (Halodeima) kefersteinii (Selenka, 1867) as Ludwigothuria kefersteini PBl 63
Holothuria (Selenkothuria) lubrica Selenka, 1867 BSE 63
Holothuria (Semperothuria) languens Selenka, 1867 as Semperothuria languens PBl 63
Holothuria (Thymiosycia) arenicola Semper, 1868 as Brandtothuria arenicola BSE 63
Holothuria (Thymiosycia) arenicola Semper, 1868 as Brandtothuria arenicola PBl 63
Holothuria (Thymiosycia) impatiens (Forskål, 1775) as Brandtothuria impatiens BSE 63
Holothuria (Thymiosycia) impatiens (Forskål, 1775) as Brandtothuria impatiens PBl 63
Order Dendrochirotida, Family Cucumariidae Neocucumis veleronis (Deichmann, 1941) PBla 62
Pseudocnus californicus (Semper, 1868) as Cucumaria californica BSE 62
Pseudocnus dubiosus dubiosus (Semper, 1868) as Cucumaria dubiosa BSE 62
Order Dendrochirotida, Family Phyllophoridae Pentamera chierchiae (Ludwig, 1887) BSE 61, 62
Pentamera chierchiae (Ludwig, 1887) PBl 62
Order Dendrochirotida, Family Sclerodactylidae Afrocucumis ovulum (Selenka, 1867) as Euthyonidium ovulum BSE 61
Neothyone gibber (Selenka, 1867) BSE 62
Neothyone gibbosa Deichmann, 1941 PBl 62
Phylum CHORDATA, Subphyllum Tunicata,
Class Ascidiacea, Order Aplousobranchia, Family Didemnidae
Didemnum moseleyi (Herdman, 1886) as Didemnum mosseleyi IDa 154
Didemnum moseleyi (Herdman, 1886) as Didemnum mosseleyi BVi 154
Lissoclinum caulleryi (Ritter & Forsyth, 1917) IDa 154
Lissoclinum caulleryi (Ritter & Forsyth, 1917) BVi 154
Order Phlebobranchia, Family Ascidiidae Ascidia ceratodes (Huntsman, 1912) IDa 154
Ascidia ceratodes (Huntsman, 1912) BRo 154
Ascidia ceratodes (Huntsman, 1912) BVi 154
Order Aplousobranchia, Family Diazonidae Rhopalaea birkelandi Tokioka, 1971 IDa 154
Rhopalaea birkelandi Tokioka, 1971 BRo 154
Rhopalaea birkelandi Tokioka, 1971 BVi 154
Order Stolidobranchia, Family Styelidae Eusynstyela tincta (Van Name, 1902) as Polyandrocarpa tincta IDa 154
Eusynstyela tincta (Van Name, 1902) as Polyandrocarpa tincta BVi 154
Subphylum Cepahalochordata, Class Leptocardii, Order Unassigned, Family Branchiostomatidae Branchiostoma californiense Andrews, 1893 PJu 185
Subphylum Vertebrata, Superclass Pisces,
Class Elasmobrabranchii, Order Myliobatiformes, Family Dasyatidae
Dasyatis longa (Garman, 1880) as Dasyatis longus Cua 24, 178
Order Myliobatiformes, Family Urotrygonidae Urobatis pardalis Del Moral-Flores, Angulo, López & Bussing, 2015 IMub 64
Order Torpediniformes, Family Narcinidae Narcine entemedor Jordan & Starks, 1895 Cua 40, 138, 178
Class Actinopteri, Order Anguilliformes, Family Muraenidae Echidna nocturna (Cope, 1872) Cua 156,178
Order Perciformes, Family Cirrhitidae Oxycirrhites typus Bleeker, 1857 IMu 7
Order Perciformes, Family Gobiidae Chriolepis cuneata Bussing, 1990 CSE 19
Chriolepis cuneata Bussing, 1990 IMua 19
Elacatinus digueti (Pellegrin, 1901) as Elacatious ioornatus in reference 19 IMua 19, 117
Order Perciformes, Family Haemulidae Microlepidotus brevipinnis (Steindachner, 1869) Cua 149
Order Perciformes, Family Labridae Thalassoma lucasanum (Gill, 1862) IMu 146
Order Perciformes, Family Labrisomidae Dialommus fuscus (Gilbert, 1891) IMu 88
Paraclinus monophthalmus (Günther, 1861) BSE 179
Order Perciformes, Family Opistognathidae Opistognathus fossoris Bussing & Lavenberg, 2003 IMua 21
Order Perciformes, Family Trpterygiidae Lepidonectes clarkhubbsi Bussing, 1991 BSEb 20
Lepidonectes clarkhubbsi Bussing, 1991 CSEb 20
Lepidonectes clarkhubbsi Bussing, 1991 IMua, b 20
Orden Syngnathiformes, Family Syngnathidae Bryx veleronis Herald, 1940 IMu 88
Class Reptilia, Order Crocodylia,
Family Crocodylidae
Crocodylus acutus (Cuvier, 1807) MPG 128
Crocodylus acutus (Cuvier, 1807) MPN 140
Order Testudines, Family Cheloniidae Chelonia mydas agassizi Bocourt, 1868 PNa 33, 34, 35, 65, 67, 115
Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829) PNc 1, 10, 25, 33, 35, 36, 3748, 49, 70, 71, 74, 84, 89, 120, 121, 122, 123, 147, 148, 150, 153, 155, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 175, 183, 190, 192, 193, 202
Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829) PNa 1, 34, 35, 65, 66, 67
Order Testudines, Family Dermochelyidae Dermochelys coriacea (Vandelli, 1761) PNa 34, 35, 65
Class Aves, Order Pelecaniformes,
Family Fregatidae
Fregata magnificens Mathews, 1914 IBo 2
Order Pelecaniformes, Family Pelecanidae Pelecanus occidentalis Linnaeus, 1766 PNa 3
Class Mammalia, Order Cetartiodactyla,
InfraOrder Cetacea, SuperFamily Mysticeti,
Family Balaenopteridae
Megaptera novaeangliae Borowski, 1781 SMa 139
SuperFamily Odontoceti, Family Delphinidae Globicephala macrorhynchus Gray, 1846 IMu 145
Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 IMu 145
Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 SMa 139
Stenella attenuata graffmani (Lönnberg, 1934) Cua 145
Senella attenuata graffmani (Lönnberg, 1934) IMu 141, 142, 143, 144
Stenella attenuata (Gray, 1846) SMa 139
Tursiops truncatus Montagu, 1821 SMa 139
SuperFamily Odontoceti, Family Kogiidae Kogia breviceps (de Blainville, 1838) IMu 145
SuperFamily Odontoceti, Family Physeteridae Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus, 1758 as Physeter catodon PSE 177