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The order Zoantharia Rafinesque, 1815 (Cnidaria, Anthozoa: Hexacorallia): supraspecific classification and nomenclature
expand article infoMartyn E.Y. Low§, Frederic Sinniger|, James Davis Reimer§
‡ Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, Singapore, Singapore
§ University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Japan
| University of the Ryukyus, Motobu, Japan
Open Access

Abstract

Many supraspecific zoantharian names have long and complicated histories. The present list is provided to advise researchers on the current state of supraspecific nomenclature of the zoantharians, particularly given the recent attention paid to the taxonomy, phylogeny, and biodiversity of this order. At the same time, several taxonomic issues brought to light by recent research are resolved. Details on the taxonomic and nomenclatural history of most groups are provided, along with appendices of invalid supraspecific names.

Keywords

zoantharians, family-group, genus-group, taxonomy, historical literature

Introduction

The Zoantharia are an order of Hexacorallia most closely related to the sea anemones (Actiniaria) (Kayal et al. 2013). They are found in most marine ecosystems. Despite their cosmopolitan distribution and high frequency in many ecosystems, compared to both Actiniaria and Scleractinia, research on this order has been relatively scant. This is due to both their high levels of intraspecific morphological variation (e.g. Burnett et al. 1997, Reimer et al. 2004, Ong et al. 2013) and the presence of incrustations in their body walls (for all zoantharian families except the Zoanthidae), which makes internal histological examination problematic (Reimer et al. 2010c). Taxonomic identification problems have been compounded by a general lack of utility in some traditionally used diagnostic characters (Sinniger et al. 2010a, Swain 2010). Thus, despite being common in many ecosystems (Karlson 1980), until very recently zoantharian taxonomy has been confused (Burnett et al. 1997).

However, recent molecular phylogenetic examination of zoantharians, combined with a reassessment of their taxonomy and diagnostic characters, has led to the group becoming somewhat ordered (Reimer et al. 2007a, 2008a, Reimer and Fujii 2010, Sinniger et al. 2010a, 2013, Fujii and Reimer 2011, 2013, Swain and Swain 2014; Swain et al. 2015), setting an example for the reorganization of other anthozoan groups. This follows in the footsteps of the database Biogeoinformatics of Hexacorallia (Fautin and Buddemeier 2008), which was established as a repository for taxonomic and nomenclatural information on the Hexacorallia (see also Fautin 2016).

The order Zoantharia (= Zoanthidea or Zoanthiniaria) is currently thought to be comprised of nine families—Abyssoanthidae Reimer & Fujiwara, in Reimer, Sinniger, Fujiwara, Hirano & Maruyama, 2007, Epizoanthidae Delage and Hérouard, 1910, Hydrozoanthidae Sinniger, Reimer & Pawlowski, 2010, Microzoanthidae Fujii & Reimer, 2011, Nanozoanthidae Fujii & Reimer, 2013, Neozoanthidae Herberts, 1972, Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901, Sphenopidae Hertwig, 1882, and Zoanthidae Rafinesque, 1815 (Daly et al. 2007: 143, 144; Hoeksema and Reimer 2013).

There is also a bioinformatics rationale for the compilation of such a taxonomic listing. As electronic name-lists of available and valid names become increasingly accessible, the need to link such lists with nomenclators of names will become an imperative. To this end, listings such as the present one can provide clear linkages between valid names and the huge mass of historical names (most of which are synonyms and some being potentially valid), which will effectively reduce the historical ‘synonymy load’ (Low and Reimer 2012a: 83) and provide a clear list of available supraspecific names of Zoantharia for future researchers.

Additional notes for introductory text

All valid taxa are treated in the systematics section, with the taxon (genus and species) listed. Synonyms are also listed. Justification for these synonymies is given in the sections that follow (Appendices 13). We use the general term “zoantharian” to refer to species within this order, unless when quoting original text in which another term (usually “zoanthid”) was used.

Statistics

A total of 16 family-group names are treated. Nine are considered to be valid, six are synonyms, and one is not referable to the order Zoantharia. A total of 102 names at the genus rank are treated. Of these, 28 names are considered to be valid, 38 to be synonyms, 19 are incorrect spellings, 18 are not referable to the order Zoantharia, and two—Stephanidium Hertwig, 1888, and Triga Gray, 1867—are of uncertain placement and validity (see Table 1).

Systematics

Cnidaria Hatschek, 1888

Cnidaria Hatschek, 1888 (in 1888–1891): 40.

Remarks

See discussion on the nomenclature of the phylum in Fautin and Daly (2009: 315).

Anthozoa Ehrenberg, 1831

Anthozoa Ehrenberg, 1831: 44.

Hexacorallia Haeckel, 1896

Zoantharia de Blainville, 1830: 274.

Hexacorallia Haeckel, 1896: 217.

Zoantharia Rafinesque, 1815

Zoanthia Rafinesque, 1815: 155.

Zoantharia Gray, 1832: 94.

Zoanthiniaria van Beneden, 1897: 150.

Zoanthidea Bourne, 1900: 58.

Diagnosis

Anthozoans with body walls usually incrusted with sand and/or other detritus (except for the family Zoanthidae), tentacles always arranged in two rows or cycles. Majority of species are colonial.

Remarks

Herein, we choose to use the name Zoantharia Rafinesque, 1815. Although Zoantharia Rafinesque, 1815, has identical spelling with the supraordinal name Zoantharia de Blainville, 1830, the latter name has fallen from common use—Hexacorallia Haeckel, 1896, being favoured. Furthermore, using the name Zoanthidea Bourne, 1900, can potentially cause confusion when used in the non-technical form “zoanthids” to denote members of the order, as it would be identical with the term “zoanthids” to denote members of the family Zoanthidae Rafinesque, 1815.

Brachycnemina Haddon & Shackleton, 1891

Brachycneminae Haddon & Shackleton, 1891a: 626.

Diagnosis

Zoantharians with the fifth mesenteries from the dorsal directive being incomplete.

Remarks

—Recent molecular phylogenetic research indicates the two suborders of Zoantharia may not be monophyletics (e.g. Fujii and Reimer 2013). Three families are currently assigned to Brachycnemina Haddon & Shackleton, 1891.

Neozoanthidae Herberts, 1972

Neozoanthidae Herberts, 1972: 137.

Type genus

Neozoanthus Herberts, 1972.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

Zooxanthellate, brachycnemic zoantharians with only partial incrustation in ectoderm, rarely extending to mesoglea, no incrustation around the top, oral ends of polyps (Herberts 1972).

Remarks

A monogeneric and monospecific family-group. This taxon was originally defined as “Zoanthaires à arrangement mésentérique de type brachycnémique et à sphincter endodermique” (Herberts 1972: 137). However, recent work has further divided zoantharian sphincter muscles into ten different basic types; that of Neozoanthidae is discontiguous endodermal (Swain et al. 2015). Thus, the above diagnosis has been slightly modified from that of Herberts’ (1972).

Recent molecular phylogenetic work calls into the question the validity of this family, as molecular data derived from Neozoanthus specimens cluster within the Zoanthidae radiation (Reimer et al. 2011a). Incrustation does not extend to mesoglea and is only found in the ectoderm. The families Neozoanthidae and Zoanthidae are not synonymised herein, as the Neozoanthidae also has some phylogenetic relation with the Hydrozoanthidae and the relationships between these families will require additional research (Reimer et al. 2011a).

Neozoanthus Herberts, 1972

Neozoanthus Herberts, 1972: 137.

Type species

Neozoanthus tulearensis Herberts, 1972, by monotypy.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

As for family above.

Remarks

Molecular phylogenetic results (Reimer et al. 2011a) indicate that this genus appears to be very closely related to the genus Isaurus Gray, 1828 (a genus assigned to the family Zoanthidae). Three species included in this group are from the Indo-Pacific.

Sphenopidae Hertwig, 1882

Palythoidae (as “Palythoae”) Duchassaing de Fonbressin and Michelotti, 1860: 37.

Sphenopidae Hertwig, 1882: 120.

Type genus

Sphenopus Steenstrup, 1856.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

Brachycnemic zoantharians with sand/detritus incrustation in the ectoderm and mesoglea.

Remarks

The family-group name Sphenopidae Hertwig, 1882, is currently threatened by the senior subjective synonym Palythoidae Duchassaing de Fonbressin and Michelotti, 1860. To maintain widespread and current usage of the former name, and in accordance with Article 23.9.2 (ICZN 1999: 28, 29), an application is being prepared to request the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature to suppress the senior subjective synonym Palythoidae Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, in favour of Sphenopidae Hertwig, 1882. See additional discussion in Appendix 3.

The family-group Sphenopidae was established by Hertwig (1882), with the inclusion of only the type genus, Sphenopus Steenstrup, 1856. Two genera are currently assigned to Sphenopidae Hertwig, 1882.

Sphenopus Steenstrup, 1856

Sphenopus Steenstrup, 1856: 37.

Type species

Sabella marsupialis Gmelin, 1791, by monotypy.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

Unitary (=solitary, non-colonial) brachycnemic zoantharians with sand/detritus incrustation in the ectoderm and mesoglea.

Remarks

Distinct, large unitary polyps found embedded in sandy habitats with the oral disc clear of, and not attached to substrate (Soong et al. 1999, Reimer et al. 2012b, 2015b). Recent molecular work has also indicated that this this genus-group may form a clade with some Palythoa spp. (Reimer et al. 2012b, Fujii and Reimer 2016).

Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816

Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816: 359.

Corticifera Le Sueur, 1817: 178.

Polythoa Schweigger, 1819: 100 [incorrect spelling].

Polythea Gistel, 1848: 181 [incorrect spelling].

Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin and Michelotti, 1860: 55.

Polythoa (Corticithoa) Andres, 1883a: 521, 535–538.

Polythoa (Gemmithoa) Andres, 1883a: 521, 532, 533.

Parapalythoa Verrill, 1900: 560.

Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900: 562.

Haplotella Stechow, 1919: 853.

Type species

Palythoe [sic] stellata Lamouroux, 1816 [= Alcyonium mammillosum Ellis, in Ellis & Solander, 1786], by subsequent designation by Haddon and Shackleton (1891b: 691) (see also discussion in Appendix 3).

Gender

Feminine.

Diagnosis

Colonial brachycnemic zoantharians with sand/detritus incrustation in the ectoderm and mesoglea. Currently, all species except for two described are zooxanthellate (Irei et al. 2015).

Remarks

Specimens examined with a sphincter muscle of linear mesogleal type (Swain et al. 2015).

Protopalythoa was originally separated from Palythoa based on primarily polyp shape. Pax (1910) recommended merging Palythoa and Protopalythoa, and he defined three groups; “immersae”, “intermediae” and “liberae”, which have no taxonomic rank (see Ryland and Lancaster 2003). In 1923, Carlgren adopted this inclusive nomenclature. Similarly, Burnett et al. (1997) discussed the need to merge these genera but retained Protopalythoa. Ryland and Lancaster (2003) also discussed this issue and argued to keep Protopalythoa citing additional characters (zooxanthellate eggs in Protopalythoa; afterwards potentially observed in Palythoa spp. (Shiroma et al. 2010)). Herein, based on the several recent molecular studies (Sinniger et al. 2005, Reimer et al. 2006, 2007b, 2012a), we formally synonymise Palythoa and Protopalythoa, with Palythoa having priority.

Although at least 272 species-group names have been established in the genera Palythoa and Protopalythoa in the literature (see Fautin and Buddemeier 2008), with more research, these species-group names will likely be found to be synonyms—the result of high level of intraspecific morphological variation (see Burnett et al. 1994, Reimer et al. 2006, Hibino et al. 2014).

Zoanthidae Rafinesque, 1815

Zoanthidae (as “Zoanthia”) Rafinesque, 1815: 155.

Zoanthidae Gray, 1832: 95.

Type genus

Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801.

Diagnosis

Brachycnemic zoantharians with no or little sand/detritus encrustation. Continuous or divided marginal muscle, and zoanthinae larvae (Ryland and Lancaster 2003).

Remarks

All members of this family are zooxanthellate (with endosymbiotic Symbiodinium spp.), and are found in sub-tropical and tropical waters. Authorship of the family-group name Zoanthidae should be attributed to Rafinesque (1815), and not Gray (1832, 1840) (see Low and Reimer 2012a). Three genera are currently assigned to Zoanthidae Rafinesque, 1815.

Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801

Zoanthus Cuvier, 1800: tables 9–10 [nomen nudum].

Zoanthus (as “Zoantha”) Lamarck, 1801: 363.

Mammillifera Le Sueuer, 1817: 177.

Actimastus Rafinesque, 1818: 271 [unnecessary replacement name]

Mamillifera Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: 169 [incorrect spelling]

Anthozoon Gistel, 1848: 181 [unnecessary replacement name]

Mammilifera Gistel, 1848: 181[incorrect spelling]

Polythoa (Mammithoa) Andres, 1883a: 521.

Polythoa (Mammothoa) Andres, 1883a: 533 [incorrect spelling].

Zoanthus (Rhyzanthus) Andres, 1883a: 538.

Type species

Actinia sociata Ellis, 1768, by monotypy.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

Zooxanthellate, absence of mineral incrustations in the column/coenenchyme (excluding superficial surface attachments) brachycnemic zoantharians with smooth, usually erect polyps—except in Zoanthus praelongus Carlgren, 1954 (see discussion below)—with no endodermal invaginations. Mesogleal sphincter muscle with clear distal and proximal sections, mesogleal canal system but no encircling sinus (Duerden 1898, Swain and Swain 2014).

Remarks

Species of the genus Zoanthus and Acrozoanthus have a double sphincter muscle, which is unique among zoantharians. Referred to in Swain et al. (2015) as discontiguous mesogleal type.

Despite over 150 species having been described in or assigned to this genus (see Fautin and Buddemeier 2008), many of the species-group names are likely to be synonyms—due to the high level of intraspecific morphological variation (see Burnett et al. 1995, 1997, Reimer et al. 2004). One species, Zoanthus praelongus Carlgren, 1954, has recumbent (non-erect) polyps (as in the genus Isaurus) but is clearly referable to Zoanthus (see Carlgren 1954, Muirhead and Ryland 1985, Reimer et al. 2008b).

Acrozoanthus Saville-Kent, 1893

Acrozoanthus Saville-Kent, 1893: 153, 154.

Type species

Acrozoanthus australiae Saville-Kent, 1893, by monotypy.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

Zooxanthellate, absence of mineral incrustations in the column/coenenchyme (excluding superficial surface attachments) brachycnemic zoantharians inhabiting the outside of eunicid worms, with a ‘budding’ method of asexual reproduction (Reimer et al. 2011b).

Remarks

Specimens examined with a discontiguous mesogleal sphincter muscle (Swain et al. 2015).

The genus Acrozoanthus has a long and complicated taxonomic history. Reimer et al. (2011b) discussed that “despite its very similar appearance, Acrozoanthus australiae was placed into a genus separate from Zoanthus due to the presence of an axial skeleton (Saville-Kent 1893). Later it was shown that this skeleton was in fact a result of habitat preference as Acrozoanthus inhabits the outside of eunicid worm tubes, and the genus was subsequently merged back again into the genus Zoanthus (Haddon 1895). Subsequent to its original description, this species was not mentioned in literature again until its rediscovery by Ryland (1997), based on examination of a single specimen. Further work by Ryland and co-workers described the nematocysts of Acrozoanthus australiae (Ryland et al. 2004) and also an unusual ‘budding’ method of asexual reproduction (Ryland 1997), which was theorized to potentially confirm the placement of this species in its own genus”.

Molecular phylogenetic data indicate that Acrozoanthus is within the Zoanthus (see Reimer et al. 2011b) monophyly. However, due to a need for more detailed investigations, we refrain from synonymising Acrozoanthus with Zoanthus.

Isaurus Gray, 1828

Isaura Lamouroux, in Audouin, Bourdon, de Candolle, d’Aubebard de Férussac, Deshayes, Deslongchamps, É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Guérin, Guillemin, de Jussieu, Kunth, Delafosse, Lamouroux, Latreille, Prévost, Richard and Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1826: 23 [nomen oblitum].

Isaurus Gray, 1828: 8 [nomen protectum]

Isaura Agassiz, 1845: 14 [unjustified emendation].

Antinedia Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1866: 136.

Pales Gray, 1867: 8.

Panceria Andres, 1877: 221–226.

Polythoa (Monothoa) Andres, 1883a: 521.

Zoanthus (Monanthus) Andres, 1883a: 538, 549, 541, 543.

Isaua Volpi & Benvenuti, 2003: 72 [incorrect spelling].

Type species

Isaurus tuberculatus Gray, 1828, by monotypy.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

Zooxanthellate, absence of mineral incrustations in the column/coenenchyme (excluding superficial surface attachments) brachycnemic zoantharians with recumbent (non-erect) polyps. Often have tubercules (raised bumps = endodermal invagination) on the outer surface of polyps, except in Isaurus maculatus Muirhead & Ryland, 1985, which has a smooth polyp surface.

Remarks

Specimens examined with an orthogonally-reticulate mesogleal sphincter muscle (Swain et al. 2015).

Ryland and Lancaster (2003) recognised only three valid species in this genus, although 22 species have been described in or assigned to this genus.

Macrocnemina Haddon & Shackleton, 1891

Macrocneminae Haddon & Shackleton, 1891a: 626.

Diagnosis

Zoantharians with the fifth mesenteries from the dorsal directive being complete.

Remarks

As stated above, the two suborders of Zoantharia appear not to be monophyletic (Sinniger et al. 2005). Three families are currently assigned to Macrocnemina Haddon & Shackleton, 1891.

Epizoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901

Mardoellidae Danielssen, 1890: 116, 117 [nomen oblitum].

Epizoanthinae Delage & Hérouard, 1901: 664 [nomen protectum].

Type genus

Epizoanthus Gray, 1867.

Diagnosis

Macrocnemic zoantharians with a simple mesogleal muscle (Sinniger and Häussermann 2009: 26).

Remarks

The family-group Epizoanthidae (as “Epizoanthinae”) was established by Delage and Hérouard (1901: 664, 665) as monotypic, with the inclusion of only the type genus. Three genera are currently assigned to Epizoanthidae.

Recent molecular and morphological studies (e.g. Swain et al. 2015) suggest that this diagnosis should be revised following a complete revision of the suborder. Currently, molecular signatures such as those suggested in Sinniger et al. (2008) and in Sinniger et al. (2013) appear efficient to distinguish macrocnemic genera.

Epizoanthus Gray, 1867

Sidisia Gray, 1858: 489 [suppressed in Opinion 1689, ICZN 1992].

Epizoanthus Gray, 1867: 237 [conserved in Opinion 1689, ICZN 1992].

Carolia Gray, 1867: 239 [invalid name, junior homonym].

Polythoa (Endeithoa) Andres, 1883a: 521, 531.

Verrillia Andres, 1883a: 520, 545.

Zoanthus (Corticanthus) Andres, 1883a: 538, 541.

Mardoell Danielssen, 1890: 117–126.

Marodellia Blanchard, 1893: 130 [unjustified emendation]

Mardoella Bell, 1906: 762 [incorrect spelling].

Lirrevia Delphy, 1939: 270.

Type species

Dysidea papillosa Johnston, 1842, by monotypy (see also Opinion 1689, ICZN 1992).

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

As for family but readily distinguishable from Palaeozoanthus by the presence of non-fertile micromesenteries (Sinniger and Häussermann 2009: 26).

Remarks

Most species with reticulate mesogleal muscle, E. illoricatus Tischbierek, 1930 with simplified mesogleal sphincter muscle (Swain et al. 2015).

As discussed in Sinniger and Häussermann (2009: 26), this genus is characterised by the “[p]olyps usually strongly encrusted with sand particles. Species found on rocky substrata or gastropod shells often inhabited by pagurids; some cases of free-living species reported (E. lindhali, E. vagus). In colonial species, polyps linked by stolons or, in pagurid-associated species, by a continuous coenenchyme. No symbioses with Symbiodinium zooxanthellae”.

Palaeozoanthus Carlgren, 1924

Palaeozoanthus Carlgren, 1924: 470–473.

Type species

Paleozoanthus reticulatus Carlgren, 1924, by original description and monotypy.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

Macrocnemic zoantharians with a simple mesogleal muscle, and fertile micromesenteries.

Remarks

This genus is monospecific, and is comprised of the type species Paleozoanthus reticulatus, which has not been encountered since it was first described. Due to similarities in sphincter muscles (Swain et al. 2015) further studies are needed to determine if this genus corresponds to Terrazoanthus.

Thoracactis Gravier, 1918

Thoracactis Gravier, 1918: 12.

Thoracactus Walsh, 1967: 49 [unjustified emendation and junior objective synonym].

Toracactis Herberts, 1972: 80 [incorrect spelling].

Type species

Thoracactis topsenti Gravier, 1918, by monotypy.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

Rudimentary sphincter muscles, azooxanthellate, with no mesogleal channels or lacunae, found on hexactinellid sponges.

Remarks

This is a monospecific genus comprised of only the type species Thoracactis topsenti. In describing Thoracactis topsenti, Gravier (1918) incorrectly identified it as an actinian (anemone) based on the lack of zooxanthellae, channels, gaps, or cell islets. Although currently placed in the family Epizoanthidae, based on the current understanding of the type species, this genus is referable to the family Parazoanthidae, although an examination of the type material will be necessary to confirm this (see Reimer et al. 2010a: 158).

Hydrozoanthidae Sinniger, Reimer & Pawlowski, 2010

Hydrozoanthidae Sinniger, Reimer & Pawlowski, 2010: 60.

Type genus

Hydrozoanthus Sinniger, Reimer & Pawlowski, 2010.

Diagnosis

“This family is erected to group former Parazoanthidae species sharing specific insertions and deletions in mt-16S rDNA, especially in the V5 region (as defined in Sinniger et al. 2005) of this gene” and “Phylogenetically, species in this family are more closely related to brachycnemic zoanthids (especially from the genus Palythoa) than to other parazoanthids.” (Sinniger et al. 2010a: 61).

Remarks

“This family groups several tropical and sub-tropical macrocnemic zoanthids; including species associated with hydrozoans and also several other non-hydrozoan associated species.” (Sinniger et al. 2010a: 61). This family is currently comprised of two genera— Hydrozoanthus Sinniger, Reimer & Pawlowski, 2010, and Terrazoanthus Reimer & Fujii, 2010.

Hydrozoanthus Sinniger, Reimer & Pawlowski, 2010

Hydrozoanthus Sinniger, Reimer & Pawlowski, 2010: 60.

Type species

Parazoanthus tunicans Duerden, 1900, by original designation.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

A hydrozoanthid associated with hydrozoans.

Remarks

Examined species with branchiform endodermal sphincter muscle (Swain et al. 2015).

Terrazoanthus Reimer & Fujii, 2010

Terrazoanthus Reimer & Fujii, 2010: 20.

Type species

Terrazoanthus onoi Reimer & Fujii, 2010, by original designation.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

This genus is characterised by being a member of the Hydrozoanthidae that is found on rocky substrates (as opposed to being obligate symbionts with hydrozoans). Some species in this genus are also brightly coloured (see Reimer and Fujii 2010: 20).

Remarks

Sphincter muscle transitional, with distal half mesogleal and proximal half endodermal, with encrustations to endodermal surface of mesoglea (Swain and Swain 2014) (=meso-endo transitional [Swain et al. 2015]), although T. minutus (Duerden, 1898) has a simplified mesogleal sphincter muscle (Swain et al. 2015).

Described species currently referable to the genus Terrazoanthus are mainly from the East Pacific, with T. minutus from the Caribbean, and it is likely that several more undescribed species exist in the Atlantic (see Reimer et al. 2010a, 2012a) and in the Central Indo-Pacific region (Reimer et al. 2014b).

The diagnosis of Terrazoanthus is in need of revision with the placement of T. patagonichus (Carlgren, 1898) into this genus by Swain et al. (2015) as this species is associated with hydroids (McMurrich 1904).

Microzoanthidae Fujii & Reimer, 2011

Microzoanthidae Fujii & Reimer, 2011: 420, 421.

Type genus

Microzoanthus Fujii and Reimer, 2011.

Diagnosis

As discussed in Fujii and Reimer (2011: 421), this family is characterised by “[c]olonies attached to bottom side (downward facing side) of dead coral rubble, asperous stones, inside narrow cracks, or occasionally on dead coral rubble on muddy seafloor. Azooxanthellate, macrocnemic. Polyps connected by narrow stolon or solitary. Sand particles encrusted in column. Irregularly sized sand particles encrusted into ectoderm. Tentacles two to three times as long as expanded oral disc diameter. Edge of oral disc shaped in regular, repeating zig-zagged pattern”.

Remarks

This is a monotypic family and comprises only the genus Microzoanthus Fujii & Reimer, 2011, with two species.

Microzoanthus Fujii & Reimer, 2011

Microzoanthus Fujii & Reimer, 2011: 420, 421.

Type species

Microzoanthus occultus Fujii & Reimer, 2011, by original designation.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

As for family (Fujii and Reimer 2011). Encircling sinus present just beneath ectodermal surface (Swain and Swain 2014).

Remarks

Examined specimens with spindly-cteniform endodermal sphincter muscle (Swain et al. 2015).

Currently two species, reported only from the Pacific Ocean (Fujii and Reimer 2013) and the Red Sea (Reimer et al. 2014c).

Nanozoanthidae Fujii & Reimer, 2013

Nanozoanthidae Fujii & Reimer, 2013: 512.

Type genus

Nanozoanthus Fujii & Reimer, 2013.

Diagnosis

“Well developed polyps connected by narrow stolon. Mineral particles encrusted in column from aboral end to the edge of the oral disc. Irregularly sized sand particles encrusted into ectoderm and slightly into mesoglea. Zig-zagged, white-colored pattern following outside edge of oral disc. Macrocnemic mesenterial arrangement. Sphincter muscle mesogleal. No lacunae or ring sinus. Zooxanthellate. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I and 16S ribosomal DNA sequences significantly differ from all other known zoanthid genera (Fig. 1, 2).” (Fujii and Reimer 2013).

Remarks

A monogeneric family. Molecular data position this family in an intermediate position between the Brachycnemina and Macrocnemina, although currently it is placed within Macrocnemina (Fujii and Reimer 2013).

Nanozoanthus Fujii & Reimer, 2013

Nanozoanthus Fujii & Reimer, 2013: 512–515.

Type species

Nanozoanthus harenaceus Fujii & Reimer, 2013, by original designation.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

As for family above.

Remarks

This is a monospecific genus currently, with specimens reported from southern Japan, Western Australia, and the Red Sea (Reimer et al. 2015a). However, molecular data indicate that the European species Isozoanthus sulcatus (Gosse, 1859) likely also belongs to this genus (Fujii and Reimer 2013).

Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901

Savaliidae (as “Savalini”) Nardo, 1844: 433.

Bergidae Verrill, 1865a: 147 [nomen oblitum].

Gerardidae Verrill, 1865a: 148.

Savagliidae Brook, 1889: 51, 74, 79.

Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901: 665 [nomen protectum].

Savaliidae Poche, 1914: 104.

Heterozoanthidae Pax & Müller, 1956: 3.

Type genus

Parazoanthus Haddon & Shackleton, 1891.

Diagnosis

As discussed in Sinniger and Häussermann (2009: 28), this family “[…] traditionally groups macrocnemic zoanthids possessing an endodermal sphincter. Member species are frequently associated with other organisms, which are used as substrata”. Excludes species that form monophyly with Brachycnemina (Sinniger et al. 2010a).

Remarks

Precedence of Bergiidae Verrill, 1865, and Bergia Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, and respectively Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901, and Parazoathus Haddon & Shackleton, 1891a, was reversed in Low and Reimer (2011a). In accordance with Article 23.9.2 (ICZN 1999: 28, 29), an application is being prepared to request that the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature suppress the senior subjective synonyms Savaliidae Nardo, 1844, Gerardiidae Verrill, 1865, and Savagliidae Brook, 1889, in favour of Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901, to maintain current and widespread usage. See additional discussion in Appendix 3.

In addition to the type genus, Parazoanthus Haddon & Shackelton, 1891, twelve other valid genera are currently assigned to the family Parazoanthidae: Antipathozoanthus Sinniger, Reimer & Pawlowski, 2010, Bergia Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, Bullagummizoanthus Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013, Corallizoanthus Reimer, in Reimer, Nonaka, Sinniger & Iwase, 2008, Hurlizoanthus Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013, Isozoanthus Carlgren, in Chun, 1903, Kauluzoanthus Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013, Kulamanamana Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013, Mesozoanthus Sinniger & Häussermann, 2009, Savalia Nardo, 1844, Umimayanthus Montenegro, Sinniger & Reimer, 2015, and Zibrowius Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013.

Parazoanthus Haddon & Shackelton, 1891

Heterozoanthus Verrill, 1870: 371 [nomen oblitum].

Parazoanthus Haddon & Shackleton, 1891a: 653, 654 [nomen protectum].

Type species

Palythoa axinella Schmidt, 1862, by original designation.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

Originally described as well-developed canal system in the mesoglea of the column, forming a ring sinus. Zoantharians often associated with sponges but not Hydrozoa, lacking skeletal secretion (Sinniger et al. 2010a). Examined species with endodermal sphincter muscle (=branchiform endodermal muscle [Swain et al. 2015]), encrustations reaching to endodermal surface of mesoglea (Swain and Swain 2014).

Remarks

“The original morphological description of Parazoanthus mentions several characteristics such as diffuse endodermal sphincter, encircling sinus, endodermal canals, lacunae and cell-islets in the mesoglea, continuous ectoderm and bodywall incrusted with mineral particles, often with numerous sponge spicules present in the incrustations. As shown in Sinniger et al. (2005) and here, these morphological characteristics alone do not ascertain the monophyly of Parazoanthus. Morphological characteristics in zoanthids can often become artifactual due to both complications encountered in making thin cuttings of heavily sediment incrusted polyps, and in interpreting the results of such sections. In the past, the large majority of epizoic macrocnemic zoanthids were described as belonging to Parazoanthus despite clearly different ecologies in many cases.

Thus, the results of this study strongly suggest that only zoanthid species able to associate with sponges should remain in Parazoanthus, as the type species of this genus, P. axinellae from the Mediterranean Sea, is regularly associated with demosponges.” (Sinniger et al. 2010a: 69).

There is a need for a new diagnosis of this genus-grouping. With the recent erection of Umimayanthus Montenegro, Sinniger and Reimer, 2015 and the resurrection of Bergia Duchassaing de Fonbressin and Michelotti, 1860 in Montenegro et al. (2015a), the genus Parazoanthus now consists only of the former phylogenetic grouping of Parazoanthus ‘clade C’ sensu Sinniger et al. (2010a) and is monophyletic (Montenegro et al. 2015a: 71). Parazoanthus can be distinguished from Bergia and Umimayanthus by 16S-rDNA sequences, lacking the unique 60 bp deletion of Bergia and the unique insertion and deletion of Umimayanthus. Thus, the molecular characters described in Sinniger et al. (2008, 2013) appear to be efficient in identifying to genus level and could be used as diagnostic characters.

Antipathozoanthus Sinniger, Reimer & Pawlowski, 2010

Antipathozoanthus Sinniger, Reimer & Pawlowski, 2010: 61.

Type species

Gerardia macaronesicus Ocaña & Brito, 2003, by original designation.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

Sinniger et al. (2010a: 63) originally diagnosed this genus as a group that “grows exclusively on antipatharians” and lacking skeletal secretion.

Remarks

No mesogleal canals or sinus, encrustation to outer mesoglea (Swain and Swain 2014), examined species with either branchiform endodermal or endo-meso transitional sphincter muscle (Swain et al. 2015).

Sinniger et al. (2010a: 63) discussed that “[t]he type species A. macaronesicus was originally included in the description of Savalia (Gerardia) macaronesica (Ocaña and Brito 2003), and later the description was amended and the authors suggested the possible placement of this species in a separate genus (Ocaña et al. 2007). The species name was accorded to the genus gender. Skeletal secretion (similar to Savalia spp.) was advanced by Ocaña and Brito (2003) as occurring in Antipathozoanthus macaronesicus, and this remains to be studied in detail in order to assess whether this is an isolated characteristic or if it is taxonomically informative at genus level.”

It also appears at least one member of this genus can be found on gorgonian octocorals (Bo et al. 2012).

Bergia Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860

Bergia Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860: 54.

Type species

Bergia catenularis Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, by subsequent designation by Duerden (1903: 496).

Gender

Feminine.

Diagnosis

“… can be distinguished from all other zoantharians including Parazoanthus spp., Umimayanthus spp. and Epizoanthus spp. by a unique deletion of 60 bp (from position 133 to 192 in our alignment) and several consecutive base substitutions in the 16S-rDNA region. These characters clearly separate this genus from all other genera inside the family Parazoanthidae, as well as from the genus Epizoanthus” (Montenegro et al. 2015a: 68).

Remarks

Long considered to be a junior subjective synonym of Parazoanthus Haddon & Shackelton, 1891, recent molecular and morphological work by Montenegro et al. (2015a) have shown that the type species, Bergia catenularis Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, represents a generic-level monophyly and resurrected the genus-group name Bergia Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, for this grouping.

This genus-grouping currently contains three species all found in the Atlantic Ocean, although there is evidence of undescribed species in the Pacific Ocean (Montenegro et al. 2015a: 68).

Examined species in this genus-grouping have either branchiform endodermal or simplified mesogleal sphincter muscles (Swain et al. 2015).

Bullagummizoanthus Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013

Bullagummizoanthus Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013: [9].

Type species

Bullagummizoathus emilyacadiaarum Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013, by original designation.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

Characteristic insertion/deletion pattern in the 16S V5 region sensu Sinniger et al. (2005) (Sinniger et al. 2013).

Remarks

Monospecific deep-sea genus, appears to be specifically epibiotic on paragorgiid octocorals, and described from and only reported from the Hawaiian Archipelago, although likely present throughout the Pacific (Sinniger et al. 2013).

Corallizoanthus Reimer, in Reimer, Nonaka, Sinniger & Iwase, 2008

Corallizoanthus Reimer, in Reimer, Nonaka, Sinniger & Iwase, 2008: 940.

Type species

Corallizoanthus tsukaharai Reimer, in Reimer, Nonaka, Sinniger & Iwase, 2008, by monotypy.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

Characterised by its association with living precious corals (Alcyonacea: Coralliidae), and unlike the gorgonian-associated genus Savalia, does not secrete its own scleroproteinous axis. Additionally, polyps are primarily but not always unitary (solitary; non-colonial) (see Reimer et al. 2008a: 940). Encrustations to center of mesoglea, sphincter muscle is cyclically transitional (Swain and Swain 2014, Swain et al. 2015).

Remarks

A monospecific genus thus far only reported from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

Hurlizoanthus Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013

Hurlizoanthus Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013: [7].

Type species

Hurlizoanthus parrishi Sinniger, Ocaña and Baco, 2013, by original designation.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

Macrocnemic genus associated with primnoids. Characteristic insertion/deletion pattern in the 16S V5 region sensu Sinniger et al. (2005) (Sinniger et al. 2013).

Remarks

Currently this deep-sea genus includes only one species, known from a few locations in the Hawaiian Archipelago (Sinniger et al. 2013).

Isozoanthus Carlgren, in Chun, 1903

Polythoa (Taeniothoa) Andres, 1883a: 521, 532 [nomen oblitum].

Isozoanthus Carlgren, in Chun, 1903: 520 [nomen protectum].

Type species

Isozoanthus giganteus Carlgren, in Chun, 1903, by monotypy (Articles 68.3, 68.3.1, ICZN, 1999: 71).

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

Macrocnemic zoanthids with a marginal endodermal sphincter muscle (=cteniform endodermal [Swain et al. 2015]) and inconspicouous mesogleal ring-sinus.

Remarks

The genus Isozoanthus was first made available in Carlgren (in Chun 1903: 520). The type species by monotypy is Isozoanthus giganteus (first very briefly diagnosed and figured by Carlgren (in Chun 1903: 520, unnumbered fig.). Carlgren’s (in Nordgaard 1905: 159) use of “Isozoanthus (Epizoanthus) arborescens” and subsequent designation (i.e. Carlgren 1913: 39) of Epizoanthus arborescens (Danielssen, 1890) as type species are thus invalid (Article 67.2, ICZN 1999: 66, 67) (see also Williams 2000: 195).

The status of this genus is currently very confused. With the utility of the characters of the sphincter muscle in zoantharians in question (see Swain 2010, Sinniger et al. 2010a), it is clear that more research is needed to clarify the diagnosis and taxonomic position of Isozoanthus. The taxonomy is further complicated by the recently described species (the hydroid-associated Hydrozoanthus antumbrosus (Swain, 2009) originally described within Isozoanthus), and the octocoral-associated Isozoanthus primonodius Carreiro-Silva, Braga-Henriques, Sampaio, de Matos, Porteiro & Ocaña, 2010) clearly belong to other genera based on ecology and morphology. Furthermore, only limited molecular data is available for the type species Isozoanthus giganteus. Data in Swain (2010) indicate that Isozoanthus giganteus is highly divergent from both the well-researched species of IsozoanthusIsozoanthus sulcatus (Gosse, 1859)—and all known zoantharians. Recent work by Fujii and Reimer (2013) shows that I. sulcatus is likely within the Nanazoanthidae Fujii & Reimer, 2013. However, as additional information on Isozoanthus giganteus is lacking, the diagnosis is retained with the caveat that any assignment of species to this genus should include: 1) phylogenetic confirmation of a close relationship with Isozoanthus giganteus; and 2) the elimination of any possibility that the species in question does not belong to another parazoanthid genera based on morphology, ecological associations, and/or habitat.

Kauluzoanthus Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013

Kauluzoanthus Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013: [8].

Type species

Kauluzoanthus kerbyi Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013, by original designation.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

Polyps do not contract when fixed. Characteristic insertion/deletion pattern in the 16S V5 region sensu Sinniger et al. (2005) (Sinniger et al. 2013).

Remarks

Currently this genus comprises only one species, which was reported as parasitic on Kulamanana haumeaae.

Kulamanamana Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013

Kulamanamana Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013: 4.

Type species

Kulamanamana haumaeaae Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013, by original designation.

Gender

Feminine.

Diagnosis

Macrocnemic genus associated with octocorals and secreting a golden to dark brown scleroproteic skeleton. Ectoderm absent of mineral particles, with well-developed coenenchyme completely covering the host. Characteristic insertion/deletion pattern in the 16S V5 region sensu Sinniger et al. (2005) (Sinniger et al. 2013).

Remarks

The type species has been reported to live primarily on isidid corals (bamboo corals) (Sinniger et al. 2013: 6). Reported from the Hawaiian Archipelago, Line and Jarvis Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Kingman Reef, all in the Pacific (Sinniger et al. 2013).

Mesozoanthus Sinniger & Häussermann, 2009

Mesozoanthus Sinniger & Häussermann, 2009: 31, 32.

Type species

Mesozoanthus fossii Sinniger & Häussermann, 2009, by original designation and monotypy.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

“Macrocnemic with Parazoanthus-like growth-form. Well-developed polyps with long and pointed tentacles; polyps form clusters linked by a basal coenenchyme. DNA sequences significantly differ from those in other genera...” and “In contrast to Parazoanthus, members of Mesozoanthus usually occur in small patches and are not known to colonise demosponges. No symbioses with Symbiodinium zooxanthellae.” (Sinniger and Häussermann 2009: 32).

Remarks

Only two species of this genus are known, from temperate waters along the west coast of the Americas.

Savalia Nardo, 1844

Savalia Nardo, 1844: 433, 434.

Savaglia Nardo, 1877: 674–676 [unjustified emendation].

Gerardia Lacaze-Duthiers, 1864a: 87.

Type species

Gorgonia savaglia Bertolini, 1819, by monotypy (Articles 68.3, 68.3.1, ICZN 1999: 71).

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

No mesogleal canal system in the column. Secreting a black or dark brown horny skeleton, azooxanthellate.

Remarks

Examined species in this genus-grouping have branchiform endodermal or cyclical transitional sphincter muscle (Swain et al. 2015). Distinction from the other skeleton-secreting zoantharians such as Kulamanamana or potentially Antipathozoanthus can be made through habitat (shallow vs. deep-sea) and/or molecular signatures.

There has been historical and recent controversy over the correct name for this genus-group, and this is discussed in detail in Appendix 3.

Umimayanthus Montenegro, Sinniger & Reimer, 2015

Umimayanthus Montenegro, Sinniger & Reimer, 2015: 76.

Type species

Umimayanthus chanpuru Montenegro, Sinniger & Reimer, 2015, by original designation.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

“…can be distinguished from all zoantharians including Parazoanthus spp. by a highly conservative and unique insertion of 9 bp in length (from position 556 to 564 in alignment) and one deletion of 14 bp long (from position 574 to 587) in the mt 16S-rDNA region” (Montenegro et al. 2015b: 76).

Remarks

Specimens examined from this genus-grouping have a branchiform endodermal sphincter muscle (Swain et al. 2015).

“…exclusively associated with sponges, usually encrusting and cushion sponges, occasionally with massive sponges. Polyps generally scattered over the sponge surface, but can form defined stoloniferous chains in lines, or form groups of two to three connected polyps. Polyps may be solitary or connected to each other by a stolon through a thin but clearly visible coenenchyme either over or under the sponge surface. Polyps with sand particles and detritus incrusted in column. Tentacles equal or longer than the expanded oral disc diameter.” (Montenegro et al. 2015b: 76).

This genus-group currently includes four described species; three in the Indo-Pacific and one in the Atlantic (Montenegro et al. 2015b).

Zibrowius Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013

Zibrowius Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013: [7].

Type species

Zibrowius ammophilus Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013, by original designation.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

“Sand incrusted, arborescent fan shaped colonies, golden skeleton, well developed coenenchyme completely covering the host, can be confused with Kulamanamana, but easily distinguished by the presence of sand incrustation in the ectoderm, characteristic insertion/deletion pattern in the 16S V5 region” sensu Sinniger et al. [2005] (Sinniger et al. 2013: 7)

Remarks

Until now, only reported from the Cross Seamount in the central Pacific Ocean.

Suborder incerta sedis

Remarks. Two families are currently not assigned to any suborder.

Abyssoanthidae Reimer & Fujiwara, in Reimer, Sinniger, Fujiwara, Hirano & Maruyama, 2007

Abyssoanthidae Reimer & Fujiwara, in Reimer, Sinniger, Fujiwara, Hirano & Maruyama, 2007: 258.

Type genus

Abyssoanthus Reimer & Fujiwara, in Reimer, Sinniger, Fujiwara, Hirano & Maruyama, 2007.

Diagnosis

“Sand/detritus/sediment-encrusted Zoantharia with unitary (noncolonial) free-living polyps, attached to hard substrates at abyssal (non-continental shelf deep-sea) depths surrounding methane cold seeps or other chemosynthetic ecosystems.” Reimer and Sininger (2010: 454).

Remarks

A monogeneric family. Molecular data places this family in an unresolved position distant from the Brachycnemina and Macrocnemina.

Abyssoanthus Reimer & Fujiwara, in Reimer, Sinniger, Fujiwara, Hirano & Maruyama, 2007

Abyssoanthus Reimer & Fujiwara, in Reimer, Sinniger, Fujiwara, Hirano & Maruyama, 2007: 258.

Type species

Abyssoanthus nankaiensis Reimer & Fujiwara, in Reimer, Sinniger, Fujiwara, Hirano & Maruyama, 2007, by original designation and monotypy.

Gender

Masculine.

Diagnosis

As for family above.

Remarks

Two species known, both from waters around Japan. There may be additional species from the Mediterranean, in non-chemosynthetic environments (Sinniger et al. 2010b).

Family incerta sedis

Stephanidium Hertwig, 1888

Stephanidium Hertwig, 1888: 52.

Type species

Stephanidium schulzii Hertwig, 1888, by monotypy.

Gender

Neuter.

Diagnosis

Very small (diameter 1.5–2.2 mm, height 1 mm), unitary polyps, with microcnemes and macrocnemes, although their arrangement could not be clearly seen. Mesenteriel insertions make body wall to have a furrowed appearance, with spherical evaginations on the body wall above the area where the sphincter muscle is present. Twenty-six mesenteries.

Remarks

From the original description, possibly a species of zoantharian, but type material needs to be located and examined. We make no decision as to the validity of this genus and species in the event that the identification of this genus and species requires a reversal of precedence Article 23.9 (ICZN 1999: 27, 28) with a later (but more widely-used name). Also, the genus-group name Stephanidium Hertwig, 1888, is preoccupied by Stephanidium Ehrenberg, 1839 (incerta sedis).

Discussion

As can be seen from examining the nomenclatural and taxonomic history of the various supraspecific names in this paper, many taxa of the order Zoantharia have a confused history. However, over the past two decades, phylogenetic and detailed morphological examinations of zoantharians have resulted in a new understanding of the evolutionary relationships within the order (Sinniger et al. 2005, Reimer et al. 2007a, 2008a, Reimer and Fujii 2010, Sinniger et al. 2010a, 2013, Fujii and Reimer 2011, 2013; Swain et al. 2015). Combined with a recent effort to organize the nomenclature of zoantharians (Low and Reimer 2011a, b, 2012a, b), it can be said that much of the Zoantharia nomenclature is now stable, and generally reflects our current understanding of their evolutionary history.

However, as seen in this manuscript, there are still some nomenclatural issues that remain to be resolved. For example, the validity of the genera Sphenopus and Acrozoanthus still have to be thoroughly examined. Furthermore, it is clear from recent molecular phylogenetic results (Fujii and Reimer 2013) that the taxonomy and nomenclature of the suborders are in urgent need of a revision. Finally, at the ordinal level, it appears that Zoantharia is much closer to the Actiniaria (sea anemones) than has been previously thought (Fujii and Reimer 2013). As these two orders have been speculated to be basal cnidarians (Kayal et al. 2013), after clarification of their evolutionary history, subsequent nomenclatural amendment may be needed.

Additional work examining the utility of ecological and morphological traits of Zoantharia as diagnostic characters is needed to allow the linkage of current phylogenetic results with past literature (Swain et al. 2016). Despite, or perhaps due to its confused and challenging morphological taxonomy, the order Zoantharia is now among the most advanced hexacorallian order in terms of the use of molecular tools to clarify phylogenetic relationships between taxa at various taxonomic levels. As such, and despite potential and known differences in molecular evolution of other anthozoans (Stampar et al. 2014), Zoantharia is a potentially good model for clarifying the taxonomy of other hexacorallian orders and anthozoan groups.

Acknowledgements

Carey Ashworth (University of the Ryukyus, Japan) is thanked for help with translating references; Anne-Marie Damiano and Catherine de la Bigne (Musée Océanographique, Monaco) for providing literature. Siong-Kiat Tan (National University of Singapore) provided comments on nomenclatural issues. Sung-yin Yang (University of the Ryukyus, Japan) helped getting references. Saulo Bambi and Cecilia Volpi of the Museo di Storia Naturale Università di Firenze (sez. Zoologica “La Specola”), Italy, are thanked for their assistance in locating and photographing the syntype of Gemmaria rusei Duchassaing de Fonbressin and Michelotti, 1860. Ray B. Williams (Tring, United Kingdom) provided information on the works of Angelo Andres and Philip Henry Gosse. Neal L. Evenhuis (Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii) provided copies of literature and provided comments on many of the dates of publications of the works cited. Daphne G. Fautin (University of Kansas) generously shared her bibliography (now published as Fautin 2016) of the Cnidaria (from the database “Hexacorallians of the World”) with us and her discussions with the first author through the years have greatly improved the content of this work. Peter K. L. Ng (National University of Singapore) has also provided guidance and advice on nomenclatural matters through the years. Helmut Zibrowius provided us with a tremeduous amount of old literature on Zoantharia. Comments from Marymegan Daly (Ohio State University) and an anonymous reviewer on an earlier manuscript (that now forms part of Appendix 3) greatly improved the information presented therein. This work was sponsored in part by the International Research Hub Project for Climate Change and Coral Reef/Island Dynamics at the University of the Ryukyus, as well as by a JSPS Kiban B grant entitled “Global evolution of Brachycnemina and their Symbiodinium” and by a Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ‘Zuno-Junkan’ grant entitled “Studies on origin and maintenance of marine biodiversity and systematic conservation planning” to the senior author.

References

The question of nomenclatural priority (while correctly a minor and largely theoretical exercise) underpins the system of nomenclature currently in use. In this order-wide review of the supraspecies nomenclature and taxonomy, we have had to determine the relative priority of many synonyms, and have come across accurate date of publication information for much of the literature. Many of these references have a nomenclatural impact beyond the order Zoantharia, and these data are included for the benefit of the taxonomic community at large.

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  • Verrill AE (1882) Notice of the remarkable marine fauna occupying the outer banks off the southern coast of New England, No. 3. American Journal of Science (3) 23(134): 135–142. [Apr 1882 (Fautin 2016: 447); Epizoanthus paguriphilus first made available in this publication; full description in Verrill (1883)]
  • Verrill AE (1883) Report on the Anthozoa, and on some additional species dredged by the ‘Blake’ in 1877–79, and by the U.S. Fish Commission Steamer ‘Fish Hawk’ in 1880–82. In: Reports on the results of dredging, under the supervision of Alexander Agassiz, on the east coast of the United States, during the summer of 1880, by the U.S. Coast Survey Steamer ‘Blake,’ Commander J.R. Bartlett, U.S.N., commanding. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy, Harvard College 11(1): 1–72, pls. 1–8. [Jul 1883 (title-page); the name Epizoanthus paguriphilus was first made available in Verrill (1882)]
  • Verrill AE (1900) Additions to the Anthozoa and Hydrozoa of the Bermudas. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 10(2): 551–572, pls. 67–69. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.7033
  • Verrill AE (1907) The Bermuda Islands. Part IV.—Geology and Paleontology, and Part V.—An Account of the Coral Reefs. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 12(2): 45–347, pls. 16–40.
  • Volpi C, Benvenuti D (2003) The Duchassaing & Michelotti collection of Caribbean corals: status of the types and location of the specimens. Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale de Milano 144(1): 51–74. [Jun 2003 (p. 51)]
  • Walsh GE (1967) An Annotated Bibliography of the Families Zoanthidae, Epizoanthidae, and Parazoanthidae (Coelenterata, Zoantharia). Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, Honolulu, 77 pp. [Mar 1967 (title-page)]
  • Williams RB (1981a) A sea anemone, Edwardsia meridionalis sp. nov., from Antarctica and a preliminary revision of the genus Edwardsia de Quatrefages, 1841 (Coelenterata: Actiniaria). Records of the Australian Museum 33(6): 325–360. https://doi.org/10.3853/j.0067-1975.33.1981.271
  • Williams RB (2000) A redescription of the zoanthid Isozoanthus sulcatus (Gosse, 1859), with notes on its nomenclature, systematics, behaviour, habitat and geographical distribution. Ophelia 52(3): 193–206. https://doi.org/10.1080/00785236.1999.10409428
  • Williams RB (2012) Identification and dating of the editions and issues of ‘Le Attinie’, a taxonomic monograph of the world’s sea anemones (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia), by Angelo Andres. Zoological Bibliography 2(2–3): 90–104. [26 Nov 2012 (title-page)]
  • Yang S‐Y, Reimer JD, Low MEY (2014) Die Pflanzenthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur and its Fortsetzungen by Eugenius Johann Christoph Esper: overlooked sources for its dates of publication and location of type material. Sherbornia 1(2): 5–7. [10 Dec 2014 (p. 5)]

Appendix 1

Nomenclator of family-group names in the Zoantharia Rafinesque, 1815

Names in bold and designated with an asterisk (*) are considered to be valid family-group names. Also refer to the genus-group names in the next section. Names marked with a † are invalid synonyms, or incorrect spellings (if further denoted by a “[sic]”). Additional names without either designation have been confused with the order Zoantharia at one time or another but have since been removed from this group.

*Abyssoanthidae Reimer & Fujiwara, in Reimer, Sinniger, Fujiwara, Hirano & Maruyama, 2007: 258. Type genus Abyssoanthus Reimer & Fujiwara, in Reimer, Sinniger, Fujiwara, Hirano & Maruyama, 2007.

Bergidae Verrill, 1865. See Bergiidae Verrill, 1865.

Bergidae [sic]. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Bergiidae Verrill, 1865 (e.g. Verrill 1869 [in 1868–1871]: 494; Duerden 1903: 495).

Bergiidae Verrill, 1865a: 147. Type genus Bergia Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860. This family-group name was first established as “Bergidae” (an incorrect original spelling. Bergia Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, was previously considered to be a junior subjective synonym of Parazoanthus Haddon & Shackleton, 1891, but has since been revalidated (see Montenegro et al. 2015a: 63–71). Bergiidae Verrill, 1865, and Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901, nevertheless remain subjective synonyms. Low and Reimer (2011a: 64, 65) enacted Article 23.9 (ICZN 1999: 27, 28) to reverse precedence between these family-group names, thereby making Bergiidae Verrill, 1865, a nomen oblitum, and Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901, a nomen protectum. Low and Reimer (2011a: 64, 65) incorrectly attributed the name Bergiidae to Verrill, 1869 (in 1868–1871), but the name should be attributed to Verrill (1865). The findings and action of Low and Reimer (2011: 64, 65) remain valid.

*Epizoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901: 664. Type genus Epizoanthus Gray, 1867. First described as the subfamily “Epizoanthinae”. See also Mardoellidae Danielssen, 1890.

Gerardidae Verrill, 1865. See Gerardiidae Verrill, 1865a.

Gerardidae [sic]. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Gerardiidae Verrill, 1865 (e.g., Verrill 1869 [in 1868–1871]: 499; Duerden 1903: 495).

Gerardiidae Verrill, 1865a: 1484. Type genus Gerardia Lacaze-Duthiers, 1864. This family-group name was first established as “Gerardidae” (an incorrect original spelling). A subjective synonym of Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901. This family group name is a senior subjective synonym of Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901, and an application to the ICZN in accordance with Article 23.9.2 (ICZN 1999: 28, 29) is in preparation to suppress this name in favour of the more universally-accepted and -used name Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901. Also see discussion in Appendix 3.

Heterozoanthidae Pax & Müller, 1956: 2. Type genus Heterozoanthus Verrill, 1870. The type genus is an objective synonym of Parazoanthus Haddon and Shackleton, 1891, making Heterozoanthidae Pax & Müller, 1956, a junior objective synonym of Parazoanthidae Delage and Hérouard, 1901 (Article 61.3.2 of the Code, ICZN 1999: 64) (see Low and Reimer 2012a: 83, 84).

*Hydrozoanthidae Sinniger, Reimer & Pawlowski, 2010: 60. Type genus Hydrozoanthus Sinniger, Reimer & Pawlowski, 2010.

Mardoellidae Danielssen, 1890: 116, 117. Type genus Mardoell Danielssen, 1890. The type genus is a subjective synonym of Epizoanthus Gray, 1867 (see Low and Reimer 2011b: 84, 85; Lwowsky 1913: 603, 604). Mardoellidae Danielssen, 1890, is therefore a subjective synonym of Epizoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901. Low and Reimer (2011b: 84) enacted Article 23.9 (ICZN 1999: 27, 28) to reverse precedence between these family-group names, thereby making Mardoellidae Danielssen, 1890, a nomen oblitum, and Epizoanthidae Delage and Hérouard, 1901, a nomen protectum.

*Microzoanthidae Fujii & Reimer, 2011: 420, 421. Type genus Microzoanthus Fujii & Reimer, 2011.

*Nanozoanthidae Fujii & Reimer, 2013: 512. Type genus Nanozoanthus Fujii & Reimer, 2013.

*Neozoanthidae Herberts, 1972: 137. Type genus Neozoanthus Herberts, 1972.

Orinidae Verrill, 1869. See Oriniidae Verrill, 1869.

Oriniidae Verrill, 1869 (in 1868–1871): 494. Type genus Orinia Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860. This family-group name was first established as “Orinidae” (an incorrect original spelling). The type genus Orinia Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, is a junior subjective synonym of Rhodactis Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851, which is currently assigned to the family Discosomidae Verrill, 1869 [Coralliomorpha] (see Fautin 2016: 25, 28, 38). Also see remarks under Orinia Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, in Appendix 2.

Polythoae Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860. See Palythoidae Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860.

Palythoidae Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860: 37. Type genus Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816 (spelled as “Polythoa”). This family-group name was first established as “Polythoae” (based on “Polythoa”, an incorrect subsequent spelling of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816, see Appendix 3). A subjective synonym of Sphenopidae Hertwig, 1882, as the type species Sphenopus Steenstrup, 1856, and Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816, as assigned to the same family (see Appendix 3). Precedence between Palythoidae Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, and Sphenopidae Hertwig, 1882, cannot be reversed and an application to the ICZN in accordance with Article 23.9.2 (ICZN 1999: 28, 29) is in preparation to suppress the former name in favour of the latter name that is more widely accepted and used. Also see discussion in Appendix 3.

*Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901: 665. Type genus Parazoanthus Haddon & Shackleton, 1891. See also the synonyms Bergiidae Verrill, 1865, Gerardiidae Verrill, 1865, Heterozoanthidae Pax & Müller, 1956, Savagliidae Brook, 1889, and Savaliidae Nardo, 1844. Also see discussion in Appendix 3.

Savagliidae Brook, 1889: 51, 74, 79. Type genus Savaglia Nardo, 1877. A subjective synonym of Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901. This family group name is a senior subjective synonym of Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901, and an application to the ICZN in accordance with Article 23.9.2 (ICZN 1999: 28, 29) is in preparation to suppress this name in favour of the more widely accepted and used name Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901. Also see discussion in Appendix 3.

Savaliidae Nardo, 1844: 433. Type genus Savalia Nardo, 1844. This family-group name was first established at the rank of subfamily as “Savalini” (an incorrect original spelling). A subjective synonym of Parazoanthidae Delage and Hérouard, 1901. This family group name is a senior subjective synonym of Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901, and an application to the ICZN in accordance with Article 23.9.2 (ICZN 1999: 28, 29) is in preparation to suppress this name in favour of the more universally-accepted and -used name Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901. Also see discussion in Appendix 3.

Savaliidae Poche, 1914: 104. Type genus Savalia Nardo, 1844. Proposed as a replacement name for Savagliidae Brook, 1889. A junior objective synonym of Savaliidae Nardo, 1844, and Savagliidae Brook, 1889.

Savalini Nardo, 1844. See Savaliidae Nardo, 1844.

*Sphenopidae Hertwig, 1882: 120. Type genus Sphenopus Steenstrup, 1856.

Zoanthia Rafinesque, 1815. See Zoanthidae Rafinesque, 1815.

*Zoanthidae Rafinesque, 1815: 155. Type genus Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801. First established at the rank of subfamily as “Zoanthia” (an incorrect original spelling). Authorship of the family-group name Zoanthidae is conventionally attributed to Gray (1832: 95; 1840: 72), however Rafinesque’s (1815) indication has priority (see Low and Reimer 2012a: 85).

Appendix 2

Nomenclator of genus-group names in the Zoantharia Rafinesque, 1815

Names in bold and designated with an asterisk (*) are considered to be valid genus-group names. In accordance with Article 67.2 of the Code (ICZN 1999: 66, 67), all type species designations made herein are from among the “originally included nominal species”. Names marked with a † are invalid synonyms, or incorrect spellings (if further denoted by a “[sic]”). Additional names without either designation have been confused with the order Zoantharia at one time or another but have since been removed from this group. The identity of two possible zoantharian genus-group name-Stephanidium Hertwig, 1888, and Triga Gray, 1867-will need to be resolved.

*Abyssoanthus Reimer & Fujiwara, in Reimer, Sinniger, Fujiwara, Hirano & Maruyama, 2007: 258. Type species Abyssoanthus nankaiensis Reimer & Fujiwara, in Reimer, Sinniger, Fujiwara, Hirano & Maruyama, 2007, by original designation; gender masculine.

*Acrozoanthus Saville-Kent, 1893: 153, 154, unnumbered fig. Type species Acrozoanthus australiae Saville-Kent, 1893, by monotypy; gender masculine.

Actimastus Rafinesque, 1818: 271. Replacement name for Mammillifera Le Sueur, 1817. Type species Mammillifera auricula Le Sueur, 1817, by subsequent designation by Haddon and Shackleton (1891a: 626) (for Mammillifera Le Sueur, 1817); gender masculine. Unnecessary replacement name for and junior objective synonym of Mammilifera Le Sueur, 1817. Both Actimastus Rafinesque, 1818, and Mammilifera Le Sueur, 1817, are junior subjective synonyms of Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801, as the type species of both genus-group names is now considered to be a species of Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801 (see Appendix 3).

Anthozoanthus Carter, 1870: 449. Type species Anthozoanthus parasiticus, by monotypy; gender masculine. Not a zoantharian (see Carter 1870: 449). This name appears to be Deshayes manuscript name that was published by Carter (1870).

Anthozoon Gistel, 1848: 181. Unnecessary replacement name and junior objective synonym of Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801; gender neuter.

Antinedia Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1864: 42 (also 1866: 136). Type species Zoanthus tuberculatus Duchassaing de Fonbressin, 1850, by monotypy; gender feminine. The type species Zoanthus tuberculatus Duchassaing de Fonbressin, 1850, is a junior subjective synonym and junior secondary homonym of Isaurus tuberculatus Gray, 1828. A subjective junior synonym of Isaurus Gray, 1828 (see Muirhead and Ryland 1985: 325).

Actinorhiza Agassiz, 1846: 7. Unjustified emendation and junior objective synonym of Actinorhyza Blainville, 1830. See Appendix 3.

Actinorhysa [sic]. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Actinorhyza Blainville, 1830, by Blainville (1834: 329). See Appendix 3.

Actinorhyza Blainville, 1830: 295. Type species Actinia sociata Ellis, 1768 (see Appendix 3); gender feminine. An unnecessary replacement name for, and junior objective synonym of Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801. See also the incorrect subsequent spellings Actinorhysa Blainville, 1834, and Actinorrhyza Ehrenberg, 1834, and the unjustified emendation Actinorhiza Agassiz, 1844. See additional discussion in Appendix 3.

Actinorrhyza [sic]. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Actinorhyza Blainville, 1830, by Ehrenberg (1834a: 269). See Appendix 3.

Actinocereus Blainville, 1830: 294. No type species designated (see Fautin et al. 2012: 20, 21); gender masculine. Placed in synonymy (in part) of Hughea Lamouroux, 1821, by Andres (1881: 336). Currently a genus-group name in the Actiniaria (see Fautin et al. 2012: 20–22; Fautin 2016: 54). Actinocereus Blainville, 1830, is now considered a synonym of Cereus Ilmoni, 1830, and the International Commission for Zoological Nomenclature was petitioned Fautin et al. (2012: 22) to suppress the former name in favour of the latter, and subsequenty ruled as such (ICZN 2014: 136, 137).

*Antipathozoanthus Sinniger, Reimer & Pawlowski, 2010: 61. Type species Gerardia macaronesicus Ocaña & Brito, 2003, by original designation; gender masculine.

Axinella O. Schmidt, 1862: 60. Type species Axinella polypoides O. Schmidt, 1862 (see Gazave et al. 2010). Not a zoantharian (see Gazave et al. 2010).

*Bergia Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860: 54. Type species Bergia catenularis Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, by subsequent designation by Duerden (1903: 496); gender feminine. The type species was formerly assigned to the genus Parazoanthus Haddon & Shackleton, 1891a (see Duerden 1903: 496, Low and Reimer 2011a: 64), making Bergia Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, a subjective synonym of Parazoanthus Haddon & Shackleton, 1891a. Low and Reimer (2011a) enacted Article 23.9 (ICZN 1999: 27, 28) to reverse precedence between these genus-group names, thereby making Bergia Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, a nomen oblitum, and Parazoanthus Haddon & Shackleton, 1891a, a nomen protectum. Recent molecular and morphological work by Montenegro et al. (2015a: 63–71) have shown that the type species, Bergia catenularis Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, represents a generic-level monophyly and resurrected the genus-group name Bergia Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, for this grouping.

*Bullagummizoanthus Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013: 9. Type species Bullagummizoanthus emilyacadiaarum Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013, by original designation; gender masculine.

Carolia Gray, 1867: 239. Type species Zoanthus couchii Johnston, in Couch, 1844, by monotypy; gender feminine. The type species is now assigned to the genus Epizoanthus Gray, 1867 (see Haddon and Shackleton 1891a: 644, 645), making Carolia Gray, 1867, a subjective synonym of Epizoanthus Gray, 1867. The name Carolia Gray, 1867, is an invalid junior homonym of Carolia Cantraine, 1838 (Mollusca), and the Epizoanthus Gray, 1867, is the valid name for this genus-group. See also Epizoanthus Gray, 1867.

Cavolinia Schweigger, 1819: 99. No type species designated, for originally included species, see Appendix 3; gender feminine. Cavolinia Schweigger, 1819, is a junior homonym of Cavolinia Abildgaard, 1791, and is not a valid name (see Appendix 3). See also the unnecessary replacement name Cynicus Gistel, 1848.

*Corallizoanthus Reimer, in Reimer, Nonaka, Sinniger & Iwase, 2008: 940. Type species Corallizoanthus tsukaharai Reimer, in Reimer, Nonaka, Sinniger & Iwase, 2008, by original designation; gender masculine.

Corticanthus Andres, 1883a: 538, 541. Type species Epizoanthus paguriphilus Verrill, 1882, herein designated (see Appendix 3); gender masculine. First proposed as a subgenus of Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801. The type species is now assigned to the genus Epizoanthus Gray, 1867 (see Appendix 3), making Zoanthus (Corticanthus) Andres, 1883, a junior subjective synonym of Epizoanthus Gray, 1867.

Corticifera Le Sueur, 1817: 178, 179. Type species Corticifera glareola Le Sueur, 1817, by subsequent designation by Haddon and Shackleton (1891b: 692); gender feminine. The type species is now assigned to the genus Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816 (see Appendix 3), making Corticifera Le Sueur, 1817, a junior subjective synonym of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816.

Corticithoa Andres, 1883a: 521, 535–538. Type species Alyconium tuberculosum Esper, 1805, herein designated (see Appendix 3); gender feminine. First proposed as a subgenus of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816. The type species, Alcyonium tuberculosum, is now assigned to the genus Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816 (see Appendix 3), making Palythoa (Corticithoa) Andres, 1883, a junior subjective synonym of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816.

Cortificera. Incorrect spelling of Corticifera Le Sueur, 1817, by Brandt (1835: 208).

Cynicus Gistel, 1848: viii. Unnecessary replacement name for, and junior objective synonym of, Cavolinia Schweigger, 1819; gender masculine.

Edwardsia de Quatrefages, 1841: 427. Type species Edwardsia beautempsii de Quatrefages, 1842, by subsequent designation by Delphy (1938) (see Fautin 2016: 82); gender feminine. Not a zoantharian (see Fautin et al. 2007: 201, Williams 1981a: 326; Fautin 2016: 82, 83).

Endeithoa Andres, 1883a: 521, 531. Type species Zoanthus norvegicus Koren and Danielssen, 1877, herein designated (see Appendix 3); gender feminine. First proposed as a subgenus of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816. The type species is now assigned to the genus Epizoanthus Gray, 1867 (see Appendix 3), making Palythoa (Endeithoa) Andres, 1883, a junior subjective synonym of Epizoanthus Gray, 1867.

Epiactis Verrill, 1869 (in 1868–1871): 492. Type species Epiactis prolifera Verrill, 1869, by monotypy; gender feminine. Not a zoantharian (Fautin et al. 2007: 202; Fautin 2016: 85).

*Epizoanthus Gray, 1867: 237. Type species Dysidea papillosa Johnston, 1842, by monotypy; gender masculine. Placed on Official List and has priority over Sidisia Gray, 1858 (see Opinion 1689, ICZN 1992: 236). The subsequent designation of Mammillifera incrustatus Düben & Koren, 1847, as the type species of Epizoanthus Gray, 1867, by Haddon and Shackleton (1891a: 627) is not valid as this species was not amongst the species originally included in the description of Epizoanthus Gray, 1867, and does not qualify for selection as the type species (see Ryland and Muirhead 1991: 19, 20; and Article 69.2 of the Code, ICZN 1999: 72, 73). See also the synonyms Carolia Gray, 1867, Lirrevia Delphy, 1939: 270, Mardoell Danielssen, 1890, Marodellia Danielssen, 1890, Palythoa (Endeithoa) Andres, 1883, Sidisia Gray, 1858, Verrillia Andres, 1883, and Zoanthus (Corticanthus) Andres, 1883.

Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860: 55. Type species Gemmaria rusei Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, by subsequent designation by Haddon and Shackleton (1891a: 626). The genus-group name Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, is preoccupied by Gemmaria McCrady, 1859 (Hydrozoa). Herein considered to be a junior subjective synonym of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816 (See Appendix 3). See also the replacement names Haplotella Stechow, 1919, and Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900.

Gemmithoa Andres, 1883a: 521, 532, 533. Type species Mammillifera brevis Duchassaing de Fonbressin, 1850, by monotypy; gender feminine. First proposed as a subgenus of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816. The type species is now assigned to the genus Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816 (see Appendix 3), making Palythoa (Gemmithoa) Andres, 1883, a junior subjective synonym of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816.

Gerardia Lacaze-Duthiers, 1864a: 87. Type species Leoipathes lamarcki Haime, 1849, by monotypy; gender feminine. A subjective junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844 (see Appendix 3). This genus-group name was also described as new in Lacaze-Duthiers (1864c: 175, 176), and appeared as a translation in Lacaze-Duthiers (1864b: 242).

Gerardina [sic]. Incorrect spelling of Gerardia Lacaze-Duthiers, 1864, by H. Schmidt (1972: 452).

Haplotella Stechow, 1919: 853. Replacement name for Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, preoccupied by Gemmaria McCrady, 1859 (Hydrozoa). Type species Gemmaria rusei Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, by typification of the preoccupied name; gender feminine. A junior objective synonym of Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, and a junior subjective synonym of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816 (see Appendix 3). See also Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, Parapalythoa Verrill, 1900, and Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900.

Heterozoanthus Verrill, 1870: 371. Type species Palythoa axinellae O. Schmidt, 1862, by subsequent designation by Low and Reimer (2012a: 84); gender masculine. As Heterozoanthus Verrill, 1870, and Parazoanthus Haddon and Shackleton, 1891, have the same type species, they are objective synonyms. Low and Reimer (2012a: 84) reversed precedence thereby making Heterozoanthus Verrill, 1870, a nomen oblitum, and Parazoanthus Haddon & Shackleton, 1891, a nomen protectum.

Hughaea [sic]. Incorrect spelling of Hughea Lamouroux, 1821, by Duchassaing de Fonbressin (1850: 9). Not a zoantharian (see Hughea Lamouroux, 1821).

Hughea Lamouroux, 1821: 89. Type species Actinia calendula Hughes, in Ellis & Solander, 1786, by monotypy; gender feminine. The type species, Actinia calendula was described by Ellis, in Ellis and Solander (1786: 7, 8, pl. 1, fig. 3) based on an unnamed cnidarian described and illustrated by Hughes (1750: 293, 294, pl. 24, fig. 1) that is clearly not a zoantharian (see also Ryland and Lancaster 2003: 411; Fautin 2016: 182). Actinia calendula Ellis, in Ellis & Solander, 1786, is currently considered to be assigned to the genus Petalactis Andres, 1883 (see Fautin 2016: 118), thereby making Hughea Lamouroux, 1821, a synonym of Petalactis Andres, 1883. Also see the unnecessary replacement name Meto Gistel, 1848.

Hughuea [sic]. Incorrect spelling of Hughea Lamouroux, 1821, by Gistel (1848: 181). Not a zoantharian (see Hughea Lamouroux, 1821).

*Hurlizoanthus Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013: 7. Type species Hurlizoanthus parrishi Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013, by original designation; gender masculine.

*Hydrozoanthus Sinniger, Reimer & Pawlowski, 2010: 60. Type species Parazoanthus tunicans Duerden, 1900, by original designation; gender masculine.

Iluanthos Forbes, 1840: 184. Type species Iluanthos scoticus Forbes, 1840, by monotypy; gender masculine. Fautin (2016: 97) considers the correct original spelling of this genus-group name to be “Ilyanthus” following Article 33.3.1 of the Code (ICZN 1999: 43). Not a zoantharian (Fautin et al. 2007: 209; Fautin 2016: 97).

Isaua [sic]. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Isaurus Gray, 1828, by Volpi and Benvenuti (2003: 72).

Isaura Agassiz, 1844: 14. Unjustified emendation and objective synonym of of Isaurus Gray, 1828, and junior homonym of Isaura Lamouroux, in Audouin, Bourdon, de Candolle, d’Aubebard de Férussac, Deshayes, Deslongchamps, É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Guérin, Guillemin, de Jussieu, Kunth, Delafosse, Lamouroux, Latreille, Prévost, Richard & Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1826. See Isaurus Gray, 1828.

Isaura Lamouroux, in Audouin, Bourdon, de Candolle, d’Aubebard de Férussac, Deshayes, Deslongchamps, É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Guérin, Guillemin, de Jussieu, Kunth, Delafosse, Lamouroux, Latreille, Prévost, Richard & Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1826: 23. Type species Isaurus tuberculatus Gray, 1828, by subsequent designation by Haddon and Shackleton (1891b: 682); gender masculine. An objective synonym of Isaurus Gray, 1828 (see Low and Reimer 2012b: 46). See Isaurus Gray, 1828.

*Isaurus Gray, 1828: 8. Type species Isaurus tuberculatus Gray, 1828, by subsequent designation by Haddon and Shackleton (1891b: 682); gender masculine. The name Isaurus Gray, 1828, is a replacement name for Isaura Lamouroux, in Audouin, Bourdon, de Candolle, d’Aubebard de Férussac, Deshayes, Deslongchamps, É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Guérin, Guillemin, de Jussieu, Kunth, Delafosse, Lamouroux, Latreille, Prévost, Richard and Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1826, which Gray (1828: 8) believed to be preoccupied (see Low and Reimer 2012b: 46). Low and Reimer (2012b: 47) reversed the precedence of Isaura Lamouroux, in Audouin, Bourdon, de Candolle, d’Aubebard de Férussac, Deshayes, Deslongchamps, É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Guérin, Guillemin, de Jussieu, Kunth, Delafosse, Lamouroux, Latreille, Prévost, Richard & Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1826, and Isaurus Gray, 1828, thereby maintaining current and prevailing usage of the latter name. See also the synonyms Antinedia Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1864, Pales Gray, 1867, Palythoa (Monothoa) Andres, 1883, Panceria Andres, 1877, and Zoanthus (Monanthus) Andres, 1883.

*Isozoanthus Carlgren, in Chun, 1903: 520. Type species Isozoanthus giganteus Carlgren, in Chun, 1903, by monotypy; gender masculine. Williams (2000) enacted Article 23.9 of the Code (ICZN 1999: 27, 28) to reverse precedence of Palythoa (Taeniothoa) Andres, 1883, and Isozoanthus Carlgren, in Chun, 1903. See also Palythoa (Taeniothoa) Andres, 1883.

*Kauluzoanthus Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013: 8. Type species Kauluzoanthus kerbyi Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013, by original designation; gender masculine.

*Kulamanamana Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013: 4. Type species Kulamanamana haumaeaae Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013, by original designation; gender feminine.

Lirrevia Delphy, 1939: 270. Replacement name for Verrillia Andres, 1883; gender feminine. Lirrevia Delphy, 1939, and Verrillia Andres, 1883, are thus subjective junior synonyms of Epizoanthus Gray, 1867. See also Verrillia Andres, 1883.

Mamillifera [sic]. Incorrect spelling of Mammillifera Le Sueur, 1817, by Blainville (1830: 295).

Mammilifera [sic]. Incorrect spelling of Mammillifera Le Sueur, 1817, by Gistel (1848: 181).

Mammillifera Le Sueur, 1817: 177. Type species Mammillifera auricula Le Sueur, 1817, by subsequent designation by Haddon and Shackleton (1891a: 626); gender feminine. The type species is now assigned to the genus Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801 (see Appendix 3), making Mammillifera Le Sueur, 1817, a junior subjective synonym of Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801. See also Actimastus Rafinesque, 1818.

Mammithoa Andres, 1883a: 521. Type species Mammillifera nymphaea Le Sueur, 1817, herein designated (see Appendix 3); gender feminine. First proposed as a subgenus of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816. The type species is now a junior subjective synonym of Zoanthus pulchellus Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1864, which is currently assigned to the genus Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801 (see Appendix 3), making Palythoa (Mammithoa) Andres, 1883, a junior subjective synonym of Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801. See also the incorrect original spelling Mammothoa Andres, 1883.

Mammothoa [sic]. An incorrect original spelling of Mammithoa Andres, 1883, by Andres (1883a: 533–535; 1883b: 325–327; 1884: 318–320) (see Appendix 3).

Mardoell Danielssen, 1890: 117–126. Type species Mardoell erdmanni Danielssen, 1890, by monotypy; gender feminine. The type species is assigned to the genus Epizoanthus Gray, 1867 (see Low and Reimer 2012a: 85, Lwowsky 1913: 603, 604), making Mardoell Danielssen, 1890, a junior subjective synonym of Epizoanthus Gray, 1868. See also the incorrect emendation Mardoellia Blanchard, 1893.

Mardoella [sic]. Incorrect spelling of Mardoell Danielssen, 1890, by Bell (1906: 762) and also in Neave’s (1940: 43) Nomenclator zoologicus entry.

Mardoellia Blanchard, 1893: 130. Type species Mardoell erdmanni Danielssen, 1890, by monotypy; gender feminine. Blanchard (1893: 130) incorrectly emended the genus-group name Mardoell Danielssen, 1890, to Mardoellia (see Low and Reimer 2012a: 84). Mardoellia Blanchard, 1893, is therefore a junior objective synonym of Mardoell Danielssen, 1890, and a junior subjective synonym of Epizoanthus Gray, 1867. See also Mardoell Danielssen, 1890.

*Mesozoanthus Sinniger & Häussermann, 2009: 31, 32. Type species Mesozoanthus fossii Sinniger & Häussermann, 2009, by original designation and monotypy; gender masculine.

Meto Gistel, 1848: 181. Replacement name for Hughea Lamouroux, 1821. Not a zoantharian (see remarks under Hughea Lamouroux, 1821).

*Microzoanthus Fujii & Reimer, 2011: 421. Type species Microzoanthus occultus Fujii & Reimer, 2011, by original designation; gender masculine.

Monanthus Andres, 1883a: 538, 540, 541, 543. Type species Isaurus tuberculatus Gray, 1828, herein designated (see Appendix 3); gender masculine. First proposed as a subgenus of Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801. The type species is also the type species of Isaurus Gray, 1828, making Zoanthus (Monanthus) Andres, 1883, a junior objective synonym of Isaurus Gray, 1828 (see Appendix 3).

Monothoa Andres, 1883a: 521. Type species Panceria spongiosa Andres, 1877, herein designated (see Appendix 3); gender feminine. The type species is now a junior subjective synonym of Isaurus tuberculatus Gray, 1828, (see Appendix 3), making Palythoa (Monothoa) Andres, 1883, a junior subjective synonym of Isaurus Gray, 1828.

Montlibaldia [sic]. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Montlivaltia Lamouroux, 1821, by Ehrenberg (1834a: 271).

Montlivaltia Lamouroux, 1821: 78. Type species Montlivaltia caryophyllata Lamouroux, 1821, by monotypy; gender feminine. Lamouroux (1821: 78) and Audouin (1826: 229) discussed the similarities of Montlivaltia Lamouroux, 1821, and Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816. Montlivaltia Lamouroux, 1821, is now considered to be a species of Scleractinia (see Stolarski and Roniewicz 2001: 1097).

*Nanozoanthus Fujii & Reimer, 2013: 512. Type species Nanozoanthus harenaceus Fujii & Reimer, 2013, by original designation; gender masculine.

*Neozoanthus Herberts, 1972: 137. Type species Neozoanthus tulearensis Herberts, 1972, by original designation and monotypy; gender masculine.

Orinia Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860: 54. Type species Orinia torpida Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, by monotypy; gender feminine. The type species is considered to be a junior subjective synonym of Actinia osculifera Le Sueur, 1817 (see Cha 2007: 40; Fautin 2016: 38). As the type species of Orinia Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, is currently a junior subjective synonym of a species assigned to Rhodactis Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851 (see Fautin 2016: 38), the former becomes a junior subjective synonym of the latter.

*Palaeozoanthus Carlgren, 1924: 470–473. Type species Palaeozoanthus reticulatus Carlgren, 1924, by original designation and monotypy; gender masculine.

Pales Gray, 1867: 234, 235. Type species Pales cliftoni Gray, 1867, by monotypy; gender masculine. A subjective junior synonym of Isaurus Gray, 1828 (see Muirhead and Ryland 1985: 325). The genus-group name Pales Gray, 1867, is also a junior homonym of Pales Meigen, 1800 (Diptera), Pales Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera), and Pales Koch, 1850 (Arachnida).

*Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816: 359. Type species Palythoe [sic] stellata Lamouroux, 1816 [= Alcyonium mammillosum Ellis, in Ellis and Solander, 1786], subsequent designation by Haddon and Shackleton (1891b: 691); gender feminine. See Appendix 3 for a discussion on the type species and its designation. Frequently incorrectly spelt as “Palythoe” (see Low and Reimer 2011b: 63). See also the synonyms Cavolinia Schweigger, 1819, Corticifera Le Sueur, 1817, Cynicus Gistel, 1848, Palythoa (Corticithoa) Andres, 1883, Palythoa (Gemmithoa) Andres, 1883, and the incorrect spellings Palythoe and Polythoa.

Palythoa (Corticithoa) Andres, 1883. See Corticithoa Andres, 1883.

Palythoa (Endeithoa) Andres, 1883. See Endeithoa Andres, 1883.

Palythoa (Gemmithoa) Andres, 1883. See Gemmithoa Andres, 1883.

Palythoa (Mammithoa) Andres, 1883. See Mammithoa Andres, 1883.

Palythoa (Mammothoa) Andres, 1883. See Mammothoa Andres, 1883, and Mammithoa Andres, 1883.

Palythoa (Monothoa) Andres, 1883. See Monothoa Andres, 1883.

Palythoa (Taeniothoa) Andres, 1883. See Taeniothoa Andres, 1883.

Palythoaster Haeckel, 1875: 44, pl. 1, fig. 5. Type species Palythoa savignyi Audouin, 1826, by monotypy; gender masculine. The type species Palythoa savignyi Audouin, 1826, is currently assigned to the genus Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816, making Palythoaster Haeckel, 1875, a junior subjective synonym of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816 (see Appendix 3).

Palythoe [sic]. An incorrect spelling of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816 (see Low and Reimer 2011b: 63). See also Palythoe Lamouroux, 1812.

Palythoe Lamouroux, 1812: 188. Type species Gorgonia muricata Pallas, 1766, by subsequent designation by Low and Reimer (2011b: 64); gender not determined. Now a subjective synonym of Muricea Lamouroux, 1821 [Octocorallia] (Low and Reimer 2011b: 64). Not a zoantharian (Low and Reimer 2011b: 63). Palythoe is also sometimes used as an incorrect spelling of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816 (see Low and Reimer 2011b: 63).

Playthoa [sic]. Incorrect spelling of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816, by various authors (e.g., Milliman et al. 1974: 162).

Panceria Andres, 1877: 221–226. Type species Panceria spongiosa Andres, 1877, by monotypy; gender feminine. The type species is a subjective synonym of Isaurus tuberculatus Gray, 1828 (see Appendix 3), making Panceria Andres, 1877, a junior subjective synonym of Isaurus Gray, 1828.

Parapalythoa Verrill, 1900: 560. Type species Parapalythoa heilprini Verrill, 1900, by monotypy. Herein considered to be a junior subjective synonym of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816 (see Appendix 3). See also Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900.

*Parazoanthus Haddon and Shackleton, 1891a: 653, 654. Type species Palythoa axinellae O. Schmidt, 1862, by original designation; gender masculine. See also the synonyms Bergia Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, Heterozoanthus Verrill, 1870, Parapalythoa Verrill, 1900, and Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900.

Peachia Gosse, 1855: 270, 271. Type species Peachia hastata Gosse, 1855, by subsequent designation by Carlgren (1949: 32); gender feminine. Not a zoantharian (Fautin et al. 2007: 220, 221; Fautin 2016: 47, 117).

Platyzoanthus Saville-Kent, 1893: 155. Type species Platyzoanthus mussoides Saville-Kent, 1893, by monotypy; gender masculine. Not a zoantharian (see Haddon 1898: 409, den Hartog 1980: 37, 39; Fautin 2016, 25, 28).

Polyphoa [sic]. Incorrect spelling of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816, by Danielssen (1890: 136). The Danish version of the same text on the same page is spelt “Polythoa” (see Polythoa).

Polythea [sic]. Incorrect spelling of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816, by Gistel (1848: 181).

Polythoa [sic]. Incorrect spelling of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816, by Schweigger (1819: 100). Also throughout Andres (1883a, b, 1884).

Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900: 562. Replacement name for Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, preoccupied by Gemmaria McCrady, 1859 (Hydrozoa). Type species Gemmaria rusei Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, by typification of the preoccupied name; gender feminine. Verrill’s (1900: 562) original designation of Gemmaria variabilis Duerden, 1898, as the type species of this genus-group name is invalid (see Appendix 3). See also Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860.

Rhyzanthus Andres, 1883a: 538, 541–544. Type species Actinia sociata Ellis, 1768, herein designated (see Appendix 3); gender masculine. First proposed as a subgenus of Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801. The type species is also the type species of the genus Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801, making Zoanthus (Rhyzanthus) Andres, 1883, a junior objective synonym of Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801.

Savaglia Nardo, 1877: 674. Unjustified emendation of Savalia Nardo, 1844 (see Appendix 3). See Savalia Nardo, 1844.

*Savalia Nardo, 1844: 433, 434. Type species Gorgonia savaglia Bertolini, 1819, by monotypy; gender feminine. Savalia savaglia (Bertolini, 1819), and Gerardia lamarcki (Haime, 1849), are currently considered subjective synonyms (see Appendix 3). As each species is also the type species of its respective genus, the genera Savalia Nardo, 1844, and Gerardia Lacaze-Duthiers, 1864, are also subjective synonyms. As discussed in Poche (1914), the valid name for this taxon is Savalia savaglia (Bertolini, 1819), which agrees with the Principle of Priority (Article 23, ICZN 1999: 24) (see discussion in Appendix 3). The name Savaglia is an unjustified emendation of Savalia Nardo, 1844, by Nardo (1877).

Scolanthus Gosse, 1853: 157. Type species Scolanthus callimorphus Gosse, 1853, by monotypy. Not a zoantharian (see Manuel 1981: 266; Fautin 2016: 46, 129).

Sidisia Gray, 1858: 489. Type species Sidisia barleei Gray, 1859, by subsequent monotypy; gender feminine. Sidisia Gray, 1858, was first proposed without the inclusion of any nominal species. In a subsequent paper, Gray (1859: 532) included Sidisia barleei Gray, 1859, as the only species in Sidisia Gray, 1858, and Sidisia barleei Gray, 1859, becomes the type species of Sidisia Gray, 1858, by subsequent monotypy (Article 69.3, ICZN 1999: 73). Subjective synonym of Epizoanthus Gray, 1867. Sidisia Gray, 1858, was suppressed in favour of Epizoanthus Gray, 1867 (see Opinion 1689, ICZN 1992: 236).

Solanthus [sic]. Incorrect spelling of Scolanthus Gosse, 1853, by Gray (1867: 240).

Spenopus [sic]. Incorrect spelling of Sphenopus Steenstrup, 1856, by Herberts (1972: 72, 80, 142).

Sphaenopus [sic]. Incorrect spelling of Sphenopus Steenstrup, 1856, by Long, Poiner and Wassenberg (1995: 134).

*Sphenopus Steenstrup, 1856: 37. Type species Sabella marsupialis Gmelin, 1791, by original designation; gender masculine.

Stephanidium Hertwig, 1888: 52. Type species Stephanidium schulzii Hertwig, 1888, by monotypy; gender neuter. From the original description, the type species is possibly a species of zoantharian, but the type material will need to be located and examined (also see Delage and Hérouard 1901: 662). Herein, we make no decision as to the validity of this genus and species in the event that the identification of this genus and species, but note that this genus-group name is preoccupied by Stephanidium Ehrenberg, 1839 (incerta sedis).

Taeniothoa Andres, 1883a: 521, 532. Type species Zoanthus sulcatus Gosse, 1859, by subsequent designation by Williams (2000: 193); gender feminine. The type species is now assigned to the genus Isozoanthus Carlgren, in Chun, 1903 (see Williams 2000: 195), making Palythoa (Taeniothoa) Andres, 1883, a subjective synonym of Isozoanthus Carlgren, in Chun, 1903. Williams (2000: 195) enacted Article 23.9 (ICZN 1999: 27, 28) to reverse precedence between these genus-group names, thereby making Palythoa (Taeniothoa) Andres, 1883, a nomen oblitum, and Isozoanthus Carlgren, in Chun, 1903, a nomen protectum.

*Terrazoanthus Reimer & Fujii, 2010: 20. Type species Terrazoanthus onoi Reimer & Fujii, 2010, by original designation; gender masculine.

*Thoracactis Gravier, 1918: 12. Type species Thoracactis topsenti Gravier, 1918, by monotypy; gender masculine. Gravier (1918: 12, footnote) stated that the etymology of this name was from the Greek word “θοραξ, αχος” (= breastplate). It is also clear that Gravier (1918: 12) was using this word in combination with the ending “-actis” as commonly used for many other genera of Anthozoa, sea anemones in particular (e.g., Amphiactis, Calliactis, Epiactis, Monactis, Paractis; see Fautin 2016 for additional examples). In this context, the genus-group names ending with this suffix are to be treated in the same way as Zoantha and Zoanthus (see Low and Reimer 2012a: 85) in which Article 30.1.3 of the Code (ICZN 1999: 35) applies. The emendation of this name to Thoracactus by Walsh (1967: 49) is thus not justified. Also see the unjustified emendation Thoracactis by Walsh (1967: 49).

Thoracactus Walsh, 1967: 49. Unjustified emendation (and junior objective synonym) of Thoracactis Gravier, 1918.

Toracactis [sic]. Incorrect spelling of Thoracactis Gravier, 1918, by Herberts (1972: 80).

Triga Gray, 1867: 239. Type species Triga philippinensis Gray, 1867, by monotypy; gender feminine. McMurrich (1889: 125) stated that “in all probability this is a Gemmaria”, considering it to be similar to G. rusei Duchassaing de Fonbressin and Michelotti, 1860, which is clearly a species of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1812. Heider (1899a: 283; 1899b: 133) cited McMurrich (1889) and agreed, placing this species in Gemmaria. Ryland and Lancaster (2003: 411) discussed that “[t]he solitary Triga philippinesis Gray, 1867, though tentatively referred to Gemmaria by McMurrich (1889), seems more likely to have been an actinian, but Gray’s [1867] two-line diagnosis is insufficient even to determine the order with any certainty”. The solitary and long polyps of this species would indicate a species belonging to the genus Sphenopus Steenstrup, 1856. The final identity of this genus-group name and its type species remain unresolved.

*Umimayanthus Montenegro, Sinniger & Reimer, 2015: 76. Type species Umimayanthus chanpuru Montenegro, Sinniger & Reimer, 2015, by original designation; gender masculine.

Verrillia Andres, 1883a: 520, 545. Type species Epizoanthus crassus Verrill, 1869, by monotypy; gender feminine. The type species is currently assigned to the genus Epizoanthus Gray, 1867, making Verrillia Andres, 1883, a junior subjective synonym of Epizoanthus Gray, 1867 (see Appendix 3). Verrillia Andres, 1883, is preoccupied by Verrillia Stearns, 1873 (Scleractinia), and the name Lirrevia was proposed by Delphy (1939: 270) was proposed as a replacement name. See also Lirrevia Delphy, 1939.

*Zibrowius Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013: 7. Type species Zibrowius ammophilus Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013, by original designation; gender masculine.

Zoantha Lamarck, 1801: 363. Type species Actinia sociata Ellis, 1768, by monotypy; gender feminine. This is an incorrectly Latinised spelling of a name derived from Greek and should be corrected to Zoanthus (see Article 30.1.3, ICZN 1999: 35). This name was first correctly emended by Tilesius (1809: 374, footnote) (see Low and Reimer 2012a: 85). See also Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801.

Zoanthella van Beneden, 1897: 196. No type species designated. This name was established for zoantharian larvae of and is no longer in use as genus-group name (see Ryland et al. 2000: 191). Nevertheless, this name remains nomenclaturally available despite still being used as name for larvae.

Zoanthina van Beneden, 1897: 200. No type species designated. This name was established for zoantharian larvae of and is no longer in use as genus-group name (see Ryland et al. 2000: 191). Nevertheless, this name remains nomenclaturally available despite still being used as name for larvae.

*Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801: 363. Type species Actinia sociata Ellis, 1768, by monotypy; gender masculine. The name Zoanthus is derived from the Greek words ζωο (zoo = animal) and ανθος (anthos = flower). According to Article 30.1.3 (ICZN 1999: 35), the Greek ending “-os” should be latinised to the Latin masculine -us. Cuvier (1800: tables 9, 10) first used the name “Zoanthus”, but without the inclusion of species or a description and is a nomen nudum. Lamarck (1801: 363) next used the name Zoantha with the inclusion of Actinia sociata Ellis, 1768, the type species by monotypy. It is possible that Lamarck (1801) assumed that the gender of the Greek word for flower was feminine. Tilesius (1809: 394, footnote) first emended Lamarck’s (1801) name to Zoanthus. This emendation is conventionally attributed to Cuvier (1816: 53) (see also Haddon and Shackleton 1891b, 676; Low and Reimer 2012a: 85). See also the synonyms Actimastus Rafinesque, 1818, Actinorhyza Blainville, 1830, Anthozoon Gistel, 1848, Mammillifera Le Sueuer, 1817, Palythoa (Mammithoa) Andres, 1883, Zoanthus (Rhyzanthus) Andres, 1883, and incorrect original spelling Zoantha Lamarck, 1801.

Zoanthus (Corticanthus) Andres, 1883. See Corticanthus Andres, 1883.

Zoanthus (Monanthus) Andres, 1883. See Monanthus Andres, 1883.

Zoanthus (Rhyzanthus) Andres, 1883. See Rhyzanthus Andres, 1883.

Zooanthus [sic]. Incorrect spelling of Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801 (e.g. Carlos et al. 1999: 1057, Kenny 2008: 78, Untawale and Dhargalkar 2002: 113).

Appendix 3

Taxonomic and nomenclatural remarks on some previous unidentified or problematic family- and genus-group names in the Zoantharia Rafinesque, 1815

In this section, previously unidentified (or problematic) genus-group names have been grouped according to the senior synonym that they have been identified with. Two problematic groups of genus-group names are discussed last: 1) Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, Parapalythoa Verrill, 1900, Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900, and Haplotella Stechow, 1919; and 2) Savalia Nardo, 1844, Savaglia Nardo, 1877, and Gerardia Lacaze-Duthiers, 1864.

Synonyms of Epizoanthus Gray, 1867 (Epizoanthidae) (I): Corticanthus Andres, 1883, and Endeithoa Andres, 1883

The genus-group name Corticanthus was proposed as a subgenus of Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801 by Andres (1883a: 538, 541, 544; 1883b: 330, 333, 336; 1884: 323, 326, 327, 329) with the inclusion of Epizoanthus paguriphilus Verrill, 1882, Mammillifera anduzii Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, Mammillifera conferta Verrill, 1869, and Mammillifera nitida Verrill, 1869. Epizoanthus paguriphilus, is herein designated as the type species of Zoanthus (Corticanthus) Andres, 1883, making this genus-group name a subjective junior synonym of Epizoanthus Gray, 1867, as the type species is now assigned to the genus Epizoanthus (Pax and Müller 1956: 12, 13; Reimer et al. 2010b: 730, 733, Walsh 1967: 45, 46).

The genus-group name Endeithoa was proposed as a subgenus of Palythoa by Andres (1883a: 521, 531; 1883b: 313, 323; 1884: 307, 316, 317) with the inclusion of Zoanthus norvegicus Koren & Danielssen, 1877, and Zoanthus rubricornis Holdsworth, 1861. Zoanthus norvegicus is herein designated as the type species of Polythoa (Endeithoa) making this genus-group name a subjective junior synonym of Epizoanthus, as the type species is now assigned to the genus Epizoanthus Gray, 1867 (Carreiro-Silva et al. 2011: 408, 413, Walsh 1967: 45).

Synonyms of Epizoanthus Gray, 1867 (Epizoanthidae) (II): Lirrevia Delphy, 1939, and Verrillia Andres, 1883

The genus-group name Verrillia was proposed by Andres (1883a: 520, 545; 1883b: 312, 337; 1884: 306, 330, 331) with the inclusion of only Epizoanthus crassus Verrill, 1869, the type species by monotypy (Article 68.3 of the Code; ICZN 1999: 71). Epizoanthus crassus Verrill, 1869, is currently assigned to the genus Epizoanthus Gray, 1867 (Lwowsky 1913: 560, Walsh 1967: 39), and Verrillia is thus a junior subjective synonym of Epizoanthus Gray, 1867. Verrillia Andres, 1883, is not a valid name as it is a junior homonym of Verrillia Stearns, 1873, which was proposed for a genus of scleractinian coral. Delphy (1939: 269, 270) proposed the replacement name Lirrevia, which is an objective synonym of Verrillia Andres, 1883, and a junior subjective synonym of Epizoanthus Gray, 1867.

Synonyms of Isaurus Gray, 1828 (Zoanthidae): Monanthus Andres, 1883, Monothoa Andres, 1883, and Panceria Andres, 1877

Muirhead and Ryland (1985: 325) listed Polythoa (Monothoa) Andres, 1883, Zoanthus (Monanthus) Andres, 1883, and Panceria Andres, 1877, as synonyms of Isaurus Gray, 1828, but did not give details for this synonymy. Herein, type species are designated for Polythoa (Monothoa) Andres, 1883, and Zoanthus (Monanthus) Andres, 1883, to formally fix the identity of these genus-group names. The nomenclatural consequences of our type species designations are in agreement with the taxonomic conclusions of Muirhead and Ryland (1985).

The genus-group name Monothoa was proposed as a subgenus of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816, by Andres (1883a: 521, 530, 537; 1883b: 313, 322, 329; 1884: 307, 315, 316, 322) with the inclusion of Hughaea caraibeorum Duchassaing de Fonbressin, 1850, Mamillifera fulva Quoy & Gaimard, 1834, Mamillifera vanikorensis Quoy & Gaimard, 1834, Mamillifera viridifusca Quoy & Gaimard, 1834, Panceria spongiosa Andres, 1877, and Triga philippinensis Gray, 1867. Panceria spongiosa Andres, 1877, is herein designated as the type species of Polythoa (Monothoa) Andres, 1883. Panceria spongiosa Andres, 1877, is currently considered to be a junior subjective synonym of Isaurus tuberculatus Gray, 1828 (Muirhead and Ryland 1985: 326), and Polythoa (Monothoa) Andres, 1883, becomes a junior subjective synonym of Isaurus Gray, 1828.

The genus-group name Monanthus was proposed as a subgenus of Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801, by Andres (1883a: 538, 540, 541, 543; 1883b: 330, 332, 333, 335; 1884: 323, 325, 326, 328, 329) with the inclusion of Isaurus tuberculatus Gray, 1828, Isaura neglecta Duchassaing de Fonbressin and Michelotti, 1860, Pales cliftoni Gray, 1867, and Palythoa savignyi Audouin, 1826. Isaurus tuberculatus Gray, 1828, is herein designated as the type species of Zoanthus (Monanthus) Andres, 1883, thereby making Zoanthus (Monanthus) Andres, 1883, a junior objective synonym of Isaurus Gray, 1828, as they have the same type species (Article 61.3.3 of the Code, ICZN 1999: 64) (also see Low and Reimer 2012b: 47).

The genus-group name Panceria was proposed by Andres (1877: 221, 226) with the inclusion of Panceria spongiosa Andres, 1877, the type species by monotypy (Article 68.3 of the Code, ICZN 1999: 71). As discussed above, Panceria spongiosa Andres, 1877, is a junior subjective synonym of Isaurus tuberculatus Gray, 1828 and Panceria Andres, 1877, becomes a junior subjective synonym of Isaurus Gray, 1828.

Synonyms of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816 (Sphenopidae) (I): Cavolinia Schweigger, 1819, and Cynicus Gistel, 1848

Schweigger (1819: 99, 100) proposed the genus-group name Cavolinia for two species of zoanthids: Alcyonium mammillosum Ellis, in Ellis & Solander, 1786 (incorrectly spelt as “mamillosum”), and Cavolinia rosea Schweigger, 1819 (an unnecessary replacement name for Madrepora denudata Cavolini, 1785). Alcyonium mammillosum Ellis, in Ellis & Solander, 1786, and Madrepora denudata Cavolini, 1785 (and therefore Cavolinia rosea Schweigger, 1819), are now assigned to the genus Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816 (see Milne Edwards 1857: 301, Ryland and Lancaster 2003: 410), making Cavolinia Schweigger, 1819, a junior subjective synonym of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816.

No type species has been designated for Cavolinia Schweigger, 1819, and no designation is necessary as Cavolinia Schweigger, 1819, is an invalid junior homonym of Cavolinia Abildgaard, 1791 (Mollusca), and Cavolinia Bruguière, 1791 (Mollusca), and has been placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology (see ICZN 1969: 28).

The replacement name Cynicus was proposed by Gistel (1848: viii) for Cavolinia Schweigger, 1819. Cynicus Gistel, 1848, is therefore an unnecessary replacement name for, and junior objective synonym of, Cavolinia Schweigger, 1819.

Synonyms of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816 (Sphenopidae) (II): Corticifera Le Sueur, 1817, Corticithoa Andres, 1883, and Gemmithoa Andres, 1883

The genus-group name Corticifera was proposed by Le Sueur (1817: 178, 179) with the inclusion of Corticifera flava Le Sueur, 1817, and Corticifera glareola Le Sueur, 1817. Haddon and Shackleton (1891b: 692) designated Corticifera glareola Le Sueur, 1817, as the type species of Corticifera Le Sueur, 1817. As the type species of Corticifera, is currently assigned to genus Palythoa, Corticifera, is now a junior subjective synonym of Palythoa (see also Haddon and Shackleton 1891b: 692).

The genus-group name Corticithoa was proposed as a subgenus of Palythoa by Andres (1883a: 521, 535–538; 1883b: 313, 327–330; 1884: 307, 320–323) with the inclusion of Alyconium tuberculosum Esper, 1805, Corticifera aggregata Lesson, 1830, Corticifera glareola Le Sueur, 1817, Gemmaria humilis Verrill, 1869, Mammillifera clavata Duchassaing de Fombressin, 1850, Mamillifera lutea Quoy & Gaimard, 1834, and Palythoa cinerea Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1864. Alyconium tuberculosum Esper, 1805, is herein designated as the type species of Palythoa (Corticithoa) Andres, 1883. Alyconium tuberculosum, is currently assigned to the genus Palythoa (see Reimer et al. 2006: 92, Ryland and Lancaster 2003: 409, 410, Walsh 1967: 19, 20). By this type species designation, Palythoa (Corticithoa) Andres, 1883, becomes a junior subjective synonym of Palythoa.

The genus-group name Gemmithoa was proposed as a subgenus of Palythoa, by Andres (1883a: 521, 532, 533; 1883b: 313, 324, 325; 1884: 307, 318) with the inclusion of Mammillifera brevis Duchassaing de Fonbressin, 1850, the type species by monotypy (Article 68.3 of the Code; ICZN 1999: 71). Mammillifera brevis Duchassaing de Fombressin, 1850, is now assigned to the genus Palythoa (see Walsh 1967: 5), making Polythoa (Gemmithoa) Andres, 1883, a junior subjective synonym of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816.

Synonyms of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816 (Sphenopidae) (III): Palythoaster Haeckel, 1875

Haeckel (1875: 44, pl. 1, fig. 5) proposed the name Palythoaster for a single species, Palythoa savignyi Audouin, 1826, the type species by monotypy (Article 68.3 of the Code, ICZN 1999: 71). Although the date on the title-page of the work by Haeckel is “1876”, it was available in 1875 (see Leuckart 1875: 463).

Ehrenberg (1834a: 269; 1834b: 45) considered Palythoa savignyi Audouin, 1826, to be a valid species of zoantharian, but placed it in the genus Hughea Lamouroux, 1821. The genus Hughea Lamouroux, 1821, has long been confused for a genus of a zoantharian, which it is not (see Ryland and Lancaster 2003: 411; Appendix 2).

As discussed by Low and Reimer (2012b), the name Palythoa savignyi was proposed by Audouin (1826: 229) for an unnamed figured by Savigny (1811: pl. 2, fig. 1) from Egypt. Based on the figure and the other information provided by Savigny (1811) and Audouin (1826), we herein agree with the opinion of Ehrenberg (1834a: 269; 1834b: 45) in considering Palythoa savignyi Audouin, 1826, to be a valid species of zoantharian, but unlike this previous author, we consider it to be a species of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816.

As the type species of the genus Palythoaster Haeckel, 1875, is considered to be a species of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816, the former becomes a junior subjective synonym of the latter.

Synonyms of Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801 (Zoanthidae) (I): Actimastus Rafinesque, 1818, and Mammillifera Le Sueur, 1817

The genus-group name Mammillifera was proposed by Le Sueur (1817: 177, 178) with the inclusion of Mammillifera auricula Le Sueur, 1817, and Mammillifera nymphaea Le Sueur, 1817. Mammillifera auricula was designated as the type species of Mammillifera (see Haddon and Shackleton 1891a: 626). As the type species Mammillifera auricula is currently assigned to the genus Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801 (Duerden 1898: 334, Walsh 1967: 22, Reimer et al. 2012a: 7), Mammillifera Le Sueur, 1817, and Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801, are subjective synonyms.

Rafinesque (1818: 271) proposed the name Actimastus to replace Mammillifera Le Sueur, 1817, stating that “Mammillifera of Lesueur, is rather too long; it is too much like Mammillaria in meaning and sense, and is composed of two Latin names united, which are tolerated in the specific nomenclature, but not often in the generic; lastly it has too much likeness to the classical name of Mammalia to be tolerated. It must then be changed into Actimastus; meaning radiated mammilla”. As it is an unjustified emendation of Mammillifera Le Sueur, 1817 (Article 19.1 of the Code, ICZN 1999: 21), Actimastus Rafinesque, 1818, becomes a junior objective synonym of Mammillifera Le Sueur, 1817.

Synonyms of Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801 (Zoanthidae) (II): Actinorhiza Agassiz, 1846, and Actinorhyza Blainville, 1830

In a discussion on the genus Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801, Blainville (1830: 295) proposed the replacement name Actinorhyza for this genus-group stating only “[c]e genre, dans notre Système de nomenclature, pourroit ètre nommé Actinorhyse, Actinorhyza”. We herein consider the name Actinorhyza Blainville, 1830, to be an unnecessary replacement name for, and junior objective synonym of, Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801. The type species is thus identical to that of Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801 (viz., Actinia sociata Ellis, 1768) (Article 67.8 of the Code, ICZN 1999: 68). In a later publication, Blainville (1834: 329) spelt the name as Actinorhysa, an incorrect subsequent spelling. Another incorrect subsequent spelling is Actinorrhyza, as used by Ehrenberg (1834a: 269).

Agassiz (1846: 7) proposed the unjustified emendation Actinorhiza for Actinorhyza Blainville, 1830, and the former is a junior objective synonym of the latter (Article 19.1 of the Code, ICZN 1999: 21).

Synonyms of Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801 (Zoanthidae) (III): Mammithoa Andres, 1883, “Mammothoa” Andres, 1883, and Rhyzanthus Andres, 1883

The genus-group name Mammithoa was proposed as a subgenus of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816, by Andres (1883a: 521, 533–535; 1883b: 313, 325–327; 1884: 307, 318–320). In the preliminary introduction to the newly proposed genus-group names, Andres (1883a: 521; 1883b: 313; 1884: 307) listed the name as Polythoa (Mammithoa) and included six species under this grouping: Mammillifera auricula Lesueur, 1817, Mamillifera cingulata Quoy and Gaimard, 1834, Mammillifera nymphaea Le Sueur, 1817, Mammillifera univittata Lorenz, 1860, Mamillifera viridis Quoy and Gaimard, 1834.

In a more detailed listing of the species included in the genus-group, the name was spelt as “Mammothoa” (Andres 1883a: 533–535; 1883b: 325–327; 1884: 318–320). As the genus-group names Mammithoa and Mammothoa were both used in the same publication (Andres 1883a: 521, 533–535), they were made available simultaneously and are both available names. First reviser action is herein taken to select Mammithoa Andres, 1883, as the correct original spelling (Article 24.2.3 of the Code, ICZN 1999: 30).

In this detailed listing of the genus-group name Mammithoa (incorrectly spelt as Mammothoa), Andres (1883a: 534, 535) discussed the included species as discussed above but with the name “Polythoa (Mammithoa) nymphosa Dana”, being used in place of Mammillifera nymphaea Le Sueur, 1817. From the synonymy of “Polythoa (Mammithoa) nymphosa Dana”, it is clear that the species-group name “nymphosa Dana” was a replacement for nymphaea Le Sueur, 1817. Although the species-group name nymphosa was attributed to Dana (see also Walsh 1967: 28), this species-group name was never used by Dana, and the authorship of Polythoa (Mammithoa) nymphosa should be attributed to Andres (1883a: 534, 535), and the name is herein considered an unnecessary replacement name for (and objective synonym of) Mammillifera nymphaea Le Sueur, 1817.

Mammillifera nymphaea Le Sueur, 1817, is herein designated as the type species of Polythoa (Mammithoa) Andres, 1883. Mammillifera nymphaea Le Sueur, 1817, is currently considered to be a subjective synonym of Zoanthus pulchellus Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1864 (Acosta et al. 2005: 160, Duerden 1898: 334, Reimer et al. 2012a: 7). Zoanthus pulchellus Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1864, is currently assigned to the genus Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801 (Acosta et al. 2005: 160, Reimer et al. 2012a: 7, Walsh 1967: 29) and Polythoa (Mammithoa) Andres, 1883, therefore becomes a junior subjective synonym of Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801.

The genus-group name Rhyzanthus was proposed as a subgenus of Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801, by Andres (1883a: 538, 541–544; 1883b: 330, 334–336; 1884: 306, 330, 331) with the inclusion of Actinia sociata Ellis, 1768, Zoanthus alderi Gosse, 1859, Zoanthus dubia Lesueur, 1817, Zoanthus mertensii Brandt, 1835, and Zoanthus solandri Lesueur, 1817. Actinia sociata Ellis, 1768, is herein designated as the type species of Zoanthus (Rhyzanthus) Andres, 1883, thereby making this genus-group name an objective junior synonym of Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801, as they have the same type species (Article 61.3.3 of the Code, ICZN 1999: 64).

Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin and Michelotti, 1860, and its replacement names Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900, and Haplotella Stechow, 1919, junior subjective synonyms of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816, as well as comments on Parapalythoa Verrill, 1900

The genus-group name Gemmaria was first proposed by Duchassaing de Fonbressin and Michelotti (1860: 55) with the inclusion of four nominal species: Gemmaria rusei Duchassaing de Fonbressin and Michelotti, 1860, Gemmaria swiftii Duchassaing de Fonbressin and Michelotti, 1860, Mammillifera brevis Duchassaing de Fonbressin, 1850, and Mammillifera clavata Duchassaing de Fonbressin, 1850. No type species was designated.

The identity of Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, was debated by early workers. Duerden (1898: 353; 1903: 501) considered Gemmaria swiftii Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, to be a species of Parazoanthus Haddon & Shackleton, 1891, and transferred this species to the genus. The assignment of Gemmaria swiftii Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, to the genus Parazoanthus Haddon and Shackleton, 1891, remains the prevailing opinion (e.g. Ryland and Lancaster 2003: 410, Reimer et al. 2014a: 1, 3–7). Mammillifera clavata Duchassaing de Fonbressin, 1850, was considered by Reimer et al. (2012a: 8, 9) to be a valid species of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816. The assignment of Mammillifera brevis Duchassaing de Fonbressin, 1850, to the genus Epizoanthus Gray, 1867, by workers such as Andres (1884: 311) was questioned by Haddon and Shackleton (1891b: 687), who nevertheless stated that “neither G. swiftii nor G. brevis would appear to belong to the same genus as the type species, nor is it certain that G. clavata does either”.

It was probably for these reasons that Haddon and Shackleton (1891a: 626) designated Gemmaria rusei Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, as the type species of Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860. The spelling of the type species, Gemmaria rusei Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, requires some discussion. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN 1998: 121, 122) ruled that the spellings of two genus- and species-group names derived from the surname Riise but earlier incorrectly spelled as Rüsei by Duchassaing de Fonbressin and Michelotti (see Bayer and Grasshoff 1997: 11) should be corrected. However, Gemmaria rusei Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, was not one of the names that was ruled on. The spelling of the type species of Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, should thus remain as Gemmaria rusei Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860 (but see also Ryland and Lancester 2003: 410).

The genus-group name Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, is however not a valid name as it is a junior homonym of Gemmaria McCrady, 1859. The genus-group name Gemmaria was conditionally proposed by McCrady (1859: 151) for a new species of hydrozoan, Zanclea gemmosa, described in the same paper. Although the genus-group name Gemmaria McCrady, 1859, is currently considered to be a junior synonym of Zanclea Gegenbaur, 1856 (see Schuchert 2010: 487), it nevertheless remains an available name. Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, therefore remains an invalid name as it is preoccupied by Gemmaria McCrady, 1859 (Article 53.2 of the Code, ICZN 1999: 57).

Realising this homonymy, Verrill (1900: 562) wrote: “Protopalythoa nom. nov. Type G. variabilis Duerden. Gemmaria Duch. and Mich., Corall. Antill., p. 55, 1860, (non McCready [sic], 1859)”. As Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900, was explicitly proposed as a replacement name for Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860 (preoccupied by Gemmaria McCrady, 1859), the designation of Gemmaria variabilis Duerden, 1898, as the type species of Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900, is invalid.

Article 67.8 of the Code (ICZN 1999: 68) states that “[i]f an author publishes a new genus-group name expressly as a new replacement name (nomen novum) for a previously established name … both the prior nominal taxon and its replacement have the same type species, and type fixation for either applies also to the other, despite any statement to the contrary”.

The type species of Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900, is therefore Gemmaria rusei Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, as this is the type species of Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860 (as designated by Haddon and Shackleton 1891a: 626). Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900, is therefore an objective synonym of Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860.

In their important paper on Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900, Ryland and Lancaster (2003: 410, 411) followed Verrill’s (1900: 562) incorrect type species designation of Gemmaria variabilis Duerden, 1898, as the type species of Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900. Ryland and Lancaster (2003: 410, 411) stated: “Gemmaria Duchassaing and Michelotti, 1860, was introduced for G. Rusei nov., Mamillifera clavata Duchassaing, 1850, G. swifti nov. (= Parazoanthus swifti), and M. brevis Duchassaing, 1850, with no designation of type species. Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900 was a nomen novum because Gemmaria was preoccupied by Gemmaria McCrady, 1857 (cited as McCready, 1859), a hydroid. Verrill designated Gemmaria variabilis Duerden, 1898, as type species, on the grounds that G. riisei (sic: G. rusei) was unrecognisable and Duchassaing & Michelotti’s other species were not congeners”. Ryland and Lancaster (2003: 410, 411) considered the characters exhibited by Gemmaria variabilis Duerden, 1898 (and other congeners) to be sufficiently different from Alcyonium mammillosum Ellis, in Ellis & Solander, 1786 (an objective synonym of the type species of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816), to require a genus-group of their own, for which they used Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900.

But what is the real identity of Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900? The identity of the genus-group Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900, then rests on the identity of its type species Gemmaria rusei Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860. Volpi and Benvenuti (2003: 66) listed the existence of a syntype of Gemmaria rusei Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, at the Museo di Storia Naturale Università di Firenze (accession number: MZUF 847). Through the assistance of C. Volpi and S. Bambi, we have been able to examine high-resolution photographs of the syntype. The images clearly show a species of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816, based on sampling information (depth, locality, etc.) and heavy sand encrustation of the polyps, and therefore Gemmaria rusei Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, is referable to the genus Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816, as is currently defined.

Although the specific identity of Gemmaria rusei Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, will require further research, we herein assign this species-group taxon to Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816. Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900, thus becomes a junior subjective synonym of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816. Likewise, the preoccupied genus-group name Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, as well as Parapalythoa Verrill, 1900 (discussed below), and Haplotella Stechow, 1919 (also discussed below), become junior subjective synonyms of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816.

Verrill (1900: 562, 1907: 287) himself had already observed the close affinity between Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900, and Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816, stating “[t]he name Gemmaria having been preoccupied in Hydrozoa, it is necessary to give a new one to this group, if it is to be considered as really distinct from Palythoa, from which it seems to differ only in the fact that the zoöids are not united together laterally by coenenchyma, but only by stolons or based expansions. Some species of Palythoa are not thus united for more than half their height, or even less, and perhaps future discoveries may show a complete gradation between the two conditions” (Verrill 1900: 562). Similarly, Verrill (1907: 287) also discussed that: “[s]hould they [i.e., the species assigned to Protopalythoa] ultimately prove to be identical, it would probably be necessary to unite the genus Protopalythoa (= Gemmaria of many authors) to Palythoa … The only tangible difference between the two genera is the presence in the latter of a thick crust-like coenenchyma, uniting the polyps together laterally. But in this species they are often united for less than half their height”.

Two other genus-group names need to be discussed. Parapalythoa Verrill, 1900, is another genus-group name that needs to be discussed in connection with Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860. Verrill (1900: 560) proposed the name Parapalythoa for specimens of “Gemmaria Rusei” described by McMurrich (1889: 124, 125) from Bermuda. Verrill (1900: 560) considered the material studied by McMurrich (1889) to be distinct from Gemmaria rusei Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, and proposed that they should be called Parapalythoa heilprini. Although Verrill (1907: 283) later stated that the genus-group name Parapalythoa was an error for Protopalythoa, this statement has no bearing on the availability of the genus-group name Parapalythoa, and the name remains an available one, with Parapalythoa heilprini Verrill, 1900, being the type species by monotypy. Regardless of the validity of Parapalythoa heilprini Verrill, 1900, it is clear that Verrill (1900: 560) was intending to establish a new genus-group for a taxon similar to, but distinct from, Gemmaria rusei Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860. As discussed above, Gemmaria rusei Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, is herein considered to be a species of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816, and as the differences in the specimens of “Gemmaria rusei” described by McMurrich (1889: 124, 125) not being sufficient for a distinction at the genus-group level, we herein consider Parapalythoa Verrill, 1900, to also be a junior subjective synonym of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816.

A final name that needs to be discussed in connection with Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, is Haplotella Stechow, 1919. Stechow (1919: 853) proposed the name Haplotella as a replacement name for Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, and has the same type species (see discussion above). Haplotella Stechow, 1919, is a junior objective synonym of Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, and a junior subjective synonym of Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900, and Parapalythoa Verrill, 1900. The date of publication of Haplotella is conventionally cited as “1920”, but in an abstract to the work that appeared in 1919, the following was stated: “Die Aktiniengattung "Gemmaria" Duchassaing et Michelotti 1861 erhält wegen Präokkupation durch ein Hydroidengenus den Namen Haplotella” (Stechow 1919: 853). The date of publication of the name Haplotella is thus 1919.

In conclusion, the genus-group names Gemmaria Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, Parapalythoa Verrill, 1900, Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900, and Haplotella Stechow, 1919, are all herein considered to be synonyms of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816. Furthermore, the genus-group name Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900, can no longer be used by authors who consider Gemmaria variabilis Duerden, 1898 (and other related species) to be be sufficiently distinct to require a genus-group of its own (i.e. Protopalythoa sensu Ryland and Lancaster 2003). To resolve this, a new genus-group name will need to be established.

Savalia Nardo, 1844, is a senior subjective synonym of Gerardia Lacaze-Duthiers, 1864, with comments the family-group names Gerardiidae Verrill, 1865, Savagliidae Brook, 1889, and Parazoanthidae Delage and Hérouard, 1901

The family-, genus- and species-group names for the zoantharian living on gorgonians in the Mediterranean area has been a matter of a long-running historical debate (reviewed in in Brook 1889: 79, 80, Bell 1891: 89–91; Carlgren 1895: 319–334, Roche and Tixier-Durivault 1951: 402–409).

At the species-group rank, the first available name to be applied to this taxon was “Gorgonia Savaglia” by Bertoloni (1819: 219). The name “savaglia” being the commonly used vernacular name for this animal (e.g., Imperato 1599: 724; Garencieres 1676: 5, Bell 1899: 90). Haime (1849: 225, note) later established “Leiopathes Lamarcki” (the species-group name being spelled with only one “i”).

At the genus-group rank, Nardo (1844: 433, 434) and Lacaze-Duthiers (1864a: 87) respectively established the genus-group names Savalia (type species Gorgonia savaglia Bertoloni, 1819), and Gerardia (type species Leoipathes lamarcki Haime, 1849). Each species is the type species of its respective genus-group by monotypy (Article 68.3 of the Code, ICZN 1999: 71). As a further complication, the genus-group name Savaglia was used by Nardo (1877), who was clearly intending to emend the spelling of Savalia Nardo, 1844.

Brook (1889: 79, 80) considered the valid binomial name for the species under consideration to be Savaglia lamarcki (Haime, 1849). The reason for for doing was given as: “Lacaze Duthiers was the first to show the true relations of this form, and its difference from the typical Antipathidae. Nardo, in 1843 [sic], gave the generic name Savaglia to the species described as La Savaglia by Donati in 1765, which he says is identical with Leiopathes lamarcki, Haime; in this case his name has priority over that of Gerardia, instituted by Lacaze Duthiers in 1864. This I gather from a more recent paper; I have not seen the original, and do not know if Nardo gave the species a specific, as well as a generic, name; there is no mention of one in his recent publication. I have, therefore, retained the specific name of Haime. Although it seems highly probable that Nardo’s Savaglia is the same as Gerardia, Lacaze Duthiers, his description of the polyp does not agree with Lacaze Duthiers’ observations on living specimens. Nardo states that the polyp has only fourteen tentacles, whereas the species in question has twenty-four” (Brook 1889: 79).

Bell (1891: 89–91) took the opposite position and considered the valid binomial name to be Gerardia savalia (Bertoloni, 1819). Bell (1891: 89–91) argued that the establishment of the genus-group name Savalia in Nardo (1844: 433, 434) was not ‘legitimate’ as “Nardo does not write out the full name or names of the species to be placed in this genus, but it is clear that had he done so he would have then written Savaglia savaglia (or Savalia savalia). This use of a specific for a generic name has been forbidden by the rules of the British Association. Meanwhile this species had become famous by the researches of Lacaze-Duthiers, who, conferring on it (in 1864) the generic name of Gerardia, retained for it the specific name of lamarcki given it by Haime (in 1849) when he called it Leiopathes lamarcki. … It is clear that there is no escape from the conclusion that the proper specific name of this Coral is savalia, and the generic Gerardia …”.

In order to resolve the matter of the correct genus- and species- group names, a more detailed analysis of the description given by Nardo (1844: 433, 434). The description is given as follows: “Sotto famiglia II.a Savalini — Polipi a sedici tentacoli! Gen. Savalia N. … Fa meraviglia come sia sfuggito all’occhio deglie osservatori il bel lavoro del Donati V. sull’Antipate dell’ Adriatico Gorgonia savoglia [sic] (Bertoloni) inserito nel primo volume del Giornale di Grisellino, ove vedesi esattamente descritto e figurato l’animale con i suoi sedici tentacoli. Non v’ha dubbio che una tale specie debbasi distinguere dal genere Anthipathes. Costituisee anzi a mio credere una sotto famiglia, come mostreró in più esteso lavoro relativo ai caratteri distintivi delle famiglie dei Zoofitarj” (Nardo 1844: 433, 434).

This is translated as: “Subfamily 2. Savalini — Polyps with 16 tentacles. Genus Savalia N[obis]. … The fine work of V. Donati on Antipate [= black corals/zoophytes] of the Adriatic Sea in the first volume of the Giornale di Grisellino has long been overlooked by previous workers, in which Gorgonia savoglia [sic] (Bertoloni) was exactly described and figured as an animal with sixteen tentacles. There is not doubt that this species is deserving of a genus distinct from the genus Anthipathes. Indeed, as I will show in a more extensive work relating to the distinctive characteristics of the families of Zoofitarj, it constitutes a new subfamily”.

The objection raised by Brook (1889: 79) for not using Gorgonia savaglia Bertoloni, 1819, as the species-group name is not tenable, as the only reason given is that he did “not know if Nardo gave the species a specific name” as Brook did not have access to the 1844 paper by Nardo. From the description by Nardo (1844: 433, 434), the genus-group name Savalia was clearly established for Gorgonia savaglia Bertoloni, 1819 (incorrectly spelled as “savoglia”). Virtually all recent authors consider Gorgonia savaglia Bertoloni, 1819, to be a subjective synonym of Leiopathes lamarcki Haime, 1849 (e.g. Roche and Tixier-Durivault 1951: 402, Ocaña et al. 1995: 155, Ocaña and Brito 2004: 170, Sinniger et al. 2005: 1124, 1125, Ocaña et al. 2007: 163–167). Gorgonia savaglia Bertoloni, 1819, has priority over Leiopathes lamarcki Haime, 1849, and the former is the valid species-group name.

The objections raised by Bell (1891: 90) for not accepting Savalia Nardo, 1844, are also not justified. Firstly, Nardo (1844: 433, 434) did indeed provide the name of the species he intended to be placed in Savalia Nardo, 1844 (as discussed above). Secondly, as already stated by Poche 1914: 104, tautomeric names (viz., “Savaglia savaglia / Savalia savalia”) are not invalid on this basis alone (Articles 18 and 23.3.7 of the Code, ICZN 1999: 21, 26). As their respective type species are considered to be subjective synonyms (see above), the genus-group name Savalia Nardo, 1844, is a subjective synonym of Gerardia Lacaze-Duthiers, 1864 (see also Sinniger et al. 2013: [1], [2], [7]). As Savalia Nardo, 1844, has priority over Gerardia Lacaze-Duthiers, 1864, the former is the valid genus-group name.

At the family-group rank, three names have been proposed for Savalia savaglia (Bertoloni, 1819). As noted above, Nardo (1844: 433, 434) established the family-group name Savaliidae (as “Savalini”) based on the genus-group name Savalia Nardo, 1844. Later, Verrill (1869 [in 1868–1870]: 499) established the family-group name Gerardiidae (as “Gerardidae”). Brook (1889: 79) wrote “Savagliidae, n[om]. n[ov]. (Gerardidae [sic], Verrill)”. Brook (1889: 79, 80) based this family-group name based on the emended name Savaglia Nardo, 1877, as he did not have access to Nardo (1844) (discussed above). The family-group name Savagliidae proposed by Brook (1889: 79) is herein regarded to have been proposed independently of Savaliidae Nardo, 1844 (based on Savalia Nardo, 1844). As their respective type genera are synonyms (as discussed above), the family-group names Savaliidae Nardo, 1844, Gerardiidae Verrill, 1865, and Savagliidae Brook, 1889, are all synonyms.

The oldest and therefore valid family-group name for Savalia savaglia (Bertoloni, 1819) is therefore Savaliidae Nardo, 1844. The type genus of Savaliidae Nardo, 1844, (i.e., Savalia Nardo, 1844), is however currently assigned to the family Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901 (Sinniger et al. 2013: [2], [3]). This means that the family-group names Savaliidae Nardo, 1844, Gerardiidae Verrill, 1865, and Savagliidae Brook, 1889, are all subjective synonyms of Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901. To maintain current and widespread use of Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901, the best course of action would be to enact Article 23.9 of the Code (ICZN 1999: 27, 28) to reverse precedence between Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901, and the other three family-group names. This is not possible, however, as all three family-group names have been used after 1899, and Article 23.9.1.1 of the Code (ICZN 1999: 28) cannot be satisfied.

In accordance with Article 23.9.2 (ICZN 1999: 28, 29), an application is being prepared to request that the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature suppress the senior subjective synonyms Savaliidae Nardo, 1844, Gerardiidae Verrill, 1865, and Savagliidae Brook, 1889, in favour of Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901, to maintain current and widespread usage.

Sphenopidae Hertwig, 1882, and the hitherto overlooked subjective synonym Palythoidae Duchassaing de Fonbressin and Michelotti, 1860

The family-group name Sphenopidae was established by Hertwig (1882: 120) for the genus Sphenopus Steenstrup, 1856. The name Sphenopidae Hertwig, 1882, had been used sporadically since it was established. Since it was reinstated by Ryland et al. (2000: 191, 192) for the genera Sphenopus Steenstrup, 1856, and Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816, however, the name Sphenopidae Hertwig, 1882, is now in current and widespread use (see references cited below).

This current and widespread use of the family-group name Sphenopidae Hertwig, 1882, is threatened by the hitherto overlooked subjective synonym Palythoidae Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860 (type genus Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816).

This family-group name was first established as “Polythoae” for “Polythoa”, “Bergia n. g.” and “Gemmaria n. g.” (Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860: 37). That Duchassaing de Fonbressin and Michelotti (1860: 37) intended this to be a family-group name is evidenced by their use of “Zoanthidae” (containing “Zoanthus”, “Isaura”, “Mammillifera” and “Orinia n. g.”) as a counterpart to “Polythoae”. The name “Polythoa” is an incorrect subsequent spelling of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816 (the first usage of which appears to be by Schweigger 1819: 100).

As type genus of Sphenopidae Hertwig, 1882, and of Palythoidae Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, are considered to belong to the same family grouping (e.g., Ryland et al. 2000: 192; Reimer et al. 2012b: 45, 47, 49; Irei et al. 2015: 2, 3, 14–16; Reimer and Fujii 2016: 14, 19), both family-group names are therefore subjective synonyms.

To prevent the nomenclatural and taxonomic destabilisation that would result from the replacement of Sphenopidae Hertwig, 1882, with its subjective synonym Palythoidae Duchassaing de Fonbressin and Michelotti, 1860, as required by the Principle of Priority (Article 23, ICZN 1999: 24) requires that the oldest available name for the taxon under consideration must be used.

To mediate the Principle of Priority, Article 23.9.1 of the Code (ICZN 1999: 27) allows for a reversal of precedence of a junior synonym when the senior synonym has not been used as a valid name after 1899 (Article 23.9.1.1) and the junior synonym “has been used for a particular taxon, as its presumed valid name, in at least 25 works, published by at least 10 authors in the immediately preceding 50 years and encompassing a span of not less than 10 years” (Article 23.9.1.2).

Since 1899, the name Palythoidae has been used in three publications. The first usage was by Barel and Kramers (1977: 32) used the term “species of Palythoidae” for an unidentified zoantharian associated with echinoderms. From the context, it appears that Barel and Kramers (1977: 32) were reporting on material with close affinities to Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816.

As Ng and Low (2010:37, 38) have argued, “valid usage” of a name must be unambiguous and show clearly that the author[s] both considered it the correct name to be used and adopted the name. According to these criteria, the usage of “Palythoidae” by Barel and Kramers (1977: 32) cannot be considered to be valid.

The second usage was by Herberts (1972: 125) who stated: “La disposition brachynémique des mésentères est un autre caractère des Palythoidae”. That Herberts (1972: 125) was not using “Palythoidae” as a valid family-group name is evidenced by the fact that the section in which the term “Palythoidae” appears is headed by “Zoanthidae” (p. 106), and in a diagram detailing the classification of zoantharians, “Palythoa”, “Isaurus”, “Spenopus [sic]” and “Zoanthus” are clearly placed in “Zoanthidae” (p. 142).

The third usage is by Pax and Müller (1957: 3, 4) in which they recognise the “Unterfamilie Palythoinae” under Epizoanthidae, and further provide a key for identifying this subfamily. Clearly, Pax and Müller (1957: 3, 4) were recognising the family-group name Palythoidae as vaild.

The name Palythoidae Duchassaing de Fonbressin and Michelotti, 1860, thus has been used as the valid name for the taxon is denotes since 1899 (and Article 23.9.1.1 of the Code cannot be fulfulled).

Article 23.9.1.2 of the Code is fulfilled as the family-group name Sphenopidae Hertwig, 1882, is in current and widespread usage, as evidenced by the 30 publications by 99 different authors over the past 34 years using Sphenopidae as a valid name for the taxon it denotes (viz., Nagabhushanam and Jothinayagam 1982: 17; Ryland et al. 2000: 191, 192; Ryland and Lancaster 2003: 407, 409, 415; Ryland and Lancaster 2004: 180; Ryland and Westphalen 2004: 411; Ryland et al. 2004: 1195, 1197; Acosta et al. 2005: 147–149, 151, 154, 160; Sinniger et al. 2005: 1122, 1125, 1126; Daly et al. 2007: 144; Sinniger et al. 2008: 1254, 1256, 1257; Fautin and Daly 2009: 356; Del Mónaco et al. 2010: 360; Reimer and Sinniger 2010: 251; Reimer et al. 2010c: 606, 616; Swain 2010: 2592; Reimer et al. 2011a: 983, 985, 987, 989, 991, 992; Cavallari et al. 2012: 25; Longo et al. 2012: [1]; Palmer et al. 2012: 3880; Reimer et al. 2012b: 43, 45, 47, 49; Rodríguez-Viera et al. 2012: 32; Costello et al. 2013: [2]; Fujii and Reimer 2013: 510, 516; Krishna and Gophane 2013: 210; Koupaei et al. 2014: 64; Alencar et al. 2015: 1113, 1114, 1121; Irei et al. 2015: 1, 2, 4, 6, 14–16, 20; Qin et al. 2015: 100; De la Cruz-Francisco et al. 2016: 24; Fujii and Reimer 2016: 11, 12, 14, 17, 19, 20; Risi and Macdonald 2016: 113).

As precedence of the family-group names Sphenopidae Hertwig, 1882, and Palythoidae Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, cannot be replaced, the former will need to be replaced by the latter. To prevent resulting nomenclatural instability, and in accordance with Article 23.9.2 (ICZN 1999: 28, 29), an application is being prepared to request that the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature suppress the senior subjective synonym Palythoidae Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860, in favour of Sphenopidae Hertwig, 1882, to maintain current and widespread usage.

The type species of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816

The genus-group name Palythoa (with the simultaneous French vernacular ‘Palythoé’) was established by Lamouroux (1816: 359–362) with the inclusion of two species, which were rendered French vernacular: ‘Palythoé Etoilée’ and ‘Palythoé Ocellée’. The second species causes no problems “P. Ocellata … Sol. et Ell., p. 180, n. 6, tab. 1, fig. 6 (A. Ocellatum) …” is listed. This is Alcyonium ocellatum Ellis, in Ellis and Solander, 1786, a synonym of Alcyonium mammillosum Ellis, in Ellis and Solander, 1786 (see Pax 1910a: 102; 1910b: 258; Acosta et al. 2005: 159). The French vernacular name ‘Palythoé Etoilée’, however, is not the translation of the name “P[alythoa] Mamillosa [sic] … Sol. et Ell., p. 179, n. 5, tab. 1, figs. 4–5 (A. Mamillosum [sic]) …” given in the synonymy.

On an unnumbered page of errata after page 559 of Lamouroux (1816) gives “[page] 361 … [line] 12 … Mamillosa, lisez Stellata”, and the captions on page 558 to plate 14 (and on the plate itself) of Lamouroux (1816) gives “Palythoe [sic] stellata, p. 361. figure copiée dans Ellis”. It is thus clear that it was the intention of Lamouroux (1816: 361, 558, unnumbered errata page, pl. 14, fig. 2, caption) to rename Alcyonium mammillosum Ellis, in Ellis & Solander, 1786, Palythoa stellata. Palythoe [sic] stellata Lamouroux, 1816, is also a junior objective synonym of Alcyonium mammillosum Ellis, in Ellis & Solander, 1786, as Lamouroux (1816: 361, 558, unnumbered errata page, pl. 14, fig. 2, caption) proposed the former as a replacement name for the latter.

Alcyonium ocellatum Ellis, in Ellis & Solander, 1786, and Palythoa stellata Lamouroux, 1816, are thus to be considered species originally included in the genus Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816, and were both eligible for fixation (Article 67.2 of the Code, ICZN 1999: 67).

The type species of the genus Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816, is accepted as Alcyonium mammillosum Ellis, in Ellis & Solander, 1786, by subsequent designation by Haddon and Shackleton (1891b: 691) (see Low and Reimer 2011b: 63). As Lamouroux (1816: 361, 558, unnumbered errata page, pl. 14, fig. 2, caption) proposed the replacement name Palythoa stellata for Alcyonium mammillosum Ellis, in Ellis & Solander, 1786, the latter cannot be considered an originally included species in the sense of Article 67.2 of the Code (ICZN 1999: 67).

Article 69.2.2 of the Code (ICZN 1999: 72) states that “[i]f an author designates as type species a nominal species that was not originally included (or accepts another’s such designation) and if, but only if, at the same time he or she places that nominal species in synonymy with one and only one of the originally included species (as defined in Article 67.2), that act constitutes fixation of the latter species as type species of the nominal genus or subgenus”.

Haddon and Shackleton (1891b: 691) wrote that “Palythoa mammillosa is evidently regarded by Lamouroux [1816] as the type species of the genus. He reproduces Solander’s figure of this species, but not that of P. ocellata, of which he merely gives a description. Unfortunately a Latinized version of the French name ‘Palythoé Etoillée,’ given by Lamouroux to P. mammillosa, has been added at the bottom of his plate—a circumstance which has given rise to some confusion”.

Clearly, Haddon and Shackleton (1891b: 691) considered Alcyonium mammillosum Ellis, in Ellis & Solander, 1786, to be a synonym of Palythoe [sic] stellata Lamouroux, 1816, as well as the type species of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816. The conditions of Article 69.2.2 of the Code (ICZN 1999: 72) are met and Haddon and Shackleton (1891b: 691) are deemed to have designated Palythoe [sic] stellata Lamouroux, 1816, as the type species of Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816. As both names are objective synonyms, the valid name for the species under discussion is Palythoa mammillosa (Ellis, in Ellis & Solander, 1786).

An updated supraspecific classification of the Zoantharia. All valid genera and their type species are given. The numbers given in parentheses after each suborder and family represent the total number of families and genera, respectively, in each grouping. A total of one order, three suborders, nine families and twenty-seven genera are currently recognised in the Zoantharia.

Order Zoantharia Rafinesque, 1815
1. Suborder Brachycnemina Haddon AND Shackleton, 1891 (3)
1. Neozoanthidae Herberts, 1972 (1)
1. Neozoanthus Herberts, 1972
Neozoanthus tulearensis Herberts, 1972
2. Sphenopidae Hertwig, 1882 (2)
2. Sphenopus Steenstrup, 1856
Sabella marsupialis Gmelin, 1791
3. Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816
Palythoe [sic] stellata Lamouroux, 1816
3. Zoanthidae Rafinesque, 1815 (3)
4. Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801
Actinia sociata Ellis, 1768
5. Acrozoanthus Saville-Kent, 1893
Acrozoanthus australiae Saville-Kent, 1893
6. Isaurus Gray, 1828
Isaurus tuberculatus Gray, 1828
2. Suborder Macrocnemina Haddon & Shackleton, 1891 (5)
4. Epizoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901 (3)
7. Epizoanthus Gray, 1867
Dysidea papillosa Johnston, 1842
8. Paleozoanthus Carlgren, 1924
Paleozoanthus reticulatus Carlgren, 1924
9. Thoracactis Gravier, 1918
Thoracactis topsenti Gravier, 1918
5. Hydrozoanthidae Sinniger, Reimer & Pawlowski, 2010 (2)
10. Hydrozoanthus Sinniger, Reimer & Pawlowski, 2010
Parazoanthus tunicans Duerden, 1900
11. Terrazoanthus Reimer & Fujii, 2010
Terrazoanthus onoi Reimer & Fujii, 2010
6. Microzoanthidae Fujii & Reimer, 2011 (1)
12. Microzoanthus Fujii & Reimer, 2011
Microzoanthus occultus Fujii & Reimer, 2011
7. Nanozoanthidae Fujii & Reimer, 2013 (1)
13. Nanozoanthus Fujii & Reimer, 2013
Nanozoanthus harenaceus Fujii & Reimer, 2013
8. Parazoanthidae Delage & Hérouard, 1901 (13)
14. Parazoanthus Haddon & Shackelton, 1891
Palythoa axinella Haddon & Shackelton, 1891
15. Antipathozoanthus Sinniger, Reimer & Pawlowski, 2010
Gerardia macaronesicus Ocaña & Brito, 2003
16. Bergia Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860
Bergia catenularis Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860
17. Bullagummizoanthus Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013
Bullagummizoanthus emilyacardiarum Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013
18. Corallizoanthus Reimer, in Reimer, Nonaka, Sinniger & Iwase, 2008
Corallizoanthus tsukaharai Reimer, in Reimer, Nonaka, Sinniger & Iwase, 2008
19. Hurlizoanthus Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013
Hurlizoanthus parrishii Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013
20. Isozoanthus Carlgren, in Chun, 1903
Isozoanthus giganteus Carlgren, in Chun, 1903
21. Kauluzoanthus Sinniger, Ocaña and Baco, 2013
Kauluzoanthus kerbyii Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013
22. Kulamanamana Sinniger, Ocaña and Baco, 2013
Kulamanamana haumeaae Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013
23. Mesozoanthus Sinniger and Häussermann, 2009
Mesozoanthus fossii Sinniger and Häussermann, 2009
24. Savalia Nardo, 1844
Gorgonia savaglia Bertolini, 1819
25. Umimayanthus Montenegro, Sinniger & Reimer, 2015
Umimayanthus chanpuru Montenegro, Sinniger & Reimer, 2015
26. Zibrowius Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013
Zibrowius ammophilus Sinniger, Ocaña & Baco, 2013
3. Suborder incerta sedis (1)
9. Abyssoanthidae Reimer & Fujiwara, in Reimer, Sinniger, Fujiwara, Hirano & Maruyama, 2007 (1)
27. Abyssoanthus Reimer & Fujiwara, in Reimer, Sinniger, Fujiwara, Hirano & Maruyama, 2007
Abyssoanthus nankaiensis Reimer & Fujiwara, in Reimer, Sinniger, Fujiwara, Hirano & Maruyama, 2007